Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune, March 28, 1873, Page 4

Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune dated March 28, 1873 Page 4
Text content (automatically generated)

TERMS OF THE TRIBUNE. TF.nMB of Bunßonirnon (payable ih advahor). Part* of a year at tho aanto rato. To prevent delay am! mistakes, bo aura am! giro Post Office addreuln foil, including State and County. - Remittances may bo made cither bydraft, express, Post Office order, or In registered lotion, at our risk. TEHMB TO CITY OUDSOriIUBnS. Daily, delivered. Sunday excepted, Cfi cents per week. Dally, delivered, Sunday Included, DO cents per week. Address THE TRIBUNE COMPANY, • Corner Madison and Doarborn-atv., Chicago, UK CONTENTS OF TO DAY'S TRIBUNE. FIRST PAGE—Washington Nona—Now York Matters— Miscellaneous Telegrams—Advertisements. BKOOND PAGE—Tbo Law Courts—Tho Farfaon* Move* menti Tho First Farmer*’ Clubs and their Objoot; A Summary of tho Grievances Complained of. THIRD PAGE—Mysterious Death in tho West Divis ion—Farmers’ Mootings at Peoria and LaSalle—Tho t ' Lake-Front Bill—'Well-Founded Suspicion—TboClty In Brief—AdvcrtUomonta. FOURTH PAGE—Editorialss An locondlary Scheme; Reversing tbo Supremo Court; Tbo Taxes on Corn- Current Nows Korns. FIFTH PAQR-Ycstorday’a Proceedings In tho Illinois General Assembly—Markets by Telegraph—Adver tisements. SIXTH PAGR-Monotary and Commercial—Railroad Tlmo-Tablo. SEVENTH PAGE—A Sleigh Rldo Suddenly Terminated —Small Advertisement* : Real-Estate, For Sate, To Rent, Wanted, Boarding, Lodging, Rto. EIGHTH PAGE—Foreign Nows—Town Officers—Amuse monte—MUoollanoous Telegrams—Advertisements, TO-DAY’S AMUSEMENTS. AIKEN’S THEATRE—Wabash avenue, corner of Con gress street. Aimoo Opera Troupe. "La Belle Helene." M’VIOKKR'9 THEATRE—Madison street, between State and Dearborn. Engagement of Edwin Booth. "Richard HI." HOOLEY’S OPERA HOUSE-Randolpb atroet-, bo ■tween Clark and LaSalle. "Peril; or. Love at Ldng Branch." / ACADEMY OF MUSIC- lial.ted .trout, aontli o( Madison. Engagement of Frank Mayo. "Davy Crook ett." MYERS' OPERA IIOUSE-Monroo etioot, between Ftalo and Do.arbom. Arlington, Colton A Koipblo'a Minstrel and Burlotquo Troupe. NIXON'S AMPHITHEATRE —Clinton, between Washington and Randolph street*. Wilder A Co.'s National Circus. BUSINESS NOTICES. ROYAL HAVANA LOTTERY. THE EXTRAOR dluary drawing will take place on the 23d of April, 1873. The amount drawn la 81,200,000. There will be only 10,000 tickets and 2.(07 urlzea. J. B. MARTINEZ A CO., Rankers, IQWall-et.; Post-oftlco Hox4,U&, Now York. Wilt Otfibuui. Friday Morning, March 28, 1873, Canada wants to exchange weather observa tions with tbo United States. One million dollars has been appropriated by ilho Pennsylvania Legislature for tho Centennial Celebration. Congressman Sprague, of Ohio, who voted against tho salary steal, offers to return tho money to tho Treasury, or uso it for the relief of tho taxpayers of his district. Tweed has profited by Caldwell's example,.and resigns his seat in tho Now York Senate ponding tho investigation of his case. Tho Committee in chaigo of tho examination havo boon dis charged. Beyond passing tho Donahue and other rail road bills to a third reading, nothing was douo by tho House, yesterday, for tho solution of tho transportation question. Those bills are made tho special order for Wednesday next. Tho Lako-Front Repeal bill has passed tho Houso. It goes now to tho Senate, whoro its further progress will bo resisted by a powerful combination of railroad men and of persons within and without tho Legislature concerned in tho corruption which attended tho original grant. In thoir doubt as to tho constitutionality of tho scheme for throwing upon tho Stale tho de fense of tho citizens involved In tho railroad trespass suits, tho House voted It down. Tho vote was afterward reconsidered, and tho bill re ferred to tho Judiciary Committee forita opinion. All tho gold olTorod by tbe Govornmont yester day in Now York, $1,500,000, was bought by Jay Cooko at tbo high figure of 110.33. Humor on Wall street has it that this purchase was mode upon a bint given from tho Treasury, and that it indicates that tho legal-tender “ rosoiTos ” —so called—aro to bo drawn upon again. Senator Sumner has never lot a word escape him to movo tho Massachusetts Legislature to recall Us vote of censure for hia oblivion resolu tion, but tho poet Whittier has circulated a peti tion to tho Legislature, which has boon widely signed by those who folt tho injustice of its ac tion. This petition was rejected tho other day by tho Lower House, and yesterday mot tho same fate in tho Senate. Tho Hon. James Dixon, who died yesterday, represented Connecticut in tho Senate from 1857' to 1809. His public career began in 1837 with his election to tbo Connecticut Legislature; and since that time ho has boon in tho service of his Slate, almost without pause, either in Us Legis lature or lu Congress. Hr. Dixon took part in tbo proceedings of Andrew Johnson’s “Broad aud-Butlor” Convention at Philadelphia, in 1860. He was also ono of tbo National Committee ap pointed to convoy President Lincoln’s remains to this State. There was an officer who wont through nearly til tho battles of tho Mexican war without a scratch, uud was killed by tho kick of a mule on hia journey homoward hoforo ho reached tho circle of admiring friends who woro preparing to give him an ovation. His namo was not Gar field, but there is a General of that namo whoso experience has been somewhat similar. Aftor storming tbo heights of Credit Mobilior, and breasting tho deadly contents of Oakes Ames’ memorandum-book, to ho killed by tho $2,600 salary-grab is worso tbau being kicked to death by a jackass. The farmers of Peoria County met yesterday at Peoria, and formed a permanent organization for the defense of thoir interests against the en croachments of the railroad companies. Their resolutions pledge thoir votes, regardless of party, in future to representatives of those Interests; deny the railroad doc trine of vested rights and exemption from leg islative control; call for Congressional regula tion of through traffic 5 warn tho Legislature not to adjourn without having achieved, some adequate railroad legislation, and rebuke auyuso of force by tho railroad companies to compel tho payment of Illegal faro. As vessels are now being chartered, on 'Change, to carry grain from Chicago