Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune, May 4, 1873, Page 8

Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune dated May 4, 1873 Page 8
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8 TERMS OF THE TRIBUNE. Tarns or sußsesmnoN (patisle vs msxsczn. Ittllv, lijr mill 5t2.001 Sunday, ..32.50 rri-tfeotly 0.001 Weekly; 2.00 Parts of a year At the samerato. • - To prevent delay and mistakes, be sure and sire' Post ORlce address in 1011, including State and County. ' i:omittancosmay bomtade either by draft, express. Post Office order, or in registered letters, at our risk. XEUMa TO CITY SUBSCIIIBEJtS. Pally, delivered, Sunday excepted. 25 cents porwook. DaiJr. delivered, Sunday included, £0 cents per week. Address THE TRIBUNE COMPANY,, Comer Madison and Dearborn-6U., Chicago, lIL - BUSINESS NOTICES. STATIONERS’ ATTENTION 1-NEW OniOAGO'S L-ltrr Hend Paper 5 cents per sbeot. For sale by ou i tationara and news dealers. At wholesale, sl3 per ream. G. A. LOENNECKKR. Agent, S3 Market-aU . GOVERNMENT ARTIFICIAL LIMB tory DR. J. B. GARDNER, coroor Sfxtpcatt-st., tnJ Wabaab av.. is ibo only ono In tho Government to futnUb soldiers artificial limbs ana apparatus. . Mkt S&ms. .unday Morning, May 4, 1373. THE LEGI3LAITJSE OF ILLINOIS. Tho second Legislature elected under tho new Constitution of Illinois has about dosed ita la bora. It ia a satisfaction to the people of this State, who had been so long cursed and dis graced by tho biennial Legislature at Springfield, to know that tho reform attempted by tho Con stitution of 1370 has boon, in a great measure, successful. Though the Legislature now ia nearly doubly as numerous as it was under tho old Constitution, admitting many new and inex perienced men to the Council of the State, and though the limitation on the duration of the sessions has been removed, there has been a decided improvement in. the general character of the General Assembly. This result has been produced by several causes. 1. The new Constitution, by prohibiting special legislation, has removed the inducement for a large class of persons to seek election to the Legislature. 2. Those elected, having no power to legislate in any person’s interest, are not ex posed to the temptation before which so many previous Legislatures fell. The result is, that tho Legislatures elected since 1870 have been composed, as a whole, of a better class of men, . who, having no power to legislate corruptly, have not been corrupted. Not being corrupted, tho Legislatures of 1871 and 1373 have had more of tho character of deliberative bodies than any of their predecessors for many years. The members have gone hack to their constituents with clean hands and with a consciousness of official pnnty for which the people will honor them and honor tho new Con stitution. It is not just to say that this’ official integrity is wholly due to the atringent prohibi tions of the Constitution. Wo are sure that tho great majority of the members of both Houses have rejoiced that the Constitution protected them from all offers and bribes, and gave them, the power to say that special legislation was im possible. The present Legislature, like its predecessor, has been conspicuous because of its absolute in dependence of corporate monopolies. For the second time in a quarter of a century, tho Legislature of this State has not been the mere agent of corporations. That in dependence has been shown in the repeal of the famous Lake Park legislation of 1869, —it being rendered more conspicuous from the fact that among those in 1873 voting for tho repeal were several who in 18G9, under tho looseness of the old Constitution, voted for that act. Vrho be lieves that the Lake Park legislation would have ever been repealed by a Legislature elected under the old Constitution, and invested with the power to pass any law for any body who would pay for it? This independence of corporations has made the Legislature equally independent of undue pressure from all other quarters, and the St legislation of the State upon all questions of a 'public character has been marked with a care, deliberation, and regard for right and justice that have not been known in that body for many years. Wo not wish to be understood as saying. that the Legislature that adjourns on Tuesday next has been composed exclusively of Bolons, nor that all the members may boost of an immacu late character; but wo do say that it has illus trated the wisdom of the new Constitution, which sought to render corruption impossible, and to elevate the moral standard of the General As sembly. There have been many foolish things said, and many mistakes made, and the legisla ture has been weak enough to vote itself anotho 1 year of official existence; bnt, nevertheless, the people of Illinois have reason to be grate ful that the Legislature of 1873 has not degenerated into the corruption and shamelessness which were once the rule of legislative bodies in this State. There wore one or two acts passed on Friday which it would be well for the Governor to examine, and possibly veto; but thisis a great rshef from the once ordinary legislation of Illi nois, when the improper acts were numbered by the thousand. Chicago has been more than ordinarily fortu nate in the results of the session. The delega tion from thin county, as a whole, has been successful in securing all the legislation that the peculiar wants and necessities of this large city required. Oho great evil of an imperfect municipal tax-system has been remedied: careful provision has been made to defeat the schemes of those wealthy persons who have so long escaped taxation by. throwing their share upon the general public. The Legislature failed to appropriate money for n second lock on the Illinois, Hirer, bnt our del egation succeeded in having the surplus earn ings of the canal devoted to that purpose. There has been much complaint that the Chicago del egation were often absent, spending a largo part of their time in this city. We do not think the public interests suffered from this cause. The men who had personal • interests enough to require , their attendance at home from time to - time wore better guardians of tho public interests than if they had no other occupation than serving in tho Legislature. These Chicago members, moreover, had the ad vantage of frequent consultation with the city authorities and tho public generally, and to the great profit of both. No member from Cook County disgraced himself by personal or official misconduct, and all will return to the city with cut being ashamed