Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune, March 27, 1873, Page 4

Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune dated March 27, 1873 Page 4
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TERMS OF THE TRIBUNE, TKRMB OV BURBORIPTION (TATAHLR IN ADVANCE), ;; 8 l S;«» 1 v.-.v.: Parts of a your st tho samo rate. To prevent delay and mistakes, bo tnro and giro Post Oflloo address In full, Including StAto and County. Remittances may bo mndo either by draft, express, Post Olßco order, or lu registered letters, at our risk. TERMS TO CITY SUnRORinERA. Dally, delivered. Sunday excepted. SR cents por week. Daily, delivered, Sunday Included, 00 cents per week. Address THE TRIBUNE COMPANY, Corner Mndlson and Dontborn-sli,, Chicago, 111. CONTENTS OF TO DAY’S TRIBUNE. FIRST PAGE—Washington News-Closing Proceedings In tho Soualo— Miscellaneous Telegrams—Advortisol monts. SECOND PAGE—Railroad Progress In tho Southwest— The Salary Steal [communication!—Tho Now Libers Party [communication] San Francisco Letter— Springfield Loiter—The Scaffold: Tbroo Persons Sentenced to Death—Tho Last Now Forgery—The Groat Diamond Suit—Bloody Fratrlcldo. THIRD PAGE—Tho Porfumory War—Personal Matters— Tho Law Courts— Tho City In Brief Suburban Notes—Tho Telegraph Case—Advertisements, FOURTH PAGE—Editorialsi Tho Old Bug-a-Boo; Tho Tax on Corn; Town Elections in Chicago; Watering Railroad Stock—Current Nows Paragraphs. FIFTH PAGE-Tho Btato Capital: Proceedings In tho tionorsl Assembly—Amusements—Wall Street—As* tronomlcnl Illustrations—Markets by Telegraph— Advertlsoraonts. SIXTH PAGE—Monetary and Commercial—Railroad TlmoTahlo. SEVENTH PAGE—Sulcldo—Nows Paragraphs—Small Advertisements: Real Estate. For Salo, To Ront, Wanted, Boarding, Lodging, 010. EIGHTH PAGE—Foreign Nows-Polltleal Matters— Legislatures Miscellaneous Telegrams Auction Advertisements. TO-DAY’S AMUSEMENTS. AIKEN’S THEATRE—Wabash svonuo, corner of Con. jroa*street. Almoo Opera Troupe. "Los Brigands." M’VIOKER'S THEATRE—Madison street, between Stale and Dearborn. Engagement of Edwin Booth. IIOOLKY’S OPERA HOUSE—Randolph street, bs* tween Clark and LaSallo. "Peril; or, Lora at Long Branch." ACADEMY OP MUBIO-Halstod street, south of Kiulhou. Kugngomont of Frank Mayo. * * Davy Crook* ett." MYERS' OPERA HOUSR-Monroo street, between Btnid and Doarbom. Arlington, Cotton & Komblo'a Mluetrol ami Burlesque Troupe. NIXON’S AMPHITHEATRE —Clinton, botweon Waihluglon and Randolph strode. Wilder A Co.'s National Circus. BUSINESS NOTICES. THE SULKY CULTIVATOR, PATENTED BY James Armstrong, Jr., of Elmira. 111., tho patontoo of the Keystone Com Planter, Is now built by tho Euroka Manufacturing Company. Rock Falls, 111. BATCHELOR’S HAIR DYE. THIS SPLENDID halrdyo in tlto best in tho world. Tho only true and por fsotdyo. llarmlois, reliable, and instantaneous pointment ; no ridlculons tints or unpleasant odor. Romo* dies the ill oiloats of bad dyes and washes. Produces Ira* mediately a superb black or natural brown, and loaves tho hair Moan, soft, and boaulifnl. Tho genuine, slgnod \V. A. Batchelor. Sold by nil druggists. CHARLES BATCHELOR. Proprlotor, N. Y. CONSUMPTION OAN BE OURED.-SOHENOK’S Pulmonic Syrup, Sobenok's Henwood Tonic, Sobonok’s Mandrake Pills, are tbo only medicines that will euro Pul monary Consumption. . *, Frequently, medicines that stop a cough will occasion tho doalb of tbo patient. Tboy lock up tho liver, stop tbo circulation of tbo blood, homorrbago follows, and, In fact, tboy clog tho action of tbo very organs that caused tbo cough. _ Liver uoraplalnt and Dyspepsia nro tbo causes of two* thirds of tbo eases of Consumption. Many persons com* plain of a dull pain In tbo side, constipation, coated tongue, pain in tbo shoulder-blade, footings of drowsi ness and restlessness, tho food lying heavily on tho stom ach, accompanied with oddity and notching op of wind. These symptoms usually originate from a disordered condition of tbo stomach or a torpid liver. Persons so affected, If Uioy take ono or two heavy colds, and if tbo cough in those oases be suddenly chocked, will find tho stomach and liver clogged, remaining torpid and Inactive, and almost before tboy aro aware, tho lungs pro a mass of sores and ulcerated, tho result of which la death. Sebonok’a Pulmonic Syrup Is an expectorant which does not contain opium or anything calculated to ebook a cough suddenly. fiohonck’s Seaweed Tssilo dissolves tho food, mixes with the gastric Juices of tbo stomach, aids digestion, and creates a ravenous appetite. When tho bowels nro costive, skin sallow, or tho symp toms othorwlsoof a bilious tendency, Scbonck’s Mandrake Pills aro required. Those medicines are prepared only by J. 11. BCIIENOK4 80N. Northeast corner Sixth and Arch-sts., Philadelphia. And are for sale by all druggists and dealers. Wholesale Agent, JOHN F. HENRY, Nos. 8 and 9 Bollogo-placo, Now York. Mkt OEbitfastcr Qteihmc. Thursday Morning:, March 97, 1873. Tho Erie Railroad has put an act through tho New York Assembly allowing it to charge throe conts a mile. The Lake-Front Repeal bill comes up in tho House to-day for a third reading, and will prob ably bo passed. Tho bill supplementary to tho Judicial Appor tionment bill and continuing tho old circuits until the elections for the now circuits ore held has passed tho House. Senator Patterson’s dofouse is to bo printed with tho report of tho Committee that recom mended his expulsion, and there tho Senate loaves tho matter. Other special orders so filled tbo timo of tho Hoaso yesterday that tho Donahuo and othor railroad bills, which woro to havo been consid ered, wore not roachod. They will bo taken up to-day. Twelve of tbo oighty-flvo young doctors grad uated at Ann Arbor yesterday woro womon. Of tbo 120 lawyers who got thoir degrees, only two woro womon. Of thoso twelve female doctors, two aro to go to China as missionaries. On motion of Senator Cnssorly, Secretaries Bichardsou and Delano aro directed by tbo Son ata to find out wbat amount of first-mortgago bonds bavo boon Issued by tbo Central Pacific Bnilroad, by wbat property they aro scoured, aud how thoy woro sold. Forty citizens of Chicago, vcsscl-ownors and persons interested in tho lako trade, havo petitioned tho Michigan Legislature not to on courage tho project for bridging the Detroit and St. Clair Bivors. To do so, tboy say, would not help tho railroads and would hurt Lake Michi gan. A simitar memorial is presented by 