to Buffalo at 10 cents per bushel, and it has been clearly proven that 0 cents is a profitable car rying rate, would It not bo well for tho oomplain auts against Western railroads to stive some of tboir attention toward providing increased facil ities for reaching tide-water ? Elevators and tlio storehouses along tho sovorol linos intersecting tbo groin-fields of tbo West arc filled with tbo unpredontod yield, and to trannport tbo com from Ohlongoto tide-water, either by ;rall or vessel, costs more than the farmer receives, for bis pro duct. Yet tbo railroads are abused in some quar ters for declining to transport freight that they cannot dispose of when It arrives. . From tbo statement authoritatively made on behalf of the railroads concerned in tbo postal oar combination, It will bo soon that, while they objoot to tbo torma on which they aro asked to run postal cars, they will not rofuso to carry thorn as before. In tboir defense, the companies plead that they have run those cars since 1804 without any ’ compensa tion, although promised every year that they should bo paid. Although tbo last Congress did not moot their demand, that after April 1 they should bo allowed second-class freight rates for tbo service, it offered them an insufficient com pensation which many of them will accept. It Is thought in Washington that no interruption will occur as was feared, since tbo companies that reject tbo present arrangement will con tinue tbo service, and look to future legislation for adequate remuneration. The death of Amodoo-Bimou-Dominlquo Thierry is announced. Like bis brother Jacques, M. Thierry devoted his life to historic research. In 1828, ho published a history of tho Gauls, which gained him tho Chair of History In tho Academy of Bosancon. Ho was soon forced out of this position by bis liberalism, for which, after tbo Revolution of 1830, bo found full scope in tbo Prefecture of tboHauto-Saono, whore bo introduced some pot reforms. In 1842, bo pub lished a second part of bis Gallic inquiries, m which bo treated of Gaul under tbo Roman administration, His other works wore “Rooits ot Nouvoaux Rooits do I’Hlstoiro Re main©“ Tableaux do I’Emplro Remain;” “ Histolro d’Attila ot do sos Succossours,” and “Bt. Jerome.” Ho was a Grand Officer of tbo Legion of Honor, and was made a Senator of tbo Assembly under tho Empire in 18C0. Ho was 76 years of ago. Thoro was moro doing yoaterday in tho Chica go produce markets. Moss pork was active and a abado firmer, at $14.75 cosh, and $15.00 seller £(& V. Lard was active, and dosed steady at $8.00@8.05 per 100 lbs cash, and $5.15@8.20 seller May. Moats wore in good demand, and averaged X° higher at 5%@5%0 for shoulders, 7%@7%0 for short ribs, 7%@7%0 for short clear, and 10@12o for sweat pickled hams. Lake freights wore dull and nominal at IGc for com to Buffalo. Hlghwinos wore quiet and steady at 87c per gallon. Flour was dull and unchanged. Wheat was active, and %@lo lower, closing at $1.19#@1.20# cash, nud $1.23# seller May. Corn was moro active, oud %o lower, dosing at 80%@32%0 cash, and 34%0 seller May. Oats wore quiet and firmer, dosing at 25#@20#0 cash, and 28% c seller May. Rye was quiet and firm at G4%@CGc. Barley was less active, ami steadier, closing at 78%@700 seller April, and 80@81o for fresh receipts. There was an active demand for livo hogs, and prices advanced to $5.10@5.G0. Cattle wore in good request at for mer prices. Sheep wore unchanged. There comes from Wall street tho announce ment that tho Bank of England has advanced its rato of discount from 8# to 4 per cent, that gold is up to 116%, and that Mr. Socrotaiy Rich ardson proposes to throw an additional issno of greenbacks on tho* market to onahlo those af fected by tho rise in tho bank rato to bridge over tbo difilculty,—and of course to send gold up still higher. Last December, thoro was begun in Now York a branch business wholly unknown boforo. Tho foreign hiU-aollora,—tho American agents of Loudon bankers,—havo boon lending sixty-day bills on London to stock speculators; theso bills havo found their way to London, and havo boon placed in tho Bank of England for discount. Tho great amount of this paper, issued In such a questionable manner, has caused tho advance in tho rates of discount. Tho result Is that some body will havo to suffer. Tho borrowers of theso bills form one faction of speculators, and it is now announced that tho Socrotary of tho Treasury is to place another extra issue of groon-, backs on deposit in Now York to roliovo this class, which scorns to bo in favor nt Washington. Tho whole proceeding of issuing greenbacks in excess of tho maximum established in 18G7 is not only illegal, but is doubly reprehensible when resorted to in order to enable ono faction in Wall stroot to got tho bettor in a fight with another faction. Tho Government has no law ful or moral right to interfere between stock gamblors, and wo hope tho announcement is unauthorized and unfounded. AN INCENDIARY BCHEME, Tboro is a determined effort making in tho Common Council and out of it to change or re peal the fire limits. Tho long contest over ibis matter just after tbo fire will bo remembered, Tho ordinance that was passed, establishing tho boundaries within which wooden buildings wore prohibited, did not go into effect until Fob. 22, 1872, nearly fivo months after tho fire, during which time hundreds of woodon buildings were actually put up. Tho effort now is to havo certain districts within tho limits excepted from tho operation of tho law. Thus, Aid. Dixon, who repre sents tho ward lying between Monroe and Har rison streets, In tho South Division, and wholly within tho burnt district, wants to havo ono-half of his ward oxcoptod. Those who remember tho fire will never forgot that it was tho congrega tion of shanties, sheds, and old woodon build ings, of various kinds and sizes, on tho west end of tho Second Ward, that brought tho firo across tho rlvor from tho West Side, and sent it for ward to tho Court-llonso, and thonco to tbo Water-Works. Aid. Dixon wautstoroplacothoso frame buildings with now ones, so that, in caso tho southwest wind shall bring another fire from tho West Sldo to tho rivor, it will find kindling-wood and iuflammahlo material on tho South Side, as was tho caso in 1871. This is not his Intention, of course, but ho wauls to run tho risk again. Wo all remember tho memorable mob which sought to torrify