Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune, March 30, 1873, Page 12

Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune dated March 30, 1873 Page 12
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0 1 12 BUILDING. Experiences of the People who Ee built Chicago. Among the Architects—Their Pcculiaritlci —Bow Contracts are Made. The Plan, and How It Is Car- ried Out. Interesting Facts About the Work o' Stone-Cutting. The Pains, Perils, and Pleasures of a Building Enterprise. The departure of tho City of Chicago, during the reof 1871, in a chariot of fire, was an event which not only the citizens of the devoted town, but the whole of the civilised world, appeared to regard aa an unparalleled disaster, Tho wiping out of tho whole of tho material wealth of a great metropolis was indeed an event for which wo as a community were unprepared; and if tho enor mity of the calamity was not brought homo to us •at once, it was principally because we lost our tomes simultaneously with our city. Tbero have not been wanting many to illus trate tbe extraordinary gain to tb© city conse quent upon the fire. While many pulpits clearly demonstrated that the fire was a consequence of , the laxity of our moral code, the daily papers that it tyas the Immediate result of faulty con 'etruction, and one obscure journal that the In ternationals were responsible for it, the archi ' tectural and contracting fraternities have reaped an abundant harvest. Property-owners have gained by it. The site of the New Jerusalem Church on Adams street has risen in value 'greatly. Avery largo number of unspeakably Kocond-clasH boarding-houses on Wabash ave nue have given place to some good and substan tial marble-front edifices. And, above all, a great many gentlemen of va rious means have become the owners of large, •end in some cases substantial, buildings. It is 'true that they bavo achieved this wonderful ‘preeminence at great expense to themselves. Mt is true that many of them have spent sleep less nights over their unlooked-for position. It Us oven estimated that if the sleepless nights they spent were consecutive, a whole dismal decade could be constructed out of them. now it began. a man takes it into his head that he has * lot, unencumbered with mortgage or building, Ihen he is to bo pitied. Just after the fire, many ■cf onr distinguished citizens found themselves In just this predicament. They owned lots, but there was nothing upon them of any particular jvaluo, except brickbats and cinders, and the market was so completely glutted with these Commodities that they were not salable property. It being a necessity that build ings . should be - promptly erected to ‘meet h the demand, **■ many substantial were thrown into the sleepless con dition alluded to by a desire to build. Many of jthem bad built before, and knew something of .jthe labor they undertook- Others bad not, and jto these the future had opened out an entirely ■fiew set of possibilities, “To own a building— Ito rent It—to pay for it, and enjoy the balance,” ('were words of such portent that Hamlet’s reoliloquy faded into Insignificance before it. Ab lit waa then, so, with certain modifications, is it • to-day. The man who builds is a creature tor- I dented by more furies than the miserable i Orestes. The want of money pursues him with i unrelenting scourge. .The fear of making ■an error looms up in the witching hour, 1 und shadowy outlines of fraudulent contractors iburrying from beneath the falling walls of un . finished buildings people his dreams with phan toms, by the aide of which tho actual assistant ■of the Town Collector is a symbol of perennial peace and quietude. JUTffTKg THE KONET. But when tho family have contended that its bead owes a duty to society, and that that duty \ ‘la the immediate erection upon snch a lot as he 'owns of a fine four-story and basement etone front building, there is really nothing for the poor man to do but obey its mandates, and commence building at once. His title to the lot 'is clearer than anything else in his mind. He certainly owns that, if he owns nothing else, ' And, on general principles, he does own nothing else—nothing that will enable him tc put a handsome building upon it. His lot is & valu able one, perhaps. It may be worth $25,000, or perhaps more. On tho strength of thia he ap plies to a loan agent, states his case, and wishes to borrow money. The agent satisfies himself of tho value of tho property, and agrees to let him have the worth of it on a loan, on the execu tion of a mortgage, the money to he forthcoming as it is needed. The agent agrees to let him havo this full amount at a high rate of in terest. Our friend supposes that $20,000 will scarcely cover his wants; ho may want three times that amount before his structure is completed. The loan agent tells him that when this much is expended a mort gage of some kind on the building will secure more, in proportion to tho value of the building. Thus by instalments the money is raised to com plete tho structure—or is ready to be raised when needed. SEOUBINO AN ABCSITECT, Having satisfied himself beyond the possibili ty of a change of mind that ho wants a building, and that the sooner he is in possession of it tho better for his peace of mind and tho harmonv of Lis domestic relations, the landed proprietor'be taKea him to an architect—a professional gentle man whose fundamental principle is to regard every rival architect an ignorant, worth less follow whose smattering of knowl edge is calculated only to deceive. Tho architect generally is a man of smooth speech to a client, but intolerant of everybody calling himself an architect. Of tho represent atives of tho profession in Chicago, it is only fair to say that as a class they are refined, cul tivated, pleasant, and entonmsing—to all who do not infringe upon their domain. They never see anymerit in anotherarchitect'swork, sharing with artists tho peculiar faculty of discovering flaws in their fellows' composition. When a building designed by Mr. A settles, then B, O, and the balance of the alphabet mark down one score against him, ehrng their shoulders and say u hois no architect.” When B gets himself into difficulty by reason of weak piers, instantly the fraternity denounces him as a fraud, and when Co building becomes a scandal for tho press to comment on, the fraternity solace the miserable designer by telling him that, for an amateur, bis mistake would be inex cusable, every architect's apprentice having more sense than to risk such a wretched mate rial or to run up such a fire-trap. To one of these gentlemen, we hesitatingly introduce our ambitious friend, who wishes to have his name in letters of stone, high above the sidewalk, for coming generations to admire. The first step heundeziakes is to tell the archi tect that he intends to erect a building, specify ing its purpose—for offices, let us suppose. He furnishes tne dimensions of his lot, say 45x100 feet, and suggests that he wishes it laid out in the most profitable manner, and with the least possible expense. 