to meet the people they have represented. No person outside of Illinois can qnderatand the relief that has been given by the great change in the character of the Legislature and the legislation of the State that has been wrought by the wise provisions and safeguards of the new Constitution- . -“‘-The periodical growling of the British Lion tofccdi T'ti 0 G encTa and Berlin awards in favor of wtuinSjufagd States is amusing, to say the least. fMa kind was made in Parliament on the substance of which was that, ' - regretted what had taken place, hereafter they wor'd discourage the making of treaties on the “give-all, take-nothing ” princi ple, As the time for the payment of the Genova award draws nearer and nearer, wo may expect these growls to increase, both In nnmber and in tensity. As the growls arc harmless, they are amusing. After the award is paid it is to be presumed the Ison will feel better. ZSIOXIONAL HJSAIIITT. Now attention has been directed of late to those forms of insanity which have been held as an excuse for the fcommission of crime without calling for confinement or any of the restraints usual in the treatment of madmen. Ur. David Dudley Field delivered an address, a few days ago, before the Medico-Legal Society, in New York, in which he took strong ground against the admission of emotional or perceptional in sanity as establishing the irresponsibility of a criminal in the eyes of the law. This view is likely to meet with general approval. It is announced that Dr. William A. Hammond, who is eminent authority on everything pertain ing to insanity, will soon publish an essay, in which ho will take materially the same view of the question- na that advanced by Mr. Field. The sentiment of the Medioo-Legal Society is evidently In sympathy with the movement against the construction of emotional insanity that has obtained in many of the murder-trials, and, if the medical and legal professions join hands in the effort to break it down, it Is safe to predict that the theory will be abandoned which has induced emotional juries to acquit men whoso bands are red with the blood of their follow-men. Mr. David Dudley Field accepts the division of insanity into four lands, viz: That which de stroys the reasoning f acnltios; that which affects the perceptions; that which breaks down the will; . and that which disturbs the emotions. Mr. Field holds that only two of those forms of insanity—those destroying the will and the rea son—can relievo the man who commits a crim inal act from responsibility under the law. Emotional insanity and perceptional insanity are admitted to furnish strong temptations to crime, and as such are probably entitled to a place among other extenuating circumstances that may present themselves in any particular case, but they aro not in themselves a plea in bar of punishment. It is hold that an affection of the perceptions, taldng. the form of illusions or hallucinations, or of the emotions, which may develop and intensify the passions, cannot de stroy the powCr of choosing between right and wrong. The reason still remains to pass upon the right or wrong of an action, and the will re mains to enable the person to control his action. It is not necessary that these mental powers should bo active at the time Of the commission of the crime to fix 'the responsibility. It is not neces sary to prove that the crime was committed under an actual knowledge of the law governing the case; it is only necessary that the criminal should have been competent to know the law, and the fault is his if ho does not know it. The obscuring of the perceptions momentarily, which might have beea preserved in their nominal con dition by the proper exercise of the reason, or the sway of passion, which might have been re strained by asserting the power of the will, can not, therefore, be permitted to exculpate one who commits a crime which ho had the power within himself to avoid. These dear distinctions between passion or delusion and that complete mental collapse which shows itself in idiocy or uncontrolled mad ness are very valuable, and it is necessary that they should beimpresaed upon our criminal ju risprudence,—not that they aro now or strange,— but that they may defeat the ingenuity of law yers who have rendered them obdoure. Of course, there has never been a belief in the minds of Judges, lawyers, or jurors, that emo tional or perceptional insanity actually relieves a murderer from the responsibility of his crime. Had there been an honest 'belief of this land. Judges, lawyers, and jurors, would have united in an effort to proscribe some form of restraint over the victims of mental disease who are' so dangerous to the peace and welfare of the community. It is perfectly well known that the pleas of emotional and perceptional in sanity have been adopted simply for the purpose of providing some quasi-logal pretext for ac quitting men for whom there is some sympathy on the part of the public, Or where there is some scheme on the part of friends to secure their release. -As an instance of the doctrine of emotional insanity, the case of Sickles may bo cited as one of the first of-the category which has been so largely increased since that time. It is perfectly apparent to everybody now, as it was to every body at the time Sickles was acquitted, that he was declared not guilty of the crime of murder because he had shot the man who was supposed to be the seducer of his wife. The jury did not dare to bring in a verdict of acqnittal on this ground, for it was contrary to the law. Insanity was, therefore, the only assumption which would authorize the acquittal under the law. But the Sickles case, also, illustrates the absurdity of the doctrine that every man has the right to 101 l his wife’s paramour,—which is all that emotional insanity means in cases like those of Sickles, Cole, and McFarland,—for subsequent develop ments showed that the victim of Sickles’ emo tional insanity could far no light be regarded as a ''.seducer,” and that Sickles, who afterward condoned his wife’s infidelity by living with her, did not occupy the high ground which the jury conceded to him as an avenger of his honor. Perceptional insanity; or that which takes the form of illusions, may be illustrated by the plea that will bo made on the part of Bobcrt Bleakly, the man who killed his niece in a New York brothel. It will be urged in Bloakly’s behalf that ho was a religious enthusiast, and that ho believed it to be his duty to kill his niece because she was leading a life of shame. If such, a pica should 'ho admitted