Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune, April 16, 1873, Page 2

Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune dated April 16, 1873 Page 2
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2 PUEBLO. A Olimpsc ol Wfc in South- ern Colorado. A New Railway Town at the Baso of the Rooky Mountains. The Future of the Region— Sheep-Husbandry. Some Unpleasant Facts Regarding the Colorado Narrow-Gauge Railway Fares and Freights Made More Costly than Bull-Teams. Special Correspondence qf The Chicago Tribune. Pubolo, Now Mexico, March SO, 1878. Pueblo Is situated 120 miles north of Denver, and Is tbo present terminus of tbo Denver * Bio Grande Narrow-Gauge Ballway. It is the county-seat of Pueblo County, and, by reason of its natural resources and surroundings,— nestling, aa it does, at tbo confluence of the Fontaine, Quo Boulllo, and Arkansas Blvora 5 in tbo midst of a region which offers boundless inducements for stock grazing 5 subjected but rarely to tbo storms and numerous other discom forts of winter; and possessing a climate unsur passed In salubrity and beaUbfulnoss, it aspires to tbo proud distinction of being considered the COMMERCIAL METROPOLIS OF SOUTHERN COLORADO, and a few years moro will doubtless boo It placed in that position. Pueblo—signifying in Spanish “many people’ . —has a population, at the present writing, of about 8,000 souls, and has lots, additions, streets, and avenues enough to accommodate a million. It is a town of tremendous possibilities, and Is settled by if class of people who indulge in tbo most visionary schemes of future greatness. And yet Pueblo is not a beautiful place. It Is pitched do<mintbo middle of a vast, sandy plain, relieved boro and there by high mesas, or table lands, covered with scraggy pinon and tbo ever lasting sage-brush aud soap-wood; tbo congenial haunt of the coyote, jack rabbit, aud tbo tarantula; through which winds tbo Arkansas, its waters just freed from tbolr mouulain-lmprisonmont, and dashing forward aa if anxious to find a moro favorablo locality, Tbo only thing that seems to break tbo monotony and relieve tbo eye is tbo snow covorod mountain-range to tbo west, 40 miles away, with its ravines and gorges, and inaccessi ble cliffs, lit up by tbo rays of tbo glorious sun, and tbo rugged fronts of Pike’s Peak, Old Baldy, and tbo Two Buttes, standing like grim sentinels over tbolr more-bumble follows. On arriving hero, tho first feeling experienced THAT OF DISAPPOINTMENT. Tho traveler sees before him a scattering collec tion of brick, adobe, and framo-houaoa ; and, outside of those, a broad plain in aU its pristine wildness, with no green, waving grass, or tim ber, unless wo except tho usual fringe of cotton wood troea. Ho wanders about tho street; ho inhales tho alkali-duet: he gazes with astonish ment upon the patient little burros, or narrow gauge muloa; ho eyes with commiseration tho Bouwid Mexicans sunning themselves at tho cor ners ; ho threads his devious way among tho nu merous Balooiiß, end, if of more than ordinary nerve, braces himself up for a wrestle with the Taos lightning dealt out over tho counter at the rate of 25 cents a glass: ho pauses in bewilder ment before the concert-saloons and dancing and gambling bolls, that deliberately cause tho char acter of their occupation to bo legibly inscribed over tho front door; and finally ho retires to his hotel, aud, over a meal of tough beefsteak, served by greasy negroes, in a greasy kitchen, from which tho fumes of more grease ore for ever ascending, ho asks himself how ho over got out boro, how ho can over got hack, aud what species of Insanity a man or woman must he la boring uudor who can sit quietly down and live in Pueblo, Bo ho feels tho first night, and so ho retires to bed, leaving positive instructions with tho porter to calihim in time fbr the morning train; and thou ho arises tho next day, refreshed in body aud spirit, with his lungs distended, and his pulses boating under tho influence of tho fresh mountain-eir; and, thus fooling, and en couraged, ho FALLS AN EASY PBEY Into tho bands of some of our wily real-estate Philistines, and is seduced into tho purchase of a corner-lot at tho rato of SIOO a front foot. Tho thing is accomplished, and tho man who, a few hours before, was wondering how people could mako up their minds to live in this cursed country, becomes a citizen and a property-owner of Pueblo, and is as wild, as visionary, and as deliciously enthusiastic as all tho rest. Nearly all of the most wonderful conversions have been brought about in Ibis manner. Whatever may bo said of tho agricultural re sources of Northern Colorado, —and by this I mean that portion lying north of tho “Divide,” a spur of tho mountain-rango which shoots out nearly due oast nearly 200 miles, separating the waters of the Platte sod the Arkansas. A residence of littlo over a year has confirmed your correspondent in tho opinion that Southern Colorado will never be come celebrated for its agricultural productions. The AU-Wiso Creator never intended it for tb&t purpose. If Ho hud, tno soil would not bo im pregnated with such a quantity of alkali, springs and streams would bo more common, aud the sage-brush and cactus rendered invisible. This entire bolt of country was doubtless intended by Nature as a VAST RANGE FOB SHEEP AND CATTLE ; and, when this provision of Nature is followed out, tho result io surprising. At first appear ances, aud at all seasons of tho year, the plains surrounding Pueblo present a bare, desolate as pect, and tho farmer from Illinois or lowa, accustomed to tho rank vegetation of tho dark, loom bbil of tho prairies, would raise his strong right handand take a sol emn oath that an acre of the grass in this coun try Would not keep the bream of life in a calf ; but our farmer friend is mistaken. These littlo tufts of bunch, or, as called hero, ground gross, so soro, so yellow, so sun-burned, so to fill appearances dead, contain food and nutri ment sufficient to place untold greenbacks in the pocket of the cattle-dealer, and cause herds of countless thousands of sheep aud cattle to frisk and wallow iu fatness. Upon close examination, wo find that tho grass is short and absolutely paatted together, and that tho very roots are eagerly devoured. Cattle require no shelter or fodder, and tho scrawny calf turned out to shift for itself in November, appears ready for {ho butcher in tho spring. Sheep, in particular tho Merino aud Cotswolod breeds, thrive still more remarkably; find good judges pronounce ' that, as a wool-producing region, this country is su perior to California, *' OB EVEN AUSTRALIA. The boat mutton is produced by crossing tho Cotswold with tho native Mexican breed; but, In wool, tho Morino Booms' to tako precedence. J(pxb to our mines of silver, iron, and coal, the groat staple of this country must forever remain wool and beef. It Is no wonder, then, that Pueblo, situated lu tbo midst of this groat stock-growing region, easily accessible to tho Carson City coal-ilolds, now reached by a branch lino of the narrow gauge, and holding tho key to tho famed San Juan sil ver region, Just now attracting tho earnest at tention of tho minor, speculator, and capitalist, fhould indulge in somo bright day-dreams, and prdof garments out in a style to correspond with her approaching grandeur. UAiLUAona. In January last, Pueblo County voted tho healthy little subsidy of $400,000 in bonds to aid tho Kansas Pacific, & Atchison, Topeka ’ & Santa ' Fo Railroads, iu tho construction of two separate, indo- Sudent lines of road from Fort Lyon up e valley of tho Arkansas to this place,—donat j $2,000,000 to each. Each corporation pro fesses to be bitterly lu earnest.