tho Council against passing any ordinance relating to tho North Sido. In that quarter tho demand is renewed. There has been a number of fino stone and brick build ings orootod on tho oast sido of tbo North Di vision, and others aro contemplated; but tho demand is made by certain woll-meuning incen diaries that tho firo limits should ho abolished, and that tho wholo division shall ho opened to tho construction of woodon houses, lu liko manner, certain Aldermen in tho West Division aro clamoring to have their districts excoDtod. Particularly is this demand made in tbo southwest part of tbo city, whom tboro aro alroady-tUonoands of wooden bouses, so closely built that, in case of anolUorcombina tlon of flro and gale, they will l>o swopt away like pralrlo-graoa. A largo number-of perma nent buildings have boon erected In tbo North) West, and South Divisions, on tbo guarantee from tbo city that no moro frame or wooden buildings should bo erected within certain limits. Upon this guarantee there have boon expended at least one hundred millions of dol lars in permanent buildings. Not only bavo those boon eroded in tho burnt district, but In all other parts of tbo city,—North, South, and West.’ They bavo boon eroded under the legal assurance that not only 1 should tboro bo no moro woodon bnlldings eroded within certain proscribed distances, but that those frame buildings already existing should only bo replaced by brick, stone, or Iron ones. Having rebuilt Chicago, and having In duced thousands to expend tboir money in per manent and costly buildings in all parts of tbo flro limits, it is now proposed to repeal or ossoh ' tially ebango tbo guarantee of protection, and to give froo leave for tbo erection of all kinds of woodon structures again. Tho permanent buildings of Chicago, Includ ing all those within tbo present fire limits, with tboir contents, pay a tax for insurance on nearly $200,000,000 of property. This tax ranges from Ito 2 per cent. This high rate is duo to tbo groat number of woodon buildings which exist not only within tbo firo limits but beyond It, and which surround tbo city to tbo west and south. Tbo prevailing winds, and danger ous winds in cases of firo, are tbo southwest and west winds. Those wooden aud inflammable structures aro between tho wind and tbo perma nent and costly improvomontsof tho city. Hence tbo high rates of insurance. At an average rate of 1 per cent, this city pays out $2,000,000 annu ally for insurance. This does not include what is paid on tbo woodon buildings them selves, whore tho -rate ranges from 2• to C per cent. To tamper with, restrict, or contract tho present flro limits will result in tho virtual repeal of tho whole ordinance ; it will bo accepted by tbo whole country as tho certain precursor, if not a direct invitation to, another conflagration ; it will weaken our credit; cause an advance in tbo rates of'interest on all invest ments In Chicago, and load not only to an ad vance in tho rates of insurance, but cause tbo withdrawal or tbo reduction of-tbo amount of risks by tbo best insurance companies. For what is nil this cost and trouble to bo brought upon tho city ? la Chicago over to bo a well-built city, or are wo to continue like tho Indians, dwellers in tents and other temporary habitations ? No wooden building can bo regarded as a permanent structure. They are not built with any refer ence to permanency. They are built to bo burned down, or to bo sold and moved to somo other place, whoro they are finally to ho food for fire. For this purpose, thoao buildings are placed on stilts, —a convenient arrangement in case they are moved, and convenient to give good draft to a fire getting under them. Tho Com mon Council now propose to throw down tho ro-- attaints upon tho erection of such temporary buildings, thereby putting a damper on tho erec tion of permanent buildings, and making Chica go once more a vast lumber-yard, with a cook ing-stove, ashoot-lrou pipe, and a kerosene lamp in full operation In every twenty-five square foot of its area. ThoSlatoof Illinois has an interest in Chica go. This city pays one-fifth of tho State taxes. Tho Stato has incurred, in consequence of our neglect of rational precautions against fire, a debt of three millions of dollars. It has wit* nossod tho destruction of two hundred millions of taxable property. Tho Legislature of Illinois cannot afford to let Chicago bo again burned down, oven if our City Government provides tho means for tho conflagration. From tho Common Council, so lost to reason and common sonso, Chicago will appeal to tho Legislature for pro tection—protection against firo and tho Common Council. “REVERSING THE SUPREME COURT.” Wo give room in another part of this paper to a letter recently written by State Senator Castle, in explanation and defonso of the position which ho assumed in a former communication to a farm ers’ mooting in DoKalb County, whoroin ho hold that it would bo necessary to contmuo tho fight until tho Supremo Court should bo “ re versed,” and somo now progressive element in fused into It. Mr. Castle’s explanation is, that at tho timo ho wrote tho letter to tho farmers it was “ rumored” that tho McLean County Rail way caso had boon rovorsod by the Supremo Court, but tho decision had not boon published, and ho was not familiar with its points. Mr. Castlo now admits that tho decision is just, and ought to satisfy tho people. It would have been moro decorous for a grave and reverend Senator to wait until ho know what the doclolon of tho Court was before proposing to overturn tho Court on account of it. lie will probably not deny that it is highly unbecoming in a public man to review a Supremo Court de cision on moro rumor. His own caso is an apt illustration of tho fact. Nevertheless, Mr. Castlo undertakes to defend tbo position which ho assumed under an unwarranted misapprehen sion. It appears that his idea of ‘‘reversing tho Supromo Court” was moro roprohousiblo than that advanced at some Of tho farmers’ meetings. It was proposed by tho latter to de feat at the polls tho Judges whoso offense had boon to doolaro tho law to ho what it is. It sooms, however, that Mr. Castlo contemplated tho reversal of tho decis ion by increasing tho number of Su promo Judges, and appointing to tho now places men who would agree to do tho job. This is tho inference from tho precedents which ho cites. One of these is tho caso of tho