by a perceptionally-insane jury, under the in genious guidance of a lawyer, it would probably be ascertained after acquittal, as it is pretty gen erally believed now, that Bleakly murdered his niece because she refused to share with him any longer the earnings of her prostitution. Tins combined movement of the physicians and lawyers to break down the mere pretext of emotional and perceptional insanity in the inter ests of murderers and other criminals is one that deserves to be encouraged. If a declaration of emotional insanity means simply a proclama tion that ato an may shoot a wife’s paramour, a woman kill a faithless lover, or a wife kill a hus band’s mistress, it is time that it should be taken out of the domain of jurisprudence, and placed ; where it belongs, with the use of intoxicating liquors, or any other of the circumstances which abnormally develop the passions or suppress the perceptions of man. No sane man would advo cate a law which should release such criminals THE CHICAGO DAILY TRIBUNE: SUNDAY, MAY 4, 18?3. from responsibility and punishment on account of the intrusion upon marital honor, and thus openly establish the principle that a man may take the life of a fellow-man in his own hands under this or any other circumstance except that of self-defense. Tot, so long as emotional and perceptional insanity is permitted to act as a bar to punishment for crime, this doctrine is secretly admitted and approved. LEGISLATION AMD TEMPERANCE, At the last weekly meeting of the Methodist cler gymen in New York City the question for discus sion was: “What is tho most desirable legisla tion at tho present time for tho advancement of the interests temperance?’* Tholcadingsehtimcnt of tho meotingwas in favor of prohibitory legisla tion as tho most effective moans of chocking in temperance. There was one minister, however, who took aznoro rational view of tho question. Ho admitted, what everybody of sense and decency admits, that drunkenness is a great evil and one of the principal causes of crime; but he was not prepared to admit that tho quickest and surest means of preventing it was to be found in stat utes prohibiting tho sale of intoxicating liquors, for the Very sensible reason that laws which . are too stringent are pretty sure to defeat themselves.' Ho went fur ther, and pointed out that the moral power of the Church should exert itself more largely in tho work of suppressing tho vice of intemper ance, and that tho effect of excessive legislation in the matter had a tendency to render this power inactive. This protest did not prevail, and tho majority of tho ministers insisted that stringent prohibitory legislation is tho only way in which drunkenness can bo eradicated. This general proposition is probably true. For those who believe that drunkenness will ever be thoroughly eradicated, —and to believe this would, betoken the highest confidence in the millennial doctrine,—tho theory of prohibitory legislation as a means to this end will, probably, commend itself. These persons will have to admit, how ever, that. tho enforcement of the legislation would be even more necessary than tho legisla tion itself, and to behove in this would require a still greater amount of faith. Students in his tory would scarcely venture upon tho conclusion that this could over be secured. America, like every land of promise, must be regarded as in a transition or experimental state. Our earliest forefathers started out with Arca dian dreams, and their posterity has not entirely abandoned them as illusions. There are still dreams of government, of society, of virtue, of universal happiness that pervade certain respect able and valued communities. Experiments are the order of tho day. Not the least important, nor the least embarrassing, of these, is tho hope of establishing tho use of stimulants, which is so likely to be turned into abuse. Legislation is the most suggestive method of attaining this and all other desirable things in the country. While tho law-making power rests with tho peo ple, tho people naturally think that it is only necessary to make tho laws in order to suppress objectionable practices of any kind. Itis unneces sary to enter into details to point out how nu merous and humiliating have been tho disap pointments attendant upon this pleasant fallacy. The doctrine that the majority rules, which is susceptible of such varied misconstruction, is largely responsible for tho hallucination that a law is all that is necessary to instl-i tute any [change in tho condition of things which the majority may happen to desire. Tho idea of prohibitory legislation in liquor will servo to illustrate tho absurdity of the fallacy that must sooner or later force itself upon tho American people. To enforce a law that intoxicating drinks shall not bo sold, it would be necessary to make a law that intoxi cating drinks should not bo manufactured. To enforce the latter law, it would bo equally neces sary to make a law prohibiting tho growing of material from which intoxicating drinks may be manufactured. It would not bo difficult to trace tho whole doctrine to a reductio ad dbsurdum, which would bo understood by tho most obtuse advocate of prohibitory law. It would be neces sary to enact and enforce a law prohibiting the desire of stimulant among the human race, and punishing it in a manner commensurate with the enormity of the offense. It is not strange that ministers of tho Gospel should have extreme views on a subject like that of intemperance. Tho proposition made, that the Methodist Church shall not recognize among its ministry any gentleman who boo be come committed to the personal misfortune of using tobacco, is indicative of the spirit with which tho clergy are apt to pursue the purpose of putting down abused No body of people is more apt, as a class, to confuse use and abuse than tho clergy. However this train of thought may affect ecclesiastical church government, is for them to decide; but when they come to apply it to secular govern ment, which has not to deal with the personal thoughts or habits of its people, except as they affect the general welfare and the public safety, the idea of prohibition, whether in liquor, or tobacco, or the uso of pro fane language, or any other matter of personal concern, is entirely repulsive. • The Government, can only deal with abuses; it is for tho Church to overcome the uses and break down the habits which lead to these abuses. DETECTIVE STRATEGY. The examination of George Bidwell, one of the parties connected with the forgeries on the Bank of England, which took place in London recently, developed some curious phases in de tective adventure, which are fully equal in inter est to those depicted in the pages of a certain school of novelists, who never tire of interweav ing in their stories the extraordinary twist ings and turnings of that extraordinary class of the community. In thin instance, the witness was one James McKelvie,- a private detective. Ho deposed that, in consequence of some information he had received from certain newspaper reporters,—showing, by the way, anew sphere of journalistic usefulness,—ho was led to watch a certain house in Edinburgh. About 10 o’clock in the morning, his watchfulness was re warded by the sight of a man coming out of the bouse, whom ho at once decided to be George Bidwell. Ho posted a letter in the letter-box, and then went to a stationer’s shop, the detec tive still keeping his eye upon him. 