Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune, April 27, 1873, Page 8

Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune dated April 27, 1873 Page 8
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8 TERMS OF THE TRIBUNE. ■ Tm«fi of sußScanmoK cpatabix ik advance). Daily, by mail. ....512.001 Sunday 52.50 C.OOI Weekly 2.00 Tarts of a year at tbe same rate. To prevent delay and mistakes, be sure and give Post Offcerddresaln lull, including State and County. Remittances juy bo made either by draft, express, Post CiSco order, or in registered letters, at our risk. xiniiia to citx sucscaißESia. Daily, delivered. Sunday excepted. 23 coats per week. Daily, delivered, Sunday included, 30 ccnU per week, iduros THE TRIBUNE COMPANY, Comer Madison and Dearborn-sis.. Chicago, HI. BUSINESS NOTICES. GOVERNMENT ARTIFICIAL LIMB MANDFAC tory. DR. J. E. GARDNER, corner tad Wabash av„ la the only one in the Government to furnish soldiers artificial apparatus. . O&ibun#. Sunday Morning, April 27. 1873. THE TAXES FOB 1873. The good citizens of Chicago who express sur prise at the largo difference between their tax bills for 1871 and 1872, should remember that the tax-rate of 1871 was reduced one-half after the fire, while there was no corresponding re duction of the appropriations and expenditures. The consequence was that there was a large de ficiency. This deficiency has been increased from time to time by the refusal of largo prop erty-owners to pay their taxes, which refusal they have been able to make secure by appeals to the Supreme Court, and other devices. Since the fire, the city has been in the receipt of the money from the State on- account of the Canal lien, which has been practically a loan, as the city has to pay the interest, and eventually the principal, of the bonds issued for that work. Considering the extraordinary circumstances of the city since the fire, the rate of taxation has been extremely low. But the time for payment, and the time for taxation to meet that payment, has come; the tax bill for 1872 is of necessity much greater than that of 1871, but the tax bills lor 1873 promise to be of much greater magni tude. The city tax levy for 1872 was about $4,200,- ODO. The expense of the police and fire depart-. monts was paid largely out of the money ob tained from the State, and it was not unreason able to expect that the direct levy for 1873 will fall short of $5,000,000, if indeed it do, not ex ceed that sum. The city portion of the tax levied for county purposes for 1872 was about $1,200,000,— the only reason why it was not twice that sum was the absolute limitation of the new Constitution, The State Auditor haying now resolved to quadruple the assessment, or valuation, the County Commissioners will have power to make the cityls share of the county levy any sum not exceeding^, 800.000 for new expen ditures, and as much additional as may be needed to pay the interest, end principal of the debt existing before 1870. How far this addi tional power to levy taxes and expend money will be exercised by. the Board of County Com missioners ■ can bo best understood by reading over a list of the names of the Commissioners. ’ It is probable that the city will be called upon to contribute at least $2,500,000 towards the county taxes for 1873. The same Board has obtained authority to issue bonds to the sum of $1,500,000, provided the people vote affirmatively therefor at the next election; but, if the valuation or assessment be increased four-fold, the Commissioners will have authority to issue the bonds without asking the popular consent, and the issue of those bonds will involve an additional levy of $105,000 annually for interest. The-State tax tor 1873 will be about $500,000; but, should there be no change made in the school levy for State purposes, the aggregate. State tax in this county will not be less than $900,000.' The town taxes in the city will be about $80,000; the "West Side Park tax $175,000; South Side Park taxes $250,000; North Side Park taxes $200,000. The cost of special improvements will bo in round numbers $1,000,000. The tax levy in Chicago for all purposes, for 1873, will approximate to something like the following: ■ City taxes.. Cdonty purposes.... Slate taxes Town taxea... Park taxes..' Special assessments, Total. In this estimate there is nothing included for the city’s share of .the new Court-House. There is a portion of the money derived from the State applicable to that purposed When that shall be‘ expended there must be [resort to direct tax. That the county is to bear half the cost of the Court-House is a mere legal fiction, —the city constituting, so far as taxation is concerned, six-sevenths of the county. Included in the list of taxes is the million of dollars for special improvements which will bo home by those whose properly is benefited. ■The Part taxes ere so equally distributed that they may be considered a general, tax. Deduct ing the special assessments, there will be a tax nf from eight and a half to nine millions of flollars to be collected in this city for . the,year 1873. Is that tax, under all the circumstances, Excessive ? It includes a large portion of ex penditures made necessary by the fire, and by the changed policies of the city and State Gov ernments. Some portion is due, also, to the loose way in which city affairs have been conducted in the past, which fact has boon more complicated by the destruction of all the city, records. It has-been made necessary by the great increase which has taken place in all manner of . business in Chicago, and to the extension of business quarters to points heretofore considered remote. •' The new city is not only the old one rebuilt, but the area ‘covered with permanent buildings is double what it ,was before the fire. The suburbs of the city have been moved out ward in all directions, and the once bare and un covered places' are now habited and occupied. The demand for fire and police service has been correspondingly increased, and in like manner all other hratichca •of the public, service have grown in size and expense.' WHen this whole tax, regular and extraordinary, for State, Comity, ami Municipal, is spread upon the whole property »»laes of the city, it will bo " found to be [largo only by comparison with the taxes of previous years, and to bear a smaller proportion to the actual value of the taxablos in the city- than is the tax-levy of any other large city in the coun try. .