—the former having graded about 80 miles within tho limits pftho county: while tho oflicera of tho latter declare that they will havo tho roils laid to Pueblo by tbo Ist of October next. For tho past few days, however, rumors havo boon llyiug about, to tho effect that a consolidation has boon formed by tho two Companies named, and that both will unite in building a main lino from Fort Lyon, a distance of 100 miles. 'While nothing is known with certainty, yet it Is not improbable .this arrangement ’ will be entered into, as the country cast of Pueblo, to tiro Kansas State line* U y(W? Mttled, and IfUl not BUS* oorfc or require two linoe of broftd-gaugo road for. 1 twenty-five .years to come. In rofor'onoo to tbo course to bo pursued after reaching this point, it la contemplated to extend ' ho roa j through tbo Arkausaa Pass, and on west until a connection can bo formed with tbo Cen tral Paolflo'at or near Salt Lake City,—tints so curing anew route for trans-continental traffic, below tbo snow lino, and breaking the monopoly now exorcised in a superlative degree by the Union Pacific. This Is undoubtedly the purpose of tbo Atchison & Topeka Bead, as they cannot afford to build hundreds of miles through a oom mratlvgly barren country merely to establish heir western terminus at Pueblo, and intercept tbo trade soon to bo brought from tbo Hallo of the Montozumas by the narrow-gango. Under those combined influences, and others wbioh I have not space to mention, REAL ESTATE IN PUEBLO IB LIVELY, and population constantly Increasing. Quito a number of Chicago men aro on tbo ground, and the vim and enterprise which built up a now olty from blackened walls and debris in tbo short space of twelve months are beginning to moko themselves felt in Pueblo, Lota there, a few months ago, tbo owner would have found difficult to pawn for a week’s board, now com-, mand fabulous prices; and tbo squatter, who planted his adobe cabin on Santa Fo avenue, rubs bis dirt-bogrimod countonanco to find him self a person of wealth and distinction, whoso society and influence are eagerly oourtou. Every other man you moot la a real estate agent or speculator. Pueblo contains some spacious business blocks, a number of dnr goods and grocery stores, with churches, schools, newspapers, and other appliances of civilization; but, at the present writing, the main Industry is comprised In buy ing, soiling, and bargaining for lots. Tbo lot mania INFECTS ALL CLASSES of society, and a pleasant story is related of one of our worthy clergymen, who informed bis be loved congregation, tbo other morning, that bis text would bo found in Block 22, Lot 0, Thatcher & Thomas’ Addition: price, S3OO. It was evi dent that tbo mind of the spiritual shepherd was not entirely devoted to spiritual things. Mer chants, lawyers, Judges, professional men of all degress, peddlers, Constables, and washerwomen, all have lots for sale, —some In East Pueblo, some in South Puoblo, somo in Bamdollge * Lowtbor’s, in Bartlett & Miller's, in Thatcher & Thomas’, in Obaso & Shaw's, In Craig’s, in tbo County Addition,—all in beautiful locations, fouud to bo In tbo heart of tbo city, commanding an unlimited prospect, accessible, to tbo railroad depots, and bound to advance 200 per cent tbo next year 5 all for sale dirt cheap, sir; price only S2OO. Strike now, and your fortune Is made. This is tbo prevailing spirit, and, under its influence, men and women rush about tbo streets balf-frantio, end talk glibly of stocks, and investments, and largo dividends. It is a scramble aud no mistake, aud will continue until tbo bottom drops out, and then we shall expect to boo real estate find Its proper level. To those of your numerous readers who may design emigrating to Colorado, and who desire accurate information concerning tbo attractions and resources of this country, a few facts and figures may not provo uninteresting. It should bo understood, to commence with, however, that tbo days of wonderful speculation and speedy fortunes in Colorado HAVE TABBED, and that hero, as well aa at the East, industry, perseverance, tact, discretion, aud firmness suffi cient to encounter aud overcome all obstacles, aro tbo OBBontiola of huccobb. Tho old trappers and hunters, whom Irving invested with such a romantic charm, have passed away, with tho ex ception of a fow isolated cases. such aa Old Oharly Autobeos, who Borvcd aa guide for Fremont on hia first expedi tion through this country, and who, at three-score and ton, with oyo undlmuod and firm footstep, still holds forth at his ranch on tho St. Charles, surrounded by hia dusky wives and bolf-broed children, looking good for another century; and Zan Hiokliu, the pioneer scout and guido, tho hero of Indian fights innumerable, and who has lost and won $50,000 in gold at a Binglo Bitting. Those men ore hue the repre sentatives of a lost race, and have no sympathy in common with tho fresher civilization that has sprung up around thorn, Railroads aro very prosaic, and the whistle of the first locomotive at Denver sounded tho death-knoll of wild ad venture, of glittering hopes, of border lawless ness, and of the old scenes and customs. Tho Indian and the buffalo are fast diappoaring, and THE CHICAGO DBUMMEH follows in tho footsteps of tho Arapahoe or Comanche. Tho necessity exists no longer for Sharp's rifles and revolvers. Those have boon supplied by tho plow and tho mowing-ma chine. The fitful fever of speculation is giving place to a healthy moral and physical growth 5 and, understanding this, new-comers will bo hot ter prepared to comprehend tho situation. . WAGES OP LACOB AND COST OF LIVING. # Tho groat need of Colorado, at the present time, particularly this portion is the hone aud sinew, to bo found in tho ranks of tho hardy yeomanry, and skilled labor. A man able and willing, to work may always count upon employment at fair wages. Common laborers receive from $2.50 to $3 a day; while carpenters, masons, stone-cutters, and others of that class, rocelvo from $5 to SG. With tlio exception of a fow articles, tho cost of living is but a trifle higher than in tho States. Everything goes by tho pound: Flour, 7 cents; meal, Scouts; but ter, 60 cents ; moat, beef, antelope, aud buffalo, 12 cents; potatoes, 3 cents; cabbage, 10 cents; apples, 10 cents; aud so on in proportion. Thoro is a great scarcity and great demand for eggs, and ail that can be procured sell readily at GO cents per dozen. Bents aro not extravagant; in Pueblo, comfortable houses aro hold at from $25 to $35 per mouth. Business lota on Banta Fo avenue and Main street command $2,000 aud $3,000, while residence lots in the suburbs are hold at $126 for corner and SIOO for inside lots.