200 of tho business men of Detroit, including a majori ty of tbo Board of Trade, Treasurer Spinner somo time ago sent the ten shares of Credit Mobllior stock, which Repre sentative Kelley tumod ovor to tho Government, to O&kos Amos for his indorsement, without which tho Treasury could not sell them. Weeks havo passed by, but tbo shares havo not boon returned, and It is feared at Washington that Oakes Amos has determined to put them Into his own pocket, where thoy will do tho most good. Senator Windom has been intrusted by tho Senate with two important inquiries. At the* hood of tbo Postal Committee to find out what legislation is needed to protect tho Postal Service against tho railroad combination made against it. Together with tho Transportation Committee, ho is also authorized to travel dur ing the vocation, to such points as seem suit able, for tho purpose of investigating tho con ditions of railroad transportation between tho interior and tho coast, and devising a remedy for tho farmer’s troubles. Tbo depth of tho popular fooling in r»;«rd to tho salary grab is shown by tho action of tho Republican Convention of Trumbull County, Ohio, which body has requested Gon. Gar field, Boprosontativo in Congress, to resign his seat in consequence of bis veto for that bill. The district is largely Republican, gad Garfold Ims boon a popular Representative, bub this salary bill is such a plain and undisguised “ gouge" that bis own political friends demand bis resignation. It will make little difference now bow Gen. Garfield explains bis Credit Mobillor venture. The salary grab is tbo last straw on tbo backs of tho camels of tbo Western Reserve. Count Albert Bornstorff, tho Gorman Ambas sador to Groat Britain, whoso illness was an nounced by tbo cablo, died last night. Count Bornstorff choso diplomacy os a profession im mediately aftor completing his studios at tbo Universities of Gottingen and Berlin, and has represented Prussia in all the groat Courts of Europe. Ho was first sent to represent Prussia at tho Court of Groat Britain in 1861. Ho ro mainod thoro until ho was mado Minister of For eign Affairs at Berlin, in 1801. In tho conforonoo at London, in 1801, on tho Dano-Gorman ques tion, ho maintained Gorman interests with groat ability. When, under Prussian influence, tbo Gorman Confederation was fanned, ho was mado its representative at tho OBBrt of Bt. James, whoro ho remained until his death. Ho received tho Order of the Block Englo from tho Gorman Emperor in 1871, with an autograph letter, in acknowledgment of his services in tho Franco- Prussian war and tho London Ooufcronco. A largo mooting of negro Republicans has boon bold in Now Orleans to express tbo views of tho roco on tho political situation. Ton reso lutions woro adopted, somo of which aro given to unstinted commendation of Judgo Duroll, tho Kellogg Government, Senator Pinchhack, and Gen. Grant. Five of tho resolutions aro devoted to the various aspects of tho patronogo question, whiohto this “intelligent and cultivated population of color," as thoy stylo themselves, seems by far tho most momentous problem of government. Their confidence has boon weak ened by their failure to got moro patronage; thoy unqualifiedly condemn tho other Louisiana Congressmen for refusing to consult with Pinch hack and Ray In tho distribution of patronage ; thoy consider themselves entitled to a larger share of tho patronage ; and censure tho dis missal of certain colored officials on account of incompotonoy as another injustice to tho blacks In tho distribution of patronage. Tlioro has boon some Pocksniilian talk in tbo Common Council and tho Board of County Com missioners regarding the financial affairs of Chicago Relief and Aid Society, and in both bodies an Investigation has boon moved. Such an in vestigation woe invitod by tbo Society at tbo timo tboy aout tbeir annual report to tbo Coun cil, This report enumerated 8,944 vouchors accounting for tbo expenditure of $2,270,255.31. It would not take much timo for tbo Council or any member thereof to go to tbo rooms of tbo Socioty and examine any particular vouchors that tboy bavo any curiosity about. As tbo Council voted against an investigation, it is equally tbo privilogo of any citizen to go to tbo Society’s rooms and make such examination. Hr. Bam Ashton as a citizen has this privilege'. As a member of tho Board of County Commis sioners, however, bo bos nosucb privilogo. Tbo Belief and Aid Socioty are not amenable to Mr. Ashton as a public bore ; but as a private one wo h&vo no doubt tboy will extend to him a high degree of toleration. Tho Chicago produce markets woro rather loss active yesterday, and grain was lower. Moss .pork was quiet, and 5o por brl higher, closing at $14.70@14.76 cash, and $14.95@15.00 seller May. Lard was active, and 10c por 100 lbs higher, at $8.00@8.05 cash, and $8.20 seller May. Moats were in good demand, and higher, at 5% @5%0 for shoulders ; 7%®7%b for short riba or short clear; and 10@12o for sweet pickled hams. Higliwinoa woro more active, and %o higher, at 870 por gallon. Lake freights woro dull and nominally steady, at ICo for com to Buffalo. Flour was dull and unchanged. Wheat was moderately active, and l@l%c lower, closing at $1.20@1.20% cash, and $1.23% seller May. Com was moderately aotivo, and %o lower, closing at 80%@32%c cash, and 84% c seller May. Oats woro more activo, and %@%o lower, closing firm at 25%@20%0 cash, and 28%0 seller May. Rye was quiet and unchanged, at G4%@CGo for No. 2. Barley was dull, and l@2o lower, at 78%@790 for regular No. 2, or eollor April. Live hogs woro quiet and firm, at $5.00@5.40. Tbo cattle and sheep markets woro unchanged. AN OLD BUG-A-800. The Evening Journal Is another of tho news papers that havo become disgruntled by tho farmers’ mootings sinco they turned a part of tbeir attention to tho tariff question. It raises tho old cry that, if tho tariff is roducod, all tho factory operatives will bo thrown out of tboir present employment, and go to fanning; that there will no longer bo any market for bread stuffs, el cetera. Tho fact is, not ono man reared in town over goes to fanning to a thousand farm ers’ sons who stroll off to towns. Tho towns aro unceasingly recruited from tho farms, but tho farms from iho towns, uovor. City folks, as a general thing, would rather starvo in tho city than work on a farm. Tho work is too hard, and tho remuneration too small. Moreover, its lonosomouoss