Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune, April 27, 1873, Page 6

Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune dated April 27, 1873 Page 6
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6 WASHINGTON. A Chapter for Architects—The Designers of the Pub lic Buildings. Eallet, Thornton, Hadfield, Hobanj Latrohe, Bnlfinch, Mills, Walter, Talks with Their Posterity Eighty Years of Mind in One Edifice. Scandals of llie Construction of the Capi tol...Growth of Onr Build ing: Civilization. The Bomance of the Architects—Their Mutual Criticisms, From Our Own Correspondent, A building, whose form ia a household orna ment and a distinct impression upon every Amer-- ioan mind, such only as the Capitol edifice, should have found at some time a romancer- This baa not been the case. There exists no succinct, clear account of the greatest building on l our Continent, and the documentary matter to make it Is neither com plete, nor assembled at any one especial place. There have been eighty years devoted to this edifice, and it ia not yet wholly complete. It spans from 1792 to 1873. It is the only house in the New or tho Old World in which there is some tribute to every adventurer, navigator, or physi cal hero of North-America, —Columbus, Cabot, De Soto, Brandish, Washington, Scott. The present letter undertakes to revive the lives of THE ARCHITECTS OF THE CAPITOL, Tho first architect of the Capitol, in the proper sense of a professional man, -was Stephen B.' Ballot, whose name is .also spelled. Hallate. About this gentleman, whose career oh the pub lic buildings was very brief, no recollections, and scarcely a tradition, prevails. , It has been gen erally said that he was-an Englishman, and a pupil of the celebrated John Nash, of London. It is apparent, however, from the boobs of the Commissioners, tliat Ballot was a Frenchman. - Be is addressed by them as “ Monsieur Ballet,”' and referred to by them as “ a French artist.” They also apologize for writing him a letter, by saying that the difficulty of making explanations between themselves and him verbally suggests the former manner of communication, r Ballot sent hisflan to the Commissioners, and they received it, July 17,1792. They were struck with the evidences of his professional capacity, and 'lnvited him to visit the spot as ‘ soon as he could. These were the old Commissioners, — Johnson, Stewart, and Carroll. It appears-that Ballet’s pianff, which were several in number, had about commended" him "as the author of tho -building, and he was employed in that capacity, when ; Dn Thornton, an Englishman, also presented a plan j which the Commissioners requested him to lodge with the Secretary of State, at Philadel phia. •*' This latter plan, although drawn by an ama teur, affected both Jefferson and Washington to snch a degree that a letter was at once dis patched to the Commissioners, requesting them i to adopt it, and to substitute it for Ballet’s, hut ; to do this with as much delicacy as possible, and to retain H&llet in the public service. This per emptory order probably gave the Commission era much relief, if we may heliovo the statement of George Hadfield, another architect, who wrote ; twenty years later to the following effect': j '* A premium had been offered of SSOO and a ; building lot for the best design for a Capitol, at j a time when scarcely a’ professional artist was to be found in any of the United States; which is plainly to bo seen from the pile of trash pre sented as designs.” /■' THE FATE OF HALLEX. It does not appear that Monsieur Ballet re ceived in a cordial way. this assurance that an j&t English amateur'had made a’suporior'elevation H to bis own, and be drew again and again designs, Y whilo_Thomton’s was also amended aft.er the foundations of the Capitol had been raised to the ground-level. The' ’situation was further embarrassed by Thpmton’s appointment as one of the Commissioners, where he came into con flict with his predecessor in ah administrative as well as a professional way; Mr. Ballet, in def erence to Jefferson’s : suggestion, was, employed at £4OO per year, Nov. 20,1793. ’! More than nine months previously, or April 5,1793, the Com missioners wrote..to Thornton, “Ihe President has given his formal approbation of your plan.” The changes in Thomton’a deaign were, howr ever, made so nearly like those of Ballet's, par .tioularjy as to. the. interior, that Monsieur demurnd to the premium being accorded to Dr. Thornton. Quarrels ensued, and Ballet with held las drawings, and wrote a letter to the Com missioners, Jine2B,-1794, saying;. U 1 claim the original invention of the plan nowexecuting, and beg leave to iajtlhreafter before you ondtho President thsproofsof my right.to.it.”. .There-, upon the Conumssiontrs demanded bfa plans, and Monsieur Hallet refused to surrender them. He was then verbally. .acquainted with the’order —that their cotoecUon with him had ceased and he was no longer in the public service. From this tine forward there is'ho notable mention- in the' Commissioners’ hooka of this unfortunate architect, and; I have notheen able to fiudany traditions respecting him. ' JLRCHTTEfT NO. 2—mnrrTrn His successor ras Gedigd Hadfield, who cbm .inued on the work untnjMaylO, 1798. Mr. Ballot’s; dial account, amounting to up wards of XITO vaa allowed to tho Commission ers,—His natoi, however, had been deposited in the comer-sbnea as one of ■ the architects, and subsequent developments! have in a great meas ure vindicate his claim as a principal snggostor of tlie builnng. About seventy years after his disappearance from the public Tiew, a son of B. H. Latrofe. the real builder of the wings, re turned to Washington Ballet's drawings. Mr Clark, the architect, passed them over to the Li brarian of Congress in 1873.—Iwas permitted to make sketch-copies of Ballet’s plans, and Mr. Clark came into the Library while I was drawing from these Plans, and expressed his opinion that Ballet was the first architect, and that what ho called his “ fanciful plan ” had been borrowed by Thornton, and changed to such a degree that Ballet was overridden in the premises. DtD TTAr.TI-T OB THOBXTOS MAKE THE PEAK ? Be called my attention to this memorandum in Ballet’s bandwriting • “ A ground plan accompanied this (elevation), which Br. Thornton sent for, together with my plan in pencil.” ; " ” :■ On another drawing tho following memoran dum in Hallot’s handwriting appeared* ~ ' - “Sketch erf the groundworks; part of the foundations were laid by some time in-August, 1793, now useless on account of the alterations since introduced. .„, i. S. Haalet.”. . Other drawings by Mr. Halle t were indorsed as follows: .. .. , “ The ground-floor of apian of tho Capitol laid before tho Board in October, '1793.” : . “ RJau of the ground and principal floor, sent from Philadelphia to the Board in July, 1793.” # THOEXTO2T, A3IATEUB. Dr, William Thornton came to America, like Alsxfmder Hamilton, from the West India Islands. He was a man of a good deal of ama tear talent and his introduction to Jefferson brought him to live on tho Capital site, where he remained for the remainder of Ida days. Ho would appear to have boon of an officious, buoy ant, persevering, disposition ; and, after he was: relieved as Commissioner, he gathered together models and enriosities in an abandoned hotel which stood on the site of the present General Post-Office, and these curiosities were spared, at his intercession, from the .British incendiary, and became the nucleus of the present Patent-Office collection, of which, while nominal clerk, Thorn ton was really tho first Commissioner. He was also the founder of the first race-track Wabhisgtow, April 22,1873. ; It would bo interesting only to architects to , go at length into a discussion of the relative cleverness of Thornton’s- original plan, of Hallel’a plans, and .of the amended Capitol as. k wo geo it to-day,'the work of Xatrobe andßul * finch.