- Laud in the valley of the Arkansas, owing to the improved railroad prospects, are be ing taken up rapidly; but thousands of acres within a few miles of town are still held subject to private entry, aud only require some one to step forward and tako possession. . I have before alluded to tbo advantages of Southern Colorado AS A BTOOtt OBOWINQ REGION, and am confident that no branch ot hus bandry offers more certain and profitable, returns. The . pastoral region embraces millions of acres not yet appropriated, which are open to all who desire to ougago in growing stock. Sheep-husbandry is already at tracting much attention, aud it has boon .satis factorily demonstrated that wool-growing can bo made one of tbo most profitable industries. Tbo following aro the principal wool-growing coun ' ties, with estimate of product for 1872: iihtep, Wool Iba. Et Paso 30,000 100,000 Fromont 15,000 45,000 Pueblo 00,000 1)0,000 Los Anlrota 100,000 300,000 The most extraordinary and enticing feature about this country IB ITS CLIMATE, the beauty of which it is almost Impossible to describe. "While tho residents of Nebraska, Min nesota, lowa, Illinois, and all the Now England States, "have boon floundering in snow-drifts, and anathematizing in vigorous English the rav ages of Jack Frost; whilo men and teams have been .frozen stiff, and locomotives drifted be neath tho snow, smoke-stacks and all, —tho fa vored denizens of this locality have' sat with doors and windows open, and speculated upon the advantages of a country which maintains tho mercury at (10 and 75 degrees above zero during tho months of January and February. An I write, the air has tho balmy freshness of early spring, and the buds upon the trees are swelling. Tho climate is simply delightful’, and consump tives, dyspeptics, and asthmatics hardly over full to obtain speedy relief. . Of courso, every place has its drawbacks, and ours are encountered in ; tho shape of wind, or, more properly speaking, BAND STORMS. You are walking along tho street in tho midst of an atmosphere widen sooma to quiver in tho ardent hoat t whou you notice two or threo minia ture whirlwinds, and straws and bits of paper go scurrying heavenward. This is the signal, and about this time tho old residents can generally bo soon making for safe quarters, la Jobs than a minute there is a rush and roar; tho heavens assume a pepper-and-salt color; andthoWahoo zephyr, so graphically described by Twain, comes down “jest a rippmV* Great clouds and pillars of dust go whirling through tho street,. or lodgo in ovory nook and cranny, while tho luckless pedestrian is pelted with pebbles and compelled to haul to. Hats, caps, umbrellas, blankets, and other articles can bo soon railing hero and thoro; wliilo occasionally a tout or light framo house strikes in, by way of variety. It is somo consolation to know that those storms do not lost long, and that, at tho oloso, Damo Nature settles down into a moro delightful mood thau over. At tho risk of extending ray letter to uncon scionable limits, I wish to add somo unpleasant foots as to TIIK NARROW-GAUGE BAH,ROAD, of which so much has been said, it is to con nect Louver ultimately with tho City of Mexico. If so. and its' policy la nob changed, it will bo rough on tho Mexicans. I am sustained in my statements appended by abundant authority, and tho Denver. Jvcwa glyoa mo somo of my ilguros. Out this way you must know that livery horaoa do not travel for so much per mile, but by tho hour or' day. Honco, in comparing the fares by rail and livery, we assumed that tbo UMMATTWId fu4 ditf’ii driyo-WgtCO —riilii Kjii LUAUrU iJAiJLi i —jnrcimriTnr! — \ixuui\xh&Mjn.x., iuj— miles. Wo do not protend that horses nro cheap, •—though they ore as low hero Denver,— but that they aro CHEAPER THAN THE NARROW OAUOE. For instance t It cost $22 to go from Colorado Springs to Canon City,—sl7 railway faro, end two nights spout at a Pueblo hotel. A buggy for throe days would cost no more. Now, a Colo rado business man must bo doing a smashing business that can afford to travel at snob figures. Tbo Presiding Elder of tbo Methodist Episcopal Church, whoso work U mostly along tbo lino -of tbo railway between Denver and Canon, says ho will travel no more by steam. Mercantile men say the same. Freights are so exorbitant that largo dealers aro going back to mule and bull teams. A gentle man in South Pueblo, who is just opening out a lumberyard, ordered 880,000 foot from mills on the Divide. The railway would not haul it for loss than $5 per 1.000. Aa bo would have to haul from tbo ‘mills to the track, and from tbo depot to tbo yard, bo finds it cheaper to glvo tbo whole contract to Mexicans to haul ‘ direct from tbo mills. In this one contract tbo railway has lost over $1,600. Evidently tbo narrow gauge la killing the bon that lays tbo golden ogg. Tbo B&Uway Company owns many thousand acres of the finest land in Southern Colorado, but, by tbla oxtortionato policy, it Is • DRIVING EMIGRANTS to settle north of tbo Divide. To know tbo “ Land Company” Is not the same as tbo “ Ball way Company,” nut it is tbo same men playing into tbolr own pockets. The name is only a con venient method of blindfolding tbo public. They ore soiling coal at tbo mines for $2 per ton, and then charge $5 per ton to transport it 45 miles down grado to Pueblo, and only $1 more to carry it up grade 46 miles to the springs. The Bailway Company wheeled Pueblo County into tbo * notion of voting $200,000 for tbolr railroad branch, and the abovo is tbo treatment she receives within a year. Evi dently tbo county Is only a convenience for the railway 1 Tbolr catechism runs, that tbo chief end of man Is a railroad, and tbo chief end of a railroad Is tbo Treasurers office. We should not blamo Pueblo County if it found somo fault In tbo technicalities, and would repudiate all the bonds voted to this little road. Certainly, turn about is fair play. This road has done much to open up Colorado, but It is also doing muobto impede settlement and to annoy settlors. Wo should llko to boo railroad men wealthy, but not at the expense of tbo ranchmen. Wo like to boo blood-suokors enjoy themselves, but not at our expense. SUBURBAN. EVANSTON. In a secluded corner of tbo bountiful compiio of on institution of learning not far removed from tho din and roar, tho duet and buetlo of this groat city, under tho protecting boughs of a giant oak thoro may ho found a rough board, at tho hood of a small grove, bearing tho following history and epitaph: “'Twos midnight’s holy hour, — a time for memory and for tears.’ The noble old rooster upon whoso head the force of many a sturdy pock, bad fallen, slept tbo sloop of tho honest chan tiololr. And in that sloop, what dreams did como I Ho droampt that ho was young again, and hi fancy crowed tho crow of long ago. But that bright dream was his last— -110 woko to hoar the old hen’s shrieks, They como I they como I Uio Greeks I tho Greeks I Ho awoke to dio in tho stowing-pan of a hun gry Greek society, and as tho winds of Heaven gently wafted hia downy feathers out of tho open window, his soul was homo away to tho being who gave it birth. ... Hia existence has long oro this boon forgotten by all except tho fow dovotod attendants on hia laat illness, who have erected this mausoleum to his memory. No more will tho trusting lion gaze upon his manly form, and tho spring chicken fool security uudor hia protection. Ho lived and died game, and os in Ufo ho was bold aud resolute, so in death hia carcass defied tho tooth of hia destroyers, and hia moat would not depart from him. JJicjacd, in toto. Qallus tuus ego, nunquam animus. FATAL ACCIDENT. A fatal accident occurred yesterday ou tho Milwaukee Division of tho Chicago it North western Railroad, near tho village of Lakeside. Mrs. James Bishop, while walking on the track in tbo direction of tho village, was run over aud almost instantly killed by tho Kenosha accom modation train coining from tho city. The en gineer aud fireman saw Mrs. Bishop, and rang the boll aud blew tho whistle in ample time for her to savo herself had aho hoard either. Bho died before she reached her homo. BT, MABK’S ELECTION. Tho annual mooting of tbo parish of St. Mark’s Episcopal Church was hold Monday evening, Tho following election was made : Senior 11’on/cn—Charles Oometock, Junior Warden —T. 8, Phillips, Vtutrj/nien —J. H. KodzJo, Walls Lake, George P, Lee, Joseph Ilobhn, W. O. Comaiock, O. D. Paul, J. B. Pen ned, 11. 