‘There ha* never been a full assessment of the value of property in this city, nor has there ever been more than a mere approximation to tho value of two-thirds of the property. - The sooner there is an assessment upon actual values, not only of property in tho central parts af tho city, but in all its sections, the sooner will there he an honest and fair distribution : of tho whole tax -upon all property according to its value, and tire sooner will it' be found that that tax is neither exorbitant or oppressive. Friend Enoch Hoag, the Indian Superintend ent of the Central Snperintendency, in a recenl interview with the Secretary of the Interior ad vised that the Government, whenever it intends to send surveying parties into an Indian country, should apprise the Indians of its purpose, so as to disarm their apprehensions. Perhaps it would be better to quit surveying altogether rather than inconvenience the distinguished gentlemen who lead roaming lives on the 'Western plains. It would at least be preferable to a formal notifica tion when and where they can have a certain number of scalps every time the Government has a job of surveying on hand. The amount of solic itude which Indian Agents and Superintendents have for the Capt. Jacks and Shack-Nasty Jims is as touching as it is tender. THE PIAHO NinSAHCE. A novel suit lias recently been brought in Faria, which has attracted considerable interest in that city, as it involves the piano nuisance, —a nuisance, by the way, which is not confined to Faria. In the gay capital, however, it is more of a nuisance than elsewhere, as most people there live in fiats and thin partitions are the rule, and there is nothing to prevent piano-playing on all six floors at once, if there should happen to bo a piano on each floor. An enterprising land lord, the owner of one of the handsomest houses'in the fashidnable Boulevard Hausmann, who bwd endured the nuisance until patience . had ceased to bo a virtue, recently brought an action against one of the piano-pounders, and, for a time, at least, has silenced the jingling in strument, ' and dwells in peace. His tenant, Madame Chaises, a widow lady, it appears, has a daughter whoso devotion to the piano was something remarkable. In hia •’dec laration he stated that the young lady plays all day, from 8 in the morning until far into the night. Ho complained that j the gamut and chromatic scale, and simple exor rises, are followed by merciless concertos, son atas, fantasias, and variations, with every variety . of adagio, andante, allegro, and presto, most atro ciously performed. The counsel for the land lord pleaded the old legal maxim, sic ulere iuo ut alienum non Iccdas (“use your own property bo as not to abuse your neighbors”). Ho acknowledged the right of every person to have a piano ; at homo, and play it, - but ' denied the right of any one to use it excessively so as to disturb a wholo neighborhood, and, therefore, asked for an in junction. Thelandlordhadmeauwhile offered as a compromise that mademoiselle might play from 11 a; m. to 6p. m., and from Bp. m. to 10 p. m., which would give her neighbors an opportunity to enjoy their breakfasts and dinners, and sleep without disturbance. The decision granting the injunction • affects the piano-playing, how ever, only temporarily. The - question must come before a higher tribunal for. ul timate settlement, and the eventual dispo sition of the piano maniac is looked forward to with great interest. Many sympathizing suffer ers in country and in thia city will also watch for the decision and pray that it may bo in favor of the landlord. There can bo ho keener torture than to be compelled to listen from 8 o’clock in the morning until 8 o’clock at night, to a mod erately muscular young woman, who dotes upon a piano and pounds away upon the “Monas tery Bells,” or “Battle, of Prague,” sweetly oblivious that there are sad, suffering souls in the vicinity who can’t eat or sleep, that there are nervous people going through various forms of distraction, that there are emphatic people who are plunging themselves into dreadful pro fanity, all on her account. The nulsaaco is with out excuse. There are at present about five great female pianists in tho world who have reached their position by .incessant practice and hard study. There are at tho same time probably millions upon millions of young women who are jealous of these five, and are striving to reach their position, with the prospect that five more out of these many millions may succeed. Is thin any reason why every neighborhood should ha afflicted with five-finger exercises from early mom to dewy ‘ eve, with running accompaniments of sonatas, songs, and mazurkas. There was a time when the hand-organ was an unmitigated curse, bat that dispenser of tunes is peripatetic. It can he moved on by pennies and policemen, bat tho piano is stationary. No counter-irritant has yet been invented which can stop it.' There was a lover of his kind who once invented a dummy piano, upon which embryonic artistes could pouiid away and run ecalcs all day long without making any noise, but ...$9,655,000 the invention was frowned down Im mediately, ’ and thus tho torment con tinues. To those who live in apartments, or are foreordained to dwell in boarding-houses, where there are pianos of the tin-pan description, and who have exhausted every species of argument, sneb as pounding with a poker, executing war dances on the floor above, diabolical throats in anoiymoua letters, and-plaintive epistles sot ting forth, tho low condition of a mother-in-law, it will come like aponltico to hoal the blows of sound if'tho' final decision in Franco shall ba against tho piano nuisance. A piano, properly played, at" proper times, is a very tolerable instrument; and as long as human nature is so constituted that no young woman’s educa-' iion is complete . without being able to - . execute the “Bine Danube ” on the piano, . and children . cry for it, -pianos, will be .both made and played. But this does not excuse the abuse of them; nor is there any young person yet bom in- Chicago so proficient that she has the right to interfere with the com fort of a whole neighborhood. If we must have piano, let it he pianissimo. A very curious, or at least a very interesting, case has recently coine before the London courts, "which, although very ordinary and oven itself, has nevertheless some extraordinary surroundings, and involves a prob lem which is. "worthy of some study by social philosophers.; Tho defendant in the case was Mr. H..