4 THE TTEST SKETCH. And here he generally falls into a grievous error, against which he should be cautioned. The architect hears what he baa to say, and promises to give him ou such a day a set of pre liminary drawings, which being executed in pen cil can be altered and modified at pleasure. On viewing these preliminary sketches, the owner fancies he can improve upon them. Perhaps the style of building is too showy for his pur poses, and so he tells the architect. Perhaps the cost is a trifle higher than a of hi* means can afford, and he mildly declares himself in favor of something cheaper. In the de sign for the internal arrangement he has some quite original suggestions to make. He does not want to be a slave to fashion, but would prefer to have tho offices ar ranged on some new principle, and so novel Is his principle occasionally that the architect looks at ium aghast, and says it will not do. Well for him if he takes the advice of his experienced director, for many men have not the crudest idea of laying out oQlcaa. And this desire for novelty is not only a weak exhibition ot personal vanity, out ia sometimes detrimental to the buiiaev a own intereste. Ho wishes for some thing will shock a tenant, and will, in tho possibly near, future, render his structure utterly unsalable. It sometimes happens that the architect, in cautioning bis client against such extravagance, incurs bis displeasure,and the lat ter disappears without paying him his fee ior “ preliminary drawings/ 1 which is), percent of the cost of the buildings. Sometimes a client will eye the sketches du biously and say that tbero ia something about thorn he does not like, but cannot tell whet it ifl. Tito architect promises to modify the first or draw an entirely new set, and, upon presenting them for inspection, his client approves of them, with or without further change. Having ac cepted tbo plans here roughly blocked out, tho architect charges nothing for them, but, consid ering Ujat ho is employed for the work, elabor ates his rough drawing into a larger plan. Let it be understood that our friend of tho compass and ruler does not lake it for granted that ho is competing for a plan against some others, unless such is declared to bo tho condi tion previous- to starting. TeU him frankly whether he is competing or whether he is work ing for you, or ho will turn round upon you for lua poy, and so will all his com petitors, with every argument on his side and theirs also. If be learns of this beforehand bo will generally enter tho lists boldly, but not otherwise. He cannot afford to waste nis time any more than a lawyer; nor can ho give you instruction gratis when a dis tinguished lecturer charges £2OO an hour for his counsel. THE WORKIKO-DUAWINOR. Satisfied of your good faith, tho architect pre pares his “ working drawings.” making them upon a scale of 4 feet to tho inch, which is a con venient size for “ figuring” upon. His working drawings are nearly a dozen in number, being: a basement plan, first floor, second floor, third floor, fourth floor, and, when necessary, a fifth floor; a front elevation, rear elevation, side eleva tion, aud section. Then he makes diagrams for the different classes of work. There Is a diagram for the iroU contractor, known as “iron-diagram;” a “stone dia gram” for the stone-cutter, and a distinct hat of “specifications ” for each department, setting forth size, quality, and the rest of the thousand and one requisites over which tho con tractor puzzles on his piece of dirty paper. Supposing that the owner now comes to tho conclusion that ho has received all tho outside help required, ho can dismiss the architect by paying him his percentage, and wind up by let ting the contracts himself, the architect's dues, after getting everything into shape, would bo per cent for a dwelling-house or residence build ing of any kind, and per cent for stores or offices, the charges being based, until an actual estimate has been made, upon the proposed cost of the work. These estimates are never sup posed to bo exact until the contracts ore award ed, nor are they by any means binding upon the architect. THE BUILDING SUPERINTENDENT. If you. propose to dismiss the architect at this juncture, you do him an injustice, especially if, by means of bard toil and constant success, ho has a<ihioved a reputation. Toll him what your intention is before he draws a preliminary sketch, for. If he bo an architect of long stand ing, ho will decline to work for you. His argu ment is sound. Ho says: “If I famish you with these drawings, I am the architect of the building, and as such the outside world will hold mo responsible for the success of the building. If I am to superintend the erection, X am will ing to assume the responsibility; but, if some third party is to do the superintending, and I am to take the responsibility of his ignorance or dishonesty, then lam at a disadvantage. I de cline your proposition. I mast do au or noth ing. 1 cannot afford to risk the good name I have earned at such expense. Qo to some of these irresponsible, hungry young chaps who never undertook a big job in theirlives. They’ll bo only too glad of the per centage. and I would not like to rob them of it,” And though the last bit of sarcasm would be characteristic, there would be a great deal of horse sense in his refusal. If he is a good architect, let him finish what he has commenced; if he is a bad one, don’t lot him commence it. THE CONTBACTOBS. ■ The architect notifies the contractors os soon as the specifications bavo been made out, and in a day or two there is a perpetual swarm of these gentlemen buzzing round bis office. The contractor applies to tho office of the architect to leam what work ho may have in readiness, and, being shown the specifications drawn up by that omnipotent personage, “fig ures” upon what is before him, or. in the more intelligible vernacular, proceeds to make esti mates. It is not unusually the case that a stranger finds some five or six earnest-looking, but not over-cleanly, gentlemen clustered round a document on on ardtutect’s table. It is noticed that they all have little stumps of pencil, whose abbreviated dimensions are shocking to a well ordered reporter. Each has a little piece of 'paper in front of him, and the party resembles a knot of overgrown schoolboys copying a sum from a more proficient companion. They look too earnest for schoolboys, however, and there does not appear to be very much friendly feeling lost among them. As a reporter enter? an architect's office, all the contractors cease figuring, regarding him with universal abomina tion, on the supposition that there is one more competitor in the field. When ho is discovered to ho a mere scribbler, the aversion becomes obsequiousness, for everybody knows the value of a line of “ local” indorsement in business, or thinks he does. The amount of “ figuring ” done by the contractor is sometimes astonishing, but ho finally arrives at a conclusion, and a world of anxiety suddenly is lifted from his mind. Should the specifications call upon the contractor to make a bid in the lump for the whole building, our friend with the corrugated brows and stump of ■ lead-pencil proceeds with the following mental qualifications: Tho excavations for the foundation will cost so much; then the dimonaion-stone and rubble for the foundations; then there is the brick re quired forbuilding, labor in building, carpenter work, plumbing, painting, iron-work, glazing, and everything in a building. This tho contract or sub-lets to the various branches of building industry. But this system has not been a fa vorite in Chicago. During the great rebuilding season o' *“«t year very few such contracts were made. plan most generally accepted gives the architect the privilege of making what con tracts ho r ljases. To do this he prepare* specifications of all necessaries in tho variou> departments, and lets contractors of all ■ kinds figure npon them separately. Thus the mason has nothing to figure upon but the exca vations, the material, and the laborer. Tho carpenter has his work before him ; and knows juat what he wants. Tho plasterer is responsi ble to no contractor, and, if tho architect is as honorable as be ought to be, the owner can feel certain that he is not being mode the treasury for designing persons to draw Upon. DIVISION OP ULDOB. It is sometimes the case that a builder receives a contract for stone, Hore is a margin of profit for him. for he will make his contract with tho quarrymen, and thus two profits are made where one would be sufficient for all practical pur poses. Contractors prefer the Utter method of mak ing agreements. Another form of contract sometimes made la the commission system. This naturally has Us defects, especially from the owner’s point of observation. That it was practised exten sively just after the fire will bo understood by all who are familiar with building matters and prices. When