8. BUymakcr. THE ATLANTIC RELIEF FUND. Tho Atlantic Belief Fund Commiltco, having closed thoir labors, bog to mako tho following re port, viz.: Amount collected and previously reported by H. r. Jeuniaou, F, L. Fake, Frauz ilencko), and Augustus Johnson $2,051.00 Collected siuco and not reported 600.00 $3,654.00 Paid 77 destitute passengers by the steamship Atlantic, S2O each 1,540.00 Balance deposited in tho Union National Bank 1,014.00 $3,554.00 Tito balance of fund now on hand with W. F. Ooolbaugh, President of tho Union National Bank, will bo appropriated to those who woro, at tho risk of thoir lives, instrumental in saving passengers, and caring for them after they woro rescued. , „ . „ iUDWUUU. Suitable testimonials will bo forwarded to tho worthy persons as soon as a correct account cun bo obtained by tho investigation now beingmado the Committee. • When awards nro made, the names of rodpl euts will bo published in tho doily papers o Chicago. 31. 3?. Jennison, I Fked. L. Fake, 1 c 1' itANZ lIENOKEL, f Augustus Johnson. J ■\V. JF. CooLUAuan. Custodian of 3mnd, Attest j EPISCOPAL ELECTIONS. .The recurrence of Easter Monday of course brought round the annual election of officers of the various Episcopal churches for tho en suing year. Following are some of them : Senior ITcirdcn—Reuben Taylor. Junior IKardfw—U. S. Worthington. Vestrymen —J. J. White. W. Pilcher, F. F. Illldcr, William Morloy, John E, Slrhllron, James 0. llogcrs. ORAOE OJIUUOH, Senior HTmhm—Ucury Keep. Junior HVmicJi—lX. 0. Uauuoy. i'«rt>V/w<n—W. G. Hubbard, L, B. Oils, A. T. Lay, U, Andrew, Samuel Powell, J. L. Pock, M. 0. Klnga- Jaud, T. D. Snyder. bt. mare’s ontmon. Senior Jl'ankn—Melville W, Fuller. Junior Warden— Frederick Dickinson, rc3(r'/«n«n—Robert Murray, Joseph 12. Smith, John n. Uoa, John Harwich, Qeorgo W, Matthews, Jeremiah Hopkins, W, 11. Bummeru, Robert Porter. ouoraii or the holy communion. Senior irurden—llou. A. C, Galkins. Junior ircmfcn— Qustorf. reatrwjneu—Alfred 12. Neeley, D. 12. Sibley, Alexan der Kirkland, James M. Hills, Thomas AJthrop, P. N> Polcraoo, John llutchlueou, X. L. OUa, Clerk i\f the Vestry— Xavier L. OUa, jCreasurer—Oharlci 11. Galkins. CHOUGH OF THE AEOUNBIOH. Senior JJ'ircteu—J. D, Hall. Junior iruriten—Alex. H. Ewing. Vestrymen— Dr. W. 0. limit, I-\ D. Oortul, T. n. Conduit, 0. D. Emm. 11. Btollwood, William Street. Jo ehh EJROti. J. U. Batten, . Pariah Clerk—o, D, Dana. SANITARY MATTERS. Tho Board of Health hold Its regular mooting yesterday afternoon, Mr. Hoard in tho chair. The Sanitary Superintendent reported 142 doatha last week, 7 loss than for tho preceding ono Thoro wore 70 males and 00 females. There wore 17 deaths by convulsions, 10 by consump tion, and 14 by uraaU-pos; 02 wore under 2 years of age, 00 woro Cliicagoana of foreign parentage, and 16 of native parentage. Tho highest mortality was In tho Fifteenth Ward where 19 died,—end in tbo Sixteenth. Tim number of deaths for tho corresponding week iu 1808 was 75 } 1800, 83 ; 1870, 135 ; 1871, 80 : 1872, 100. Thoro woro 0 moro deaths by small-pox than last week. Thoro is nothing un usual iu tho cause of death, except tho increase by all eruptive diseases. The mean dally temperature was 11 degrees lower than for tho sumo week in 1872. Tho rainfall of last week was 1.47 Inches moro than tho preceding one, and 2.00 Inches moro than for tho corre sponding ono iu 1872. Almost as much foil as In tho previous six months. Cases of small-pox and varioloid havo boon reported at thirty-eight now places. Tho increase is groat as in tho deaths. Of the latter, nine woro uovor vaccin ated, and tho remainder not slnoo infancy, Bomo Yinw Jim been obtained tho qow< THE FARMERS’ MOVEMENT. Attitude of the- Farmers To ward the Supreme Court. ,tcr from Vico-Prosidont IMon, of tko . Illinois State Farmers’ Association. To the Editor of The Chicago Tribune: Bui 1 Will you bo kind enough to extend tbo courtesy of your columns to us, that wo may make a fair statement of the attitude of tbo farmers toward tbo Supremo Court ? Wo aro misconstrued, and, aa wo believe, tra duced, by demagogues, and our wishes and statements, in a measure, kept from the public, or so garbled aa to rofloot anything but our real intentions. First, then, I am fully convinced that you can not find ton sensible, sane men in this State who believe any of the Judges of that Court ore dis honest. No respectable gathering of tbo farmers has so declared. What, then, do tbo farmers complain of ? First—' They believe that this Court, honest aa it la, la about 100 years behind tbo‘ business and people of ibis country. Second—The Court attempts to rule the coun try, regardless of tbo wishes of tbo people,— • usurping the right to make tbo dictum of tho Court tho law of tbo laud, no matter * what tbo wleboß of tbo people may bo. 2Vifrd—'The Court concedes to the Legislature the power—over tho people—of an absolute monarch, and thereby attempts to bind tbo peo ple to compliance with tbo provisions of statutes which it dignifies with tbo tltlo of *.* contracts,” with which there can bo no subsequent interfer ence. Fourth— lt decides, too, many cases in tbo light of precedents ■which havo grown out of matters not well understood at tho time, or not applicablo to our timo.' •. • In justification of tho opinions here stated, lot mo call attention to tho fact that no case has yot boon tried involving a discussion of tho rights of corporations without an appeal being mado to tho Dartmouth Collogo decision. And tho ox tromo rovoronco of tho Court for old and rusty precedents has boon sufficient to Insure a de cision in accordance therewith. Ido not wish to discuss tho applicability of tho Dartmouth de cision to our railroads at this timo; but, if it shall prove that . this decision is sub versive of tho rights of tho people, will rovoronco for precedent induce this Court to go on deciding that a drunken or bribed Legislature may irretrievably bind a sovereign people to tho fulfillment of ruinous contracts, widen may deprive thorn of all of tho attributes of freemen ? In a monarchical government, whore the sole power is vested in the King, this thing might bo done s but it would be an act of tyranny repug nant to every princlplo of Republican freedom.' - In reference to our second specification, wo call attention to tho fact that tho Constitution of this Stato, which creates both tho Supremo Court and tho Legislature, declares specifically that all railways in this Stato are “pubho highways and “tho General Assembly Shall pass laws to correct abuses and prevent unjust discrimination and extortion in the rates of fare thereon. Yet our Supremo Court has virtually told our Legislature that it could do no such thing, as It is tho function of tho Courts to say what is un just discrimination, extortion, and so forth, after tho evidence in each •particular case is pro duced. Now. lot us suppose a case. Tho Gen eral Assembly proceeds to pass a law fixing maximum rates, and providing penalties, as re quired by tho Constitution, and declares that any higher rate shall ho deemed extortionate. ■What is the Court to do about it ? Tho General Assembly has done precisely what tho Constitu tion requires, viz.: to fix tho maximum rates and prohibit extortion. The farmers believe that tho remedy offered hero by tho Supremo Court is uo remedy at. all, ami affords no protection from tho evils com- plained of. The extortions of railroad corporations are generally made in small auras, often leas than $1 and no farmer will involve hiraaoif in a SSOO lawsuit on such a trilling pretext. If this doctrine is carried to its full develop ment, it can result in nothing but the absolute rule of the Supremo Court. ... What we aak, and what we expect to have, is a jovemmont of the people. And all the need we iave for a Supremo Court is to decide what tee (the people) have, by our own voluntary action, declared to be the law that shall govern ua. We want no Judge to spend his precious time in rummaging the libraries of Europe, to find out what the laws of Empires or Kingdoms are.