is an in superable objection to town-bred pooplo. Jour neymen rarely ever have capital enough to buy a farm and stock it, oven if they wanted to try tho business, and to enter upon and cultivate ono is tho last thing they will over do. Tho abolition of protootivo duties would havo just this effect. The protected manufacturer, finding that everything had cheapened around him, including his own productions, would, if necessary, reduce tho wagesof his 11 eight-hour” strikers to such acalo as would ouablo him to go on with his business; and tho strikers would ac cept them, after a little grumbling, and find, after trial, that wbat they lost in nominal dol lars tboy had gained In tho purchasing powor of thoir money, as routs, fuel, and clothing would all ho 83 to 60. per cent cheaper, just as they woro hoforo tho war. Manufacturers not pro tooted (and tho majority of manufacturers aro not protected, but, on tho contrary, oppressed and dofraudod by tbo tariff) would bo no worso off than boforo. A “ protected *’ mechanic or laborer eats no more farm products than when unprotected. Protection does not sharpen tho appetite of any body except tho capitalist. People in the cities wore just as heavy feeders between 164G and 18G1 as since. Tho editor of tho Journal himself ate as heartily under the Banks free-trade tariff of 1857 as under tho Morrill protective tariff of 1801. There would bo just tho same demand for farm products under one tariff as under another, and industry would continue to bo equally “di versified." There would be loss “ eight-hour work for ton-hour pay" nonsense, and lees de moralization among the Journeymen in towns and cities. The country is importing more foreign goods —THE CHICAHU UAIL.It —JL'IIIULUVU: 11HJKBUAY, MARCH 277 now, under a 60-por-cont protective tariff, per capita of population, than it did under the low tariff of 16 per cent between 1867 and 1801. Hence, it appears tlmt tbo high tariff gives no additional employment to mechanics. Indeed, by crippling the farmers, it reduces the domes tic demand for “borne fabrics," because they are unable to purchase. A reduction of the tariff would bo followed by cheaper goods, cheaper living expenses, cheaper rent, fuel, clothing, furniture, carpets, books, drugs and medicines, with cheaper labor. Rut thoro would bo no greater number of city people migrating to farms than now, and that is Just none at all. Panning is a trado, and only 'those who have served an apprenticeship to it from boyhood to manhood can over succeed in it. But it will bo replied that if tho tariff on cer tain protected articles bo reduced, say to 20 por cent, tho Government will bo loft without revenue sufficient to carry It on. Of all things, this short age of rovonuo, if it could bo so brought about, would bo tho most desirable. It is an overflow ing Treasury from high taxes that tempts Con gress to make corrupt and extravagant appro priations, and to listen to all sorts of schemes for depleting tho Treasury. So long os thoro is a surplus pouring in of $76,000,000 to $100,000,- 000 por aunum, and $100,000,000 in coin stacked up in tho Treasury, honesty in Congress is simply impossible and out of tho question. No party, Republican, Democratic, Liberal, or what not, can resist such tempta tion to extravagance. Tho salary grab would novor have boon seriously thought of but for tho overflowing condition of tho Treasury. Cut down tho rovonno by SIOO,- 000,000 in tariff reductions, and tho $7,600 Con gressional salary swindle will bo repealed, and Congressional rascality will stop—never boforo I Pat back ibo duties on toa and coffco, and re peal those on iron, woolons, including that on wool; on cotton and leather, including that on hides ; on linens and cordage, including that on flax and hemp, and reduce tho Federal revenues to $250,000,000, and compel tho Administration to carry on tho Government on that sum. Tho amount already paid on tho debt in excess of what Is required by tho sinking fund will obvi ate tho necessity of any monoy for slaking fand for ton yoara to oomo. Mako tho Treasury poor and you- mako Congress honest, and not other wise*’ \ THE TAX ON COHN. Tbo farmers and other producers of tbo' country arc very justly investigating what be comes of tho proceeds of tbeir labor. Tboy wont to know why it is that tbo surplus com raised in Illinois for which tbo pooplo of New York pay 07 cents, and tbo pooplo of Now England 70 cants, por bushel, only brings tbo producer 20 cents por bushel. What becomes of tbo 50 conts por bushel ? Who gets it, and wbat Is done with It ? Perhaps a few figures taken from official tables will fur nish some information. Mr. Young, tbo accom plished Statistician of tbo Treasury Department, states that, from 1701 to 1801, tbo total receipts of tbo Government from tariff and tbo sales of public laud wore $1,730,630,140. This was for a period of seventy years, and included tbo cost of tbo Revolutionary War, tbo War of 1812- 16, and of tbo Mexican War, all of which woro paid in full, with interest, out of that revenue. It Included, also, the cost of tho purchase of Louisiana, Florida, California, and tbo debt of Texas. From 18C1 to 1800 tbo country was at war, and tbo expenditures woro necessarily very groat. But from Juno, 1805, to July, 1872, a period of sovon years of profound ponco, tbo taxes collected of tbo pooplo woro as follows : From customs $1,317,100,557 From Internal revenue, Sale# by War Department 135,414,087 Bales by Navy Department and transfers. 