the price of brick was rang ing anywhere between sls and S2O a thousand, and the price of labor was ad uncertain as it was oppressive to the employer; when, indeed, all seemed chaos, without a voice to command tho existence of order, contractors would not risk their law remaining dollara in the ordinary way. Hence nearly oil tho earlier buildings were erected ou commission, tho mason asking sometimes as much os 15 per cent of the cost, material excepted; tho average, however, being lOpcr cent. In reckoning the risk of building by a strict contract during a severe winter, the masons wero venturing on an unknown sea, with not even a dear sky to guide them in their voy age. No one knew then how much could be done in the way of building during one of our rigid winters, and the success of the operations of the winter season of 1871-2 was a source of as great surprise to the exports of Chicago as to the wondering world beyond. ‘ But to return to our mend ot the stump of wood and plumbago. Haring, like his compet itors, made his figures (and having secretly rid iculed and condemned *ll those who were sim ilarly employed), he submits them to tho archi tect for inspection. THE AWA2PS. In pnblic matters the law invariably requires tho officer in charge of any public work to award the contract to the lowest responsible bidder. Of course tho architect is under no especial command to follow out this principle too liter ally. jn fact, ho generally inquires of his client whether he has any special favorite among tho contractors, or whether he cares to give his con tract to any of them. As tho client is the party most interested, the architect is generally guided by his preference, just as in tho prepara tion of designs. The contract is signed by the contractor, the architect, and the owner; hut the signature of the T i-i K. n-TirAnn haitv 'nmi>in.Tra ~ . THE CHICAGO DAILY TRIBUNE: SUNDAY, MARCH 30, 1873 architect is hot indispensable. It does not differ from such documents generally, and, of course, varies with tho amount. of work re quired. For a four-story building, 100 feet square, for instance, stone front, tho contractor agreeing to supply all the brick needed, to mako tho excavations, set’all the cut-stone, set all tho iron columns, all tho brick work, and all other work connected with tho masonry of a building, the cost would bo about $33,000 on a comer and $30,000 in tbo middle of a block, exclusive of cat-stouo work. It not unfroquontly happens that an individual or corporation about to build appoints an agent or superintendent to inspect the plans, mako tho contracts, and superintend tho building of tbo now structure. In this case tho architect merely furnishes designs for tho building, and receives in payment thereof or 2 per cent. Ah instance of ibis is found in tbo construction of the Evening Journal Building on Dearborn street, a few doors south of The Teutons Building. WTiat amount was paid to the architect wo do not pretend to say. The figures given above represent the ordinary percentage; Architects, owners, masons, carpenters, stone cutters, and every other iodiutxy employed in the production of buildings, prefer to have the contracts let out to special departments. By this means the architect has no lotting of con tracts, and can bettor decide who are and who are not responsible. Ko sub-contracts are made, and there is loss margin forpotty steals. It pre vails in this city, and generally throughout the country, but before tbo lire the'othor system was frequently made uSo of. PCTTINO A FBONT ON IT. Tho most important part of the building, to everybody except tho owner, is the front. Tho {mblic demancra that, if ho is going to put up & miiding; it shall look well. The public thinks that Mr. Johnston's wretched-looking Exchange Building should not bo imitated, and, in defer* ence to tho wishes of tho public, our builder concludes to have a etoue-uont erected. This he has long ago confided to his family ; ho has loftily hintod it to his business acquaintances ; be has told it to his architect, and now the archi tect has drawn out his specifications for the stone-cutter. Ho has deciaed to front his struc ture with, wo will say, Buoua Vista stone, & material that has become a favorite hero since tbe fire. Tho specification calls for so many columns, and so much stone. Tho con tractor is cuided by these specifications, and estimates tho number of cubio feet necessary for the building. Ho purchases tho material by the cubic foot, and sells it in tho same manner, charging for the cutting. With a superficial estimate to guide him as to the amount, and tho specifications to tell him bow much cutting ia needed, ho can come near tho cost. THE RTONE-WORK, The thickness of the stone varies consider ably. In some buildings, with only 4-inch thick ness, plain ashlar grout, with trimmings round the windows, the stone will cost about 81.50 a foot; a specimen of such a building is the Metropolitan Block, corner of Randolph and LaSalle streets. Where the stone is thicker and more elaborately cut, the coat is greater. In the Chamber of Commerce, for instance, the stone coat 82.25 a foot. mi ere the cutting is yet more elaborate, the stone costa etiil more; as in Gallup & Hitchcock's building, on the northwest comer of Madison and LaSaJle streets, for which $3.50 per foot was paid. It ranges up to as much as $5 a foot, though there is at present no building in Chicago which is of sufficient elaborateness of detail or solidity of stone-work to cost this amount of money. In fact, an ex perienced contractor assures us that there is not lu the city one building of the class known as “heavy buildings,” including the Chamber of Commerce and tie building above mentioned, aa costing a maximum sum for this stono-work. Calculating thus, the stone-cutter makes his bid and receives “stone diagrams” from the architect. These “atone diagrams” are full size drawings of every piece of stono-work that passes through the cutter’s hands. Bach draw ing is .a model for the cutter, and is • given - to him to guide him. Your ordinary stone-cutter, though' ho earns his $6 a day, is not necessarily an artist. He can model to order, but ho cannot exquisitely design. He resembles a printer, inasmuch as be immortalizes the ideas of another; and, like a printer, he must “follow copy.” Thus, when ho goes to work upon a plock of stone be must keep bis attention fixed upon the drawing before him. Ilia block la numbered and assigned to him, and a record kept of his work. Supposing ho is employed in cutting from a cubic mass of stone the graceful acanthus leaves that form the capital of a Corinthian column. Thoro is the architect’s model on paper; one must conform to the other; the capital on paper has a vacant place awaiting it In the paper model which is never put together; and the shapeless block has its place assigned to it before the cutter has made a mark upon it. It is a suggestive thought that the mark of the cotter, correapondingto the “slug” of the compositor, will be found years hence just where he placed it, when the loftiest building in Chicago is removed to make room lor a new improvement. STONE-CUTTING. This system of slavish imitation has not al ways prevailed in cutting stone. In carving the old' English gothic, it was the custom to give the stone-cutter only a general idea of tho work that was expected of him, leaving him to fill it on*' from his own designs. Thus was infused into some of those grim old pieces of English architecture a vigor and freshness that could in no other way bo obtained. Each man impress ed his individuality on bis stone, and - variety, not slavish monotony, was obtained. This is sculpture, not machine moulding; and this the architecture that would please a Buskin, —not that which delights the eye of a shoddy real estate owner. Tho block coste, say, $lO in the rough. The cuttei gives eight days of regular work to tho production of a column, which brings tho cost to $53 before tho superintendent of the