Some one will reply, that cases are constantly arising involving principles that cannot bo sottloa by any written law. Then lot the Court bo the arbiter, until the necessary statutes can bo enacted. Finally, wo acknowledge that the members of our Supremo Court are well read in all the his tory and facts of law: but wo boliovo that they bavo not recognized the fact that this nation has boon progressing quite as rapidly in the acienco of government as in other improvements.' What is said bore of tbo Supremo Court is alsotruoof tho Bar as a class. The sooner this fact is recognized by thorn, tho bettor. ' It is too lato in tho history of this country to settle any question by vituperation. , For one man to call others " dirty dema gogues,”' “senseless shysters,".and.tho “scum of tho community,” is to use tho weapons of a blackguard, and should bo avoided. What wo aak is a fair and manly hearing. If we are wrongi wo desire to got right as soonaspoa siblo. Wo, as a class, desire to respect tho Supreme Court. But it is impossible to do so unless tho Court conducts its business in such a way as to command respect. In the recent case against the Alton Road, tho Court admits that it is a caso of unjust discrimination, and. after citing a number of cases in which it had decided ad versely to this and other corporations on similar grounds, yot declares a law that prohibits this particular thing unconstitutional, because it prohibits more; and reverses tho judg ment below, most unaccountably, though every principle of common law under which it had decided tho cases cited was still as much in force as ever. There is certainly a real or ap- S aront inconsistency hero that some advocate of 10 Court should clear up. It will not settle those questions to call us mudsills or ignorant farmers. Lot tho Court oomo up to the spirit of tho ago, keep in its proper sphere, ami no class of men in this coun try will givo it a more hearty or enduring sup port than wo. M. M. Hooton, Vlce-Proßlclcnt Illinois State Farmers’ Association.'lui.u, 111. Resolutions of tlio Zion Oliurclt Farm< or*’ Club* Makanna, P. 0,, Jackson Co., HI., April 14,1673. To the Editor of The Chicago Tribune . Bin: At a meeting of Zion Church Farmers’ Club, bold on tbo 12th inst., tho following pre amble and resolutions wore submitted by Mr. Mr. 801 l Irwin, and, on motion of Mr. B. W. Eaton, wore unanimously adopted: Whereas, Tbo fact is apparent that tho railways of the - West carry more grain to tho lakes than can find trans fiorlatlou to the Fast and to tbo sea, as Is evidenced by bo fact that upwards of 20,000,000 of bushel* of grain la now stored, at Chicago, along tbo railways, and in tbo corn-cribs of the farmers ; and Wiieueas, We find the present transport facilities totally inadequate to move this vast surplus to tbo soa; and WncßEAfl, Tho Dominion of Canada haamadoon appropriation for enlarging the St. Lawrence canals bo as to admit of tho passage of vessels of 1,000 tans from tho Upper Lakes, via Montreal, to the ocean,—thus opening up n route of limitless capacity, with cheap freights, uud forever doing away with the possibility of gorges at tho lake-ports and on tho Erie Canal, the outrageous freight charges resulting therefrom, and tho consequent ruinous prices wo aro compelled to toko for our pork, corn, and oats: and Wueuimh, Tho said Dominion Government offers tho uso of this grand highway to Americans, provided tho law bo so amended that American and Canadian vessels taking down cargoes bo permitted to return with cargoes of Canadian products, which wo need (and which come not in competition with anything produced in the West), froo of tax; therefore. JUsolveJ. That the Senators and Representatives of tho American Congress be, and aro hereby, requested to uoo all legitimate means within their power to eecuro such reciprocal relations between the Dominion of Canada and this Government os shall euahlo the fanners of tho Went to lay hold, of tho Immense advantages to ho reaped from opening tho St, Law reuco route to American commerce: and, further, that tho said Senators and Representatives do exert their energies toward securing o repeal of the duties on those articles entering largely into tho construction of sea-going vessels, railroads, rolling-stock, and agri cultural machinery; moreover, wo urge prompt ac tion in this direction, knowing that cheap vessels and cheap railroads aro nocceu-ry to low freights, Uuolved, That wo receive lb-: action of tho Supremo Court lit pooldlsg railway ©grporflUoa* to bft mow? common currier*, and, ft* such, subject to lh« lawn of thin Commonwealth, a valuable auxiliary, In conjunc tion with woll'-adrlßod logfclatlon, for emancipating ns from tho dcßpotlo assumption*, wrong", and oppres atonH which wo have for years been subjected .to at their bands. ... * 1 . ■ . liaoh'td. That a copy of (ho foregoing be sent to .Tn* Onroano Tninunn, and Carbon dale A'atcs. for publication, , _ ‘ \ J. W. Bbakdow, s Corresponding Secretory, NOT SECONDED. tVliat tho North Side Saloon-Keepers Say About thomovement to Gloso on Sunday, Tho Police and Justice Kauffman Blamed for Not Doing 1 Their Duty. If tho police authorities and the Justice who presides over tho North Bide Police Court do not perform their duties faithfully and impartially, tho bottom Is likely to fall out of tho commend able movement In favor of Sunday temperance, inaugurated by tho saloon-keepers themselves on Saturday last. Tbo spirit which animated tho mooting at Foltz’s Hall has spread to a gratify ing extent during tho few days that have elapsed since it was hold, and nearly all of tho saloon keepers ’ are - ready and willing to oloso their places on tho Sabbath, provided tho law will protect them from those of their class whoso cupidity prompts thorn to vio late their moral ana legal pledges. So far as can bo ascertained, tho police seem disposed to promptly report and arraign every saloon-keeper found disobeying tho law, but tho offenders, In many eases, aro not subjected to tho rigorous treatment they deserve, when they come before tho Police Court. Sunday is always tho host day of tho week with them, and if they can con tinue to keen open at a cost of $lO, sl6, or $25, they aro willing to pay It. This la wiiat the well-disposed saloon-keepers tbo men who inaugurated tho latest Sun-' day movement object to, and what they call upon the authorities to remedy. If ton or a dozen men in tho North Division keep their saloons open on-Sunday, they attract more than their share of patronage, and thus work injury to those whoso places aro closed. Yesterday, a reporter of Ton Thiduku con versed with several of tho most prominent saloon-keepers, of different nationalities, on tho North Sido. .All wore in favor of closing on. Sunday, in conformity with law, if tho entire saloon interest of tho division could ho m&do to acquiesce or suffer severe consequences. They agreed' in the state ment that tho judgments rendered in tho Police Court woro inadequate to tho offenses, especially when It was the second or third ap ,poaranco of tho offender before tho Court, and that the loose manner in which tho officers of tho court performed their duties was doing moro in jury to tho causo of Sunday temperance than oven tho saloon-hoopers themselves. Ono man with whom our roportor spoke called attention to tho largo number of violations reported at tbo Dearborn Street Station last Sunday. Ho said ho bould pick out tho names of several who talked very loud at tho mooting in Foltz’s* Hall on Saturday, and who took part in that mooting ‘ for tho purpose 'of getting somo to oloso,. so that own receipts on tho following day might bo greater. The samo man, ho said, had boon beforo tho Po lice Court several times, and always escaped with fines amounting to llttlo or nothing when compared with thoir Sunday profits. This,* ho justly 'remarked, was but poor ouoouragomont for tboso who wero disposed to do what was right. ■ Another saloon-keeper informed our roportor that a certain beer saloon, doing business near Lincoln Pork, took in over S7OO last Sunday,. because his • was , tho only saloon open in tho