111,890,812 Toat-OUlco collections 125,005,014 Tatonl-Olllce collections 4,530,711 One per cent on loans, etc 80,703,677 Total. This, for sovon years, is just double tho taxes colloctod from 1701 to 18G1. Prom Juno, 1865, to July, 1873, tUoro was paid of tbo principal of tho public dobt $127,806,6-11, leaving a not rovonuo expended by tho Government for matters inde pendent of tbo dobt of $2,076,180,011. Tbo taxos collected in these sovon years of poaco, over and above vrbat was expended In payment of the dobt, was over $1,200,000,000 in excess of tho whole coat of tho Government, including prin cipal of public dobt, three wars, and tho purchase money for two-thirds tho present territorial aroa of tho United States, in tho seventy years from 1701 to 1801. During those seven years, tho larger part of tho missing 60 cents per bushel on com has boon taken to make up this sum of $1,200,000,000 of extraordinary taxation. But that does not account for tho wholo of it. Wo published tho othor day tho statement compiled from official sources by tho Hon. Mr. Burchard, member of Congress from tho Free port District of this Stato, showing tho annual tax paid by tho people in tho way of Increased cost of llvo classes of domestic manufactures, none of which taxes go Into tho Treasury. Bis statement was that, in addition to tho taxes paid directly to tho Government, wo pay under tho tariff, in tho way of increased cost, tho sums fol lowing, upon tho classes of domostio manufac tures named: Manv/aetures of Increased cost. Cotton goods $ 61,241,000 Dig Iron 12,050,000 Silk 11,250,000 Wire 1,003,000 Woolen goods. Railroad iron.. Wrought Iron. Stool Taper. Total annual tax, This sum, multiplied by tlio number of years from 1806 to 1872, gives as a total tax collected of tbo people for these privileged classes 61,023,981,204. None of this last tax is included in tbo revenues of the Government. Tho ■whole tax, direct and indirect, collected of tho people in tho seven years from 1805 to 1872, thus foots up: Direct tax Bounties to manufacturers, Total tax $4.420,620,050 Paid on public debt lu seven years 427,020,041 Surplus tax in seven years, When it is remembered that for seventy years wo defrayed all tho expenses of tho Government, carried on throe wars, paid principal and interest of tho public debt, all for 61,730,000,000, and now collect 64,000,000,000 in seven years, in ad dition to what wo pay of tho public debt, tho producers of corn can understand why their corn Is taxed CO cents per bushel. This enormous tax is Juoxorably collected, and it can only bo paid out of tho productions of labor, and, so long as tho farmers insist that Congress shall continue this excessive taxation for tho benefit of a few thousand privileged persons drawing bounties under tho tariff, they must expect with their corn to foot tho hill. Lot them, however, de mand tho repeal of ail those tariff bounties, and they will find that, to the exact extent of tho repeal, a bushel of corn will purchase on lu- creased supply of cotton, woolen, iron, stool, ami all other goods. TOWN ELECTIONS IN CHICAGO. Tho pooplo of this city cannot complain that thoy are not provided with a sufficient number of governments. First wo have tho National Government which levies taxes; next tho State Government which levies taxes ; then tho City Government which levies taxes ; thou tho County Government which levies taxes ; then tho Park Commissioners which levy taxes ; and last tho Town Governments which levy taxes. Chicago, by a fiction of law, is considered throe independent towns, and each town has a Gov ernment of its own. Tho official roster of thoso Governments is, 1 Assessor, 1 Collector, 1 Super visor, 1 Town Olork, 6 Justices of tho Pooco, and in tho North Town 7, South Town 0, and West Town 16 Constables. Tho legislative branch of each of thoso Gov ernments is a Town Board, consisting of tho five Justices, tho Supervisor, and Town Olork. Those seven officers are clothed with tho authority to levy taxes, make appropriations, and generally do anything respecting monoy that any other Legislature may do. It is needless to say that thoro Is no need of thoso town governments other than to provide places at tho public ex pense for certain individuals,— generally ward loafers or saloon-keepers. It is part of tbo or dinary party machinery. These thlrty-ono Con stables, fifteen Justices, throe Assessors, throe Supervisors, throe Town Clerks, and throe Col lectors are ail required to ho “loyal" to tho Administration, and contribute their share toward election expenses. Fidelity to thoso “principles" entitles them to govern the throe towns of Chicago, levy taxes, and voto away tho rovonuo. Tho salaries of town officers are regulated by law, but to show that law lias no terrors or restraints for town governments wo reproduce tho following extract from tho rec ords of tho Town Clork, who is tho official Secretary of tho Town Board: Under date of Bcpt. 17,1873, we find tho following entry: Justice Daggett moved that tho sum of one thousand dollars ($1,000) bo paid to tho Town Assessor, on ac count of services for the year 1673. Oarrlod. Under date of Oct. 4, 1873, Is tbo following: On motion of Justice Daggett, tho sum of $4,423.08 was allowed to tho Town Assessor. Tho Town Olcrk explained to tbo reporter that from this latter sum was deducted tbo Jflrst sum of SI,OOO allowed, but as tboro is no entry on tbls book to show It, tbo reader Is not compelled to beliovo that it was not an addition to tbo first. If this is tbo ease, tbo sum of $5,123.50 was paid to the Assessor for services for tbo year 1072, In another entry of tbo snmodato, tho Town Clerk is. allowed by tbo Hoard tbo modest sum of SCOO for bis borculoan labors in making tbeso herculean en tries. Under tbo date of Fob. 25, 1873, is found tbo follow ing entry: On motion of Justice Haines, twenty-five hundred dollars ($2,C00) was allowed to tbo Town Collector, in addition to tbo $1,500 allowed by law, making a total of U ,000, to be paid out of tho taxes collected in 1873; also three thousand dollars ($3,000) ollico expenses, for tbo collection of tbo taxes of 1872. Making a total of $7,000 for tbo Town Collector’s fibaro of tho collection of tbo taxes of 1872. An additional per diem of Ijtf a day to tbo Town Clerk from Nov. 2, 1872, to April 10,1673, was allowed, making a total of SI.OO a day. This makes a total of $13,121.50 voted by tbo Town Board, a portion of which is to bo deducted by tbo Collector from tbo taxes collected during tbo year 1873. In North Chicago there have been live meetings since tbo fire. The Assessor has been allowed $3,600 for tbo year ending Nov. 2, 1872, and $2,500 for tbo short year between November and April, so far as it can bo understood from tbo mlnutos, making n total of $5,000. Tbo Collector was allowed $2,600 for tbo long year, and $1,500 for tbo abort one of five mouths; tbo Buporvlsor end Alderman, Mr. Fotor Mabr, was mod oet in accepting SSOO for the first year and SBOO for tbo flvo months, Mr. Ilealy, for bis severe and exhaust ive duties, received tbo sums of SSOO and SOOO for tho long and short terms respectively. Now, those goullomen on tho North Side,*—that is, the Town Board,—must have boon very poor, Tbo