stone-yard thinks it ready for use. This is the actual cost of prepa ration. Bat by the time that our capital sur mounts the tapering column in the building it will have cost about $75. No wonder that stone fronts are valuable Investments. It bos sometimes been the custom for the mason to contract for the stone-work. The same objection applies to this as to tho employment of an architectural superintendent.. Tne stone contractor io proud of his work. If well done, it reflects credit npon him; if tho work is a botch, ho receives tho censure from the public. It is to his interest to have it well done, and that which tends to defective workmanship; tends to injure him. Hence he would prefer tho work himself, or through a “placer ” or “ fitter.” This personage superintends the laying of every block of stone, an ft is ready to give orders for the modifying, shortening, lightening, or alter ing in any way, of any piece that docs not exact ly fill the place designed for it by tho architect in his stone diagrams. THE STOKE-TAHDS. Before the fire the stone-yards of Chicago did not do a very extensive business. There was more than enough to keep them going, but as the demand was comparatively light there was comparatively little system in the management of the yards. When, after tho fire, stone-cutters from abroad began to compote with our local yards, the industry underwent a change. One firing Messrs. Qraveson & Co., especially aroused a spirit of competition. They made a specialty of tho drab freestone from Cincinnati, known as the Buena Vista stone, and tho demand for this material necessitated something more like system among their em ployes than had been required among stone contractors in Chicago. Their yard on Throop street, near Archer avenue, is a model to others. Here every man has his work assigned to him, and is responsible for that which is entrusted to him. All that he does is noted down, and the cutter's name corresponds in the books with every block of stone supplied by the yard for building purposes in the city, until the introduction of foreign stone, there was nothing like system. The fire wrought a magi cal change, for there are in the city to-day no less than thirty stono-y&rds, all doing excellent wo: k, and preparing lor building purposes all kinds of stone. TEE STONE QUESTION. In estimating the cost of the various materials necessary to the completion of a building, it will bofonnd thatth© vahio of tbestone isnoarlyone foarth of that of tho whole structure. The number of buildings erected during tho year 1872 with fronts of Buena Vista stone amounted to S3, the total cost of atone for which was more than $700,1)00, all, or nearly all, supplied by one firm. Tbo contractor, In bidding for stone, takes into consideration the payment of an employe—the fitter, alluded to above, without whom the mason would be in perpetual trouble. While a pro fessional stone-cutter knows how to manage a refractory block, a bricklayer would be in never ending difficulty. Hence it is necessary, as well for the rapid completion of the work as for the neatness of it s execution, that an expert be ready to give directions as to its progress. In presenting his bills to tho owner, tho stone cutter, like tbo mason, does so through the architect. When he wants money, he applies to this august person, and states the amount of work already done. Tho architect gives him a certificate to the owner, reserving, according to contract, 15 per cent of tho amount until the wholo work has been completed. It being the duty of tho mason to set tho stone, ho does it, and is responsible to the architect for tho manner in which it is done. Tbore are sometimes collisions between mason* *nd Btone-cutters.bat the former is bound to give May to tbo latter, and does bo with the best graco ho can. THE CARPENTER. The carpentry work embraces a wide range. There is the rough carpentry and tho finer work, all of -which generally falls to tho same man. Tho rough work includes tho laying of joists, flooring, Ac., while tho latter consists of mold ings. sash, and tbo like, tinder tbo present lax enforcement of tbo fire ordinance, the work of tho masons has peen seriously curtailed, as in tbo iron front building on tbo southwest corner of Madison and Dearborn streets. Hero is a building in which tho masons were needed for only one wall above tbo first story, the remainder of the work having boon turned over by tbo specifications of the architect to an other branch of contractors—-the carpenters* Contracts are made by these men as with the masons, and the secret cf tho advance in car penters’ wages last year was tho parsimony of tho builder who violated moral obligations anil city ordinances in substituting for solid masonry partition walls (?) of lath and plaster no thicker than such as divide tenement-houses which arc no support to tho building, and which are apt to feed to gravo intensity a fire in the building which would otherwise bo comparatively harmless. Tbo carpenter fattens on it, tho Jnmber-dealer does not mind it, and the owner is gratified at the saving in expense. But the insurance companies, and through' them the community, cannot bo expected to share the gratification of tho economical owner. THE IRON-WORK. The iron work is a branch which is also of great importance in the construction of a build ing. Tho iron columns, which give every op portunity for the great amount of plate-glass display, and the iron lentela, which assist in the Sort of the massive edifice, are not to bo jeted. Their cost is enormous .for tho amount furnished, bat, as they are indispensable, the money is readily paid. Where anything can bo substituted for iron, the substitution is made, without hesi tation. But iron supplies a great want. It is. concentrated strength, and that is what is need ed for the first floor of moat of our buildings. Tho contract is lot to some iron foundry on terms similar to those guiding tbo mason and stone-cutter, though it is not unusual in a large building to employ two or more contractors. The iron comico furnishes another industry by itself. The construction of those thfu sheets of metal, pinned on to the roof of a build ing, is a curious study, and one which deserves a separate chapter to itself, which will bo given to tho interested reader at some future date. MISCELLANEOUS. Tho plumbing and gas-fitting are generally combined in Chicago, as elsewhere, but an im- Eortant branch of the plumber's work in this city as become a ceparato industry. This is tho sewerage. In the East the sewerage fs consid ered to belong to the plumbing department, but in this great city of ours the sevrorer rejoices in & lordly Independence of everybody. AU he re quires is license. Armed with- Una, he is ready for any emergency. It is true that ho does not always do his work with credit to himself or advantage to his employer. Bat then it gives more men a chance of becoming contractors, and that is what they aigh for. Tho roofer is a personage not to he neglected. There are half-a-dozon firms in this city repre senting the same number of methods of roofing a building. There is tho person who will give you an iron roof; another thinks tho tin-rooting company he represents is incomparably superior to any other in tbe world, inasmuch as it affords protection from fire at a cheap rate. There is also tho cheerful wooden rooier, who destroy ed tho water works; tho asphalt man, who vows that nothing can ignite lus roof, be cause it is incombustible; the slater, who thinks that his patent alone is reliable, because every body knows slate is fire-proof. Each of these roofs has its merits, and tho representative of each is ready to insist upon its adoption. Thus tho architect and tbo owner have a wide field before them in their selection. Glazing, in Chicago, is & separate industry. The demands upon glaziers have been very extensive, and especially so upon the importers of plate-glass; The erection last year of a city of stores naturally created an enormous