contest between John A. McClornaud and A. 11.I 1 . Field, in 1839, for tho position of Secretary of State in Illinois. Tho Supremo Court having decided adversely to McOlornnml, tho number of Judges was in creased by fivo, Stephen A. Douglas being ono of tho latter, and tho reputed loader of tbo movement. Another caso was tbo appointment of new Judges on tho Supromo Dench of tho United States to reverse a former decision on tho .constitutionality of tho Logal-Tendor law. Tho third case cited—an increase of tho Supromo Judges of tho United States to rovorso Justice Taney’s decision on tho Fugitive Slavo law—never occurred; this decision stood until Congress repealed tho law, ami has novor boon rovorsod. Tho Supreme Judges in Illinois wore increased for political purposes under tho leadership of Judgo Doug las, and tho proceeding has always boon regarded as disreputable and immoral. It was ono of tho strongest points made by Lincoln against Doug las in their famous joint debates. Tho Inoreaeo In tho uumbor of Supromo Judges of the United Btntoa was partially Justified by the fact that Hid" Court had boon previously roduood to two load than tho law allowed, but tbd action la univer sally regarded as one of tho moat dangerous and roprohonalblo of Qon. Grant's Administration; Mr. Castle In careful not to any, In so many words, that thoso oases ought to stand as prece dents, but ho would havo done himself more credit by omitting all reference to thorn hi con nection with tho proposed reversal of tho .Su premo Court In this State on tho railroad ques tion. It is unnecessary to produce arguments to show that such a practice, If It should become general,'would bo ruinous to government and subversive of law. Mr. Onstlo says that “ tho groat question to bo decided Is whether tho State has parted with its sovereignty, whether railroads aro superior to tho Btato, or their will superior to law.” This Is not tho question at all. None of thoso propo sitions aro true. Tho question is simply as to bow tbo law shall bo onforcod, which provides that railroad charges shall bo reasonable. Mr. Castlo seems to think that tbo Stato should fix an abaoluto and arbitrary tariff. To do this, ns Mr. Harris stated to tbo Legislative Committees, would bo to coutravono tho oxistouoo of rail roads. If tho railroads should submit to a statute fixing 8 cents a mflo as tbo maximum ebargofor travel, without regard to its reasona bleness, tho noxt Legislature might fix tho rato at 2 cents, and tho next ono at 1 cent, or below tho ratos that would ouablo tho railways to pay tho wages of their opera tives. A tariff might readily bo estab lished under which tho railroads could not bo operated at all. If tho Legislature should follow out tho principle thus applied to railroads,' and fix tho prico of labor, of cars, of Iron, of locomotives, of oil, and of all other material used by railroads In tho samo proportion, and would guarantee that all citizens should abidoby thoso prices, tho railroad companies would prob ably accept tho rule very gladly. Thoy would then bo relieved of tho occasional (loss and in cessant annoyance incident to strikes among thoir employes, and to bargaining for everything thoy buy. As this is not possible, it is not just that railroads should bo ooorcod to submit to an arbitrary tariff which any Legislature maychooso to proscribe. Tho Supremo Court declares tho law to bb that railroad charges must bo reasona ble. Tho Legislature must provide a way for as certaining what rates aro unreasonable, which is precisely what tho Donahue bill proposes, which Mr. Castlo voted for. Mr. Castlo claims that tho railroads must bo compelled to obey a law enacted by tho General Assembly until it has been decided unconstitu tional, and intimates that private citizens would bo required to do as much. In other words, Mr. Castlo says that if tho Legislature fixed $lO as a maximum foo which ho should receive as a law yer; or 20 cents a bushel as tho maximum for which ho should sell his corn ns a'farmor; or $1 a day as tho maximum wages that ho should de mand as a laborer, he would have to obey this statute until, in tho todious processes of tho courts, this law should bo decided unconstitu tional. Mr. Castlo, as a lawyer, a farmer, or a aboror, would do no such thing. ITo and his class would .refuse point-blank to abide by so palpably unjust a law, and would resist it .more violently than tho railroads have resisted a simi lar law in their case. Neither lawyers, nor farm ers, nor laborers, nor any other class of people, would recognize it one minute, nor 'wait a single day for tho decision of the Supremo.Court. Mr. Castlo has contributed nothing to his do fenae, nor to tho cause ho represents, by his now letter. It contains a proposition which is more untenable thon that which ho recommended to tho farmers of DoKalb County. Ho admits that ho and' tho people should bo content with tho Supremo Court decision, ns it is really on their side, but adds that “ there is still a distrust on tho part of tho people as to whether similar fail ings might not bo found in any law enacted,—as to whether it Is possible to enact any regulations of railways which this Court would doom con stitutional and without flaw. 1 * So tho Supremo Court is to bo reversed not for what it has dono, but for what somebody guesses it will do. I This is the appropriate reductio ad abdurdum of Mr. Castle’s original letter. THE TAXES ON CORN, Tho census returns of 1870 show the value of tho domestic manufactures of the United States in that year. . The table, is interesting. It em braces an immense variety of articles of com mon use, and it will bo of interest to the pro ducers of the West to know bow much they pay for tbo actual articles they use, and bow much for bounty. Tbo whole product of boots and shoes in tbo United States is valued at $210,000,- 000, and sawed lumbor at $209,802,000. Those two articles alone amount to over $-100,000,000. This lumbor is in its roughest stato. Upon those two articles of prime necessity" tbo tariff imposes taxes, . not for revenue, but to onablo tbo producer to increase tbo prico of bis manufacture. Tbo tax on boots and