‘WeigMman, a London barrister of thirty years’standing, and of hitherto irreproachable character,-whose offence was purloining a book from' the Inner-Temple Library, which ho after ward sold for a few shillings in order to obtain a dinner. The "volume was an American legal work which had just arrived in England. There were only three copies .m tho country,-and, as there was but one in the library, the loss was a severe one. The evidence was conclusive against tiimj i and, upon the finding of the verdict of ; guilty, tho . Court sentenced' him to six months’ imprisonment at hard labor. Commenting upon 1 ""the severity of the sentence, the London -Sines sarcastically remarks: . “As things go, the sentence waa not severe. If Mr. "VToightman had had a wife, and if, possessed of that treasure, he had forthwith cut her head open or flung her down a flight of stairs, he would probably have boon condemned to a lighter punishment. But the WAS HE TO BLAME 7 THE CHICAGO DAILY TRIBUNE: SUNDAY, APRIL 27, 1873. liny deals otherwise with people who steal—even with people who only steal books of law valued at a few shillings.” The first remarkable feature of tbe case is, that a barrister of thirty years’ standing in London, who was well known in his profession, who had always home a spotless character, and in whose life there appears to bo no. cause for'failure, should have been so reduced in circumstances as to find himself unable to procure a meal with out theft, and that he should have persisted in remaining in a profession which,, after thirty years of practice, loft him stranded and without the means of caring for himself in old ago. There are, however, many instances where men yield to the fascinations of a certain pro fession) and never leave it, or, if they do, always return to it again, when they know that it can only provide for them the means to sus tain life as they go along, and nothing more, leaving them in time of sickness or necessity with nothing for support. Nothing, in fact, is more common than to find men of groat ability, and even of great learning, who labor hard, labor oven by day and by nigbt, and yet at tbe end of every year find themselves with no more money than they had when they commenced. They may bo honest, frugal, temperate, and indus trious, and yet the result is the same. Their ability, valuable as it is, never finds a market whore any results can bo realized from it. This general view of the question was the only one which the prisoner took ; and ho fol lowed it out to its natural sequence and laid the blame upon society, in a speech which ho made to the Court. In the course of his remarks, he said “ho had lived for weeks and months with out a dinner, simply on bread and tea, and such nutriment as that. Ho had sold the coat from his back and the shirt from bis skin in order to supply nia daily wants, but ho had never been guilty of dishonesty. Hehad worked hard. On the shelves of the Inner Temple Library there were now books of which he was the author, which ho. had presented to the Library, and which wore of much more value -than the odd volume which had been paraded before the Court. He had done all that mortal man could do to obtain an honest and honorable livelihood; and, as he understood from the witnesses who had so. kindly come forward on his behalf,, ha had gained an irreproachable character os a man of honor and a gentleman.” gHe tlien spoke with great feeling of tho waste of Ms life’s labor with wMcli ho had sought to lay down some sort of foundation upon which a superstructure might be erected that would say© inm for tho rest of his life from sheer poverty and destitution. Ha then pointed out to tho Judge that he had tho power to sentence him to' five years’ penal servitude, and begged that tho full sentence should bo pronounced. He even begged that no heed should bo given to tho rec ommendation to mercy wMch was affixed to tho verdict by tho jury. “ Whatever might be the sentence,” ho naid, “ ho hoped he should bo able to bear it with tho resignation of a Christian, and with -tho fortitude of a well-born, and,— he trusted ho -might add, notwithstand ing the verdict,—of a well-conducted English gentleman.” Tho meaning of all this Is that, having tried as well and as faithfully as ho could to get a living, and having failed through no fault of his, ho was willing that society might punish him as it saw fit, and, undoubtedly, in his own mind ho felt that society was at fault for tho theft, and not ho. Like many another, he had a claim against tho world for a living, and tho world, having refused to pay tho claim, might complete its injustice by, any punishment it chose.' Many and many a man has felt that the world has not done him justice, and it has been sadly true in many cases ; but few have regard ed it in the philosophical vein of tho book-pur- loiner. Many get even with the world by stealing large sums, and escape punish ment. ' This Mr. VTeightman would not do. He only took enough to get himself a meal, with the evident conviction that any moans to obtain his dinner was justifiable, and, in this view, there is unquestionably both a poetic and practical injustice in his sentence lor such an insignifi cant crime. 'Why this man, who had not been idle, intemperate, extravagant, or profligate, should, after thirty yearn’ laborious practice, suddenly find himself not only without provision for the exigencies of old ago, but even without money enough to purchase his next meal, is a problem for the social philosophers to solve. Whether, after a thirty years’ effort to obtain the moans of life which had resulted in utter failure, ho was in reality criminally guilty, is a problem for the moral philosophers to solve. If the world owed him a living, and refused to pay it,’ was not the world at fault in this case ? FRENCH TRAITS. BY mop. WILLIAM MATHEWS, OP THE OF CHICAGO. Of all the civilized peoples on the globe there is no one whoso-character is so full of seeming, if not real, paradoxes, as that of the French. Al ways better or worse than they are expected to be, —one day sinking far below tho level of hu manity, at another soaring far above it, —now- electrifying the world by their brilliant thoughts or deeds, and anon provoking its indignation or scam by their servility, egotism, or meanness,— tho French are so unchangeable that their distinctive features may bo recog nized in portraits drawn by Cesar and others nearly two thousand years ago, and yet so fickle that one not .familiar with, their whole career is often half inclined to donht their identity. Coleridge says of them, with the usual English narrowness; that they are like gunpowder;'each individual is .smutty and contemptible; but mass them together, and they are terrible., Intellectually, they are equal ly solid and brilliant; do everything thoroughly, yet display tho most exquisite taste in trifles.' We are wont to speak of them as superficial; yet, where do you find profonuder scholars than in France, or workmen who better understand the rules and principles of their art ? Looking on this lively and chattering people, one is about ready to conelndo that your profound bigwigs are mostly shallow dogs—that it is only yonr gay and frivolous fellows that are deep! No people have quicker or. keener perceptions; none probe more thoroughly