'Ho after wards retraced his steps, and went into a baker’s shop. While standing in the door, he looked about in a curious manner, as if suspicious that some one was watching him. He came out, and, after getting to a comer, ran as fast as ho could into a blacksmith’s shop. The detective fol lowed him quietly. Bidwell, finding that he could not get through the , shop, turned back, and passed the detective, - the latter not ’ interfering with him, as he did not wish him to suspect that he was fol lowing. Bidwell then took a fresh start, and commencad running again through several streets into Scotland Lane. .Then he jumped oyer the railings of a church-yard, and then oyer several stone trails and through private gardens, the detective mnningand jumping with equal agil ity., At last Bidwell got into a gentleman’s house, and the detective, arguing that he would fetch np in Scotland Lane again, took another and shorter route and got into the lane ' again just as Bidwell was coming out of the house. Bid well then ran into Duncan street, where he was finally brought to hay by the detective. The fugitive made several thrusts at the detective with a stick ho was carrying, wherenpon the de tective took a email bottle from his pocket, and aimed the deadly weapon at. Bidwell, as if it were a pistol. Now comes the detective's ex traordinary sagacity. He told Bidwell to stand and bo a gentleman and a brother, and give him his hand, which Bidwell did; wherenpon the two shook hands very affectionately—with such fer vor. indeed, that the detective declined to let go until ho had banded him to the regular po lice. The detective, in his testimony, explained that ho fancied ho saw Bidwell giving a Masonic sign, wherenpon he called him brother, and Bid well surrendered and explained that his jump ing over fences and stone-walls was occasioned by fits of giddiness to which he was accustom ed. Shrewd os the detective may appear to some, most will consider it pretty mean and munll business to address a man affectionately and entrapf him by means of a friendly Masonic signaL Hod it not been for this signal Bidwell would soon have discovered the innocu ous character of the detective’s bottle, and, in the bout of arms which would have ensued, un doubtedly the stickwould have got the bettor of the bottle, or there might have been a further extension of the exciting hurdle-race, in which even more remarkable feats of running and jumping might have boon performed. Much as we may admire this detective in the various phases of the foot-race, his courage in whipping out his battle, and his adroitness in the Masonic business, still wo cannot help regarding thacon cinsion of the affair as a very lame and miser able one. Detective McKelvio failed to keep np the reputation for the strange and fantastic with which the novelists have endowed his profoa- eion. A man named George W. Schelde baa been arrested in Washington for. stealing books from the Congressional Library, in which ho bad been given temporary employment upon the solicita tion of certain Congressmen. At last there is an opportunity for the administration of justice in Washington. Now, let this wretch, who has been guilty of carrying off the reports of the Patent- OHico and Agricultural Bureau and other valua ble literary worts, bo punished with the ex treme severity of the law. There has long been need of an example which should stop the steal ing at the National Capitol. How can a confiding public expect members, of Congress to preserve their honesty, if such men asScheide are allowed to contaminate them ? How can Oakes Ames avoid catching the kleptomania, if such men as Schoido are allowed to run at largo ? Of course, the stuff ho stole is of no value, but this must not be urged as an excuse. Every protection should bo afforded Congressmen and other Gov ernment officials in their efforts to lead honest and virtuous lives, and Congress .cannot be safe while Scheide is at large. If Scheide shall es cape punishment for stealing his wheelbar row load of trash out of the Congressional Li brary, the first thing wo know Congressmen may bo taking railroad bribes, Eederal Judges running in league with Wall street brokers, oven Cabinet ministers joining in Bing corruptions. There is little hope that stealing can be stopped in Wash ington if Scheide is allowed to escape scot free. Therefore, lot the poor devil go to the Peniten tiary, and hereafter it may become discreditable for Congressmen—who have stolon thousands where he has taken a penny—to become corrupt. It is possible that Scheide, considering his pay too small, voted himself an increase, including 500 volumes of public books as back pay. For this there is a grand precedent. All Scheide has to do is to donate the books to some public char ity, and then ho will stand precisely where so many of the more conscientious Congressmen stand, who robbed the Treasury under the pre text of back pay. Lot Scheide insist that what he took was back pay, The March number of the “Monthly Notices of the Eoyal Astronomical Society” (Groat Britain) contains a catalogue of eighty-one double stars, discovered with a 6-inch refracting tele scope, by. Mr. S. W. Burnham, of this city; tho result of several months of labor in scanning tho sky- • ... . jtia particularly worthy'of notice that this important contribution to scientific knowledge has not been made by.tho aid of the equatorial telescope nowruating in tho Dearborn Observatory. That magnificent instrument, tho beat on this continent, and having only two su periors in the known world, is unused and prac tically unusable. Tho dome that protects it from tho rain is also an efficient protector from observation, as it cannot be operated so as to al low the telescope to. bo pointed upon a desired