shoos itself is but 05 per cent, and is wholly un necessary, and gives no advantage to tbo boot and shoo makers, because wo bavoalwaysoxcoUod foreign countries in that branch of manufacture, and can send these articles abroad in success ful competition with tho foroigu-mado goods. Cut wo havo so taxed tho articles that outer into tho boot and.shoo manufacture that tho coat of the article is largely enhanced, and thus not only is tho export trade diminished, hut tho actual per capita consumption of boots and shoos is re duced in tho country. It is in vain that wo havo invented machinery by which four men can now produce as many shoos in a given time as ton men did before, wo have so taxod tho machinery itself, and taxed tho raw material of tho shoos, that wo havo destroyed all the benefit of tho machinery and added to the coat of tho shoes. Tho tax loviod on thp raw materials which enter Into tho manufacture of women's ordinary gaiter hoots is 50 cents per pound and 85 per cent ad valorem , equal to about 10 cents per pair. That tax is to compel tho manufacturers of thoso boots to use materials mndo in this country. This enormous tax is paid by tho consumers. Every fanner and mechanic in tho United States has to pay, In addition to tho ordinary prico of every pair of such boots for his wife or daugh ters, 10 oenls tax. The number of persons en gaged in manufacturing those taxed materials aro very fow, not exceeding perhaps I,ooo'in all, and yet tho whole forty millions of pooplo of tho country are compelled to pay this tax. Every pair of women's hoots is taxed two bushels of corn. When to this tax is added that on men’s and children's wear, the producer of corn can estimate how many acres ho has to plant annually to cover tho tax on this one article of boots and shoos. Assuming that tho avorago tax on tho material of men's, women’s, and children's hoots and shoos is 20 per cent, then the wholo tax paid by tho country upon the $210,000,000 of bool and shoo manufactures, in : FRIDAY, MARCH 28, 1873, Iho way of Increased cost, Is $40,200,000 each year j which tax, If paid Into tho Treasury, wquld equal half tho Interest on tho public dobt. This $40,000,000 of tax p aid by tho country is equal to oyer 200,000,000 bushels of com. at 20 cents per bushel. How many bushels each* farmer gives to pay this tax ho can estimate by computing tho total of Ids expenditures for boots and shoos in a year, and counting 80 per coni thereof as a tax paid as a bounty to tho manufacturers of tho raw materials. Tho tax on lumbar has boon, until last Au gust, at tho rate of $2 hi gold por thousand foot. : It was Imposed In order to hoop out tho lumber of Canada. It Is oqual to 20 por cent on tho cost of tho American production. It Is safe to fessamo that this tax amounted to an average of $40,000,000 a year, and is of very doubtful utility to tho lumberman themselves, though thoy raise a frightful scream whenever anybody proposes to repeal It, oven to rebuild a burned oity. Lumber Is ono of tho articles of primo necessity to tho farmers, yet on every rod of fencing, ovory shed or outbuilding, every hoard, ho has to pay, In addition to tho cost of tho lum ber Itself, this Inexorable tax. Tho $40,000,000 oollootod from consumers of lumber la oqual to 200,000,000 bushels of corn, or tho entire product of nearly 7,000,000 acres. Adding tho increased cost of boots and shoos, and on lumber, duo to tho tax, tho country pays In round numbers $100,000,000. To pay this tax would roqulro 600,000,000 bushels of com; or, placing tho average crop at 00 buahola to tho aero, It requires to pay tho tax on boots and shoos and lumber the . entire product of over 10,000,000 acres. Wo submit those foots to tho consideration of tho agriculturists, who at this tlmo aro seeking remedies against extortions that aro consuming not only tho productions of their labor, but aro destroying the value of tho land as a source of rdvonuo. Tho value of land .is, of necessity, to bo estimated at tbo value of Its products. Laud that produces $lO por aero •is rendered valueless if tho wholo product Is re quired to pay tho taxes, and it Is Immaterial whether those taxes bo for transportation or upon tho oxchango of commodities. If, of tho receipts for a bushel of coni, four-sovouths aro takou by tho railroads and two-sevenths for tax on tho goods purchased with what is loft, tho result is that tho producer pays six-sevenths of all bis land yields for taxes. Them should bo an unanimous demand on the part of tho whole people that every tax that is not levied for rovouuo purposes shall bo re pealed, and this demand should bo repeated at every public mooting called, for whatever pur pose, until Congress shall comply with it. Tho recent oaso of Lydia Sherman and her poisonings is fairly matched by tho develop ments mado in tho 'West Auckland poisoning cases, now on trial in England, in which ono Mary Cotton stands charged with tho murder of her stepson, a healthy child of 7 years, who required more care and attention than his step mother was willing to confer upon him. Being anxious for more lucrative w'ork, she rid herself of tho responsibility of waiting upon him by administering arsenic. In tho progress of tho trial, many othormurdors havo boon Incidentally developed, including husbands and children, for, like Lydia Sherman, Mary Cotton had boon many times married, and, ns if there wore some indefinable, mysterious connection between murder and marriage in the minds of those Borgias, no sooner had she assumed tho respon sibilities of wedlock than she proceeded to froo herself from them by moans of poison. Liko Lydia' Sherman, also, she mado no concealment of her crimes, but, on tho other hand, confessed them with perfect freedom, and oven gloried in tho confession, ns if sho had per formed somo praiseworthy deed. In studying tho annals of murders committed by women, there are two singular features to bo noticed. Tho first of those is tho fact that when a woman sots out upon a wholesale career of murder, sho almost invariably chooses poison for the agency of destruction, and has a prefer ence for arsouio. Mon commit murders with tho pistol, tho knife, or tho bludgeon ; rarely with poison. 