demand for plato glass, and importers did a healthy business in this lino. The rebate upon plato class for buildings expires on Tues day next. How much of this costly material has been used in the city sinco the fire, and has been subject to rebate, the Custom-House authorities are not yet ready to state, but will bo ahortlv. The past month has seen a wonderful activity in the placing of plato glass, in order to save the rebate. Where tiling and hard-wood flooring aro used in a building, contracts aro lot specially for those purposes. A TEW SUGGESTIONS. TVhile suggesting to the builder that ho em ploy bis architect as superintendent of the building from the preliminary drawing to the completion of the structure, wo took occasion to warn him with the condition that the architect bo a man of unquestioned integrity. The rea son for giving this advico is obvious. AH the contracts are made by or through the architect. This person becomes at once tho arbiter of the builder’s destiny. Gifted with plenipotentiary powers, ho can command, and everybody must obey. When Contractor Jones comes in with his bid, a few dollars below Contractor? Smith, it is for tho architect to decide whether it will be for his client's interest to employ Jones or Smith. Jones can, by placing a few green backs whore they will do the most good, greatly open tho contractor's eyes to the reliability of lira backers, while Smith, by a similar deposit, can assure a vacillating architect of his own ability to do good work at a figure that neither Jones, nor Brown, nor Robinson can approach. In malting his selection tho architect must bo very discreet. If he is straightforward he will decline to consider such propositions. Ho will consult with his client. His experience with contractors will guide him in tho award, and ho will turn a deaf ear to the suggestions, and a blind eye to tbe inducements offered by un worthy men. Indeed, there are so many oppor tunities for swindling tho owner by means of an understanding between architect and contractor that it seems almost superfluous to give a sample. But in order to illustrate, it is perhaps as well to do so. Tho architect’s specifications call for a cer tain quality of material to bo used in the con struction of the buildinu, without which it would be safe enough, out not perhaps as solidly constructed as if -the quality demanded was used. Here is our contractor’s opportunity. The material is to go where nobody will see it; nobody knows what is called for but tho owner, contractor, and architect. Nobody but tho two lost can tell whether it is or not. Thus by a wink to tho architect, the t con

tractor furnishes inferior material and divides the profits with tho architect. That this is done frequently is only too well known. In tho mere matter of brick, the architect and con tractor can make plenty of money, and when the piers give way, who ia to say it was tho latter’s fault; who can accuse tho former ? Iron col umns cannot bo weighed when they are once in tho building. Only tho experienced eye of tho architect can toll whether they are of’ requisite dimensions. How can ho tell if ho docs not wish to ? How does the unpractised owner distinguish a poor quality of stone from a good one ? Can ho bo omnipresent to determine tho thickness of every block? In the choice of roofing, there is an abundant loophole for spoils. “ Mr. A,” says the agent for one firm, ** you know our prices. It wiD bo S3OO in yonr pocket if Mr. B’a building is roofed by our process.” “Mr. A,” hints the plumber, “ wo can make it of advantage to you to contract with ns.” “ Mr. A,” says tho steam fitter, “what is tho lowest bid you have ? ” So much to know. Those are mere hints, but that the architect fat tens off them is only to well known. There are another class of swindlers, too, who live only by the connivance of the architect, and this is the impecunious contractor dais. It con sists of those wretched burlesques on contractors who underbid every competitor, with a full knowledge that they cannot perforin tho work at their own figures. When it becomes evident to the owner that they must succumb, there is the alternative of suing them, or help ing them out with an additional sum. The archi tect knows such men. He can “spot” them immediately, and if he intends to be straight forward ho will clear them away from tho p&tn of the honest contractor,and give the latter a chance. Similar to these rogues, for such they really are, and such all honest men will unite in calling them, are those hungry architects who infest the profession and clamor greedily for a job, promising not to demand of the owner any per centage for their services. Their usual plea for work on these grounds is that they are endeav oring to establish themselves in business, and are* therefore prepared to sacrifice what, is due to them for tho purpose of making themselves known to the public. Now, to an experienced gentleman about to build (if there is such a person), this is all satisfac tory enough. But a moment’s reflection will show him that an architect cannot buy bread and butter by simply making him self known to tne public. Ho must have money, and if it does not come from hip client it comes from the contractor, in consideration for his silence respecting some very considerable swindle. Hence it is not good policy to employ one of these self-sacrificing men. Bettor by far go to an architect of good standing in the community, who has something to lose, than a pettifogger who will rob you right and left. MONEY AND COMMERCE. MONETARY, Saturday Evening, March 20. There has boon no particular change in the local money market during tho past week, except tho turn of exchange in favor of Now York, which is now causing a considerable movement of cur rency to that city from tho West. There is a largo demand from tho country for exchange, and considerable demand, also, for currency. The movement of both currency and honk credit to Now York, and of currency to tho coun try, has some influence to make a ten dency toward a clofco money market; but the supply of loanable funds is ample yet. There is considerable money in the open market to loan on good stocks and similar collaterals at 10 per cent for six months, or leas. Good short-date paper without col laterals goes at 10 to 12 per cent. Second-class paper at 15 per cent and over. New York exchange was scarce at 50c per SI,OOO premium, and some of tne usual sellers were asking 75c. Tho scarcity of exchange obliged a number of the banks to ship currency to New York both yesterday and to-day. Gold continues to advance, clorftig* to-day at 117. tho highest price touched since August, 1870. Tbo clearings of the Chicago banks for tho week wore: Date. Clearing*. Balance*. Monday $2,957,483.77 $280,530.08 Tucaduy 2,755,150.16 241,152.20 Wednesday 2,220,100.70 229,070.32 Thursday 2,461,983.48 190,033.00 Friday. 2,617,700.18 2*13,495.71 Saturday 2,368,428.3? * 172,705.19 Total ~515,950,870.64 $1,393,692.70 Corresponding week last year 12,806,194.18 1,534,401.79 The following quotations of local stocks are famished by Messrs. Hammond & Gage: Did. Asked, First National Bank 150 Third National Bank 135 Fifth National Bank 135 Commercial National Bank. 137 140 Merchants’ National Bank 185 German National Bank 125 130 J Manufacturers' National Bank 100 Northwestern National Bank 220 Corn Exchange National Bank 115 120 Home National Bank 100 102 City National Bank 145 National Bank of Illinois 110 National Bank of Commerce 300 105 Chicago City Railway 101 167# West Division Rai1way................. ... 190 North Division Railway 99 100 Pullman Palace Cor 112 Babcock Extinguisher. 50 65 Elgin Watch Company 103 Cook County bends 99#&int. Chicago City bonds 99#«!bJat, Chamber of Commerce 9S 97 ' Traders' Ins. Co 99 101 SALES. $5,000 West Division Railway at 190. 2,500 Babcock Extinguisher at 50. 6,000 Fifth National Bank at 136. LOCAL STOCK AND BOND MARKET. Messrs. Lunt, Preston & Kean quote as fol lows this afternoon: Buying, Selling , 6-20* of’62 117 117# 5-20s of ’64 117 117# 5- of ’65. 