neighborhood. It is tmo that tho man was reported by tho Eolico ; but so ho was sovoral times before, and o always got off on payment of a few dollars. Ho will doubtless moot with similar consideration at tho hands of tho Court this timo. A second mooting of saloon-keepers favorable to closing on Sunday will bo hold at Foltz’s Hnll noxt Saturday, at which somo definite action will ho taken toward correcting tho legal abuses which have boon alluded to above. It is probablo that remarks anything but complimentary to certain Polico Justices will bo mado, and tho Mayor’s attention called to tho fact that raon who oro striving to act in accordance with law aro not protected by its officers. If tho result of the mooting is favorable to law and order, most of tho saloons on tbo North Sldo will ho closed noxt Sunday, and tho pro prietors of those kept open will bo reported to tho polico by saloon-hoopers ; if tho opposite is Its result, all tho saloons will bo opon, and tho farco of talking about law, without being able to enforce it, will continue as before. THE MODOCS. An Interview with Jesse Applegate— Tho Cause of tho I>ksaCfoution—Tlio , Engagements with tho Troops—Tho : Idaseacre of Settlors* From the San Francisco Call, April 4. Mr. Joeso Applogato, ono of tho Peace Com missioners appointed to make a settlement with the Modocs, is at present in San Francisco, stay ing at the Buss House. A Call reporter had an intorviow.witb him on Wednesday evening, and Mr. Applegate gave tho following narrative his torical of the Modocs and tho present troubles t WHAT 13 KNOWN OF TUB TRIBE, Tho tribe known as tho Madoos, Mr. Apple ?ato began, is a part of tbo Klamath race. The wo tribes speak tbo samo language and they lived neighbors together, tbo Modocs south, and on tbo waters of Lost River, and Klamaths north, and on the waters of tbo Klamath River. Bo far back as 1810, tbo Modocs and Klamaths wore separate tribes, but tho uniform language provos tho identity of raco. Tho Klamaths novor wore hostile to tho whites since tho settlement of tho country, and thoyworo the first Indians to enterinto treaty relations with tbo government. Tho country becoming settled, they sold their country in 1860, and agreed to livo on a reservation; and wbon those changes had boon effected,- my brother. Lindsay Applegate, was appointed agent by tho government of Presi dent Lincoln. Lindsay liked tho Indians under his caro very much, and during his agency they mado rapid advances. In tho fall of 1801, tho Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Mr. Hunting ton, carried on negotiations with tho Modocs to obtain possession of their country, and tho Mo docs agreed to livo. on tho Klamatu Reservation. Before tho treaty was ratified by tho United States Senate. however, Qon. Grant came into office, and at tlio beginning of his administra tion ho resolved to place the Indians -under tho caro of tho military. In compliance with this change of policy. Oapt. O. 0. Knapp was ap- S olntcd agent on tho Klamath Reservation, ana, 10 treaty being ratified, tho Modocs wont on tho reservation in & body—Cant. Jack with thorn, and Sohonoin, tho principal Chief. .. .OAPT. JACK CONSULTS A LAWYER. ' Bomo time before this Capt. Jack had con sulted a lawyer of Yroka, Judge Htoolo, who gave him tho pernicious advice that if ho and his peo ple would take up locations and pay taxes thoy would bo released, thereby from tho control of tho Indian Department of Oregon, and tho Modocs would become citizens under tho Four teenth Amendment of tho Constitution. Capt. Jack accepted thisadvioo as sound law, and when tho message arrived ho replied that he did not want to boo Mr. Odinoll, that ho did not want to go on tho reservation, and would not go, and that if Mr. ' Odinoll wished to coo him lio must ..oomo down ,to tho camp,. Mr. Odinoll did nob visit tho camp and ho turned tho matter over to tho military. Col. Groon had but a small force under his command at Fort Klamath, but believing the Indians would not resist, and knowing their numbers, ho re solved to move a very limited body of cavalry aaalust thorn. Ho was actuated also by tho con sideration that if ho attempted to collect o, largo force tho-Indians would probably hoar of it, and would retreat to tho very stronghold which thoy ““it appoara Hint Capt. Jack had a ootllor named MUIor. nho lived near bln camp, under obliga tion to toll him of tbo approach of troops. An it bniiponod, Millar was absent when tbo troops camo down upon tbo onmp, and tbo Indiana thoro foro bad no warning, and wore anrprlaod. In rovougo for tbla, tbo Modooa aubaoquontly killed Miller, who they considered had betrayed them. Maj. Jackson was in command of tho troops, which consisted of a detachment of cavalry, numbering thlrty-livo men, armed with short brooch-loading rifles. Oapt. Jack’s encampment was on both aides of Lost Rlvor, tho main body being on tbo west bank with Capt. Jack and about ton or fifteen warriors, with woraou and children, being on tho oast bank. Bomo ton or a dozen settlors in tho country abovo tho camp volunteered to visit tho Indians on tho oast sido and try to obtain tboir surrender, while Maj. Jackson moved upon tbo main village, upon tho west side. , . Tint EMOOUNTEB AT TUB CAMP. At daylight ou the morning of tho 29tU of Maj. Jtwlwoa roaoUod Uio cams and dismounted lilh men. Only twonty-throo sol diers could bo brought in lino, tho remainder be ing required to tako oaro of iho horses! Un-* doubtodly, tho smallnoss of tho force was tho temptation to tho Indians to resist, i TheV were protected by thoir wicker-houses,. or whilst the troops wore in iho open field. * Ivan Applegate was deputed to parley with tho band, and ho urged thorn to surrender and gd with Iho soldiers. Tho parlor lasted about thirty minutes, and during this half hour tho Indians woro pro paring for battle. Boar-Faced Obarloy came out of his wioklup ond odyancod toward tho lino, stripping himself, and tying his sash around his waist, lie is about six foot in' height, and is a finely dovolopod warrior. Ho contrived to take out three rifles with him, and as ho stood in a defiant attitude, tho Motor ordered Lieut. Bou tollo to arrest him. As Boutolle odvanoodOharloy raised his rlflo to Are, and tho Lieutenant drew his pistol and ordered bis men to Are. Tho firing began in good earnest, bnt not to the advantage of tho soldiers. Charley’s first shot cut two or throo holes in tho right sleeve of Boutello’s coat, and tho moment after ho drop )od to tho ground, and of course was missed by ho troops. With groat alacrity and toot ho kept retreating and iking, and in this manner had dis charged throe shots before ho got hack to the wickiups, whore. ho disappeared in a comical manner, with all the airs of a conqueror. The troops woro certain that Charley hod been killed, and one man was willing to tako an oath that ho was dead, but Charley in reality never received a scratch. The Indians conducted their firing effectually, and they woro completely screened from observation, and not a bullet from the sol diers told. Tho soldiers woro dismounted and could not retreat, and they wore also much exposed. They hod to stand in lino and flro, with thoir short, useless rifles, and in this position they remained until more than a third of them had fallen. Eight out of twonty-throo woro killed or wounded. It was only by groat bravery that tho remainder releas ed themselves from thoir desperate situation. Major Jackson gave tho ordor to charge, and tho soldiers obeyed with alacrity, rushing forward impetuously upon tho wiokiups, from which tho Indians flea helter-skelter to iho bushes, and tho firing ceased. One of the citizens on tho east side of tho river was a deaf man, and did not hoar the commencement of tho firing. Ho was per suading tlio Indiana In a torn, to loam the camp peaceably, and was in tho act of shaking bonus with ono, when another warrior shot him In tho nock and killed him. Tho rest of tho citizens fled to a house at some distance, firing as they wont, and tho Indians claim that of thoir number, and a woman and two children woro killed; but it is thought this Is untrue. Major Jackson drew his soldiers off, and having marched six mites up tho river, ho crossed it and rejoined tho citizens at Crawley’s house, whither they had fled. Tho Indians pursued tho troops a short distance on horseback, and after Major Jackson bad crossed tho river, they also forded and burned a house half a mile from tho halting place of tho soldiers. During the evening they celebrated thoir .victory In true Indian stylo. TUB UABBAOUE 07 BETTLEBS. Tborougldy roused, tho Indiana on tho oast sldo proceeded to Bottled in tbo country around, and who had not participated in tho fight, tho citizens who visited tho camp on tho oast eido having como from Lakeville. Thoy murdered tho Body family and 'Mr. Nurso, and wounded another man. Next. H continued their raid down IthottLako, killed 3r, Alexander, and Brothorton, and others. It is reported that, in all, thoy murdered seven teen persons, but Mr. Applegate has not been ablo to count up moro than fifteen whites who had not molested them and woro killed. Copt. Jock retreated down tho west eldo of tho Bhott Crook to tho Lava'bod, os it is called. 