- - • ! ' i The bail ding has received the general approv al of public sentiment, and, with the magnifi cent marble extensions of 3lr. Walter, —which are of a pattern, with the old Capitol,—is one of the most imposing buildings in the world. Thornton’s original design of the Capitol had but one dome, a great eagle in the pediment, a statue with a club on the top of the pediment, flankedby two female statues on the balustrade, and oak or laurel encompassed the rounded top of the chief window in each wing. !The original gronnd-plah by Hallot placed the dome outside of the rectangle of the centre, and put the Senate-chamber in that rotunda. The centre of the building was made a square, open court, with' a covered walk around the eules. and a carriage-turn in the middle. The Supreme Court took the place of the old Scnnte ,chamber; and the Vice-President’s room was semicircular, and facing the long main corridor, iwhich traversed the edifice lengthwise. . ; It would appear that HaUet’was in Waahing -ton' until Peb. 22, T79s;.for,in the bunch of drawings recently consigned to the library,—and .which were doubtless sent to the authorities by HaUet to prove hia right to the premium,—there • is one inscribed: “ A fanciful! Plan and eleva tion, which the President,* having seen acciden tal in September, 1773, agreed with the Com missioners to have the Capitol Planned in imita tion thereof.”, . Hallet’s “ fancifull plan ” was surmounted by a dome with a dram, with pillars, and a light, open cupola.- Six Doric columns supported the cen tre, which upheld a curved pediment, with a largo -eagle in the and below were four standing-colossal figures of' ~ ~ : ' WAS, PEACE, JUSTICE, ’■ AJtD HUE. < : ~ Three columns : flanked the portico,' which had four? doors of" equal size, and.’low flights of steps, * rflhaHow curtains, with one door.and one the centre with the wings, ■ which consisted of a basement and one story. The basement was of stone, rusticated, and the portico above had four lonic columns, flanked . windows flush with the portico. In the pedi ment of ‘each of the wings was a group of stat uary of half-a-dozen figures, representing ♦ . i * - TfAB A2U> PEACE, la tKS ropeDS.nnder the portico.worothreo large dcfciguß In relief, over the three doors which opened .upon tho portico. HaUet’s “fancifull ■plau.V.waa borrowed by Thornton. ' -y-—’ y-rSIBJS. EARLY hCANDALS. congratulate ourselves that the pres arts and tho unity of official di- P” > ' cnt such scandals in a l attended the building of theold K does not appear that any pwLaa 7 prevailed, and ■ dishonesty .was of ten charged, and Bomotuncs proved. The iarlv'fiotn mieaioneia accused L’Enfaffi-dfeS Baotoaf, and others, of circnjating-oa tho snot infamous falsehoods to ,the prejudico 0 f p< ?; character,” Hadfield says that unfavorable*,, ports were taken to Gen. Washington of Thom ton s ground-plan, and ho was ignorantly ad vis_ed to retain the elevations and change tho in- 1 tenor plans. Tho corner-stone had no sooner seen laid than ' * squabbles began; differences, factions, and broils were tho order of the day, -Iho contractor for tho'fonndation was displaced for another mason, who used what is called the j mCL a - trowel, which was wheelbarrows Shod promisononsly with stones and mortar, and emptied.on the waJs. When tho foundation was completed, or nearly so, tho whole was con- ! drained, and the second contractor, or conti nental trowehst, was dismissed.” v “ 7 certain the.foundations of the first Capitol wore condemned, and obliged to be rebuilt.After tho ■ first crop of. Commissioners had passed away, it was found that at least two of their successors were short in their accounts ' or had kept no responsible accounts whatever Mri Hadfield, to whom we shall come directly’ who resided in the city- until his death, and lived to see the reconstruction of tho wings, published at the timo a dignified criticism upon the edi fice, with these admissions :• , . , “thepeopeewav to have-built tho Capitol was to have offered an • adequate sum to tho most eminent architect in any of the European cities to furnish tho design and working drawings, and also a person of his own choice to superintend the work. In- 1 that case the Capitol would have been long agocom pletod, and’for half the sum ’that ■ has been ex pended on the present work.”. .!. , ..... IJFE OF HADFXEED. The second architect in order is Mr. Hadaeld, an Englishman who had been requested to corno out to this countiy and give some responsibility to the work on the public buildings. He re ceived tho indorsement of that undoubted genius, liatrohe, who, employed him between at Washington, and took delight in blooded horses, entering the lists' with the groat John Tayloe, the chief stock-breeder and the richest ; citizen of the District. Dr. Thornton always in ; sisted with vehemence that he was the original architect of tho Capitol, and no doubtliis picture of the elevations brongafc the Administration to a conclusion. Jefferson says of it: “The grandeur, simplicity, and beauty of tho exterior, the propriety with which tho apartments are dis tribute! and tho economy in the mass of the whole structure, recommend this plan. ’ The next dav, he says that Thornton’s plan has cap tivated the eyes and judgment of aIL ‘‘ It is simple, noble, beautiful, excellently distributed, and moderate In size Among its admir ers no one is more decided than him whoso de cision is most important,”—meaning Washing ton. JEITZBSON’fI ABCIUTECTUBAXi KNOWLEDGE. Sir.' Jefferson, at the time above referred to, was bcld in great consideration by ■Washington. He had been stationed at the Court of France, and was known to have a fine fancy for tho arts, and to take a patron’s delight in the legislative edifices of his country. We can got on idea of his sentiments on art from a letter which he wrote April 10,1791. Ho says: “For the Capitol I should prefer the adoption of some of the models of antiquity, which have had the approbation of thousands of years; and, for the President's House, I should prefer, the celebrated fronts of modem buildings.” * A controversy sprang np amongst the archi tects, which outlived the life of Washington, and Thornton was put upon the defensive. THE ABCmTEOIS FAUX. OUT. In 1804, Mr. Latrobe addressed a report to Congress, in which he denounced. Thornton’s plan, and animadverted with seme severity upon the principle of competition for designs of great public buildings, saying that “ a picture" was not a plan, and intimating that Thornton’s work in the premises was merely pictorial. To this Thornton rejoined in a pamphlet, of which a copy exists in tho Congressional Library,—a purchase with Mr. Jefferson’s collection. Thom tonsays: ' : “Mr. Halletwas not in the public service when or since I was appointed Commissioner, which was on the 12th day of September, 1791. Mr. Hadfield was appointed to 'superintend the : work at tho Capitol, Oct. 15, 1795.” Thornton says further: ■ : “ Mr, Hallet changed and diminished the Sen ate-room, which, is now. too. small.. Ho laid square the foundation at the centre building, ex cluding the dome; and, when Gen. Washington saw the extent, of the alterations proposed, ho expressed his disapprobation in a stylo of nnch warmth as his. dignity and self-command seldom permitted. .... Mr, Hallef was desirous not merely of altering what might be improved, but even what was most approved. He made some judicious alterations; but, in other in stances, he did injury. . ..." . When Gen. Washington honored me with tho appointment of Commissioner, he requested that X would store the building to ajcorrespondonce with, the original plan.” . . . . . . It farther seems that Washington- addressed the Commissioners,—Gastevas Scott;' William' Thornton, and Alexander White,—Feb. 27, 1797, expressing his “real satisfaction with their con duct which involved an indorsement of Thom tou’a ideas'. ' " ’ . was hallet nash’s pupil ? Me. Ballet’s first design for the Capitol, as' well as tho modifications and amendments of the same show that he was an architect of very perfect knowledge.; Mr. Clark, os I have said,—the architect in 1873,.