117# 118 6- of'6s, Jan.and July 116# 11b# 6-20s of’C7, Jan.and July 117# 118 5-20s of ’6B, Jan. and July .117# 117# 10-40* 112# 112# U. 8. 3a (New Issue,) 114# 113 Gold and Gold Coupons 116# 136# Gold Exchange 116# Sterling Exchange (large drafts) 108#® 109# Northern Pacific Gold 7-30 a 100 & int. Chicago City 7s 99# tint. Cook County 7s 99# A int, Illinois County and Township 10’a 92(299 .... LAN’S WAJUNTS. IGO> Not War 1819 170 185 120's Not War 1813 125 340 Agricultural College Land Scrip 130 COMMERCIAL. Satubdat EvxscfO, Uarch 29. Tho following were the receipts and shipments of the leadingarticleaof produce in Chicago dur ing the past twenty-four hours, and for the cor responding date one year ago : I BECEirrs, srrrrifryTs. 1873. 3872. 1873. j 1872. Hour, brls 8,572 3,602; 7,9731 2,503 Wheat, I’U 40,440 1,383 12,093 0,908 Corn, bu 79,000 30,420; 6,843 lo,WO Gate, ba 53,900 26,770 30,020 16,929 live, bli 990 2,200 401 1,157 Bariev, fcu 11,260 1,050' 11,360 7,873 Grass seed, lb« 49,330 42,410: 138,943 104,952 Flax seed, lb* 23,200 .... Broom corn, tbs.... .... 20,000 35,700 20,000 Cured meats, Ha... 661,830 151,920 1023,896 225,475 Beef, brls 4C2 Pork, brls 318 60 152 50 Lard, tts 87,695 38,160 .... 30,050 Tallow, lbs 25,530 25,980 34,910 Butter, t-a 55,665 36,555 21,075 13,800 Dressed hops. No., j 30 X72| Live hogs, No 1 11,418 6,511 13,191 7,030 Cattle, No 3,830 2,333 2,781 2,538 Sheep, No 1,166 1,583- 620 2,020 Hides, lbs 86,490 86,5U>! 301,130 57,960 Highwincs,brls.... 378 3081 4'KJ 354 Wool, tba 11,525 19,300' 33,500 Potatoes, bu 1,792 3,172 J 300 .... Lumber, M feet.... 501 1,001 1,121 954 Shingles, LI 1,360 2,560 1,249 2,024 Lath, 5t 260 i 145 234 23 brls 75| .... 735| 755 Withdrawn from store on Friday for city con sumption: 5,253 bn wheat; 4,228 bn corn; 220 bu barley. Whithdrawn for do timing the week: 17,348 bu wheat; 4,251 bu com; 2,051 bu oats; 1,503 bu rye; 2,557 bu barley. Tho following grain has been inspected into store this morning up to 10 o’clock: 51 cars wheat; 161 ca-s com; 19 cars oats; 2 cars rye; 12 cars barley. Total, 245 cars; or, 93,000 bu. Tho following wero tho receipts and shipments of breadstuffs and stock at this point during the week ending with this morning, and for corre sponding weeks ending os dated: BCCCIPTO, March 29, March 22, March 30, 1873. 1873. 1872. BHIPMKKTS. Flour, bit 5........ ■Wheat, bu Corn, bu Gate, bu.... Bye, bu Barley, bu Drcaeed hops, No. live hogs, N0..... Cattle, No . 60,173 54,740 17,716 . 80,930 82,774 32,515 . 56,923 111,593 89,895 .140,707 177,133 100,902 . 3,309 4,130 4,487 . 72,181 79,108 60,639 1 50,990 3 48,143 11,531 31,701 . 12,859 3,744 11,634 Flour, brli Wheat, bu Corn, bu Oats, bu Bye. bu Barley, bu Dressed bogs, No. live hogs, N0.,.. Cattle, No The leading produce markets were again dull to-day, except provisions; fijit the general feel ing in grain was not so weak as heretofore, though onr receipts wore on the increase, ana shipments were light, while tho tone of advices from other markets was not particularly encour aging to holders. Liverpoof was generally dull, vati large supplies of cereals in prospect, while the “enormous demand” for export in Now York, claimed by some operators, uas only re sulted in the shipment of 37,000 bu wheat and 24,000 bu corn from that port during the week ending with last evening. In tho dry goods market there was fair activi ty, both in ’staple and fancy fabrics, local and interior dealers ordering freely. Prices wore steady and firm for all staple’and seasonable goods. Groceries met with a large demand from country merchants, at tho prices current on the preceding days of the week, all staple articles and most side goods being held with decided firmness. An advance in coffees seems immi nent, and refined sugars now have something of an upward tendency, both of these arti cles being relatively much lower hero than at the East. No change was -noticeable in the butter market, choice qualities continuing in good demand at full prices, while !the poorer sorts were to a certain extent neg lected and weak. Cheese remains firm at former quotations, orat!7(®lßc for New. York factory, and at 15<5)170 for Western do. Tho coal trado was reported quiet, and bituminous varieties # were generally easier. Wilmington is now sell ing at $6.00. There was more life in the canned goods and pickle trado; the improvement being due to tho milder weather. Prices • wero without quotable change, though in corn, toma toes, and some ether lines, an advance is talked of. Domestic dried fruits were again quoted dull, and the quotations were more or less freely shaded all around. Foreign descrip tions were quiet also, but were firmly hold. Fish met with a fair inquiry at prices that have been current for a fortnight past. Nothing now was developed m tho hay market. Hides woro fairly active and firm. There was a liberal amount of trading in the leading oils, and prices wero, without exception, firm. Carbon has fur ther advanced in Cleveland, and prices were 1c higher hero, in sympathy. The lumber market was modcratclv active to day. There was no quotable change in vard prices; the better grades remain firm, while common building material continues rather weakj being in liberal supply. Lath on track are hicher, now Quoted a; «3.50. -c also very firm, being in active and scarce. The metala, inn and nails or* y. good demand, orders from loth local and interior merchants being numerous and liberal. Metals are firm, particularly tin plate, which is ad vancing East. There was not a single new fea ture in tho markets for wool, hops, or broom corn. The two fonnor staples remain deli and unchanged, v.’hilo the latter meets with, the average demand. Seeds were quiet to-day, if we except tho better grades of timothy, which were in fair request and steady, clover, Hungarian, and millet wore unchanged. The offerings of potatoes in oar lots were limited, and a firmer fooling prevailed for choice varie ties. There was no special change in green fruits. Apples are plenty, and prices rule weak and irregular for ordinary stock, but choice fruit is firm. Poultry was very scarce, and, under the influence of a good loca’ demand, was firmer. Tho receipts of eggs were again liberal, and prices ruled weak and unsound, closing with 150 tho asking price. Highwines were quiet and steady at the quota tions of two or three days past, with SCJ-Jc bid and 87c asked. Sales were restricted to 50 brls at 87c per gallon. The market opened with a rather weak feeling, in anticipation of a lower quotation from Now York, which did not arrive, and closed steady. Lake freights were dull, and nominally un changed ; not It was almost impossible to find tho tone of tho market, in tho absence of trans actions. Some reported that 100 was bid, and others that tho lowest asking rate was l3oon com by sail to Buffalo. There was no apparent demand, matters being at a doad-lock between carriers and shippers. We omoto wheat at 17#c, and com at X6c, to Buffalo. Through rail freights are Csc per 100 lbs to Now York, and 70c to Bos ton, botu per 100 lbs. Through freights by lake or rail are quoted nominal at COc and 65c. Quito a number of tho vessels already chartered are being loaded with com. An engagement was made for one vessel, to arrive, at 10c for com toßuffalo, Provisions were more aclh.s and again stronger. There was a good demand for ail kinds of hog products except lard, but holders ad vanced, asking quotations to a point where buy ers wore not generally inclined to follow them. Mess pork was 40(S50o per ;<rl higher, with none offering on tho longer options. Lara advanced about per 100 lbs. Meats were in urgent re quest for shipment, and may be quoted high er, the largest holders asking advance. It seems as if Europe will want all tho meats wo have to spare, and i anxious to move them out as soon as possible, whether for war purposes or not, is unknown. Tho market closed at tho following range of