star ;-and thero has not been a dollar in the treasury of the Astronomical Society since the firel It is simply a disgrace to tho city that the Dearborn telescope should remain in its present condition. —— Tho Snprcmo Court of the United States, in Uio recent case of Olcntt vs. Pond du Lae County, Wis., hare assorted, as beyond all controversy or question, that all railroads are public highways, having no existence save as such. It: declares that, “No matter who is the agent, the function performed is that : of tho State. Though the ownership is private, tho use is public." The Court says that, because “all persona may, not put their own cars upon the road, and use their own motive power, has no bearing upon tho question whether the road is a public highway. It boars only upon the mode of use, of which (he Legislature is exclusive judge This decision, though not in terms, implies that tho railroads, being public highways, and tho corporations ex ercising only functions pertaining to the State, tho Legislature of any State is the exclusive judge as to the mode in which railroads may be used, and can, when it please, -esumo for the State the operation of the road. A correspondent of the Leavenworth Times, writing from Fort Sill in the Indian Territory, gives the details of seventeen massacres perpe taated during the past two years and a tho Kioway Indians. The facts are taken from tho records in the office of the Adjutant-General of Texas, commencing with the abduction and horrible torture of Mrs, Fields, in 1870, and clos ing with the recent murder of surveyors. near Oimmaron Eiver, Iry Cheyennes and ; Kioways. The Kioways are the Indians who have recently signed a petition, drawn up by the Quakers, ex- pressing their grief over the imprisonment of the two relentless fiends. Baianta and Big Tree, and asking for their teleaso. Lord John Bussell, who is now in his 81st year, and who for some time has not cut a very prominent figure in politics, has recently written a work which will bo calculated to bring him be fore the‘world again. The work is entitled, “ History of the Christian Eeligion in the West of Europe,” and is in reality a furious onslaught upon Homan Catholicism,—his special aversions being Popery, personal government, Mr. Lowe, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Cardinal Cul len, and the Syllabus. Some idea of the charac ter of the hook may bo inferred from the fact that ho says the Syllabus - teaches THab youths treason in a covert form; that the Board of Edu cation in Ireland has disobeyed the precepts of Christ and violated the spirit of Magna Charts; that Cardinal Cullen has proclaimed the juris diction of the Pope over the Queen's Govern ment in Ireland; and that the laws of Henry VJLLL and William HI. (long ago abandoned and repealed) must be maintained or the Kingdom of Ireland he transferred to the Pope. Immigration and Lands. Mr. Inline Silversmith, editor of several Ameri can guide-books, has recently issued a book de scriptive of the public lands of the United States, as well those belonging to the Govern ment as those belonging to the Various railroads. The work is especially valuable to immigrants, of whom the present year will probably bring half a million to our shores. The number arriv ing in 1872 was 292,417, of whom 128,000 were Germans. These people are to find homes upon the present unoccupied lands of tho country. Naturally, they will seek their homes in the West, and in their journey will have, for tho most part, to pass through Chicago. These people are to become producers and consumers in that grand area of tho continent of which Chi cago is to bo the groat distributing centre. The lands now offered to these people are in Illinois, lowa, Nebraska, Missouri, Kansas, California, Oregon, Washington, Montana, Idaho, Dakota, Wyoming, Now Mexico, and tho Indian Terri tory. Among the railroad lands offered to set tlers are mentioned tho following: 50.000. acres on the Northern Pacific Bail rood, beginning at Duluth, in Minnesota, and extending to Puget Sound, in Washington Terri tory. 12.000. acres of tho Union Pacific Bailroad Company, beginning at Omaha, Nebraska; ex tending through Wyoming Territory to Corinne, Utah Territory. 11,250,000 acres of tho Central Pacific Bailroad Company, beginning at Corinne, Utah Territory, extending through Utah, Nevada, and Califor nia. . . 3.200.000 acres of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fo Hailroad Company, beginning on the Missouri Biyer at Atchison, extending through Kansas, Colorado, and Now Mexico Territory. 1.200.000 acres of the Burlington it Missouri EaUroad Company, extending from lowa to Ne braska. ' ■ 1,700,000 acres are offered by the lowa Bail road Land Company, consisting of lowa Bail road lands, the.Cedar Eapids & Missouri Eiver Bailroad Company, the lowa Falls it Sioux City Bailroad Company, the Sioux City & Pacific Bailroad Company, and the Fremont & Elkhofn, and Missouri Valley Bailroad Company lands. 1,200,000 acres of the Atlantic & Pacific Bail road Company, extending from Missouri to tho Indian Territory. 1,000,000 acres of tho Missouri, Kansas & Tex as Bailroad Company. 500.000 acres of tho Chicago, Bock Island & Pacific Bailroad Company. 360.000 acres of tho Illinois Central Bail road, running through our State to Cairo and northwestward to Sioux City. 60,000,000 acres are offered by tho Board of Emigration of Nebraska of the State lands and alternate sections of Government lands along the lino of tho Union Pacific Bailroad. 1,000,000 acres are offered by the Michigan & Grand Bapids Bailroad. 