—t01d me that he had heard that Ballet was a pupil of Nash, who was tho leading English architect of his period. There is'no proof of this, hut none to the contrary. Nosh was born in in 1752, and, aftor un dergoing a coarse of training in his profession,*, arid practising it for some time, withdrew under tho delusion of,speculation, andJost considera ble sums of money; ..When he returned to his profession, ho mot with very great success, and opened an office an London in 1792. Ho de signed and constructed numerous splendid mansion-houses - for* tho nobility and gentry in England and Ireland, and performed some of the most celebrated * street-improve ments in the British metropolis. He was an in ventor as well; and in 1797 obtained a patent for improvement in the construction of arches and piers of bridges, which led him to assume the credit of introducing the use of cast-iron gird ers. His work in London has been quite cele brated, including tho fashioning of Regent street and its beautiful blocks, the Laugham- Place Church, the Haymarkot Theatre, the ter races in Regent’s Park, and the pavilion at Brighton. England contains many superb in teriors and imposing mansion-houses accredited to him; and he lived until 1835. . THE OLD PLANS INSPECTED. THE CHICAGO DAILY TRIBUTE: SUNDAY, APRIL 27, 1873. 1803 and 1817. after the . Commissioners had cost :Mm off, and bore testimony that Hadfield had “ talents, taste, and- knowledge of art/’ Mr. Hadfield left behind him abiding -proofs to the eamo effect, in the City Hall, and in the two re maining deportment buildings, of which ho con structed four, “of brick, in the lonic order,with freestone basements,” —two on each side of the President’s House, namely: Treasury and State, War and Navy buildings. Ho could agree with the , Commissioners but a short time, one of whom was Thornton aforesaid; and, in stead of discharging Hadfield courteously, it appears by their minutes that, on Hay 10, 1798, they gave notice to a citizen, Mr. William Brent, to tell Hadfield that ho was no longer in their employ. Hadfield died in Washington, February, 1826. His successor was James Hoban, who must have then lived elsewhere, — probably in Maryland, where ho bad married, — for he was ordered, may 23.1793, to superintend the building of the Capitol, to remove to the city, and to occupy Hadfield’a house, or, if he did not get it, to charge his rent in some other dwelling to tho Government. ABCinrECT KO. 3— KODAK. At this time, Hoban was architect of the Pres ident’s House as well as of the Capitol, and he was allowed for tho moment to draw his fall salary on both buildings. He received 100 guineas a year for bis snbseqnent attention to the President’s Honso. Hoban wasanativo of Kilkenny County, Ireland, who was educated and taught the profession of architecture at Dublin. Hence tho surmise that tho Executive Mansion was built by him from the idea of Leinster House. Dublin. , His living grandson, James Hoban, is possessed of a medal awarded to the architect by the Dublin Society for tho best style of ornamental brackets. In 1780, Hoban, still unmarried, Bailed from Ire land to Charleston, S. C., where ho settled, and soon received employment on the public and pri vate constructions of tho place. South Carolina has had the honor of furnishing two architects and a sculptor to Washington,—Hoban and Eob ert Mills, and Clark Mills. At the conception of the Capital City, Mr. Laurens (Henry Laurens, long a State captive in the Tower of London), gave Hoban a letter of recommendation to Washington. Ho speedily drew the prize for the President’s Palace, and was employed to construct it, which ho did with great particularity, stability, and speed, so that it was habitable m 1799. It is traditional in the Hoban family that President Washington took exception to the style and pro portions of the White House os inviting criticism for severe Eepublicaus. but that ho gave up the point to tho architect. It was reviewed, now over, by • Jefferson, of whom Tom Moore, Hoban’s poot-conntryman, wrote in 1803: “Tho President’s House, a very noble structure, is by no means suited to the philosophical humility of its present possessor, who inhabits but a comer of the mansion himself, and abandons the rest to a atato of uncleanly desolation. This grand edifice is encircled by a rude paling, through which ' a common rustic stile introdncea the visitois to tho first man in America.” As ah evidence of the boorish fooling prevail ing between the Commissioners, citizens, and architects, wo may mention that David Bums, who owned a largo part of tho ground token up by the city, resisted tho opening of a cartway over hie land, to haul stone from the landing to the White - House, and also threatened to sue the Commissioners, and complained of -.Mr, Hoban for cutting his wood, saying: Ü Buch persona are not responsible, because they leave no property anybody can lay hands on, blit are miserable speculators, and without thrift.” Mr. Hoban built the first Post-Office at Wash ington, and many other good buildings ; but ho also failed to please the civil authorities, al though ho reconstructed the White Bouse after 1814, and maintained his influence in the city to tho end. . ... Capt. Hoban died in the year-183i, possessed of about $60,000 in property, and having lived a comfortable and useful life. He was at first in terred* mjho old graveyard of St. Patrick’s Church, but the remains wore removed at a later, > date to Mount Olivet Cemetery, on the Bladeus burg turnpike, whore they lie at present. Bo left an efficient posterity,—two sons in tho Uni ted. States Navy; another, a priest; and a fomth, James, who was a fine speaker, and was United States Attorney of the District in the Administration of President Polk. Hoban’s residence is Still, standing at this writing in F street, in tho rear of Fifteenth, on the north side,—a land-mark in itself, — sharp, gabled, and very decrepit, and pointing toward tho ctroot. He married after he re ruoved-to. Washington, and his wife was Mies Sowell, of Maryland. Ho was a devout Catholic, and those who more distinctly recall him at tliia day are clergymen like Fathers Lvuch and Mc- Elroy. EPISODES. During tho early building of tho Capitol, tho clerk of tho works, LenthaU; Blagdoa. the chief stone-mason, and a citizen. Cocking, were killed upon it. The Btono-qnarrics used for the early public odificcß.woro at Acquia Creek, and at Hamburg, near the mouth of Hock Creek,—the latter with in the city limits. Thoso quarries for stone and slate were purchased outright, and cost 820,558. The since celebrated Seneca stone was also used at a very early period for flagging and steps ; the coat about 87 a ton, and the latter about 813, delivered. AECinXECT NO. i —IATQOBE. Tho fourth professional architect of the Capi tol was one of tho remarkable men of tho coun try. His constructions of both a . public end private character are numerous at Washington and in other cities of tho country. One of his, sons, B, H. Latrobo, Jr., .was afterwards made engineer of location and construction' of the Baltimore i Ohio Railroad, July 1 1830. He was the genius of that great mountain-highway. Ho had been educated by his father, the archi tect, for a lawyer, but took to engineering, while his brother, John H. B. Latrobo, educated for an engineer, became a lawyer of Baltimore, equal ly celebrated.’ ‘ ' LIFE OP LATBOBB. The elder, Benjamin H. Latrobe, was. bom in Yorkshire, England, May 1, 1767, and was the son of the Key. Henry Latrobo, a Moravian cler lau of Huguenot descent, who figured as iporintendent of the Moravian establishments in England, and as an author in the Church. The architect was educated at a village near Le.ds, at the Moravian school of Neisky, in. Saxony, and at the University of Leipsic. He was a Comet of Prussian Hussars, and made the tour of Europe, examining all the public build ings of note before ho returned to England, in ‘1763. He entered the office of Cockrell, an emi .nont English architect, and married the daughter of the Hector of Clerkonwell parish. . The death -of his wife gave him such desire of change that in 1796 ho resolved to come to America, and visit an uncle, Col. Antes. The. ship brought him to Norfolk, where, by good lock, ho fell in with the . officer of customs, who introduced him to Judge Baehrod Washington, a nephew of President Washington, which led to his visiting Mt. Ver non; and becoming one of the last young frienls of the father of the Capitol. Eichmond, -Va., was then rapidly growing, and Latrobe designed the Penitentiary and several line private mansions. In 1793, ha was estab lished in Philadelphia, whore he built the old water-works on Penn Square, and the old Banks of Pennsylvania and Pliiladelphia; and ho also designed the Bank of the UmtbdStates, which was built by his pnpi], Strickland. It is to be rbmarked'that, as Latrobe was the preceptor of Strickland; Strickland was the preceptor of. Wal ter, and .Walter of Clark. As Latrobe availed himself of the services of Hadfleld, there has been a close succession of minds of the same order and of mutual inspiration at work oh the Capitol for eighty years. Few buildings in the world have commanded the services for so long a time of men who knew each other. gymi Sape 'n Ei •—At Philadelphia, Latrobo married his second I’rie.the daughter of BobertHazlchurst.who had „i.'?ss? artnor °f Robert Morris, tho early spec ulator in Washington lots and buildings. From tms second marriage arose tho two omment sons latrdb'b was summoned vl P \ a > -ba Surveyor of tho Public ® a f Washington in 1303. He made a re port atthe beginning of.the following year, to V" 11 ” 1 hall in which tho House of S. VO3 are now assembled was erected as part of the permanent building. T am how evor, jmder the necessity of representing to von that the whole of - the masomy, from the very foundation, is of such bad workmanship and ma terials thatitworJdhave been dangerous to have thin the baildill E’ not tho walls strongly supported by shores fromwith- thai f thn'loni!? !pCC , r - I<*trobe reported r =o - original designs liaviugbeon' towii^ a l? tol i the od.” . Particularly does SoM sij Regard raising of the entire floor' mg, from the ground story to urep^cioll l^ 4 ' over the casement, excluding the liSt catacombs of the basement And fenor part of the edifice into the superior use?” ■Wo.may regard tbe east front and wffigs ofthe old freestone Capitol,-m-mass as wo see it as . .. PEBIOS OF HE. EA THOSE. who had snffiment influence with Mr. Jefferson to make bim modify ins extravagant praise ™ Thornton’s design. Ths emh£go £nd non- intercourse acts of that Administration made money so scarce that very little was accomplished beyond finishing the interior of the wings; and, when . THE CAPITOL WAS IJUHNED, • in 1814, Eatrobe, who was" then absent at Pitts burgh, building the first steamboat to descend the Western waters (jointly with Fulton, Elv -1 ingetone, and Nicholas J. lloosevelt, his son-iu ' law by hxs first marriage}, hastened back to the ; Capitol, and took charge of its reconstruction in i a more methodical and comprehensive way than any of his predecessors. Ho first made an in spection of the ruined building, and reported part of the walls and all the foundations sound, and the more delicate work of the interior little injured, although the incendiaries had labored aU night to make the devastation complete, using powder, etc., of their rockets for that purpose. It was Eatrobe who designed what Madison called THE AMEBIOAS OBDEB OP ABCmTEOTDUE, using the cotton-blossom, the tobacco-loaf, and the Indian com, shaft and ear, in his columns and capitals. He made a personal visit to the Catoctin and Loudon hills to find quarries, and discovorod the breccia, or blue mottled marble, which is used in the old Hall of itepresentatives' and in the corridors. The Hall of Eepresanta tives, the Senate Chamber, the old Supremo .Court room, and the old lobbies, as well as the ground-plan of the two wings, were Latrobo’s .work. He also erected St. John's Church, the Van Ness r and Brentwood mansions, ,the arched gate of the Navy-Yard, and was conferred with as to public buildings in many parts of the country. XiATBOSE QUABBELS. Eatrobe had been on good terms with the Com missioners fourteen years, when President Mon roe appointed a one-armed' Virginia Colonel, Samuel S. Lane, with whom he soon came in to collision, and ho resigned in 1817. Remov ing to Baltimore, he built the noted Cathedral there, and a' pan of the Commercial Exchange. His son, Henry 8. Eatrobe, had been sent to New Orleans to build the waterworks, in 1811, and died there in 1817. Following him upon the same errand, the architect of the Capitol met with the same fate, Bept. 3, 1820. Ms FAME. Mr. Latrobo has left behind him letters, com positions, constructions, and a posterity, which will give him a permanent fame In the Bepnblic. Ho was well acquainted with the Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and German languages. , THE FIFTH ABCHTTECT on the Capitol was Charles Buliluch, the senior of Latrobe, who had boon bom in Boston, Aug. 8, 17G3, iho son of a physician. Go saw the Battle of Banker Hill from the house-tops of ! tho city, and graduated at Harvard In 1781.. Finding life in a counting-house distasteful, he made the tour of Europe to farther his desire to ho an architect, and, returning ,to Boston, he married hia cousin,. Hannah Apthorp, and became at the same time a constructor, mer chant, and selectman. It was bo ;who laid out the streets and filled up the marshes of Boston, .built tho Boston State-House, and.was one. of the' partners to dispatch the ships Columbia and Washington to- the Pacino Ocean, _ whereby Capt. Gray discovered tho Columbia River. He twice failed in busi ness, once by putting up Franklin Place. Bos ton, on too ambitious a scale, and again in the endeavor to Oil up the Charles River marshes. His work is plentiful in Boston, as in the Court- House add the North and South Churches. He also built the State-House at Augusta, Mo. Bolilnch made tho acquaintance of President elect Monroe in 1816. At this time ho was & lame man, haying crippled hitnsolt for life by . slipping on the stepi of Faneuil Hall, and ho was visiting Washington and other cities to ob tain suggestions for a hospital for Boston. President Monroe renewed the acquaintance while making a tour in the East subsequently, and was struck with the elegance of Biu finch’s buildings. The architect refused to take Latrobo’s place until tho lat ter had resigned absolutely, . and then ho proceeded to complete the wings on La trobo’e plan, and to build the rotunda, - old dome, aud library, aud to givo area to the west front of tho Capitol, which had been built too near the brow" of the hill by putting up tho gla cis and architectural terrace, lu 1830, whoa tho Capitol waa virtually completed, Bolfinch re signed and returned to Boston, where ha died April 15,1814, at iho age of 81, He built two other buildings at Washington—the . church for the Unitarian Society, of which ho was a mem ber, and the old Penitentiary at GreonleaJTs Point, where the conspirators were imprisoned, tried, and hanged, in 1805. HADFIELI) OK HATBOBE AND BULFDfCH. . The criticism of Hadfield, already twice refer red to, waa written in 1819, in tho period of Bul finch. That artist throws some light upon the cost and stylo of the edifice. Ho begins by call ing it “ a very singular building,” ascended by 44 uncouth stairs in the south inng.” Tho plan of the Representatives Hall, ho save, was taken from the remains of a theatre near Athens, as described by Stewart, an authority. It had gain ed “ some advantage in appearance of form and costliness of materials _ over tho former hall, which