to tho core everything which they investigate. They are equally skilled in cards and chess, and in marshaling battalions on the field; they are alike at homo in calculat ing the revolutions of planets in their orbits, and in cutting pigeon-wings in a ball-room. They have their La Places and their Lubins; they are alike unrivaled in fillagreo and in mathematics. Their profonndest thoughts are hon-mots; their jests veil deep philosophical theories. It is Paris that is foremost in learned monkeys and in learned scientists; Paris that furnishes us with our latest theories of philosophy; Paris ’that furnishes ns -with our latest 1 styles of fancy goods,' our latest fash ions .in dress. Oar coxcombs ape the Paris ian manners; onr novelists steal the French writers’ plots; our Generals - borrow - from Tnreune and Napoleon their art of war. , Sydney Smith' once' said of Lord John Bussell,'that ho' was ready at a moment’s notice to go up in a balloon, to perform an operation for cataract, or to take command of the Channel fleet. Bat a Frenchman's genius is for more versatile; he can, in the. same hour, discover anew planet, draw a caricature that will convulse the public with merriment, invent a new soup that will make an epicure scream with joy, solve r an enig ma that would have puzzled the Sphinx, and carry a Malakoff by a coup de main. There is but one thing which a Frenchman cannot loam to do well, and that is —to govern and to he governed, Byron hardly slandered them when he pro nounced them - , * . A people who will not be ruled* ' ' ■ - And love T rather to bo ■ scourged than schooled. ’ Franco was rightly characterized by De Mais tro, in 1796, as a republic without Bepubiicans,— a nation too noblo to be enslaved, aud too impet uous to bo free.' Indeed, thoy are tho only peo ple that over existed,. among whom a .govern ment can bo hissed off tho stage like a bad play, and its fall excite less consternation than the vi olation of a fashion in dress. In what other people can ho found such a union of genius and childhood; such a fondness for routine, yet such a prononess, when forced to abandon old customs and principles, to push tho now to their' farthest limit; so profound a love of freedom in theory, and yet such willing ness to recognize such a vast standing army as the only basis of civil government; so exquisite a taste in tho ornamental, and so savage an igno rance of the comfortable; so.'much outward re finement with so much inward unscrupulouaness; so much etiquette,with so little self-sacnflco; such fertility of resources in exigencies, and such a blindness to tho lessons of experience; aspira tions so vivid, with so little sense of what con stitutes true glory; such a sensitiveness to tri fles, such an indifference to a political revo lution ? ,A Frenchman is versatile, and does all things .with equal gusto and enthusiasm; ho chuckles with equal joy at finishing a toy to his mind, ' and in giving to a new science its crowning per fection. He can spend hours in chasing butter flies, or ho can pass a life-time In elaborating a favorite theory, and in digging into the mys teries of a dry aud complex subject. He is the gayest man on the globe; and the likeliest to send a pistol-ball through his own brain; .tho most fickle of men, and tho most obstinate; the politest, and tho ■ most irascible; the devoutest, and tho most atheistic; a friend whom you shall win with a feather, and lose with a straw; the most pregnant of talkers, and tho most diffuse ; an orator who, as Dr. Donne said of Lady Anno, can glide at once “ from predesti nation to slea-ailk,” or, as De Quincey said of Bishop Berkeley, “pass with-tho utmost ease and speed from tar-water to the Trinity—from a moloheap to tho thrones of a God-head." He will wear, without shame, the shabbiest clothes, yet stop in tho street before a looking-glass to curl his moustache and adjust his cravat; he will fight like a tiger for a republic, yet Ho meek 'as a spaniel undef an empire* la short, to the casual observer, a Frenchman is a riddle that defies solution—a psychological puzzle. He is a compound of paradoxes; a harmony of differ ences ; a being bom under tho contending in fluences of Mercury and Saturn. But, lest wa should seem to bo aiming at an tithesis rather:than at truth, lot us cite the authority of a late French writer, who, perhaps, bettor than any other, understood the true char acter of Li« countrymen. “ Qualified for every pursuit,” says Alexia De Tocquerille, “hut ex celling in nothing but war, more prone to wor ship chance, force, success, eclat, noise, than real gloryendowed with more heroism than virtue, more genius than common sense; better adapted to the conception of grand designs than the accomplishment of great enterprises; the most brilliant and tho most dangerous nation of Europe, and the one that is surest to inspire admi ration, hatred, terror, or pity, hut necer indiffer ence,’’—the French exhibit the bizarre union of tho most opt>ositequalities; tho harmonious jux taposition of apparently the most antagonistic elements of life, of nature, and of character. It is nnfortunatothatin judging of the French our estimates are unconsciously more or less affected by the impressions derived from Eng lish Hterature. Nothing can bo more ludicrous or more untrue than tho caricatures which most English tourists have given to the world as pho tographs of the French people. Till lately, it has seemed hardly possible for an Englishman ‘to write about his neighbors across the channel without dipping his pen in gall ; and jrst as tho first and the 360 th degrees of tho circle ore tho farthest apart, though the nearest together, so these two peoples, thonghhut twenty miles apart, have understood each other as little as though Bring on opposite sides of the globe. Judging by many of those libels, one would suppose that one of Nature’s journeymen had made the Frenchman, and not made him well. An English historian admits that, till a few years i ago, the Frenchman was regarded by John Bull with utter contempt. He was a lean, half starved, lankoy-legged creature, looking in hope less despair, and with watery mouth and bleared eyes, at a round of English beef. His attitude was grotesque; hia language even became im mensely amusing, because he did not speak Eng lish with tho slang of a hackney-coachman and the pronunciation of a Cockney. Ho was nick named Jack Frog, because he was supposed to feed on those insubstantial animals, which were also fancied to he tho exact imago of himself in happiness of motion and yellowness of skin* Of course, ho was an arrant coward, as well as & more physical ghost of a man, and one Englishman could flog half-a-dozen “mounscora” as easily as easily as a Yankee coull flog the wholelseven. And all