law allows them a per dlom of $1.60 for ovory day of actual service, and they took it and 50 cents additional each time. Tbo law rondo no provision for office rent so they appropriated it. Tbo meetings wore bold In 1,070,778,104 tho members’ oftlcea in rotation, and then tbo mem ber claimed $3 rout for twenty minutes’ occupancy. In tbo West Division, where tbo taxes claimed by tbo town woro very high, tilings wore done on a livelier Beale yet, otUcora charging sums ranging as blgb as $5,000 where tbo law allowed tbom none. Now hero aro three independent Governments whoso exclusive business is to voto their own pay and lovy taxes upon tho public to raiso tho money. Will not some member of tho Legisla ture devise some plan whereby those throe Gov ernments shall bo abolished? On Tuesday, there was a grand “ convention” to nominate candidates to succeed those now in office. An election is to bo bold next Tuesday, at which tho 60,000 voters of Chicago are oxpoctod to attend,' and for their accommodation one poll is to bo opened in each Division. Tho whole thing is a fraud and a swindle, an outrage upon tho public, for tho bonofit of a class of men who never oamed an honest day's wages in their lives. .$3,402,630,452 WATERING EAILBOAD STOCK. The Bock IslancLdrvpis has dono tho public a substantial sorvlco in printing tbo details of tbo construction of tho Peoria & Book Island and tho Bockford, Bock Island & St. Louts Bail roads, a summary of which was presented In tho last issue of Tub Tribune. Tho publication of thoso facta should call tho attention of tho farm ers, and especially of tho Ballrood and Ware house Commissioners, to another evil connected with railroad management, which Is fully as im portant as tho special evils now under discussion in tho Farmers 1 Conventions, and in reality is ono of tho principal causes which loads to tho exorbitant rates of freight and discriminations of which the farmers complain. Tho modo of constructing tho railroads named above is but a sample of the mode of construct ing nearly all railroads at tbo present time. Tho company obtains subscriptions from towns and counties through which tho road is to pass, upon tho strength of certain benefits which it is alleg ed It will confer upon thoso places. Having gath ered in their subscriptions, tho company thou proceed to issuo first-mortgage bonds, which oro placed upon tho market and sold, sometimes exceeding tbo cost of tho road, tho surplus going into tho hands of tho construction ring. Upon tho top of this, stock la issued without a dollar being paid in, and increased from timo to timo, and now mortgage bonds and stock divi dends aro piled up, Polion on Ossa, until by far tho larger capital of tho stock of tho road, as represented on paper, is fictitious. In order to earn dividends on this stock over and above tbo payment of Interest on tho bona Jlde indebtedness, it becomes necessary to increase tbo rates of transportation. That necessity, however, it lies within tho power of tho Ballroad Commissioners to obviato, and It is a featuro in railroad management which calls for their im mediate consideration. They have hit upon ono c&uso for high rates, in tho exactions of protec tive tariffs; here la another, which has its origin in watered stock. Tho practice is ono which not only presents itself to tho fanners for their serious consideration, but appeals with still stronger force to tho Ballrood and Ware house Commissioners os a violation of tho Constitution, which provides (Art. XL, Soo. 13.) that “No railroad corporation 60,280,000 4,810,000 0,230,000 2,887,340 y,soo, wa .$140,283,472 .13,402.530,453 . 1,023,004,204 .$3,000,124,110 nlmll iflsuo any slock or bonds, except for money, labor, or property actually received and applied to tho purposes for which such corporation was created; and all stock dividends, and other fictitious increase of tho capital stock, or in debtedness of any such corporation, shall he void” Any increase in tho aggregate of bonds and stock over and above tho actual cost of tho road is fictitious, and therefore void, according to tho Constitution of this State, and yet immedi ately after this section of tho Constitution was adopted, and in uttor defiance of it, tho Chicago A Hock Island llailrood Company issued ficti- tious stock to tho amount of four millions. This Company is not alone in its unconstitu tional proceedings. Nearly all tho now railroads In the State have done and are doing tho same thing. Let tho farmers now domand, and tho Railroad and Warehouse Commissioners ouforco tho demand, that this provision of tho Constitu tion shall bo respected, and that those issues of fictitious stock and other forms of indebtedness shall bo not only declared but made void. To pay tho interest on such indebtedness and pay dividends on this fictitious stock, tho companies must charge exorbitant rates. Tills necessity can bo obviated by tho enforcement of tho Con stitution, which of itself will bo a long step to wards removing tbo grievances of which tho farmers complain. «, STRIKES AND ARBITRATION. There are indications of a general strike among,, tho workingmen of Now York during tho spring season, and It is predicted that their influence will bo extended in such manner as to produce simultaneous strikes in tho othor largo cities of tho country. Tho President of tho Working men's Union has mado tho statement that 100,00Q men will bo on a strike at tbo same timo in Now York and Brooklyn, and that arrangements have boon mado for tbo artisans and mechanics of Bos ton, Chicago, and St. Louis to follow tho example. It Is announced that tho various trades will act in concert. Tho purpose of this general strike Is to roduco tho day's labor from ton to eight hours, and tho plan is materially tho same’ as that of last year's strike. Tho Eight-Hour Loaguo of Now York includes tho carpontors, piano-raakors, cabinet-makers, and tho majority of tho most numerous tradoa-orgauizations. Tho carpenters of Brooklyn havo already given their employers notice that they will domand $3.50, tho pay for ton hours’ work, for a day of eight hours. Tho gas companies had already conceded to their employes tho privilege of working eight hours Instead of ton, but re duced tho wages in proportion; and now tho employes propose to striko for tho old pay for tho new and shorter day's work. It is probable that tho striko among all tho trades will bo to secure ton hours* pay at tho present rates for eight hours' work. Thoro are just two ways in which tho rates of eomponsatiou for labor can bo determined, —by