was, however, more consistent, being all of na tive froo-etone. The capitals of tho columns in this hall wore executed in Italy, and aro a copy from the capitals of the well-known rc mains of tho Lantern of Demosthenes a< Athens. Had tho entire columns been in Car- rara marble, they would have cost less money.” Haddold rebukes the coupling of the four centre columns, the screen between the columns of the peristyle, the gallery-door and the principal entrance crowding each, other, and the screen of columns on the sonth side of - the ball, which “ would bo better among the mins of Palmyra.” THE WOULD’s OPIKIOX OF THE OLD CAPITOL. Such criticisms os Haddeld’s lose their effect upon tbo public mind by their mere minuteness. The building stood for a quarter of a century complete as Bnliinch left it, and meantime per sons of every quality, from all parts of the world, bestowed .their encomium upon it. For many years, a contest raged about the difficulty’of hearing in that ambitious-domed, colunm-oncir clcd Hall, of Bepresantatives; but ho portion of the building is. more ad mired to-day, and perhaps people of wisest censure prefer the involutions,, quaint workmanship,. economy of space, and classical simplicity of the old freestone building, to the marble wings, which are modeled upon the former plan. The old Capitol, including the works of art which belonged there, cost about §2,700,000. It covered considerably more than an acre and a half of ground. It was 352 feet 4 inches long, 70 feet high to the top of the balustrade, 145 feet high to the top of the old dome,' and the wings were 121 feet 6 inches deep. Those dimensions .show a sufficient edifice for the period to have been truly a National Capitol.- -The parts which the British burnt bad cost about §790,000; to restore those parts cost about §090,000; the freestone centre cost abont §690,000. - The park inclosing this old Capitol contained about 22% acres. ■ ; ■" . 7 . Withih-that old budding happened all the con tests of the first social civilization of the Re- public. Every room, and lobby, and recess of it is full of. reminiscence. - Attempts are now be ing made, on the score of architectural harmony, to demolish Tit and erect a new centre in keeping with the wings. We may hope that this will not take place - until reverence and innovation, the historical and the artistic-Bjnrit, hsvo a full de bate on the subject, in which the country-can tako sides.',' SIXTH AECIIITECT —TITLES, -The successor of Mr. Bulfinch was liobert Hills, who was appointed Government Architect by Andrew Jackson in 1830. He was a man of mediocre talents, whoso opportunities allowed him to impress himself favorably upon the conn-: try. Ho was' bom in Charleston, S. 0., and placed under tho tuition, of James Hoban, in 1800, with , whom -ho remained two .years. Hr. Jefferson introduced him to Eatrobe. Ho had very extensive employment in tho country, and constructed churches, public build ings, and mansions from Pennsylvania to Geor gia: Ho built the second Treasury, of which the facade remains,' and commenced the Patent- Office and tho GeneraLPost-Office.—all three of which retain the impression of his style. He designed the Washington Monument, made a design for the Bunker Hill Monument,- bunt the Monument Church at Biohmoni the State Capi tol at Harrisburg, the Philadelphia Mint, and was the Engineer of South Carolina when the Charleston & Hamburg Railroad was construct ed, between 1830 and 1834. Hr. Mills com pleted Bulflnch’s work on the Capitol, hut got into a wrangle about the Patent-Office, which led to his . removal. Ho - long inhabited .a tall brick house on Kow Jersey avenue, Capitol Hill, and- died in Washington, -March 3,. 1835. Hr. Hills has very little connection with tho Capitol buildings, and, for twenty years after Us completion, there was nothingmore of architecture, except a wran gle about the acoustics of. tho Hall of Con gress. SEVENTH ARCHITECT —WALTGIL Few States were, however, admitted to tho XJnioh, and the increase of population in all the'' States multiplied Congressmen, so that, in 1850. it was determined to extend the old wings by greater wings, named “ extensions,” to bo con structed of more durable materials, and upon the original plan. Proposals -were invited, and the fortunate architect waaThomas U. Writer. He held and keeps the rank of the foremost classical architect in America. The corner-stone of tho additions was laid by President Fillmore July i, 1851, more than fifty-nine years after Washington laid the southeast corner-stone of the old CapitoL Mr. Walter was bom in Phi la- ; dolphin, Bept. 4, 1801, and was the son of a build er. In 1819 he entered the office of Mr. Strick land, worked with the trowel, supported himself, and became a fair artist in colors. In 1830 be became an architect on his own account, and the following year designed Moyamensing Prison. His plans for Girard College were ac cepted, and from 1833 to 1817 he superintended its construction, visiting Europe in 1838 to make studios for that institution. Tnlßl3tbeVonozuolan Government employed him to construct a mole and port at Laguayra, and from 1851 to 1865 he was the architect of the Capitol, and had an in fiuenco in the Treasury, Patent-Office, and Post- Office extensions. Mr. Walter was accused of influencing contracts on the public works in Washington, and the disposition of funds on the Capitol building was mainly committed to an able Engineer officer, Montgomery C. Meigs. COST OP THE EXTENSIONS—MEIGS. The first estimate for ■* the Capitol extension was $2,675,000, and five years’ tune. In 1856, Capt_ Meigs called upon Jefferson Davis for $2,835,000, and said that the additional cost was on account of the low estimates of Mr. Walter, and in the substitution of marble, iron, encaustic tiles, etc., for wood, plaster, and stone. And, ho added, “I have labored faithftilly and dili gently to construct this building in such a man ner that it would last for ages as a creditable monument of the state of the arts at this time in this country.” At that time the expenditure was about $90,000 monthly. Capt. M. O. Meigs reported in August, 1856, that above $2,500,000 had been expended on tho new wings up to that time; that tho work had no debts, and that everything had been bought for cash. The Berkshire marble shafts, mono liths, cost $1,400 each, and the shafts for the corridor of the south basement S2OO each. Tho following were the prices of marbles, per cubic foot: Massachusetts, $2.50; Tennessee, $6; Vermont, green, $7; Potomac, breccia, $4; Le vant from Barbery, 85; Italian statuary, $7.95; common Italian, $2.75. ; Meigs - changed Walter’s design somewhat, putting in 192 columns in all, instead of 252. Bricks, from all cities, cost from 85.50 to $9.12 per thousand. To lay the bricks cost 85.03 per thousand. The cost of the Capitol extension was about $8,000,000 ; of the new dome, abont $1,250,000; and of the new library, enough additional to make the entire cost upwards of 810,000,000. Works of art and ornaments made 8350,000 more. The extensions are abont 113 by 239 feet each, ex clusive of porticos. The whole Capitol has, therefore, cost about $13,000,000. Gath. FASHION. From tht Xcw Tork Evening ITail* Fashionable note-paper and envelopes are .Brobdingnagian in size and texture, and pistache in color. —A new suit-material like Turkish toweling is very popular, and. as soon as it gets a little later in the season, will be very uncomfortable. ; —Foil veils, covered with pearl beads, are a novelty in evening .wear. . —Wide and very long sashes of colored grena dine will bo worn this summer. —The “ Aphrodite,” or Girdle of Yonus, is the newest thing in bolts. It is u horrid.” —Fancy jewelry is much worn on the street again, which, la in very bad taste. ; -r-Spauish veils are being much worn, fastened in the hair with the bright red rose, wnich is in dispensable in an Andalusian toilette. . —Suits of gray stuff