'or the podrogal, as tho stronghold really io, and , thoro ho romaina ontronohod and soonro. Tho : Indians who woro on tho oast aide of tho river : mode their way to tho samo point by going round tho lake: Harker Jim was ono or tho party, which numbered, tho Indians say, only eight, though Mrs; Brotuerton swore before tho Grand Jury that thoro wore - nine. Beyond this conflict with tho troops, Capt. Jack was guilty of no offense,-All tho murders are chargeable to tho small party on tho opposite side of the river. MU. ATPIiEQATE’s OPINION OF OAPT. JAOU, I- havo, said Mr. Applegate. oven yob a far higher, opinion of Cant. Jack than.of any other man amongst tho Modocs, from a conversation I had with him boforo tho outbreak. lam vory much inclined to think that, if ho could havo controlled; his people. ho would.not havo al lowed thorn to misbehave, would not have al lowed them to steal cattle nor kill tho settlors, and I.think ho Is. a man willing to surrender. While I was acting with Mr. Bteolo as -Poaco Commissioner some of tho people put a woman’s cap on him, in derision, thoy were so angry ho should submit to the terms ho was acceding to. 'Xhen Lo made a ivory warlike speech, and thoy applauded him, and reinstated him in their good opinion. jack’s position. Hr. Applegate minutely described tbo podregal In which Capt. Jock is entrenched, and ho is of opinion that it is simply impregnable, bo easily is it for a handful of men to keep at bay any at* tacking force. The cave in which the Indians are sheltered has only a very small opening, and its approach is protected by rocks. Immediately af tor tho retreat of tho Indians to tho lava-bed; a concentration of tho troops was begun from Bidwoll and Warder, and from more distant posts. Xlio -Modoc Gibraltar—XUo Sago o£ ' Ifoucolla on tho '.Topography of tUo Groat liava-Bod* JYom the Portland (Oregon) Bulletin, The subjoined letter will bo perused with in terest, as muob on .account of its authorship as because of the interesting information it com municates. To tbo fovr who may not know tho writer wo will say that thoro is no name more honored among tho list or early pipneors of Oregon than that of Joaso Applegate,;tho Sago of the Yoncolla. Ho writes as follows : To the Editors of the Bulletin ; Tho word ‘‘Podregal,” like tho word “Can yon,” has been introduced into ourlanguagofrom tho Spanish aadosignatingafeaturo of tho topog raphy more clearly and. tersely than any word or puraoo in our language. As by tho word canyon tho idea of a ravino between walla of rock is im mediately convoyed to tho miud, so by tho word “ podregal” wo understand an Irregular volcanic surface of basalt, trnohyto, etc,, more or less broken into upheavals from below, and cracked and fissured in tho process of cooling* I first saw tho term in Liout. Ripley’s account of tho Mexican warj it has since. been every whore adopted by the corps of engineers, and occurs frequently in tho exploration for tho Pacific Railway, ordered by Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War in 1855. The stronghold of tho , Modoc Indiana ia a “ podregol" of tho moat extensive and elaborate description 5 it occupies, with but few intervals, 100 square miloa. If you can. imagine a smooth, solid sheet of granite 10 miles square and 500 foot thick cover ing resistless mines of gunpowder scattered at irregular intervals under it; that those mines are exploded simultaneously, rendering tho whole field into rectangular masses from the size of a match-box to that of a church, heaping those masses higher in some places aijd loaying deep chasms In others. Following tho explosion tho wholo thing is placed in one or Vulcan’s cru cibles and heated up to a point when,the whole begins to fuse and run together, and then suf fered to cool. Tho roughness of tho upper, surface remains as tho explosion loft it, while all below is honey combed bv tho cracks and crevices dausod by tho cooling of the molted rock. • - • ■ An indla'n can, from tho top of one of those stone pyramids, shot a roan without exposing oven a square inch of himself. Ho can. with duo hnsto. load and shoot a common muzzle-louding rillo ton times before a man can scramble over tho rocks and chasms between tho slain and the slayor. If at this terrible expense of life a force dislodges' him from bis cove, ho has only to drop into and follow some subterranean passage with which ho is familiar to gain another ambush, from whence'ib will cost ton more Uvea to dis lodge him; and so on ad iulluitum. TTUo Antiquity of Itlnm Sir John Lubbock' writes In Nature: “ I have received ft lottor from Mr. Edmund Oalvort, in which ho informs rao that his brother, Mr. Frank Calvorfc, has recently discovered, near tho Darda nollos, what ho regards as conclusive evidence of tho o&istonco of man during tho Miocono period. Mr.Calvert had previously sent mo somo draw ings of bones and shells from tho strata in ques tion; wnioh Mr. Busk and Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys wore good enough to examine for mo. Ho lias now mot with a fragment of a bone, probably belonging either to tho Dniothorlum or a Mas todon, on tho convex side of which is engraved a representation of a homed quadruped ‘with arched nook, lozongo-shuped chest, long body, straight fore logs, and broad foot.' Thoro are also, ho says, traces of sovoa or eight other figures, which, however, are nearly obliterated. Ho informs mo that in the same stratum ho has also found a flint llako, and several bones broken os if for tho extraction of marrow. This dis covery would not only prove tho existence of man in Miocono times, but of man who had already made some progress, at least, in art. Mr. Calvot assures mo that ho fools no doubt whatever as to tho geological ago of tho stratum from which those specimens are obtained. Of course I am not In a position myself to express any opion oa the subject, but I am sure that tho statements of so competent an observer as Mr. , Calvert mU intczwt your reader*." IRELAND vs. ENGLAND. An 'lrishman’s Reply to a Recent Letter of Our London Cor respondent. To ths Editor of Tht Chicago Tribuno: Sin j Tho discussion of purely foreign poll tioa may not provo lutoroßtlng to tho average American reader, nor is tho aforesaid reader to ho blamed for such indifference. To tho foreign bom citizen, however, tho* loplo may not bo with out attraction, ©specially when It Is forced weekly upon Ida attention by tho ardent person Who does tho London correspondence for your, Journal. Tho Individual referred to must bo on' Edgliahman j hia ©very sentence . botraya • hia nationality. Ho has tho un adulterated egotism which proclaims his country and countrymen infallible, and, in fact, tho salt of tho earth, and which equally holds all other countries, and tho inhabitants thereof, as more second-rate affairs,—tho jour noywork of Divine Providence. This typical Briton, week after wook, has boon regaling tho Sunday readers of Tun Tuedune with grave ac counts of tho Irish elomont In English matters, and has, of