prices: Mess pork, cosh or seller April, $15.25 @15.30; do seller May, $15.50; do seller June, $15.75; do seller July, $16.00; prime mess, $13.25@13.50; extra prime, *;i0.50@11.00; old pork, $14.00. Lard, cash,or seller Auril, $8.05@ 8.10 ; do seller May, $8.20; do sel’er kune, $8,30. Sweet pickled hams Quoted at l(l@12c. Dry salted meats quotable at o/ d '@6o for shoulders x 8c for long clear ; for short riba ; and7^@Bo for short clear. Boxed shoulders, 6%@6j*'c. English meats, 734@?34 c * or Cumfcoclanda; 8@ B>6c for short riba; 83a@834c for short clear; 13@140 for long cut hams. Bacon is quoted at 7c for shoulders, 9c for clear riba. 9j£c for short clear, and 13@140 for hams, all packed. Moss beef, $9.00(2)9.50; extra mesa do, $10.00@10.50; beef hams, 028.50@29.50. City tallow, 7%@7j%c ; grease quotable at 5J4 (aG3i'c. Bales were reported of 65 brls mess pork at $15.10; 1,500 brls do, seller April, at $15.25; 500 brls do (early) at $15.10 ; 500 brls do at $15.00; 250 brls do, seller May, at $15.45; 500 brls do at $15.40, 500 brls do at $15.25; 500 brls do, seller Juno, at $15.75 ; 500 brls do r.t $15.50 ; 500 brls old mess at $14.00; 500 tes lard at $8.05; 250 tes do, seller May, at $8.20; 100 tea sweet-pickled hams (z0 lbs) at lOo; 180,000 lbs shoulders a; 5%u; 20,000 lbs do at 5J4c, 400,000 lbs do, seller May, at 6j4c; 225,000 lbs do at $6.10, 450 botes uaoulders at 6c; 250 boxes do, seller last half Apjll, at 634 c» both last evening; 120,000 lbs short riba at lbs do at 73^0; 50,000 lbs short clear at 8c; 20,000 Jbs do at 7)4c f 100,000 lbs do seller May, at Bji£c. The Daily Commercial Report gives the fol lowing as the shipment* of provisions for tho week ending March 27, 1873, and since Nov. 1, 1872; also comparative figured : Pork Lard hams Skid's Midis, brie, tee, ter. Ihe. be, TV T kcn’g M*r. 27 13,280 1.6*0 1,443 1,0*9,211 3, <*70,870 Same week 1872.. US 2,60S 1.625 5.V4.937 1,377,670 HiacaXov. 1, ’73.354, W2 362,011 43, r -;5 39,193,534 134.58a.571 Same time 71-73. 66,013 133,195 47,1t* 23,932,034 83,624,210 ■ The shipments in detail were as followb: Shoulders, 1,303 boxes; short clear, 100; ehort rib, 1,844; long rib, 262; Cumberland*, 572; bacon, 20'; Stretforda, 30; Staffordshire, 80; long hams, 33i; long clear, SIS; Irish cat, 00 ; Birmingham, 5. Tho shipments over the Hoc* island and Chicago, Burlington & Qataoy we re 131 brl«t of ]>ork, 110 tea of lard, 84,000 lbs of shoulders, 116,000 lbs of middles,and 200 boxes of breakfast bacon. Flour was dull and easier, though holders did not quote it lower. The shippers were not in the market, as Xow York was again reported dull and tame ; and several holders were free sellers, owing to the fact of more liberal receipts recent ly. Bran was steady. Sales wore reported of 100 brls white winter extras at $9.50 ; 150 brla spring extras and 100 brla do (Athlete) at $6.75 ; 100 brls do at $6.25 ; 300 brla do on private terms; 100 brls superfine at $3.75. Total, 1,150 hrls. Also; 10 tons bran at $10.50, on track. The following wore the asking qrotations at the close: *air to choice white winter extras $ 8.50 @10.75 Bed winter extras 7.00 @8.50 Good to choice spring extras 0.25 @ 7,00 Low to medium 6.00 @ 6.00 Good to fancy Minnesota 6.50 @ 8.00 Spring •nperflncs 3.25 @ 6.00 Rye flour 4.t2&@ i.30 Bran '. 10.50 @ll.OO Middlings 11.C0 @15.00 Wheat was dull and i teadior, at about %o bo low tho rouge of Friday. Liverpool was quoted dull and drooping by private dispatches, and New York was reported unsettled and inactive, while the bear interest hero were doing their beat to force a further decline. But it seemed as if most of the April deals had been already set tled up, except a fe .v shorts out by the leading bears; and the market has declined so much re cently that holders were very loth to submit to further concessions, and there was no forcing of sales, as many of tho weak holders have already sold out and retired from tho deal. Still there are some who behove the market must touch a much Vwer point. As an index of their feclln,;, we may note the pay ment this morning, by a prominent operator, of 6100.00 for the privilege of delivering 10,000 bn of wheat (No. 2*), at any time during 1873, at 90a per A good many country holders have sold out during the past week. The boars hero are hammering it with all thoir might, and many lo cal operators are lotting it alone, as tho cost of carrying is simply ruinous. Tho difference be tween April and May advanced to-day to 4%0 per bu, a portion of wLich is, of course, charge able to storage; but it requires avast amount of confidence to take hold when prices must ad vance 4%c within a month to prevent loss to the buyer, aud all the elements of such advance seem io bo wanting. Yet oven this wide differ-. ence is not enough to tempt capitalists to take hold of regular wheat to carry into May, the cost of which, with interest on tho use of tho money, and insurance, amounts to a little more than 5%c per bn without brokerage. Tho 4%c per bu would pay but a small margin on gilt-edged re ceipts, and they are at 1c premium. Hence nearly all tho buying is done by tho short inter est ; end but for them, the market would proba bly have dropped much during the paifc week ; so that it may bo claimed for them that they. do good eomotimes. Seller April or regular No. 2 Spring opened at $1.10% de clined to 61.18%, anffclosed at $1.18%. Strictly fresh receipts, only o:.s or two days old, com manded 1c premium. Seller May sold at 61,23(5) 1.23%, closing at $1.2i.'0)1.23%. No. 1 spring was dull at 61,27. No. 3 spring was dull at 6109% for regular, and 61.10 for strictly fresh ; and rejected do was quiet at 93c for regular, to 95c for strictly fresh. Cash sales were rer ported of 400 bu No. 1 spring at $1.27 ; 14,400 bu No. 2 spring, fresh, at 61.20 ; 800 bu do at 61.19% ; 15,000 bu regular at $1.18%; 20,000 bu do at $1.18% ; 55,000 bu do at 61.18%; 5,600 bu No. 3 spring, fresh, at 61.10 ; 6UU bu do at $1.09%; 1,600 bu rejected spring, fresh, at 95c ; 1,600 bu do regular at 93c. Total, 115,200 bu. Corn was dull and steady at the inside range of yesterday till near the close, tho influences at work being much tho same as in the case of wheat. There was no strength in the market, but most of the weak holders appear to have sold out during tho recent decline, and there was not so much offered, though the volume of receipts was larger, and the demand exceedingly limited except from the short interest. The* Tuesday report of com in store this evening will probably show a decrease, as a good deal has been loaded into vessels within the past three dava; hut there is plenty waiting to tafce the place of that go ing out of store, w* soon as it can bo warehoused. After 12 o'clock a better demand sprung up, and the market advanced %c, making the aver age about tho same as on Friday. Regular No. 2, or seller April, opeuod at 30% c, advanced to 30% c, and closed at 30%@30%c. GJlt-edged re ceipts sold at 32%@33c. Bellcr May sold at 34%@34%c; and seller June at 86%@36%c, both closing with firm holders at tno ontsiae. Seiler July was quiet at 38c; and seller August nominal »vt 39c. Cash sales were reported of 5.000 bu No. 2 fresh at 33c; 9.600 bu do at 32% c: 55.000 bu regular at 30% c; 70,000 bu do at 30% c; 35,00(1 ba do at 30% c; 10,000 bu rejected freeh at 23c; 800 bu by sample at 30% c, on track. Total, 186.000 bn. Oats were rather more active, and a shade firmer than veaterday. owing to a relaxation of the bear pressure, which has been rather heavy for two or three days past. There was not much demand except for car lots, a very few “fives being sufficient to moot the option inquiry, which was principally for summer delivery. Seller April, or regular No. 2, sold at 26)i@ 25Vc, and strictly fresh receipts at 26%@26>£c. Seller May sold at 28*£@28&c, and seller June was quoted at bid » 411(1 2 *% c “k®*- Cafih sales were reported of 1,26*0 fcu No. 2 fresh at 26?