with stripes that look like sponge are worn. —” Orange blossom faille” is the latest mate rial for bridal dresses. - —Old-fashioned miniatures have usurped the place of lockets in feminine favor. . . . —The spring wraps are covered with • embroi dery, and are extremely pretty in design and ma terial. # . —Colored linen is coming in vogue again among young ladies for collars and cutfs. —Feathers are to be the now thing in over skirts. The idea originated with the ostrich. —The 11 Plon Plon” is the newest thing in ladies* wraps. It was invented by the Princess Napoleon, who is now a milliner in London. —Yirot, the celebrated Paris milliner, has sent the ex-Empresa Eugenie one of her new-fashion ed spring bonnets, heavily trimmed with crape. —Xtassia leather bolts are now worn of very pale tan-color, with buckles of pearl. —White and red leather stair-rods ere the latest, and are to be seen now at all aristocratic dwellings in London. —Very pretty little rustic wheat-straw brace lets aro now used for the substructure of fash ionable bouquets, • . —The great novelty of the season is the bro dcrio on relief on spring costumes. It is quite as expensive os it is novel. —lt is very much the fashion now-a-days for ladies to cany a navy-blue waterproof cloak neatly rolled and strapped. —lt is not u the thing ” now to wear the bridal veil over the face at all. It is twisted about the head in a manner strongly suggestive of a bur lesque actress about to have her photograph taken. —The' “Lady Washington” is the newest thing in polonaises. It has two .very short points in front, and the apron meets at the back just below the waist. , —lt begins to look as if the immense “oircus tent” son-umbrellas of two years ago were going to bo fashionable again. They are much more nsofnl and far prettier than the club handles. —ln the general crnsade society is undertaking against everything nnortificial. natural dowers have been banished from bridal toilettes, and their places supplied ny waxen counterfeits. —Shortrsleeves have gone ont.of fashion cron in foil dress. This is very apt to be the case : when the fashionable feminine arm has been un dergoing the thinning-down process of a winter’s dissipation. —Oxydisod silver ornaments are mnch in use on bonnets. They are in the form of shields, poignarda, buckles, birds, helmets, .anchors,, battle-axes, medallions, filigree ferns, thistles, and what-not jets are also mnch worn. . —Among now colors are ainon, a greenish yel low; alligator, a purplish bine; corbean, crow color; ecorce; lichen, a greyish blue; suede; paon, peacock color; apricot; nicolo; blanc et perle; blanc ot argent; blano et or, and blano et ble. —Ladies are again wearing at their wrists thoee old-fashioned little bags in which onr grandmothers used to carry purse end handker chief. They ore called portages.' 1 . —Lace is used in great profusion on the bon nets of the spring. Lace strings are again in. vogue, fastened under the chin with a little bunch of rose-buds. .. ; z. . —The most fashionable walking-costumes are of very light colored cloth, trimmed with, dork velvet bands. The skirt is striped lengthways with velvet bands. —The now club-handlcd parasols are common. They were stylish a year ago. The ladies who are now on their way back from Europe will bring the correct thing. —Sashes are' now worn lined with another color, as blue lined with rose,or bnff for instance. They are mads with a long swinging loop to hold up the pouffe of the dress.' i —The vulgar custom of displaying wedding presents has gone completely out of fashion. ■ —The mousseline ribbon has become very pop ular ; it wears far better than gros grain. ■ —Materials formed of alternate stripes of satin and velvet are very fashionable for skirts. —The fade tints are going out, and the old fashioned, bright, positive colors are being worn again. —Camel’s hair polonaises will be as much worn thia spring os cashmere overskirts were two years ago. , —Colored ribbons about tho neck, with a bow in front with diamonds thereon, are much worn in full-dress. _ ;.. j —Hassivo cut steel buttons are the latest adornment for ladies’ costumes* They are blnish, or browned like a rifle-barrel, engraved, or else ent into glittering points. Carved wooden buttons aro also worn.■ —One of tho latest Parisian fashions ia aril-: fioial flowers of silk and satin for ornamenting bonnets, hats, and tho hair. They aro both novel and beautiful, especially the red satin rose, the green silk leaves, and scarlet satin vines. It ia perhaps superfluous to add that those flowera will soon be “ all the rage” hero. —The “poodle" and “banged” styles of front hair have gone out. The modish arrange ment is tho old way of parting it in the middle, and wearing it smooth over the forehead. —Powdered hair ia again in fashion. Blonde and white aro the favorite styles, Attheßen nett-Beny wedding on Fifth avenue, on Tues day, one-half the ladies in full dress had their hair profosely powdered. —Dr. Hayes, the Arctic explorer, said in a lec ture in Now York, the other evening, that he pnea saw an iceberg—escaped from the great glaciera, of Greenland—that rose 817 feet above the sur face of the sea, and that he computed its weight at not less than twenty-seven billions of tons. Wo should like to lay in a stock of provisions, consisting of such family groceries as crashed JOiST!; kmons, old Robertson, mint, _ nutmegs, old Bourbon, cigars, Sf P v, p ?f a .°d tobacco, old rye, a box of, matches, a half-pmt flask of pure whisky for medical purposes, with a few other necessaries of life, and go and spend the summer with a small lot of temperance friends on lust such an island as that.—Zouwmfle Courier-Journal. mils. can’t tolebatb ant insdboedination in his party.. - Nothing can bo more ridiculous than to see. a party of ladies and gentlemen, with brains hi their heads, led round by one of these pompous little men. If any of them ven ture to make a remark, and suggest that they would like to see a little thing of which they may have heard, the courier will wave his hand; and ' blandly, patronizingly . remark, u All - in good time, -ladies and gentlemen; all m good time.- ■ You cannot seo everything at once! ” Very much as an indulgent teacher might promise a little school-boy. that, if ho would be good, he might have Ins little play time after school was out. This is the worst ob jection to couriers, inmy estimation. No one of any manliness or spirit likes to be ;Ted round by the noso in this sort of way, snubbed continual ly,' treated like a baby, and also forced to pass : the greater portion of his time in the society of a pompous,- disagreeable, insolent, domineering man, who ought to bo a servant, but thinks him self, and often virtually is, the znaster. But there is another . objection, and a very ssrions one, and that is . . , . the commissions • which all high-spirited couriers expect to 'make- You nominally pay your courier £l*2 a month and his traveling expenses; .but, in’-reality, you pay him nobody can say how much more. I was told: by a gentleman resident in Bomej who bad seen a great deal of couriers, -that most of them ex pect toget a commission of 10 per cont on all purchases.