700,000 acres are offered by tho Cairo & Ful ton Bailroad Company, extending from Arkansas to Texas. Miracles seem to bo on the increase. A da; or two since wo recorded the alleged'miracnlons cure of a laborer in lowa, by the use of Lourdes water, and now comes a fresh miracle from San Francisco. The papers of that city relate that a young woman, engaged in the disbursing of charities, was thrown into a trance on Good Fri day, and, while in this condition, there appeared upon her forehead and side, hands and feet, tho wounds that Christ received upon the cross, and that, from these apparent wounds, there oozed palpable, real blood. Inasmuch as this effect has been produced before, and proved to bo a trick, the San Francisco miracle will find few be lievers. The Chronicle of that city, in narrating tho story, says: . This same trick was played by the Lisbon nun. She miraculous visions. Christ ■promised to visit her upon Bt, Thomas Acquinas Day. He did bo, and impressed upon her hands, Bide, and feet all the wounds of the crucifixion. Hinge and Princes sought as pious relics tho sacred rags that bore tho bloody impress of tho cross. Philip H. caused her to bless tho royal standard of the Armada. The Inquisition examined into and indorsed tho validity of tho miracio. Pope Gregory XTTT. sent tho pious non a godly letter. Subsequently the ambitious maiden attacked the authenticity of Philip 11. to the crown of Portugal, and afterward it was necessary for his Eoyal Highness to either discredit the cun or yield the throne. The •authorities of the Inquisilion,re-examined the wounds of the miracle-working nun. and found them to be not even akin deep, but made with red lead. The Bishop. Archbishops, and Apostolical Inquisitors condemned her to life penalties for her fraud. • There is one thing very certain iniho premises. The young lady is either a*saint or a sham, and as live saints are very raro nowadays, it would bo as well to investigate and see if she is not a wlmm. . . . A furious struggle is now raging in Cincinnati over the price of beer and whisky. The Commer ftialm laboring zealously for cheaper beer,.and tho Enquirer for cheaper whisky. At last ac counts, there was a prospect that both results might be achieved, which will he a comfortable arrangement if it be effected before the~ Musical Festival commences. ’ If Cincinnat wants to do tho handsome thing by her thou sands of guests next week, let her furnish them with two beers for 5 cents, and tbo usual accom paniments of Gomuetlichkeit; instead of one, as now. . An aged negro, named Henry Edwards, was banged at Hernando,' Miss., April 24, for the murder of another negro, named Frederick 'Shaw. The death penalty was enforced by a negro Sheriff, in the presence of 2,500 negroes of both sexes. The murderer, in addition'to the crime for which he was executed, hod tried to kffl a school-mate, shot a soldier, stabbed a man, out a policeman, had four wives living, and had been in five jails and two penitentiaries. Al together, ho was one of the blackest wretches on record. - M. Buffet, tho new President of the French Assembly, is represented to have, been originally a lute-maker, and some of the biographical dic tionaries speak of him as the son- of one of. Napoleon’s officers. Ho has always been a moderate man and an optimist, and a faithful servant of every Government France has over seen. In 1843 it was said of him: “Tho Beds accuse him of being White ; the Whites, of be ing Bed; tho Centres say, what does it matter, so long as tho Iniffei (side-board) is well filled.” A conflict for precedence has arisen between the two Australian Capitals, Sydney and Mel bourne. Tho latter has recently gained a con siderable advantage by securing the landing'of the mails, which Sydney has 'offset by making itself the base of supplies of coal for ocean going steamers. In this race for precedence,' Sydney has the advantage of being the largest city in Australia. FRENCH TRAITS.—II. BY PBOF. WTT.T.T Aar MATHEWS, OP , THE 1 TISIVKH- BUT 07 CHICAGO. This anxiety about appearances, this fondness • for display, has marked the French.character in all ages. “In this country,” wrote Laurence Sterne, at the close of the eighteenth century, V nothing must bo spared for the back; and if you dine on an' onion, and live in a garret seven stories. high, you must not botray.it in your clothes.” “ Here,” continues another traveler in Franco, “things are estimated by their air; a watch may he a masterpiece without exact ness, and a woman rule the whole town without beauty, if they hate an air. Her life’s a' donee,’ and awkwardness of step its greatest disgrace.” This vanity of the French causes them to boast even of those things which would cause an American or. English man to hang down his head with shame. For example, on Englishman chanced to be in the Elysian Fields at a grand review of the Prussian and English soldiers who occupied Paris in 1815. From a feeling of delicacy he shunned all allu sion to an event which he fancied must be a source of deep humiliation to Franco. But a Parisian came up to him, and said jauntily: “Look here, sir I 'What a magnificent spectacle 1 ICs only in Paris that you see such sights!” The moral gulf that separates the Frenchman and the Englishman is illustrated by nothing more vividly than by the different motives ad dressed by-Napoleon and Nelson to their re spective followers. “ Soldiers I ” exclaimed tho former, “ forty centuries are looking down upon you from the summits of those Pyramids I ” “ England," telegraphed the latter to bis fleet, “ expects every man to do his duty.” The fact that the word “glory” perpetually occurs in Bonaparte’s despatches, while in ■Wellington’s, which fill twelve enormous volumes, it never once occurs, but “ duty ” is invariably named as the motive for every action, is also intensely sig nificant regarding the characters of the two peo ples. Olory,— that word forever on a French man’s lips,—has been in all ages the wiß-’o-the wisp which -has led Franco astray; the golden calf before which, as Strauss lately reminded Benan, she has danced for centuries; the Fata Morgana which has allured her again and again from tha prosperous fields of labor into the desert, often to tho very brink of an abyss. It is this “ staginess ’’—this un truth—this lack of loyalty to nature—that pro vokes tho dissatisfaction wo feel in the last analysis of French character. We find that the qualities which dazzled ns are a sham. The promise of. beauty held out by external taste is not fulfilled; the fascination of manner—tho courtesies, bows, and smiles—bear, as another has said, a vastly undue proportion to the sub stantial kindness and trust which that immediate charm suggests. The gruffnesa of an English man; when a stranger addresses him, does any thing but awaken expectation of courtesy or en tertainment; yet, if he consents to entertain yon, with what a princely hospitality does ho welcome you to his home! and, if he calls . you friend, how does he grap ple you to his heart with hooks of steel 1 On the other hand, the profusion of courtesies with which a Frenchman greets a woman as she- en ters a public conveyance is not followed by the offer of his seat; while tha roughest backwoods man in America, who never touched his bat or crooked his body to a stranger, will guard the poorest woman from insult, and incommode him self with respectful alacrity to promote her