/c. 3 600 bu do at 2G^c; 25,000 bu regular at 25 5-16 c; 15.000 bu do at 25K* 5 ; 600 b(l rejected at 233^c; 600 bn by sample (mixed) at 20c. To tal, <46.000 bn. . _ . A . Bye was in better demand, ana firm at former quotations under light offerings. No. 2 regular was quotable at 6434 c. Cash sales were reported of 1,600 bu No. 2 strictly fteah at C6c; 400 bu by sample at 68c, and 400 bu do at 6734 c* Total, 2,400 bu. , - r Barley was dull, and 2@3c lower; being al most unsalable even at that decline. The ship ping orders seem to have been all filled, and now tboso who bought speculatively on a rising mar ket find themselves loaded with grain for which there is no present demand. Seller April, or regular No. 2, opened at 75c, and closed weak at 7434 c, Strictly fresh receipts of No. 3 were tame at 77@78c. No. 3 was dull at 63@65c. Cath sales were reported of 400 bu No. 2 fresh at 78c ; 2,800 bu do at 77c ; 5,000 bu regular at 75c ; 800 bu No, 3 fresh at 65c ; 400 bu do at 64c ; 400 bn do regular at 63c; 1,200 bu rejected (Central) at <lsc ; 400 bu, by sample, at 85c ; 400 ou do at 82Kc ; 400 bu do at 75c ; 400 bn do at 63c ; 40C bu ‘do at 65c ; 400 bu do at 58c. all on track. Total, 13,400 bu. LATEST. In tho afternoon wheat was moderately active and 34c lower. No. 2 spring sold at sl.lS)<£@ 1.18/s seller April, and seller May, both options closing at tue inside. Corn was in light request at Soy£c seller April, and 34®4c seller May. Mess pork was firmer, a sale being reported at $15.65 seller May. CHICAGO LIVE-STOCK MARKET. IJcviow for tt i© Week Ending Satur* day Evening, Jlarcfc 29. Satcbdat Evcxr.vo, March 29. Tho receipts of live stock during the week have been as follows: Monday.... Tuesday.... Wednesday. Thursday Friday Saturday. Total.. Last week. Week before last, Week ending March 8 12,731 7*5,187 10.03? Total, 4 weeks. Shipments w ere as follows Monday- Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday.-. Saturday (no returns), Total, last week. * CATTLE—Fair activity hr s characterized the cattle trade throughout the past week, and high' or prices bar© ruled. The receipts were the* largest of the season thus far, reaching 17,300 bead, against 14,664 last week, and 14,3*22 week before last, but the supply at no time seemed oppressive, and* with the exception of yesterday and to-day, when a slightly easier feeling was noticeable, the market exhibited a decidedly Ann tone. Telegrams from the East have been uniformally favorable, but, as a result of the* large number of beeves forwarded Eastward from hero during the wqpk just closed, shippers an ticipate a reaction there, and accordingly their movements during yesterday and to-day were conducted with rather more caution. Continued improvement is noted iu the quality of the re ceipts, the average of the past few days being exceptionally good, even for this season of the year. The proportion of rough, thin stock was unusually small, and a record of the week’s sales shows tbo bulk of the business to have been transacted at prices ranging from $4.60 up ward to $6,00. Numerous sales were reported at $6.10(26.50, while, in several instances, S6,t : O(SV 7.00 was realized. Stockers have been steadily active, and ruled firm to the close at $3.50(2)4.00 for common to medium lota of from 700 to 950- lbs average, and at $4.25(34.50 for good to prime? droves, averaging from 900 to 1,030 Iha. New milch cows seu all the way from $20.00 for com mon to $45.00 for. choice, with sales chiefly at $25.00(335.00. Veal calves are in fair request at, C3.00(3?0.00 ror poor to choice. To-day the market was moderately active and’ easy, but not appreciably lower. The fre. c h re ceipts were more than usually liberal fora Satur day, and, taken in connection with tbo stale stock, made a supply considerably in excess of the want of buyers, all classes of whom operated sparingly. Sales were made at $3.00(36.50 for poor to ’extra—principally at $4.00(30.00. Be low are the closing QUOTATIONS. Extra—Graded eteera averaging 1,400 Jfcs and upwards $6.30£f1.6i Choice Beeves —Fine, fat, well formed 3 year to 5 vearold steers, averaging 1,300 to 1,400 Iba Good Beeves—Well-fattened, finely-formed steers, averaging 1,200 to 1,300 lbs 5.30@5.65 Medium Grades—Steers in fair flesh, aver- aging 1.150 to 1,300 tt»s Batchers’ Stock—Common to fair steers, and good to extra cows, for city slaughter, averaging SOO to 1,100 tbs 3.T5<34.T£ Stock Cattle—Common cattle. In decent flesh, averaging 700 to 1,050 lbs 3,40@4.4C; Inferior —Light and thin coirs. heifers, stags, bulls, and scallawag steers 0.00(3,3.00' Cattle—Texas, Northern wintered 3.0003.75 Cattle—Corn-fed Texas.. 4.00(^5.00- HOGS—During tho past week the hog trade has been uninterrupteuly active, and prices have continued to work steadily upward. The sup ply, though larger than in former years at a cor responding period, has proved inadequate to supply the legitimate wants of stoppers, and each day's receipts wore absorbed at better prices, than prevailed tho day before, the daily advance averaging a strong’ 5c per 100 lbs. Now York, Boston, New Haven, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Buffalo, and Canada buyers were regularly in. attendance, and the competition was, at times, spirited. It is now apparent that the available, supply of hogs is much smaller than has gen erally boon supposed, and, if the demand con tinues as urgent as at present, prices, in all probability, will undergo a further advance. To-day the market was active and buoyant. The arrivals were liberal, but did not equal tho demand, aud prices crept up another 10c, or to $5.20(5»5.65. Very few sales were reported un der $5.35, while moat of tho transfers were at 65.35(5)5.55. Tho market closed firm at 65.20@ 5.30 for poor to common; at $5.35(5)5.45 for medium, and at $5.50@5.G5 for good to choice. aoo SALE?. Price. Xo. Ap. Price. 54 213 5.45 40 203 6.35 CO 214 6.40 213 6.45 62 200 5.40 IC9 5.40 So 253 5.45 203 5.50 65 219 6.50 233 6.40 67 181 5.40 183 5.40 44 280 6.63 210 6.35 63 183 s>lo ISO 5.C0 71 217 6.40 173 5.40 68 241 6.40 65 192 6.65 61 250 6.35 66 200 6.40 66 242 6,40 74 184 6. GO 18 170 6.35 24 232 5.37# 52 298 6.30 69 216 5.40 65 227 565 35 ICS 6.45 111 237 5.65 67 174 5.50 62 225 6.55 71 204 5.40 SHEEP—A fair local and outside demand for sheep has existed during the week under renew, and & trifle higher range of prices baa been es tablished, the appreciation in values being duo to the lighter receipts and the better quality of the offerings. Considerably more than half the supply fell into the hands of Eastern buyers. Prices close firm at $3.50@4.25 for poor mixed to common lots ; at $4.50®4.75 for medium, and at $5.00@6.00 for good to choice. Some extra •qualities sold at higher figures; SG.2o, 66.50, and, in one Instance, $6.90 being paid. _ DISSOLUTION NOTICE. XUSSOLUTIOIV, Tho firm of SMITH, CLEARY A ENRIGHT hsriol been dissolved on the 17th inst. by limitation, I have this day associated myself in business vrlth Messrs. Woadley,* Dennehy, IVbolssalo Wines and Liquors, 254 and 256 Sooth W.itor-sr., under tho firm name of WKAJDLEY, DE> NEHY A CLEAHY. JAMES M, CLEABY- COPAHTNERSHIP. Chicago, March 25,1573. wo nave this day associated with us in business Mr. James M. Cioary, of tho late tirm of Smith, Cleary * Knrieht, under tho firm name of WEADLKY, HEhhß* HY i CLEARY. WEADLEY i UeS'XEHY. FRACTIONAL CURRENCY. $5 Packages OF MOTIONAL GDBSEHC!/ FOR SALE AT TEIBUKE OFFICE, Cattle, TTov*. She tv. 3,349 8.544 923 3,733 9,721 740 2,515 9,750 43g 3,192 3,470 1,457 3,&J0 11,413 1,106 1,200 3,000 SOC 17,793 67,957 6,525 14,66-4 62,379 7,314 6.244 14,322 62,410 53,575 243,433 29,123 Cattle. Hoyt. Sheep. 2,517 7/.12 351 2,145 7,591 1,124 205 2,778 3,747 12.748 1,0« 2,781 13,191 62< 11,395 43,440 3,13*? 11,031 48,509 3,923 5.50(36.13 4.80@5.1fc -Vo. Ar. Price. 203 5.45 52 190 5.50 63 200 5.15 64 223 6.50 75 333 5.50 315 393 sM7}i CO 202 6.50 112 200 5.40 170 202 6.40 20 342 5.25 69 199 5.60 67 181 6.40 66 392 6.40 31 247 6.35 60 217 5.55 103 199 6.50 68 ISO 5.60

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