strikes'or by arbitration. Tho former method has been tho most common in this country, but tho experience of last year and former years has proved it to be costly to tho capitalists and detrimental to tho inter ests of tho laborers. Strikes necessitate a serious Ices of timo and wages which can never bo regained. Capital has tho advantage in this method, for it cau hotter afford to loso timo than the laborers. At all events, it is not pressed for money with which to buy broad and meat for hungry families, and tbo proportion of the loss is consequently borne with loss personal suffering. Moreover, strikes are apt to lead to acts of violence, destruction of property, tho dissipation incident to idleness, and a very gen eral demoralization among tho classes for whoso benefit they are organized. As a rule, tbo re sultant evils of a striko largely over-balance tho advaucomontof tho laboring interests, evouif successful, and those evils aud hardships -are frequently endured without iu any way better ing tho condition of the strikers. Such an ex perience should suggest a trial of arlntratlou aa a means for determining what shall bo a fair and equitable compensation for a day’s labor. There is no bolter opportunity for trying tho experi ment than tho present timo offers. Tho loaders of tho eight-hour movement now declare that they are iu a position to hold out as long as tho capitalists. If this is true, it only forebodes au irrepressible conflict, which will result in serious injury to both parties. The laborers, it Is fair to presume, occupy one extreme position, and 'the capital ists tho other. So long as each class holds out obstinately for claims that aro purely arbitrary on both sides, tho outlook is nothing but waste and absolute loss, to be sbarod by tho two par ties. Hero is certainly tbo opportunity for arbi tration, in which tho capitalists and tho working men shall choose an equal number of representa tives, those to select a third more, to make up a board of examination. This hoard should then have tho demands of tho laborers and tho * claims of tho capitalists before them in full, from which to roach an intelligent conclusion and establish a fair basis of compromise. Meanwhile, tho work would go on uninterrupted, and there would bo nouo of tbo waste and suffering inseparable from largo strikes. Tho laborers demand that they shall receive for eight hours 1 work tho same pay winch they now got for ton hours. Hero is a loss of two hours a day which represents a certain fixed loss of production during a season. If the labor ers shall rocoivo tho samo pay as now, this loss would fall entirely upon tho capi talists. Tho immediate question which would come before a Board of Arbi tration would bo whether tho capitalists can afford, or ought to ho called upon, to stand tho whole of this loss. If so, thou tho rates they aro now paying for labor are too small. If not, then it is likely that tho loss should bo divided. In any case, tbo only way by which tho question could ho settled justly is in an examination of tho business and profits. Tho laboring classes have undoubtedly tho right to refuse to work more thau eight hours In a day if they so dooiro, but they have no right, on general principles, to demand that they shall rccoivo tho same pay for eight hours* work which they got for ten hours 1 work. Tho only way in which such a right can bo established is by proving that tboir present compensation falls short of what it ought to bo to that extent. Tho quickest and fairest moans for arriving at this is by intelligent and Impar tial arbitration made on a full showing of each branch of the trades. Arbitration has a decided advantage over strikes in that it may bo resumed whenever there aro changes in business status that seem to require cbaugoslu tho price of labor. This gouoral principle of arbitration would bo an increase of wages with an increase of profits, and, vice versa, a doorcase of wages with a decrease of profits. Tho most serious diffi culty that has been found in England, where ar bitration has boon tried, is that tho laboring classes approve and abide by the increase, but disapprove and refuse to conform to a doorcase rendered necessary by bard times, or a particular pressure on certain branches of trade and manufacture. At this Juncture, labor H norts its power over capital In a ru inous fashion. A strike Is tbo only resource. Either thoro la an attempt to resume business at a loss, which is eventually followed by throwing labor out of employment, or work la summarily stopped. In either case, the principles of jus tice are sacrificed, an irrepressible conflict la re instated, mid serious loaaoa to both parties be come inevitable. Tho general strike announced for the present soaaon Is to bo seriously deprecated. Tbo win ter has boon tftausnnlly long and severe, money Is scarce, work is behind, tbo laboring classes are poor, and times ore bard. A general strike could not come at a worse time for either the employers or tbo employed. It is to bo doubted whether tho country could afford tbo reduction of two hours in tbo day’s labor, oven on a fair basis of compensation. Tho amount of production which would bo lost by such a change is seriously needed., if such a change is to tako place, or any other general and important alteration in thorolatlonsof capi tal and labor, it can ho boat brought about by arbitration, based upon tbo needs of tbo working classes and tho profits of tboir employers,— thereby preventing tho manifold evils and Irrep arable losses incident to strikes. Tho Washington dispatches in our last issue briefly alluded to a controversy now ponding be tween tbo Post-Office Department and a num ber of tbo loading Eastern railroads, among them tbo Pennsylvania, tbo Now York Central AHudson River, the Erie, tbo Now York, Now Haven & Hartford, tbo Boston A Albany, and the Phila delphia, Wimlngton & Baltimore, with regard to tho amount of compensation for tho trans portation of mails. During tho pendency of tbo bill before Congress making appropriation for tbo postal service, those roods served a notice upon tho Postmaster-General that, unless tbo companies wore paid for transporting tho mails in pqpt-offico cars at tho rate of 40 cents per eight-wheel car per mile run, and at a proportionate rate for por tions of ears occupied for railway post offices, and ton cents per mile for post office agents riding in passenger cars, tho