course, painted tho Oolt in tho usual glowing colors, leaving tho reader at a loss to imagine whether tho Irish over send anything but a knavo or a madman across Bt. George’s Channel. I will not dony that many of tho first mentioned class have gone from Ireland to tho British Parliamont; but, as far as gentlemanly polish goes, whether ho bo a roguo or an honest man, tho Irish representative is quite as likely to act liko a human being as is his English asso ciate. Judging from recont developments among tho “bluo blood" of England, tho Irish man could not havo a hard task in excelling tho Qroat-Britlshors in tho lists of civilization. But your English correspondent is particularly nettled ovor tho fact that tho fow Irish mombora in tho London Houso of Commons stood to gether, for onco, and dofoated tho all-powerful Oladstono. .What impudonco on tho part of tboso 11 more Irishmen!” “It woa not patriotism," says tho English critic, 11 that urged them to this action on tho Irish University bill; it was their Bish ops. Tho Irish won’t voto unless tho Crosioz sanctions tho cause." This Is, at least, tho sub stance of tho Englishman’s statements. The Irish members are slaves because they voted os Ireland and their Bishops wished them to voto E they had coworod to Gladstone’s frown, pock eted lua bribes, and voted against their country and tholr conscience, then this “ liberal" Eug ligbman would laud them to tho skies, and call thorn freemen and patriots. Such la British logic, wherever Irish opinion conflicts with Eng lish Insolence. Another feature which this correspondent of yours would seek to fasten upon tho legislative fight between tho two islands Is, that tuo Irish members, pledged to Homo-Bulo and against tho Government, aro all Catholics. A noble Briton ’ may. however, ho allowed to falsify a little in tho glorious task of maligning a wretched nationali ty. Tho assertion that Irish Homo-Ilulo la championed by Irish Catholics alone. is falsa as it is absurd. Jobu Martin, tbo 1 ‘ first out-and out " Homo-llulo man, olootod from the County Meath, against & Catholic noble, is a staunch Presbyterian. England gave him ton years’ penal exile after ’4B, because of his soparatloniat principles. Isaao Butt, elected from tho Cathollo city of Limoriok. supported by priests and people, is a Protestant 5 Mitchell llonry, tho ropiosontatlvo of “ Ultramontane " Galway, is a member of tho Episcopal Church j' and Iboro aro numerous others that might bo specified in tho samo manner. It Is a little too lato in Ihodayfor this Eng lish writer to seek American sympathy for ms country by representing Ireland as an insatiate Catholic bigot. Tho people who wear, in tholr hearts' fondest core; the memory of Protestant Emmet, Protestant Ijord Edward, andProiost&nt Tom Stoolo, O’Ooimoll’Bfriend, cannotbobigota. England and her infernal falsehoods aro responsi ble for any bigotry that burns in tho hearts of Irishmen to-day. Shois still playiugtho oldg&mo; but Ireland knows her now, and, knowing her, will sbapo all futuro policy in accordance with that knowledge. It is full time that tbo world should learn that Irish Catholics aro not, nor havo they ovor boon, tbo exclusive haters of English rule in Ireland. Chapters of history might bo quoted to provo this, if necessary. But boro wo havo tho real gist of tho British er's horror of tbo Irish members: Listening to a knot of Irish members of Parliament In discussion, your correspondent, ac cording to his statement, had “ tho startling programme of tho Homo-Bulora" be fore him. lloro it is: “We are determined to govern Ireland for ourselves. Why should wo come ovor to this country to voto and sneak? [Why, indeed ?1 What right havo Englishmen, Scotchmen, or Welshmen to determine our legis lation for us ?’’ etc. Now, sir. all this is truly horrible on tho part of those Irish members. Buie Ireland for them selves, indeed I What blasphemy in tho oars of a noble Briton I Tho Irish rule Ireland for themselves I Why that would bo actually dy ing in tho f&co of God. What, then, should tho nohlo Briton do for his draw-farm and hia legislative experiments ? Would anybody but an “irreclaimable" Irishman over think of asking what right Englishmen, Scotchmen, or Welshmen had to malto laws to bind his country? Of course not. Ah! tboso ungrateful Irish I How absurd in them to sigh for liberty; to wish English rulo to tho devil; to-bo tired of Coercion acts, Arms acts, Whito [>oy acts, periodical famine, and playful suspen sion of tho Habeas Corpus act, not to speak of occasional transportations, and an odd hanging. Tho Irish aro, indeed, a singular race, and specially cursed by Heaven for their gross in gratitude to tho toudor-lioartod English. Yet, Goorgo Washington |acnuirod immortality by being mortally ungrateful to England. Ho was a “ Homo-Buior " of tho most malignant typo ; but ho was an American, which makes nil tho difference in the world, especially au Washington had tho good fortune to win tho battle. It would bo presumption in a “ moro Irishman ” to imitate Goorgo Washington. Your Qreat-Britishor finds one potent reason why tho Irish should not stand together in thin present struggle for National existence. Hear him; I can hardly believe that they wlllrcßiot tho Influ ences around. The very member who ahuool ahrlokud, at tho moustrouauesa of bio buiug expected to come, hero to legislate, would bo a niiuovnblo man If hi> didn’t: Tho Irish momboi with means gets Into cluba and society; bo elbows ambassadors and notabilities of every clime; ho Is tho gayest of flirts, and tho loudest ut tho dinner-table, lit complain of having to live in London during tho season 1 There never waa more downright humbug. Against tho varied delights of London life between March and Juno, ovou tho ex citement of hot skirmishing with a handful of Orange men In a Parliament at-Dublin would havo little to recommend It. - There it is again, Mr. Editor. There speaks tho soul of Britain. What chance can tho sun of Irish independence have while enshrouded in tho fogs of London ? • Weigh Irish liberty in tho eamo scale with English roast-beef and plum puddiug, whore could Irish liberty bo but “couq up,” ns the expressivecantphraso hath It? Then the Irishman “flirts.” “Aye, there’s tho rub.’? This Englishman has been “out out” of his indy-lovo by somo dovil-may-coro Irishman, with top-boots, rod whiskers, and an oily brogue. Evidently our Briton has small. faith in his fair countrywomen. Ho fears that, if tho se curity of tho Empire depended on their loy alty, tho Irish colors would soon float upon London Tower. Perhaps he’s right. Thane O’Neill, in old times, carried off an English lady to Ulster. Old annals say that she didn’t make any groat objection. His worthy nephew. Hugh, collogued with Queen Boss.uutil she got too old, and then, for a change, ho induced Marshal Baa enal’s sister to elope with him. Worse ‘things than even those might happen • now, if those “ wild Irish 11 are not- further obstructed by the benignant process of English law. Relative to “ skirmishing with half-a-dozen Orangemen” in an Irish Parliament, if tho Eng lish writer can advance nothing more alarming by way. of hindering a dissolution of the Empire,- 1 fear saltpetre won’t save England. There are many other points that .might boar some criticism, but I havo already exceeded my limits, and feel ashamed of having trespassed at quch length upon your space. In conclusion, lot mo remark that tho hour is coming, if it has not already come, when Britain will cease to bo astonished at tho natural desire of the Irish nation at homo to govern itself, and the equally natural ambition of the Irish people abroad to assist In making their native Una a happy Republic. Biuuuoch. Chicago, April 14, 1873. —lt is generally believed now by meteorolo gists, says tho Now York Wines, that wo are to have ft cycle of very hot summers. An eminent sanitarian in the Health Department. Dr. Stephen Smith, has already Issued a report sug gesting measures during tho coming summer, which will prevent tho fatal effect* of tho o*! peotodheat*

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