—yes, and hotel-bills, too, —on every thing, in’fact, which is expended by tho party f and he gave one or two examples, which had come within his own personal experience, of the most flagrant extortion and imposition practised by couriers upon their employers. I do not think our courier got 10 per cent; hut he cer tainly .r . - . OOT A OBEAr.PBAI,. ' Couriers do not consider it dishonest to do so. They win tell you that the 'money comes ont-of the pockets of the shopmen and hotel-keepers, and not out of yours; but,' of course," you pay it in tho end, for shop-men and hotel-keepers, knowing : they must give a commission to tho courier, charge you accordingly. Go out alone and beat an Italian tradesman down to his low est price, when he ie ignorant of the fact that yon hare a Conner, then send your courier to pay tho bill, and see if ho comes back good-natured. Ours _ did not, as I . know. by personal experience. The conrier’s accounts are always all right,—that is an easy matter,—and a care less man, who did not look into matters' very closely, would probably think his courier a para gon of honesty; but,. as long as you have a' third man between you and every one to whom youaro paying money, you hover know how much goes where you want it to go,, and how much stops hy the way. ,1 have written a good deal at length upon this subject, because it is a matter of considerable importance to many families going abroad; and also because it is, in large measure, due to the extravagant and careless habits of .American travelers that couriers have become of late so much corrupted. Almost every one, I think,, finds a courier A GBEAT NUISANCE, and only keeps him because he is afraid to try and got along alone ; but I must say that any - one who can speak French, and who has a cer . tain amount of common sense, haa not the least need of a cornier in traveling all over Europe ; and, though ho will doubtless make mistakes, and perhaps be subjected to some inconven iences, ho will find anything that could possibly happen to him easier to bear than tho courier. ITALY. Disagreeable Characteris tics of JEnropeaii Couriers. The Climate .of Home and Naples. Beautiful Sorrento. From Our Otcn Correspondent, Fnomsci, Italy, April 5,1873. Iq a previous letter 1 alluded to some of the good qualities of THE EUROPEAN COURIER; but it is by no means my desire to convey to your readers the idea that I regard the race with, unmixod admiration; so, in this letter, I intend. saying a few words on the other side —the d!sa- * greeable side—of the ■ courier’s character, and I am not sure but I may be tempted to speak at even greater length on this subject Mum the other. We called our courier the 11 Shepherdand ho was a shepherd, aud that was a very good titlo for him, and one of which I have no doubt; he would be very proud; but one cannot speak ■of Shepherds without also calling up the idea lof sheep, and I am in some doubt whether it is very complimentary to a party of'intelligent Ameri-* can travelers to call them sheep. For my own part, I do not like to be in the position of that very useful and harmless, but somewhat meek animal. The shepherd may secure a most ad mirable fold for me at night; but *do I not care how good it is, and behave, on the whole, I would rather not be folded. He. may pro vide most admirable pasture; but I think I would rather; provide it myself. It carries one back to the days of hia • childhood, before he was old enough to : look out for himself, to have a man always greatly concerned to see that he ,baa his proper three meals a day, and almost watch -1 ing every mouthful ho takes. Few: people like that sort of thing. Then, too, no one has a very strong objection to. being led. aromud, and told to go here and there, and .do this and that, as if be wore a know-nothing and a nobody, who could not possibly do anything without the aid of somo one to look after him. NOW, OUR COURIER’S IDEA of attending to a party was about this; In the morning bo appears, and gets your breakfast ‘properly.Bot npon the table. He then tells yon it is ready, and commands yon to eat it, and be ' comes righteously indignant if yon are five min-' utes late. He'allows yon so much tiino to eat your breakfast, and - then he informs yon that your carriage is ready. "When he has got-yon into your carriage, he'xnonnts beside the coach man, and tells him where to go. Suppoaa ho takes yon to a gallery, you get out, and he loads you in, and then goes around calling your attention to whatever pictures. he desires you to look at, and gives you his views about them. On* .leaving the gallery, ho'takes you somewhere else, or brings you hack to lunch at your hotel; then out again in the afternoon, and lastly back to dinner, after which he may al low you a little time alone, but he docs not al ways do so. Ho very often hag something or other to do abont your arrangements which takes up part of the evening, too, though, by that time, you are generally willing to spare his society for a short time at least. . * Our courier was a decided FOE OF GUIDE—BODES. He considered it rather in the light of a per sonal insult if we presumed* to collect informa tion by oursolvoa. Ho seemed to tbihV it did not show a proper respect for his wisdom and ex perience. Ho did not like it at all if we ventur ed to object to any plan for the day which ho might have made for ns. He said it was treat ing him like a little hoy if he made plans and then wo did not adopt them. Now, ,we had always thought, before we left America, that a courier was a servant, —an upper servant, it is true,—but we were ignorant of the fact that your true, high-spirited courier considers him self the master, and director, and Grand Mogul of the whole party. You are to go where he tells you, and nowhere else. You are to do what he says, and nothing else. . You are to purchase at j whatever shopsne takes you to, and nowhere else. In fact, he does not even like you to HATE FBIENDS AND “VISIT THEM, ’ - lest you should bo allowed to indulge in % little free and independent thought, and get out from under his eye for a while. It is very humil iating, but it is, nevertheless, strictly true, that three-quarters of the .American families traveling with couriers are very much afraid of them, and live in daily fear of offending them. This is all wrong, and by this utter submission to the courier, ana feeling that without Wm they would bo completely helpless, Americans have done a great deal to render couriers unbearably insolent and overbearing. It is really ridiculous, as well as pitiable, to see to what extent intelli gent gentlemen submit themselves *to these pompous, overbearing fellows. . . , The real stock courier, who belongs to the London Couriers’ Club, . ; Suckis certainly, onr experience. "Wa have tried ocnriers, and found thorn wanting; and now- wo ! traveling alono, and find it a blessed relief . To turn to another subject: Perhapa.lt may . he interesting or nsefnl to ypnr readers to know something about the oldiate or noaiE axn NATU3, ; which is much dreaded by many Americans. It is always hard to tell, in making inquiries about a place before you go there, how much is true and how much is false. People may have an in terest, and often do, in making out a place much I worse than it. really, is. landlords are particularly given to this, for thsy want to scare you into .staying, as long as possi ble with them. In fact, it is very hani to obtain reliable information.. Wo made very careful in quiries before going to Borne, and heard of a' good deal of illness there, but supposed it was probably exaggerated, and so went to make onr visit as we had proposed. Bat I came to the conclusion that, this season at least, the climate of Borne has been very unhealthy.' There have' been, to my knowledge, a great many cases of fever there, more or less serious; and, even whero people do not actually have tfao lover, they are very apt to suffer from lassitude and depression of spirits. There is a lack of vitality in the air, and a heaviness and deadness,' which is particularly trying when the sirocco wind is blowing. The effect of the cli mate on many, people is to moke them take no interest in anything whatsoever. They "don’t want to see anything or do anything, or go any-: where; and the least thing costs an effort of: mind and body. This state of thing is perhaps ■ due, in part, at least, to the ‘ IMMERSE AMOUNT OF EXCAVATION which is at present in progress in Borne. The' malaria comes from the ground, and, as long as > it is confined beneath the paving-stones, it loses • port of its power; but, where the ground is turned up, of'course it is freed and let loose 1 upon the air. For this reason, the hotels down' among