'Women scarcely over use either ono of thoso three agencies, except in cases whore they are actuated by sudden or ungovernable im pulses, and ’seize tho first weapon which comes to . hand. In cases, .however, whore a woman coolly and deliberately makes a life-long business of murder, she invariably selects poison. Notwithstanding tho ingenious attempts of a modern magazine writer to whitewash tho character of Lucrozia Borgia, and make her a model of womanly in nocence and virtue, tho burden of historical proof establishes the fact that sho was tho.poi souor of ail her political enemies with whom she came in contact, as well as of those who gave her personal offense. Tho Marchioness do Brimilliors was one of tho shrewdest of poi soners, and has made' tho name of Briuvillicrs odious tho world over. Tho Gorman poisoner, Anna Marla Zwanziyor, was one of tho most au dacious of poisoners, and literally planted ar senic in every direction, whore’ it might roach servants and children against whom she had no animosity whatever. Another English murder ess, Mrs. Holroyd, used arsenic without tho least compunction, aud at ono time achieved considerable reputation by her success iu prophesying tho deaths of her victims. Our readers will remem ber tho case of tho woman who, not long ago, distributed poisoned sweetmeats among all her friends in order to reach a certain man against whom she entertained a dislike. In our own country, tho cases of Lydia Sherman, Mrs. Wharton, Mrs. Grinder, Mrs. Van Ness, and others are still fresh in tho memory of our readers. Every country, iu fact, has its living and Us his torical female poisoners, who havo scattered death far and wide, aud almost every town and village can name some woman who has com mitted a single murder by the use of poisons. How are wo to account for this universal use of poisons by women ? Is there any other solution of tho question than tho assumption that oven female murderers have tho qualities of refinement and delicacy, tho aversion to scones of suffering aud torture and the pe culiar shrinking from brutality and blood, which distinguish women as a class from men ? Poison Is a more quiet hut equally effective instrument of death. In involves no physical struggling, no violent endeavor, no question of strength. Tho chances of escape, and tho opportunities for concealing the crime, are greater than in other forms of murder. Tho woman who should kill her first victim with a pistol or a knife would attract such attention, aud the deed would become bo public, that in all probability sho would never find an opportunity to kill tho flooond. Tho first victim of poison, however, dies apparently a natural death, and no inquiry U oado or suspicion aroused. The second MODERN BORGIAS, dloß in tho same manner, and tho third, and tho public still seed nothing roraarkahlo in tho foot. Tiio poisoner, omholdonod by hor 6UC0988, at last grows calloused and indifferent, and does hor work In snob an audaciously publio manner that sho is suro to bo detected. It is another curious feature of female poisoners that thoy never appear to havo any oompnnotlons about their diabolical deeds. Wo do not bolilvo it would bo possible for a man to continue mur dering, year after year, os did Mary Ootton and Lydia Sherman,— murdering bvou those against whom thoy had no animosity, and for somo of whom thoy oven entertained feelings of affec tion,—without at last publicly confessing their crimes, ovon If thoy woro not detected in tho very first instance by tho bungling manner In which they would commit tho deed. Tho motives which induce tho fomnlo poison ers to commit thoir crimes are in most cases so flimsy that it may bo said thoro is an utter ab sence of motlvo in thoir conduct. Tho woman, Mary Ootton, poisoned all who wero dependent upon hor because thoy mado life hardor for her, and because sho could earn a moro considerable pittance if thoy woro out of tho way. Motives equally inadequate marked tho crimes of Lydia Sherman. Sometimes tho motive is a paltry sum of money; sometimes because tho victim stand in tho way of certain social pros pects ; sometimes from sheer malignity; and sometimes from thoso cruel im pulses which seem to havo boon im planted in tho female breast at birth, and to havo grown so ungovernable that tho vic tim is Just os likely to bo ouo who has always boon an object of endearment os ono'.whohasboon an object of aversion. Such a ono poisons for tho sake of poisoning, as Nero killed simply for tho sako of killing. How far suoh a person is responsible for what is in reality a mental dis ease, growing out of some hereditary taint, near or far removed, is a nico question to dotormino Complete isolation from society is thd least that can bo done, for tho fomalo poisoner has no choico of victims. Sho kills without hatred, and sho acknowledges her crimo without any com punctious visitings of conscience. WATERING RAILROAD STOCKS. To the Editor of The Chicago Tribune .* ' Sir: I noticed the articles In your paper of yester day and to-day in regard to “Watering Railroad Stock,” and tlio quotation from tho clause In tho Con stitution bearing upon tho subject; and I notice the tenor of tho article, Indicating that “ watering railroad stock” can bo prevented by enforcing that clause In tho Constitution. I do not believe tho writer of tho article Is correct In stating that tho clause quoted in tho Constitution can prevent what ho thinks Is so unjust to tho public. Having lately had occasion to study that very sub ject, and having discussed tho matter with leading counsel, I am of tho opinion that tho Constitution docs »iof prevent tho Issue of an unlimited amount of stock by railroad companies; and lam also of opinion that no law can bo passed to remedy tho objection (If water ing stock bo so very objectionable), unless the law should specify tho precise mm that railroad companies should pay for construction. If It should do that, I contend It would practically prohibit tho building of railroads. Tho parlies iutercalcd In building now Hues of rail road aro two, viz.; Thoso living along the proposed line, and foreign capitalists who advance money for the profit In tho enterprise. It Is an established fact that thoso parties living along tho lino cannot furnish money more than sufficient to grade and tie a road,—a very small proportion of tho coat of tho road and equipment,—so that it follows that foreign capital mutt bo obtained. And, before obtaining it, largo In ducements must bo offered for It, especially In view of tho fact that all such new enterprises have elements of uncertainty In regard to tho future. So I contend that a InwpassedlnthlsSlßte.namlugollmltcdsnmto bo paid by new lines of railroad for construction, would practically shut out foreign capital from assist ing now lines within tho State, and consequently pro hibit