com fort. So generally is the lack of simplicity rec-. oguized as on essential element in the French character, that when wo wish to express tho op posite of natural tastes, we can find no word more significant than “ Fenohiflod.” Tha mor-. bid self-consciousness which characterizes the French, which runs through their oratory, their conversation, and their manners, . is fatal to tho highest excellence, intellectual or moroL Simplicity and earnestness—self-forgetfulness and abandonment —the ability, as Coleridge terms it, “to lose self in an idea dearer than self, - ”—is the condition of all greatness. It is thin which has distinguished pre-eminently tho heroes and martyrs of dvery ago ; all who have bled or died to maintain a principle; all who have electrified us by their oratory, or charmed ns by their numbers ; all who by deed or word have won a lasting place in the affections or memories of mankind. Another peculiarity of the Frenchman is, that he is not self-centred and self-contained; that, more than other men, he is dependent for hap piness upon things without himself. The famous song of Sir Walter Baleigh, “My mind to me a kingdom is,” wo may bo. snro that no Frenchman conld over have written. It is cer tain that the sentiment, “.Never less alone than when alone,” came not from the pen of a native of France. While thd 'Englishman shrinks like the turtle within his shell, the Frenchman is gregarious; the former is hap piest when ho shuts his door on the world, and hugs his fireside; the latter, when mingling with his fellows, in the crowded theatre or the noisy street. A life spent in discharging the plain,, homely duties of his calling, with no alterna tions but domestic joys and recreations, —with no factitious excitements or public diversions, — would be to him the ideal of tameness and in sipidity. Give an Englishman a home, and he can easily forego society. Even the solitude of the wilderness has no terrors for him, and he is happy on the very borders of civilization. The French, on the other hand, have failed almost utterly as colonizers because of their intense social instincts,—the secret, no doubt, of their exquisite courtesy of manner, —and because they can never forget that they are Frenchmen! A French writer has justly observed that in America the individual absorbs society; in France, society absorbs the individual. It is not a meaningless fact that the French language has no such words as comfort and home. Hence it is that in Paris the triumph of material nice ties reaches its acme—that, for superficial amusements, that city has grown to be the capital of the world. Paris is the theatre of the nations; a vast museum; a place of amuse ment, not of work; an Elysium, to which all the world’s idlers and triflers—all who are plethoric with 'wealth which they are puz zled to spend—all who are dying of ennui, and seeking for now devices to kill time— naturally flock. Hero are the appliances, mul tiplied and diversified with the keenest refine ment of sensual ingenuity, for keeping the mind busy without labor, and fascinated without sen sibility. The senses of tho Parisian are every where captivated with piquant baits; as he steps into tho world,'he finds a life all .prepared for him, and selects it as he does bis dinner, from the long carte of tho restaurants.. Where but in Franco would a grave jurist write a learned work on the Physiology of Taste, and announce that “ The discovery of anew dish does more for human happiness than - the discovery of a now star;” or a.great statesman complain of the English people that they have 150 forms of re ligion and but one Banco, namely, melted batter? . It is a significant fact that Paris has scarcely any other employments for its 3,000,000 of inhabitants than just those which aro the first to fail in tho hour of adversity. Its faubourgs are occupied by manufacturers, not of articles that men must have, but of bronzes, or molu, marqueterie, bnhl-wprk-furnitnro, mir rors,- china, clocks, table-ornaments,- marbles, and all that contributes to more appearance and enjoyment. Ton will find in the city about an equal number of celebrated dancing-masters and celebrated teachers of mathematics; and the municipality pays- one-third, more for its fetes than it does for its religion, •. But it is in the literature of a people that, more faithfully than in anything else, is mir rored the national character; and true as this is of every civilized nation, it is especially true of tho French. The leading intellects of France have been always, not only the authors, but aiso the exponents of the thoughts and feelings of the people; and nowhere has a more perfect allegiance been rendered id those intellectual kings wfe*srvem by the divine right of wit and genius, i'd who, when dead, still “rule us from their ran!.” The first fact that impresses every - student of -French literaturois the remarkable clearness of the writers—their superiority to all their European rivals in perspicuity and - precision It Is a remarkable fact that in the age of our great writers, when our- literature was -unrivalled in the gorgeous opulence of its rhetoric, the English language was never once made the ob ject of conscious attention. No man seems ever to have reflected that there was a wrong and a right in the choice of words 'or.phrases, in the mechanism of sentences, or even in the gram mar. Men wrote eloquently because they wrote feelingly; they wrote idiomatically because they wrote naturally and without affectation; but if a false or acephalous structure of sentence— if a barbarous word or a foreign idiom—chanciii to present itself, no writer of the seventeenth century was scrupulous enough to correct it. The French writers, on the other hand, early saw the supreme importance of artistic expres sion, and gave, more attention to the cul tivation of their language—to the study of its idiomatic niceties and delicacies—than any other people. Partly because the French mind has a keener perception than the English of the Greek-like . simplicity and directness which belong to the highest artistic beauty; partly because Ehe French have more conscience in intellectual matters; and portly because the French Academy acted as a literary police for the suppression of verbal license, Franco, more than two centuries ago, took the lead in literary workmanship, and that supremacy she still maintains. While the great writers of England were still pouring forth their thoughts with in artistic skill, or were rising ,to perfect beauty of statement only when possessed with that white heat of passion which gives to rhetoric an ar rowy directness and a rhythmical.flow, Franca had already achieved a classic propriety of style, and to-day she touches rhetoric to England with as much authority as Greece taught it to Borne. What English author of the sixteenth or seventeenth centuries rivals in style tha exquisitebeauty of Pascal ? Who in the eighteenth exhibits such a command of all the luxuries and delcocies of ex pression—such a marriage of rhythmical music with logical accuracy of thought asPaul Louis Courier ?