com panies would not consent to run post-olfico cars after tho first of April next, but would return to tbo old method of transporting tbo mails. Tbo Postmaster-General replied to tho notice by citing from tbo act approved March 3, 1373, authorizing an increase of compensation to the amount of half a million of dollars, and in con cluding bis letter adds: It 1b not loss a response to tho recommendations mado In each of my annual reports for a careful re vision by Congress of tho subject of railroad compua satlon, with a view to tbo establishment of rates Just and cquilablo to all concerned, and, as this favorable notion la now for tbo first time obtained in answer to theso reiterated recommendations of mine, tbo reports of my prcdoccsssors in office having furnished no precedent for my action In tho case, tho present moment would appear so singularly Inopportune for tho withdrawal by tho rail road companies of tho facilities for tho rapid transmis sion and distribution of mails, on account of which this very considerable increase of compensation la provided, that lam loth to boliovo tbo companies will consent to assume tho attitude before tbo publio In which such a withdrawal would placo them. Tho dispatches in our last issue would soom to indicate that tho roads havo determined not to rocoivo tbo compensation awarded by the law. As tho time fixed by them at which they would return to tho old methods of transportation is near at hand, tho issuo between tbo roods and tbo Government must como to a hood very soon. It would scorn as if tho rail roads had trouble enough on tbolr hands with tho pooplo just now, without getting into a very serious trouble with tho Government. Ex-Senator Patterson submits, in bis personal defense, that “It is well for the public good tbat Representatives iu Congress and Senators should themselves have an interest in common with their constituents and their States." Admitting the truth of this general statement, it is difficult to perceive tbat it has any bearing upon ox-Sona tor Patterson's ownership of Credit Mobilior stock. How many of his constituents owned Credit Mobilior stock? The fact is that, outside of the stock which was given to members of Con gress, the Credit Mobilior Company consisted of less than a dozen men, who wore associated for the express purpose of defrauding the Gov ernment, and who had so good a thing that they did not propose to lot any one olso have a share, except those who were regarded as nccos sary for the purpose of promoting legislation favorable to the scheme, or suppressing un favorable legislation. So far from having a common interest with his constituents, or his State, or the United States, in the ownership of Credit Mobilior stock, ex-Sonator Patterson placed himself in direct opposition to all those interests when ho bocamo associated with a scheme that woe organized with the express purpose of absorbing the Union Pacific Road and defeating the security which the Govern ment had for the money which it had advanced. Ex-Senator Patterson evidently forgot this among the other instances of bod memory which ho displayed. . Tbo voto on tho Clayton case in tho United States Sou&to clearly illustrates tho advantages as •well as tho justice of tho principle incorpo rated in tho Illinois State Constitution, requir ing that tho passage of every legislative meas ure shall have a majority voto of all tho members elected. Had this rule prevailed in Congress, Mr. Clayton would not have boon whitewashed iuthofacoof tho flood of corruption of which ho stands as a conspicuous representative. In point of fact, tho voto loft a majority of tho Sen ators elected presumably opposed to his acquittal. Tho fall membership of the Senate is seventy four, and seventy-two Senators have boon elect ed and taken their seats. Fifty-seven Senators wore present, but only thirty-nino voted. Six of tho votes woro against tho whitewashing, and, coanting those who refused to voto as against Clayton, thirty-nino Senators, or a clear majority of tho number elected, woro opposed to tho measure that was passed. If it had been tho mlo that a majority of thoso elected woro nec essary to tho passage of a resolution, Mr. Clay ton’s partisan friends would not have been ablo to rush through a measure at onco opposed to (ho interests of tho country and tho real senti ment of tho Senate. Ex-Senator Patterson says, in justification of his Credit Mohilier transactions, that “The gen tlemen tho most inculpated are received with tri umph when they return to their respective States.” This statement Is not absolutely cor rect. Mr. Colfax was welcomed in South Bond, and Mr. Oakes Amos had a dinner given Idm by his retainers at North Easton, but it does not appear that tho States of Indiana and Massaohu- soltos Joined very generally In those "triumphant returns.” Besides, the term "most Inculpated ” certainly Includes Mr. Patterson, and wo bava not yot board that Now Hampshire ban organized any "ovation ” on bis account. Senator Kelly, of Oregon, on whouo account Congress proposed to oven up salaries, baa shown his ingratitude by concluding not to tako bis book pay. If h Q i m a taken It, bo would have boon obliged to pay back Into the Treasury several hundred dollars more than bo would have received, his mileage footing up under tbo old system over 85,000. What little honor might oeonio to Senator Kelly In the promises is qullo offset by tho financial considerations which In duced him to refuse to lako his back pay. At tho same time, it was unkind of him to rob his as sociates of their pot pretext for getting their hands Into tho Treasury. Tho recent election hi Pennsylvania for and against tho license to manufacture and sell vinous, spirituous, and malt liquors has shown that while a very .considerable majority of tho people of tho State arc opposed to their manu facture and sale, yot they do not hcliovo in tho efficacy of sumptuary laws to eradicate tho evil. Many people undoubtedly voted in favor of license, from tho very fact that there aro already stringent laws in Pennsylvania regulating tho sale of liquor, which would help to abate intem perance, if tho temperance people would boo to it that they wore enforced. Tho largo majority by which anti-license was defeated is Indicative of tbo fate which alflo awaits another proposition which will bo submitted to tbo people of Pennsylvania in October next. This propoflition, which was