any more railroads being built within tho State. In regard to prohibiting an unlimited issue of stock by now Hues of railroads, by enforcing tho provisions of tho now Constllullpn, I will will show you how, and by what means, stock Is issued so as to como within tho limits prescribed by the Constitution. A railroad company (a now lino) contracts with a “construction company” (tho members of tbo con struction company being or not bring, largo owners 61 tho railroad franchises),—tho contract between tho par ties being, that tho construction company will build tho road, and receive in pay for tho same, say, tho flrst mortgago bonds of tho railroad company, tbo cash subscriptions to the stock of the railroad company, ami $25,000 per mile of full-paid stock,—tho construc tion company being enabled to make o profit (of courso It must have a profit) of tho stock thus re ceived. Has not tho railroad company compiled with the provision in the Constitution by giving its slock for material or property, the same being tho Iron, ties, equipment, etc,, that tho “construction company” gives as an equivalent for tho same, according to tho terms of tho contract? It might bo argued that tho raijroad company pays an exorbitant price for building its road. Admit that. Is thoro anything in tho Constitution prohibiting a corporation or an Individual from fixing tho terms of a contract as it may choose, or as it may deom advisa ble? But is It an exorbitant price ? Tho “ construction company ” assumes all tho labor and anxiety attendant upon completing n largo enterprise, besides risks of financial distress that frequently sweep tho country, and has for its reward a largo amount of railroad stock which, In the future, may or may not bo of valuo, CuiOAOO, March 27,1873. X. ANSWER. At common law a railway or other corporation can iBBUo neither stock nor bonds, except for money, labor, or property actually received and expended in construction and equipment, unless expressly authorized so to do in their charters. We are not aware that any railroad companies have received such authority in this State, either by general law or special charter. The provision in the State Constitution was undoubtedly in tended to prohibit the Legislature from granting such authority to railroads. Tho plan suggested by our correspondent of “ whipping tho devil round tho stump ” may answer to circumvent tho plain words of tho Constitution, though wo doubt it; but it will not, in our opinion, circum vent tho common law, which limits corporations to tho express provisions of their charters and allows them to take nothing by implication—cer tainly nothing adverse to tho publio interests. What tho country wants most of all is to put the stock issued by tho Vanderbilts and tho Tom Scotts uudor a ohocso-pross and squeeze all tho water out of thorn. Tho thing can ho done if tho people are-in earnest. There is said to have been a panic recently on tho Frankfort Exchange in American railroad securities. Tho explanation of it is found in tho following recapitulation of worthless bonds which, tho Now York Slaats-Zcitung says, have boon negotiated in Germany : Alabama k Chattanooga Railroad..'. $ 4,700,000 Dcb Moluos Valley Railroad 7,000,000 Kofit Teuneonee, Virginia k Georgia 5.C00.000 P'ort Wayne, Muncio k Cincinnati 1,800,000 Georgia Aid Ronds (Brunswick k Albany)... 3,880,000 Peninsular (Michigan) ; 1,800,000 Port Royal 3,600,000 Rockford, Rock Inland & Bt. Louis 0,000,000 Oregon k California Railroad) 10,050,000 Total. On tho bonds enumerated above, it is Impossi ble to collect tho interest, and of course they are sold, when they can bo sold at all, at ruinous prices. Tho Oregon & California bonds are quoted at 85 cents. The construction of this road was of a similar character to that of tho Rockford, Rock Island <fc St. Louis, recently described in Tub Tuibune. Mr, Bon Holliday had tho contract for tho building of tho road, and took the bonds'and laud-grunts. Ho sold both bonds and lauds, and out of tho nroceeds constructed about'23o miles of tho road. Hard tho work stopped, leaving tho most costly part un done, and that which woo completed to bo seriously damaged by tho snow storms* That part of tho rood which la operated does not yield enough to pay tho Interest on tho bonds, and tho Frankfort bondholders havo appointed a committee to in stitute legal proceedings against Mr. llolladay. In tho caso of tho Ilookford, Hock Island A Bt. Louis Rond, tho Gorman bondholders surren dered ono-lmlf of thoir honda in tho hopo of getting tho interest on tho other half, ond aro now disappointed oven In thla. Tho other roadn mentioned nro probably in tho samo condition. Tho Chicago A Southwestern wants to pay Ha gold interest in greenbacks. In view of thoso circumstances, it is not very surprising that thoro should ho a lack of confidence abroad In American railway securities. It Is not surprising to find that the Legislature of Virginia agrees perfectly with Gov. Walker’s project to havo tho General Government ossumo tho debts of tho Southern Slates. It is not at all improbable that all tho other State Legisla tures in tho South will glvo it thoir official iu doraomonts, aud certify them to tho favorablo consideration of Congress. Thoro would ho general rejoicing among tho carpet-baggers at a juncture which would enable them to reopen tho purse-strings of speculating capitalists, and be gin thoir career of plunder all over. Tho con ception of this scheme indicates that tho Inge* nulty of tho carpot-hng governments for raising money on State account Is exhausted. \ Tho cable brings tho intelligence of tho death of tho Countess Qulccioll, whoso name has be come world-famous, as ono of tho numerous paramours of Lord Byron. During his stay In Italy, Lord Byron resided in tho family of tho Countess at Bavonna, who became very much attached to him, poetically and personally. Tho members of tho family at that timo woro tho Countess, her husband, and her father, tho Count dl Gamba. Tim attachment was mainly, on her part, aud at last grow so tlroaomo that Lord Byron, as ho himself acknowledged, wont' to Grooco and identified himself with tho Grecian war of independence to got rid of hor. After his death, tho Countess wrote a very en tertaining work, entitled “ Conversations with Lord Byron," which, without throwing any now light upon his life, is nevertheless interesting as presenting his views