this was behoved, in spite of the fact that the French nation, from the earliest period of history, has been the leading nation of Europe. Its original races long disputed tho supremacy of the else all-conquering Bomans. They gave to Soman Hterature some of its most accomplished orators, and some of its most elegant writers. Cicero learned eloquence from one of their teachers, and Cesar acquired in Gaol now arts of war,. All through the middle ages, in tho Crusades, : in tho great national ware, in the reHgious commotions of the sixteenth century, their gallantry was the.conspicuous splendor of tho times. Their writers have since electrified human thought; their brave deeds have revolutionized modem poHtica; their more elegant arts have been the despair .of all other peoples, and their manners the standard of whatever was polished, courteous, graceful, and pleasing in address.. Li spite of all these facts, to many EngHshmon, os they look across tho straits'through' the which they are surrounded, tho Frenchman is either a dancing-. TTvvcfpr or a buffoon, grimacing andshrugging hia shoulders more like a monkey than & man.. . Disabusing our minds then, bo far as possible, of the prejudices derived from' Anglo-Saxon sources,.let us proceed: to analyze’ the Trench character, and see if we can ascertain its princi-. pal elements. In comparing him with the Eng-r lishman, the first thing, that strikes na in the Frenchman is his mercurial nature, —the extreme delicacy and sensitiveness of hla organism. The English mind is comparatively slow and heavy; it proceeds laboriously from fact to fact; it sel dom jumps or flies; but advances cautiously, stop by step, making sure always of the first before it takes the second. Hence, It is jealous of other minds that have. much facility of as sociation, and cannot* conceit its contempt for sallies of thought, however, lawful, whoso steps it cannot measure by its twelve-inch rulo. It has little sympathy for eccentric greatness, and therefore a man of genius can make his way in England by violence only, fighting wildly against all that is traditional, as did Byron, Wordsworth, and Shelley. . The mental qualities of the Erench are directly’the opposite of; these—consisting in quickness of perception, self-confidence,' and pro cision'ofthought; andtheirphysicalpecallarities in promptness of action and extreme nervous ex citability. It is this intellectual and sensitive organism which has fitted them for tho part they have played in tho world's history, whether in the realm of matter or of mind. The ancient Gauls wore like a firebrand in the midst of Europe, sotting everything about them in a blaze ; and tho modem Trench have been equal ly successful in their efforts to disturb the peace of nations. Whether led by a Charlemagne or Francis 1., by a Luxemburg or a Napoleon, they have burst lie a tempest upon the phlegmatic people of tho North, and, until the slower energies of their Gothic foes were roused, have swept all before them. Tho one crowning quality of . greatness which they have lacked, is patience.; They could carry their victorious eagles over tho burning sands of Syria, or through tho chilling snows of Bussia; but they could never have stood all day, in place, been mowed down by an enemy's ar tillery, or cut down by his cavalry, as did Wel lington's troops at Waterloo. They could build a road over tho Alps under tho leadership of Kanoleon, * while another people would have frozen in despair; but -in executing internal im provements which require long and anxious de liberation to plan and years to complete, they have lagged behind other nations, especially the English. .. ■ ’ Another striking peculiarity in the character of the French is what may be called the his trionic element—their fondness for the theatrical. Every Frenchman is a bom actor. Life is to him a stage, and all his plans and acts have more or less reference to stage effect. French human nature is not like English or German human nature; it is hu man nature elaborated and adorned by art. Hence the matchless excellence of tho French vaudevilles, which are so many photographs of tho national manners; and hence, also, the in sipidity of French tragedy, which, scorning to ho natural, and striving to be classical, neither satisfies the judgment nor grapples with tho .heart. Tho proofs of this peculiarity are seen everywhere in Paris ; in the open street and In tho brilliant salon ; in tho House of Parliament and In the judicial Lallh • in the artist aud in the author; in the garcon and in the graybeard ; from the Prime Minister down to tho gamin. No occasion is too. solemn,' no scene too impressive, no object too beautiful, to check this love of display. Whore hut in ‘ Franco do men . twist tho graceful ' forms of vegetable life into artificial shapes, sell painted wreaths at cemetery gates, and pronounce .rhetorical panegyrics over the fresh graves of their friends ? In what other city than Paris is notoriety, even when scandalous, as sure a pass port to social distinction as birth, beauty, or .fame? Where else, when a savani dies, do stu dents drag tho hears© and scatter flowers over his grave ? Where else would a soldier commit sui cide by casting himself from a lofty monument, or a maiden and her lover make their exit from life’s stage with a last embrace and the fumes of charcoal? In what other country would a me-, chanic, in praising a favorite living author, ex claim, as did a Parisian in extolling Beran ger: “What a man! what sublime virtue! how is ho beloved! Could X but live to ’boo hia funeral! QueUe spectacle! Quelle grande emotion!” In what English, Ameri can, or Gorman cemetery can one find sorrowing affection expressed as at Montmartre— viz : by a tombstone with a colossal torn: carved on it, and underneath tho words, “Judge how, wo loved him!” In what city but Paris, when a triumphant enemy was thundering at the gates, would the newspapers, as lately in the French Capital, publish lists of citizens who swear to die rather surrender ? A correspondent of the Now York Tribune, writing from Paris during the late siege, tolls us that tho bourgeois , when he went to the ramparts, embraced his wife in public, and assumed a martial strut as though he were a very Curtins on tho way to tho pit. Jules was perpetually embracing Auguste, and raving about “ tho altar of our country ” which ho in tended to mount; while every girl who tripped along fancied she was a maid of Saragossa. CATHOLICITY AND‘DARWINISM. BX 3IABOABET F. BUCIIAKAK. Perhaps It will not be considered disrespectful to believers in protoplasm to say that, despite the general and persistent discussion of Darwinism, there remain a great many people who do not know what Darwinism is. Nor is there any clear understanding