passed by tho Con stitutional Convention a few days since, and which will boaubmtttod separately to tho people, provides that " the sale of intoxicating liquors or mixtures thereof containing tho same, for uso as a beverage, shall hereafter bo prohibited;** and that " tho Legislature shall, within one year from tho adoption of this Constitution, enact laws, with adequate penalties, for tho enforce ment of this provision.” Tho death is announced of Charles Knight, colobratod as an author, an editor, and a pub lisher. Ho died in England on tho 9tU inst., attor a busy and useful life of 82 years. Among tho aorials which ho edited at different periods of his career woro KnighCa Quarterly Maga zine, tho “Library of Entertaining Knowledge,” tho “Family Library,” tho Penny Magazine, and tho “Penny Cyclopedia.” lie was also in timately associated with Brougham, Lubbock, Hobhouso, and others, In their “ Society for tho Diffusion of Usoful Knowledge,”and contributed largely to tho success of its publications. Ho was tho publisher of tho “Pictorial Bible,” tho “ Pictorial Arabian Nights,” tho “ Pictorial Shakspoaro,” and several other successful vol umes in tho same series. His greatest work woa “A History of England," in eight volumes, which is ono of the most comprehensive, useful, and entertaining or all llietbrios of Groat Britain that huvo been written. SPRINGFIELD Tlio nailroxul Question—Address oC lion, JaiucN Coy Iloforo the Fanners’ Club of tho Legislature—Certificates of Organization* Special Dispatch to The Chicago Tribune. Springfield, HI., March 20.—Hou. James Coy, of Koudall County, by opccial invitation, ad dressed the Farmers' Club of tho Legislature at tho Agricultural rooms, in this city, to-night. A outside audionco gathered to hoar him. Ho discussed tho questions at issuo in a clear and comprehensive maimer; touched upon tho oppressions and extortions of tho railroad com- Eauios, and denied that tho railroad .companies ad boon tbo means of developing this great agricultural State. They had neon built, not onco having in view tho well-being of tho people, or tho advancement of its agricultural in tercuts. 'only so far ns in the ond they might no benefited. This movement ho said was not ovaneacout. It had taken deep root, and, like tho mighty oak, it would sprend wider and deeper as timo-wout on, until tho pooplo iu their majesty would teach, by tho arm of tho law. soulless corporations that they had rights that woro to bo respected. His speech was listened to with profound at tention, and tho eloquent speaker sat down amid groat applause. Statements woro to-day filed by, and liconso issued to, the following incorporations: Tho South Euglowood Hotel Company; capital stock, $25,000. Ofllco located at Chicago. Tho Fold kamp and Bublact Wine and Liquor Company, of Chicago; capital stock, SIOO,OOO. Tho Missis sippi Ico Company, of Quincy; capital stock, $200,000. EDUCATIONAL. Twenty-third Commencement of the JHlchignu Stntu University. Svceial Diuvatch to Tho Chicaao Tribune, Ank’ Arbor, Mich., March 2G.—The twenty third annual commencement exorcises of too State University wore hold at 10 o'clock this morning, in the Methodist Church, which, in spite of the inclement weather, was densely packed with spectators. Eighty-IWo persons re ceived the degree of Doctor of Medicine ; twelve of them wore ladies. Two of tho latter, Misses E. L Call and A. J. Love, intend to start soon as missionaries to Chinn. Tho address to tho grad uates was delivered by J. B. Angoll, LL. D., President of the University. Tho commencement of tho Law Department tho 14th, was hold in tho same place, in tho afternoon. Ono hundred and twenty-throe graduated with the degree of Bachelor of .Laws, two of whom wore ladies. Prof. Kent, of tho Law Department, delivered the addresses to tho graduates. Last night tho Society of tho Alumni of tho Law Department hold their annual reunion. Regent McGowan presided. E. M. Irish, of Kalamazoo, of tho class of ’72, delivered an ora tion, followed by nu address by A. D. Baldwin, of the graduathi g class. Tim Hon. Byron D. 8011, Attorney-General of tho State, was elected President for tho coming year; J. B. M. Alt man, of Chicago, Orator; M. 8. Stewart, of Ne braska, Poet; 11, A. Chancy, of Detroit, Cor responding Secretary. The exorcises closed with a banquet at ono of the hotels. MORRIS, ILL. Soutcucod for Fraudulent Voting-* JPetv.onal* Special Dfepnteh to The Chicago Tribune. Monms, 111., March HO.—'The Circuit Court ad journs to-morrow. Michael Madiuly pleaded guilty to repeating his vote at an and was sentenced to one year’s imprisonment m tho Penitentiary. Sentence is, for the present, sus pended on account of his family. Representative Hay has returned to Spring field, although In very feeble health. Suicide. Special Dhpntch to The Chieaqo Tribune. Fdltos, 111., March 20.—A young man named Qoorgo Warren, whoso parents reside at Beloit. \Vlo. t committed suicide at the Military School last evening. Ho was 10 years old, hut, being larger than lads usually are at that ago, and manly in his hearing, many persona believed ho was really 10 or 20. For some time past ho had boon escorting young ladies to parties, taking them out riding, spending connidorablo money, and contracting debts. IHs father was inform ed of his conduct, which was censurable for nothing but extravagance, and determined to take him homo. Ho came, hero for tho purpose yesterday afternoon, and in tho evening called at tho school for tho purpose of seeing him. Qoorgo was In his room talking to some of his class mates, and. when told by his father, in their presence, that ho had done wrong, drew a revol ver from his pocket, placed tho muzzlo to Ida forehead, and blow out his brains. Mr. Warren did not address him roughly; on tho contrary, spoko as if ho pitted, rather than blamed, Qoorgo for his profligacy; hence tho shooting of him self la attributed to thoughts of what bis com panions might say about being attached to tho old man’s ” coat-tail. . Tho remains have boon expressed to Beloit. Eucnpo of a CouiKurfeltor* Oouueuland, Md., March 215. —M. A. Oreagor, of Baltimore, a Deputy United States Marshal, attempted to arrest John Wallace, at Barton, yesterday, on a charge of counterfeiting, whou Wallace made a desperate resistance, boating tho officer severely with his pistol, and then l}o es caped to the mountains.

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