the narrow streets of the city are perhaps ! healthier than those up upon the hill, where it is. ' more open. They never have a case of fever-in ■ Vtbe Q hello, the Jews* quarter, which is one of/ the most disgustingly dirty places I ever was in, [ sod where the streets are so narrow you can al- - most reach across them. But Borne is a Tery> risky place, to say the least of it, whatever.; hotel you go to, and Naples is not much better. . The climate of Naples is very fine,' and Nature has made the place.aa healthy as a place could be; but- ’ i: MAS HA3 SPOILT n AIL- Tho drainage ia very imperfect. I do not know . exactly what the tremble is, bat at times, when . the wind blows from a certain direction, the ho- * tela are filled with the most offensive odors, and, * of coarse, fevers are the result. I think there • oro more bad odors in the streets of Naples ? any city I ever was in. Each street has a mo* \ nopoly on some particular one, and then borrows . as mach as it possibly can from its neighbors,' in order to produce a delightful sum total Naples * ia noisy, too. Most Neapolitans are OBOAJf-OBIKDEBS, . . ; - . j and those who do not go into this business go ; about the streetsshouting out the prices of email merchandise'which they want to sell, and spend the evening under your balcony' serenad ing you. Some Neapolitans prefer bag-pipes to > hand-organs. ~ I can’t say which is ;the worse. ; Neapolitan donkeys are very outspoken also; and - make uproar enough to drown even the hand organs. It is not a good place for weak nerves. J • ' -BUT SORRENTO IS. ■ * * Ah I yes, Sorrento is perfect,—wonderfully, ex- * quiaitely beautiful. Ah I tourist depressed by the * liomanairocco,diflgUßtedby the aromas of Naples, and deafened by its band organs; come hero and ; be happy. - Here the bright blue sea'lies spread ‘ before you, and, far below the summit of the - cliff on which you stand, its sapphire waves heap ' against the rocky wall, and bedeck themselves ♦ with garlands of snow-white foam. The' music of the waters rises gently upward from the depths below, and soothes your weary nerves < with a song of rest. Around you arise hills * varied inform, and colored with the loveliest tints ' . which Italy’s sun can give to her own fair hill- * sides. The groves of oranges and lemons bask ' in the sunshine, and the olive-trees clothe all the ■ sunny slopes. As the enn sets, all these glorious hills, and mighty Vesuvius himself, who looms '• up grandly across the blue lake, , BECOMES BADIA2TT WITH EASTEBH FUEPLB. They glow as' though they were themselves on i • fire, and giving out this radiance from their own J brightness. And then the sea, in sympathy, re- - linquishea its glorious blue, and- as- • sumes a mantle of a hue as rosy as the clouds - ’ which lightly dost in the lostzous sky above. ' Yonder comes the fisherman, cheerily plying ’ / his oars, whose every stroke brings him nearer 'his nigbrly haven of rest. He, too, and his "swift-gliding boat, are glowing with the - rich colors of the sunset; and, as he floats along, ' he singe, in measured tones, one of those curi- ; ous, weird Italian boat-eon gs, which seem bo In * harmony with the sunset and the twilight, and all : that is dreamy and imaginative. Linger one • moment more, as the village church-bell rings ' forth the vesper-hour. The- deep tones, soft- • ened by distance, melt beautifully with the land- ' scape, and join with the fisherman’s song. I Through the chasm open din comes softly to •our ears tbe chant of the monks. It is a tune of ' , BLESSED, BEAUTIFUL PEACE. 'Nature is quiet, and man seems to share her re* • •pose, and rest from all the labor and the turmoil f of the world. ' ' f The sun has set. * The shades of night are en wrapping all the • beautiful landscape. X linget till the last faint gleam has departed, and. leave Sorrento in the darkness. W. C. L. JONATHAN’S LESSON TO JOHN, The time has been folks chaffed John Bright On his itch for Americanizing: ■When he painted Colombia, no shadow, all light. Effete John Bull surprising, With a babe in her arms. Young Jonathan hlght, On pure Democracy’s mitt*, to the might Of an infant giant arising. But some things, perhaps, wo have seen of late, Have left us Young Jonathan’s model state, On the whole, less disposed to Imitate, And less in the mood for prizing— As the scandals and shames of the Tammany Bing. The lobbying and log-rolling; Corners and wire-pullers in full swing. The rotes of dead-heads polling ; The minions of dollars paid to bring Bepresentative rascals their papers to fling . The balloting urns by the shoal in ; “ And tho general confession that, tried by the test Of character. Congress stands contest • A place whither Jonathan’s worst, for his best - - In too much' force, have stole in. Bui in one thing Jonathan stands revealed • ■ ■ * Of his cousin John the master, — In raising the crops of roguery’s field To bigger growth and faster. Till a harvest, undreant of once, *twill yield To his bold hand who tho sickle may wield. As well as the seed’s broad-c&ster. Hell sink his thousands his millions to sack, As knowing such seed brings increase in its track, And the bigger the rogue the broader tho back,— Not so much for the scourge as the plaster.- Xct this effete old Europe go on " • - ■ ' With petty robbing and rieving. Teach New World Jonathan,' Old World John, Thy grander style of thieving! When ho would filch a single stone. Square miles with diamonds broad-cast sewn. Salt thou, for flats deceiving ; - Where he at his one forged flimsy would stick. With e hundred thousand do thou the trick. And the Bank of England’s own pocket pick.— The swindler’s sublime achieving! How short the Old-World of tho Now one foils So prove, to the end of tho chanter ; That not only Old England's tatwi and falls By Young America's capt are; The Jobs of thy Senatorial halls, - ■Thy rings, thy comers, thy cries, thy calls, ,ln a larger ether wrapt are r - 1 ' And last, not least, thy swindles rise ,To a grandeur that dearies Old World eyes, ' And Lords of Industrial enterprise Maira theso-who, as rogues, here trapped are I Punch. ■> A. Wonderful Photographic Fean . From the Son FrunciccoExaminer.,:. •- 'Some time, ago, Gov..Stanford, thoownerbl the horse Occident, which was made famoni from, having been beaten in a race with the Gold smith Maid, desired to have a photograph of tbs animal taken while said animal was going at foil' speed-. Mr. Muybridge, the artist, was applied to, hat ho expressed his doubts that it could be. .'done. Ho'began experimenting, however, and after a while was able to catch objects oaths wing with great success. A few days ago ho announced to the owner of Occident that he believed be could take tbo pic ture. He - procured all the sheets to be baa in the stable, and with these made a reflecting back' ground. Over this Occident was trained to trb;, and everything, was then in readiness for tha trial. The great difficulty was to transfix an im pression while tho horse was moving at tho rata: of thirty-eight feet to tho second. The first ex periment of opening and closing tho camera on. - the first day left no result; the second day, with, increased velocity in opening and closing, a. shadow was caught. On the third day, the arrist, having studied the matter thoroughly, contrived, to have two boards slip past each other by touch ing a spring, and in so doing to leave an eighth. of an inch opening for the five-hnndreth part of a second, as tho horse passed, and by an arrange ment of double lenses, crossed, secured a nega tive that shows Occident in fall motion—a per fect likeness of the horse. Tha space of time ■was so small that the spokes of the wheels of the sulky were caught as if they were not in motion. This is probably the most wonderful success in photographing ever yet achieved, and the artist is as proud of his discovery os the Qoremor if si the picture taken.

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