among intelligent and well meaning readers and thinkers, who read and think chiefly through the pulpits, the magazines, and the newspapers, as to the exact relations between Darwinism as a science and orthodox religion; in other words, between Evolution of Life and Eevelation. It is the purpose of the present paper to state the answer to the question in the preceding par agraph; and, to do it thoroughly, it is best to consider Darwinism in relation to what is popu larly considered its moral antithesis, Catholic. It will bo conceded that Catholic theology is the antithesis of Darwinism, since it is assorted that Darwinism and theology are natural ene mies. It will assuredly surprise the reader if it be said abruptly hero that a learned priest, occu pying the pulpit of a Catholic church in Chicago a few months ago, demonstrated that the popu lar supposition of the enmity between.Darwin ism and Catholic theology is erroneous. It will break the fall of the reader’s mind if it bo added that the current number of the Calholio World, the representa tive organ of Catholic philosophy in the United States, contains an article entitled “ The Evolu tion of Life,” in which the harmony between Darwinism and theology is expounded. The perplexity which prevails upon this ques tion, both as to the nature of Darwinism and as toils relations to previously-accepted philoso phy, arises from two causes; an in definite notion of Darwinism, and a loose ides that theology is anatomy and zoology,—if not; in deed, botany, pisciology, and mineralogy, and the science of organs, also. A plain definition of Darwinism would remove much of the misunderstanding. Bnt a plain defi nition'it is not easy to give of that which is avowedly indefinite. A science can bo defined. But Darwinism is not a science. .Thai is a popular misapprehension. Darwinism is a more hypothesis; a theory; a premiss which Darwin himself does not wholly grant, or a con clusion of which he has considerable doubt. It is only his ignorant disciples who have sought to elevate his hypothesis into a science; • and their efforts • • have been ably supplement ed ‘by the fallacies and casuistry of that largo class of amateur philoso phers who delight in whipping up a war between natural Kienco and revealed religion. It is doubtful whether Mohammed had any clear con viction as to the divine origin of tho black mole between his shoulders, which his followers were wont to look upon as “the seal of prophecy.’* Darwin’s disciples appear to bo convinced of a great deal more than ho is. They hold dogmas ■ which ho never proposed for their acceptance. ' Darwin’s theory of “ natural selection ” and ' < survival •of the fittest his theory merely—is, that eivery kind of animal and plant increases in numbers by a geometrical ratio; that, because tho totql animal and vegetable population re mains stationery, every individual has to strugg lo for existence, and tho strongest survive; that ev ery animal and plant transmits to.ita offspring a general likeness; that the animal man is tho victory of this fight and progression through a practically infinite time. Waiving tho objections of the anti-Darwinists, including Agassia,—who' contend, upon the same mass .of facta whence Darwin educes the theory, that the - theory is absurd,— tho . question is, does this theory con tradict ■ theology? Is this infinitely long ********** l progression," and triumph of tho strong est ******ll.l, disproof of Bevelation ? Is Evolu tion . a revolution which turns God out of tho universe ? , It is hold by Catholic theologians who have ex pressed themselves upon tho subject, that, « with respect to all organisms lower than man,” there is nothing in Catholic theology to prevent belief in Evolution; that, so far as theology is concerned, anybody *ia free to believe that “ all living things, up to man exclusively, were evolved .by .natural law. out of minute life-germs primarily created, or even out of inorganic matter.” St. Augustine can be successfully convicted of fMa Darwinism. Miv&rt, in bis “Genesis of Species,” quotes St. Thomas, Albcrtua ilaguus, Cardinal Cajetan, and others, to show that scho lasticism freely admits the theory of Evolution to this extent. The Catholic fToridsays: “There is nothing in the Darwinian theory, or in the more general theory of Evolution countenanced by facts bearing on the development of life, which a Catholic may not accept, if ho chooses , so. to do.” ' Tho Catholic World hesitates to go beyond the limit reached by tho discussions of Darwinism in the Dublin Devieio and the Continental philo sophico-religiona journals. It- will not concede that the body of man la the climax of the pro gression which it freely admits may bo true of the development of all arnmnla below man. This eaitation arises probably from intellect ual prudence. The Catholic World, however, ascribes it to another cause, Revela tion. But, if Revelation prevent the supposition- that tho highest animal form is a [progression from "an intermediate form, then Revelation estops the theory that .the interme diate is a progression from a lower form. Gen esis forbids tho theory,of Evolution altogether, or it admits' Evolution in its completeness, — that is, from tho lowest to tho highest of which we have knowledge. God was os free to make man, in his body, a revised and improved edition of the ape, or the reptile, or tho fish, aa Ho was to make him out of the dust of the earth, or out of inorganic mat ter. The Bible has to be construed to suppose Darwinism in lower* animal forms; it is not clear why it should not bo- construed to admits sequence of tho principle of Evolution, since it admits the principle. The Catholic World quotes the Dublin Deview, that “it would bo at least rash, and probably proximate to heresy,” to question “ the imme diate and instantaneous (or guosi-instantaneous) formation by God of thebodicsof Adam and Eve.” .The plane of thought between “ instantaneous’* and “ guosi-instantaneous” is generous enough for .Darwinists and anti-Darwinists. It most be admitted, unless theology claims. for itself a logic which it denies to all other sciences, that tho animal man is within the theory of Evolu tion, or theology must maintain that the theory of Evolution is inconsistent with Revelation. But what has theology to do with animal mat ter at all?