on social, religious, and political topics, j * NOTES AND OPINION. Because Vice-President Wilson called Gen. Gordon, of Georgia, to tbo Chair, tho other day, white ho etrctchod his logs in tho corridor, all tho Organa declare that “ Tho ora of Reconcilla tion has como.” . —Congressman William A. Whoelor, of Now York, invested his in bondsof tho United States, and destroyed tho hoods. —The amendment to tho Arkansas Constitu tion, removing tho disabilities of whito men, haa boon ratified almost unanimously. Tho official voto (loss Ihroo counties unroported) stands 2-4,203 to 8,601. —Tho grossly-partisan apportionment sebomo of tho Indiana Legislature (Republican) isbolng copied by Hr. Cameron's Legislature of Penn sylvania. Baaed on tho Gubernatorial voto of last October, tbo 353,387 llopuclican voters aro to have eighteen Representatives in Congress, and tho 817,700 opposition voters nino Repre sentatives. Tho Philadelphia Press observes that, “ Even to tho ordinary politician, this must look like robbery.” Putting it in another way, tbo Buffalo Courier says: Tho question of “ minority representation,” which has excited Interest in various parts of tbo country, had better be laid on tho table until It Is determined whether political majorities may bo systematically dis franchised with impunity. —The registered voto of St. Louis, for tbo municipal election next Tuesday, is 41,115. —Tho Hartford Post (Administration) inti mates that the big steal of tho next Congress io to bo tbo assumption by tile United States of tbo cotton-t&x. and of tho repudiated debts of tho South, hold by a clique of Republican bankers and politicians ; and tho Post .well says: Wo want some man In Congress of National reputa tion, of Invincible courage, of vehement energy, of powerful eloquence, A leader who can gather and combine tho opposition required to stem tuts advanc ing lido of war upon tho Treasury. —All tho lowa delegation, Senators and Rop*> rosontativos, united in recommending H. CL Van Leuven, of McGregor, for Mail Agent, vic» E. O. David, and the President informed them ho' “ would take tho matter into consideration,’* But tho Dubuquo Herald says r Meanwhile, David rests upon his oars, bland as a summer morning. Ho has not been near Washington*' but has the advantage of all his enemies in the face that ho is some kind of a left-hand relation to Grant on to Grant's wife, and Grant, if ho knows himself, does not let any of his or his wife’s relatives go hungry. “Tho President bad positively nothing whaU Qvorto do with tho matter.” [Organs.] —Thoro is scarcely a Senatorial election ia any of tho Stato Legislatures that tho charge of bribery ia not bandied back and forth between tbo fnonds of tbo rival aspirants.— BaUimora American. —The days of covering political offenses withe tho mantlo of partisan charity have passed.— Toledo Blade. —Thoao members of Congress who have do*- cliued to take tho extra compensation have dona a good thing, and deserve full credit for it. But* wulthov giro us tho asauranco that they have nob* only refused tho grab, but havo fixed it whonr they can’t roach it heroaftor.— Albany (Jf. Y.y Journal. J —“ls there anv™«— * ' - —“ Is thoro any money in ... his is tho. great touchstone by which all propositions aroj tostod now-a-days. In every-day business life, I in politics, and wo fear, in many eases, in ro~‘ llglon, it is the criterion which decides the qnea- j tiou. If a friend broaches a now project, tho> first question ho is mot with is, “Is there any! money in it?" If a person approaches nnothoc. on the subject of accepting an office in the gifts' of the people, the first question that arises is, I “Is there any money In it?" And so on throughout the various transactions of lifo.| So intricately is this question of dollars and' cents intorwovon into all the affairs of life, that,! if the motivo for any uncommon act brought to, public notice cannot bo traced to this root, it is very apt to stamp the actor as a lunatic. —Fort Dodge (Iowa) Times. ( —lt is certainly desirable that the causes of. this prevailing corruption should bo investigated and a remedy supplied. The disposition mani fested of late to look into this disease of the' “body politic," wo consider one of tho most on-! couraging “ signs of tho times." Late years aroj full of illustrations going to show that political power obtained at tho expense of honor, truth-1 fulness, and Integrity, is worsd than “ apples of Sodom, turning to ashes on tho lips " of those, who are dazzled by appearances, and blinded by a will o' tho wisp. —Nashville (Tenu.) Jiullctin,' “ Official paper of tho United Slates Govern •' menl. u • i —'What ought to bo done 5 what is tho host* moans of doing it; who aro tho safest men for tho people to trust ? Those things need careful and early consideration. Tho nation is calling for something higher than selfishness, vonahty, 1 and usurpation.— St, Faul (J (inn.) Fioncer. 1 —On Saturday evening last there was a- very large mooting of tho quiet voters at tho Opera- House. without distinction of party; and, front tho quiot and business way iu which the meet ing was conducted, it would seem that tho poo plo of this city and townsnip “moan business and, if they really do,I—if 1 —if tho people aro going about this matter iu earnest, —tho politicians of both parties may ua well take of their hats to tho' movement, for tho power is with the people.—. , Freeport (III.) Journal. * —lloforo tho triumphant advance of tho “host/ civil service on tho planet," State subdivision? aro of no wore value than so many chalk-linos,'• 800 how admirably tho son of a faithful Sena tor was provided for in Virginia. Tho Wash ington Chronicle complacently remarks : “ Tho President, by virtue of authority vested In him, by tho seventh -section of tho act of Juno 80, lofi-i, has made tho following changes in tho collection districts of Virginia: Tho Counties of Campbell, Bedford, Boutotourt, Craig, and Boanoko to form tho Fifth District, and tho counties of Halifax, Pittsylvania, Franklin, Henry, and Patrick to form tho Ninth Collec tion District. This division was made in order to make a district for tho son of Senator Lewis without throwing a good ollloor out altogether." Verily, tho eon of Senator Lowis is blessed above his. fellows. How happy he must be. with a bran now district created for his special bene fit I— New York Tribune, .$46,130,000 it?” Th