—and where in the nineteenth shall we find another style so artistic as that of Benan or George Sand; so delicate, brilliant, equable, and strong as that of Sainle-Eohve ? It is a singular fact that the oft-quoted saying, "Language was given to man to conceal his thought,” should have come from a Frenchman man who, of all men on the face of the earth, wears his heart on his sleeve, and no sooner has a thought or emotion than he is in an agony to communicate it. Of all the’ faults of style, there is none for which a .Frenchman has so profound a horror as for obscurity. Take all of the Gallic writers from Montaigne to Lamartine, and search through the works of each from tltlo-pago to finis, and you will hunt as vainly for an obscure passage, as in a German author for a clear one. Dip where you will into Pascal, Descartes, Bossuet, Boussean, or Taine, you will find every sentence written 'as with a sunbeam. Nothing can be more even than the flow, nothing more logical than the structure, of the periods; the limpid clearness of the pebbled brook runs through them all; while, on the other hand, Taylor, Hooker, and Milton abound with ellipses, parentheses, and involutions, and your great German thinker—especially, if a metaphysician—treats a sentence as > sort of, carpet-bag into which to cram all the ideas it can be made to hold. As with the giants of French literature, so with the dwarfs'; shallow these may be, but foggy and incomprehen sible, never. Even one of the most distinguished English critics admits that in the competition of the literary chiefs of Europe, the palm of su periority must be given to the writers, not of his own country, but of Franco. “ Darkened,” ha says, “as the literary language of Francs has often been by the fumes of undigested metaphy sics, there is' no author, and scarcely any reader there, who would not stand aghast at the intro duction into his native tongue of that inorganic language which even Samuel Taylor’-Coleridge him self tumbled out in somo of his more elabo rate speculations, and with which the. imitators of that great man are at this day distorting and Germanizing the speech of our progenitors." Some French fortune-tellers have recently been arrested at Nantes, whoso prescriptions for tho securing of certain results are quite as unique as tho bouillon compounded in the caul dron of Macbeth's witches. One set'of dupes took rat-broth, mixed with twenty-five centi grammes of camphor and twenty-three centi grammes of essence of cloves; and another sought to secure fortune by doses of elixir of toads and powdered rhubarb, equal parts. Soma of the proscriptions were hygienic in character, as where one party was ordered ito scour the face with salt and water, take a groat quan tity of soap, and eat raw meat for nine days; and another, to wash the head with rum, and face and loins with salt water, the ears with sour wine, wear a flannel belt, and carry salt in tbs left pocket. - Absurd as itmay seem, the fortune tellers found an abundance of victims,-who were ready to bolt down these nauseating decoctions, with the expectation of realizing fortunes and future happiness, and who still pinned their faith to tho fortune-tellers even after they were arrested. The authorities, however, took a dif ferent view of the case, and sent them .to prison for six months, whore they can speculate on fur ther additions to their extraordinary pharma copoeia. i The Now York Herald advocates tho use of cal cium lights as an auxiliary in tho work of de stroying tho Modocs. Its theory is, that, by tho use of thin powerful fight at night, our own troops would bo in darkness, while every move ment of the Modocs could be seen if they attempted to get out or to go to the lithe for water, -■ and that our. troops therefore would be perfectly secure by night, and could make their. advances into the Lava Bed by daylight. As the recent advance, which resulted in the death of so many officers and privates, was made by daylight, it is difficult to see what particular advantage there is in that style of operation. Every encounter with the Modocs thus far has happened in the daytime, and m every ono our troops have either been severely worsted or have gained no apparent ad vantage. . This rather novel proposition throws no now fight on tho situation. While members of Congress in all parts of the country have boon disposing of-the proceeds of tho salary grab, some by refunding it to the Treasury, others, by distribution aiming tho various counties of their districts, and others in public charity, nothing has been heard from the member from Chicago. It is true-that Mr. Far well alone represented, during the last two years, a district which will hereafter require three Bep roaontativos, and, therefore, might feel himself entitled to extra compensation; but it is reported that if ho does not return it to tho Treasury of tho United States he will devote the extra pay to'"some public service, probably tho Public Library. Disinterested persona in this city who have witnessed the recent quarrel between The Cei caoo Thtbuxe end the Northwestern Advocate aro beginning to think that tho Methodist organ is either ignorant of tho facta in tho case, orun fair in its treatment of them. It is about time the public should know that the Advocate em ploys a member of the Times’ stall to do a large part of its editorial work. In view of tma circumstance, the violent attack made upon The Tain cue, in’ the name of. Metnou ism (for the Advocate is the official paper of the Methodist Church), is not toboregKdeo ss at all candid or impartial. The SjUica, aa everybody knows, is incomparably less of a news paper, and less the exponent' of morality, tnan The Tbibtoe ; and, until the Advocate “® es , ha to distribute its 'censure upon both auae, public will do well to take its latest diatribe just what this explanation may show it w worth. Wo-should tike to know of the MeUiodisra in thin community whether they aro wHHUg . indorse the Times, as tho Advocate tacitly doe*. Interior.