- To measure natural history by theology, is a confusion of sciences. If natural history is susceptible of analytical treatment by theology, then arboriculture,-and tho process, of extracting sugar from beet-root, are to be consid ered only in relation to the theory of tho circula tion of the blood • and, when Harvey discovered that, many people doubted it, less on account of previously-existing than because his own demonstration of it was so defective. Scientists need to remember that material theories have no bearing upon the spiritual;-and theologians, out of tho same involuntary egoism of science, are apt to forget that theology is not anthropology. Then arises the question of .the soul in man. But Darwinism cannot answer that. It deals with tnun strictly in his anatomy; that is all it professes.. And if it bo • ever - sufficiently demonstrated for all men, including Darwin, to accept , it, it will' hoi then name the* time, nor point to the place, when and where God let the sonl of man in. It will never cross, with its scientific yard-stick, into the Infinite, to measure <3od and His intel ligence. -. Revelation teaches that tho soul began with tho first man. It is infidelity, not Darwinism, that raises a hostile hand against Revelation. CHICAGO AND FATHER MARQUETTE. To the Editor of The Chicago Tribune : Sib: Tho citizens of - Chicago hare taken the preliminary etepa to commemorate the rebuilding of tho city, by inaugurating an Inter-Stato In dustrial Exposition, to be opened next autumn. This is to be commended; and strangers attend ing the Exposition will see the results of a perso nal energy, and of a poraonalprosperity of which the annals of tho past afford no precedent. The citizens of other States, at least very many of them, imagined after the great fire that Chicago was wiped out of the map of tho United States; that she had become a “ Troja fnita name to revive alike recollections of her grandeur and of her untimely extinction. Two years, nearly, have elapsed since the' calamitous event occurred; but to-day Chicago exhibits an enlargement in her business-area, and a permanence in her struc tures, combining both solidity and architectural effect,' to which she would not have attained in the natural progress of events. Her geograph ical position is such, in reference to the Great Northwest, that here, at tho head of Lake Michi gan,' must, from commercial necessity, exist a great city, oven if its site, like Venice, had to be rescued from a bed of ooze. - While it is, therefore, commendable to cele brate the rebuilding of the city, there is another .event hardly less signal in our history, which "ought not to bo overlooked, and that is the second centenary of its discovery. That event oc curred, probably, In the latter part of August, 1673, and should be appropriately commemorated by speeches, by bonfires, and illuminations, and by laying tho foundations of a monument to tho first discoverer, destined to endure for all time. The first, among white men, to visit tho site where Chicago now stands, was the Jesuit mis sionary, Jacques Marquette. Ho was bom in 1637, of an old and honorable family, which re sided in the north of Franco. Hi 1668, he was sent to tho Upper Lakes, where, to use liis own language, “ I found myself happy in the neces aity of exposing my life for tho salvation of all these tnhoe (of Indians), dnd.eapedaUy of the Illinois, who, when I was at Point St.Esprit,had begged me very earnestly to bring tho Word of Qod among them.” , while at La Points, near the head of Lake Su perior, Marqnettohadheard, through: tho Illinois, formerly residing on the western borders of Lako Michigan,', bnt. at that time. occu pying n . region thirty days ■ west, of tho existence of a great river which flowed through grassy plains, over which roamed count less .herds of buffalos. Tina information was communicated to M.- Talon, the Intondant of Canada, a man folly alive to the progress of geo graphical discovery, and at whose instigation Louis Joliet, a fur-trader, was selected to con duct the expedition of discovery, while Marquette was designated: as'the spirifiial guide,—for, at that day, religion and commerce went hand-in hand. The expedition was fitted out at Point si.Tgnace,'on. the norih’ shore of Lako Michi-. gan, opposite Mackinac. iTho preparations wore very meagre, compared with modern Hons for J explqration, cdhsisting'of two canoes,, with five voyagonrs, and a supply of corn and smoked moat. They started out .on:thia memorable : .voyage : :to : .explore ’ tho - groat artery of the Northwest/ ’May 16,- 1673.- They coasted along the shdro of. Green. Bay to its hdad; ascended the Pox Elver; passed, into Lake Winnebago, and followed the tortuous and sluggish stream to -where Portage "now stands. ' Hero the Indian guides, procured at the village of the Miamis. on the west hank of Lake Winnebago, refused to proceed further; hut Marquette, nothing daunted, launched his canoes in the Wisconsin, and descended that stream ; and, one month after leaving St: Ignaco, caught sight of the bold bluffs which hound tho .valley of the Upper Mississippi between Dnhnquo and Prairie da Chien. Once launched upon tho great current, day after day and week after week they floated on, landing at eve to cook their meals, until they reached the month of . the Arkansas, when, from the ho'stilo demonstrations of- the savages, who were armed with Spanish weapons, they deemed it unsafe to proceed further, and retraced their steps. mwq was on the 17th of July, 1673. ■ Arrived at the mouth of the Illinois, instead of. continuing tho voyage to .the Wisconsin, they resolved to ascend tho latter stream and cross to Lake Michi gan. At Kaakaakia,— not tho old town below St. Louis, hnt a town about 7 miles below Ottawa, — they procured guides, who piloted them to near the bead of the Deaplaines, where, by an easy portage, they reached Lac Illinois, now Lake Michigan. From this point they coasted along the west shore of the lake, and arrived at St Ig bace late in September, 1673, bavin g performed a canoo-voyage, in the course of four months, of * over 2,500 miles. Thus Marquette and Joliet were the first white men to visit tho present site of Chicago, two hundred yearn ago next autumn. „ The precise day cannot be determined; but, as they 'reached St. Ignaco‘" in . the latter partoorf r September, and aa 20 miles a day in boisterous weather would be a reasonable .distance to be traversed in canoes, the distance being over 300 miles, it was probably in the latter part of August that'the ~ site of Chicago was first visited by men of Euro pean descent. . Arrived at St, Igimce, the two explorers sep arated, —Joliet hastening to Quebec to announce to the Governor tho results of'the expedition, which had determined the existence of a great natural - highway from the Northwest to “the ocean, and Marquette settling qiuetly.dpwn to resume his missionary labors among tho In dians. * .. “ Marquette, originally of a frail constitution, had contracted by exposure tho seeds of a fatal disease, consumption. He had been impressed so strongly with the artleasness and simplicity of the Illinois that he desired to plant among them tho standard of tho Cross; but it was not until the fall of 1674 that he was enabled to carry his plan into execution.' Data in Octo ber, with a canoe and two voyageors, he left Green Bay, and proceeded to Chicago. The sea son was boisterous, and the camp-fires at night failed to give a generous warmth. These expos ures brought on a hemorrhage of the lungs, which told so fearfully that the good Father predicted that this journey would be his last. Arrived at the mouth of the river, he ascended about two leagues, probably to beyond where Ward’s Rolling Mills now aro. Here his voy agenrs built a hut, in which he passed the win ter. Gamer was abundant, and buffalo, deer, and turkeys wore shot without moving from the site of his habitation. With tho return of spring, his disease relented, and ho proceeded to the great Indian village below the present town of Ottawa, where he gathered in the savages, and preached to them the mysteries of his faith. A few days after Easter, he returned to the mouth of the river and embarked for Mackinac, passing around the great sand-dnnes at the head of the lake, and thence coasted along the eastern mar gin to where a small stream discharges itself into tho great reservoir sonth of the promontory known as the “ Bleeping Bear.” ■ Marquette lay prostrate in the canoe. The warm breath of spring revived him not; the ex panding buds of the forest, or the song of birds, attracted not his attention. At; this point he requested to be .put on - -shore. His voyagonrs bore him tenderly . to the bank of tho stream which -is destined for nil time to .bear hia Tmmn, and erected 1 over him a bark hut. He was aware that Ins hour had ; como. Calmlyhe directions as to the mode of his burial; craved forgiveness of his com panions, if in anght ho had offended them; ad . ministered to them tho Sacrament, and thanked God that he was permitted-, to die in the wilder* noasj a witness to the faith-in his As the night store insisted that his voyagonrs should retire to rest, assuring : them that he would call them when the final hour approached. Two hours after they heard his feeble cry, and, as they reached hia side, found him in the last agony. . This event happened May 18, 1675. Upon tho bank of the stream they dug hia grave, and buried him; but thig was not to be bis. last resting place. A hunting-party cf Ofctawaa, a year or two afterwards, having wandered to the vicinity, opened* the grave,, and, having placed the precious relics in a birchen box, conveyed them to St. Ignace. As.they approached the shore, singing, their rude funeral songs, priests, phytes, and traders gathered together to receive tho sacred trust, and deposit it beneath the floor of tho chapel in which the good missionary hod so often celebrated the rites of his faith. Sucli is tho history of the discoverer of tho site of Chicago; and it seems proper that efforts be made to recover the relics of the good mis sionary, that they be deposited rrith pious care in the West Park, near where ho passed the winter of 1674-’5 ; that a funeral oration be pronounced, reciting his virtues and the great; value of his geographical discoveries j and that a monument be reared which be a conspicuous landmark for all time, and that shall bear this inscription: Here reposes ail that is mortal of The first to explore the die of Chicago; tho first to open to the world the Empire of the Mississippi Talley. J. W. POSTZB. .; A now and Tory excellent u notion ” has just been started in Boston, in connection with the public schools. Tlie Chairman of the Committee on Industrial Schools has presented to the School Committee a report, which includes four orders. Tho substance of these orders is, that on and after September next, sewing, which is now taught in tho sixth, fifth, and fourth classes of the girls’ grammar schools, shall bo gradually: introduced into all the other classes, so that in three years from this time it may ho universally taught. Practical instruction in cutting, shaping, and fitting, and thoroughly making children's and ladies’ garments is also included in this scheme, and the appointment of a com petent sewing teacher to tako charge of the whole department, as well as a small appropria tion for materials. The report has not yet been acted upon; but it has occasioned considerable discussion and has attracted very general public interest, Tho latest English papers record the death of - Mr. Charles Allston Collins, the only brother of Wilkie Collins, tho eminent novelist.' The de ceased commenced his career-as a painter, and took a high position in art, but was obliged to abandon the easel owing to ill-health. Ho af terwards took to literary' work, and wroU in various English : periodicals. Besides a’ description of a tour in Prance (which-' ho made soon after hia .marriage with Mr. Charles. Dickens’ youngest daughter, Kate), which he. called “ A Cruise upon .Wheels,” : ho wrote a.noval called “The Bar Sinister,” and another -entiUed “ Stralhcairn.”; Although ho never achieved so extended a reputation as his' brother, he was highly esteemed in England, not, only as a literary man, but. as a gentleman of a type now becoming rare. A correspondent of the Now York Herald baa made a very excellent suggestion with regard to the ' proposed testimonial to the Bev. Mr. Ancient, Whoso gallant conduct aided, to save so many lives from the wreck of the Atlantic. Ho • proposes that'tho funds which are subscribed shall go’towards building a church for him aa noar-as possible to the scone of wreck, tho tower of which shall be a lighthouse. In this manner a monument .would be erected to the memory of tho dead, and at tho saino. timo hia nama would ho perpetuated. In addition to this, a fitting personal testimonial should also bo - given to the cbnrageoUa clergyman.' Hia service on tot dreadful morning was one of tho few bright deads which relieved tho horror of tbs catastrophe, and such a service should not bo allowed to go unrecognized. , .;B has heretofore been announced that lovers of peaches might as well make np.their minds to, forego their favorite fruit during the coning season, as the crop wonld ho a failure every where. An announcement which comes from the East, however, indicates that the outlook for peaches ia not ho bad. ,It is stated that tba peach-growers end traders of the Delaware an Chesapeake Peninsula have held a meeting to decide that they must seek some other market than New York, as it was so glutted with -the ; fruit that they could not bus* to it. They, therefore, determined that they would send their peaches to Philadelphia, Baltimore, Boston, and other cities tins year. This action does not look'as though there woma be a very serious peach famine at the Bash whatever there may be in the West,

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