Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune, May 9, 1873, Page 2

Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune dated May 9, 1873 Page 2
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2 A BAPTIST FIELD-DAY. fomaal Meeting of the Trustees of thc Theological Seminary. Interesting. Financial State ment by the Treasurer. - ~ Report of the Trustees of the Theo logical Union. Anniversary Exercises oi the Graduating: Class. BOARD OF TRUSTEES, The Board of Trustees of the Baptist Theo logical Seminary mot yesterday morning in the Krst Church, on Wabash avenue, near Hubbard court, C. N. Holden presiding, and began ;pro ceedings by listening to'a prayer by Dr." Osgood. treasurer's report. Edward Goodman, Treasurer of tho Seminary, submitted tho following: RECEIPTS. Balance cash on hand ; Cosh received for general purposes. Renta from houses and 10t5... Various loans Overdraft doe Treasurer Total.. Miscellaneous expenses..... Interest account. Professors*, officers’, and agents’ salaries... 13,114.75 Ida Library on account 1,375.00 Promissory -notes. Subscriptions Seminary building and grounds. Other real estate.. Library Total. Bends outstanding Time 10an5.... Temporary loans Accrued interest Balance duo on Ide Library. Overdraft due Treasurer... Total Net resources. - $211,725.00 All debts were paid up to the Ist of May except one or two small items. The report was adopted. SEMINARY EXAMINATIONS. _ The Committee appointed to attend the Semi nary examinations submitted its report, showing what studies had been carried on during the year; and the special work of each of the Professors. Tho course pursued is considered to be an important and val uable ono. Much gratification is expressed at the result of the examinations. The Committee conclude by recommending the appointment of an additional Professor to give instruction in homiletics and pastoral theology. Tho report was adopted. THE wreuimvil COMMITTEE reported that its work had. been the usual rou tine. Meetings had been held once • a month, and all accounts were then squared up and* re corded, that being the only safe and proper way to do business. DEGREES. Doctor Nortbrup Informs the Board that by their charter they were authorized to confer de grees. Nothing of that kind had been done as yet, but the necessary blanks bad been secured. AU who went through a full course received tho degree of Bachelor of Divinity.' -It was recom mended that degrees bo given to some old gradu-. ates, who had not.fully complied with.condi-* tions. They. should be more strict hereafter than at present. Those who had not become entitled to degrees were to receive diplomas, showing how far they had gone. - Tho graduating class for 1873 contained six :teen persons, thirteen of whom bad completed the full throe years’ course,. one a two years’ course, and two a full English course. It was ordered that tho degree of B; D. be given to the thirteen, and diplomas bo awarded to the three others. It was then ordered that degrees be conferred on the members of ibe classes of previous years. • Tho Board then adjourned. THEOLOGICAL UNION, The Theological Union then mot, with James E. Tyler in the chair. He congratulated the members on holding their sixth meeting. It has been feared that . the work would bo too great for them. The effort had been made before and failed. Still, they started, receiving at first contributions of only a’ few dollars. But since then there had been a steady development. The classes grew, the Faculty was enlarged, and a capacious building had been erected for seminary purposes, and had proved to be oil that was anticipated. Ho re gretted the absence of his predecessor, Mr. Goodyer, to whom the cause owed so much. They were now ablo to reckon on net assets of $209,009. They had reason to thank God, and. take courage and go forward with increased en ergy. THE ANNUAL REPORT . ' of the Board of Trustees was submitted, which is • substantially as follows: The Baptist Theological Seminary has just com pleted another year of successful labor, and to-day f izteen of our students graduate from the Seminary ~ to enter upon tha active duties of the Gospel ministry. Host of these, as well as those who remain in the Seminary, have been efficiently at work aa preachers, & portion of tho lime, while pursuing their studies. Seven of these ore ordained ministers, and have been pastors of churches. 1. The Humber of Students. —Fifty students have been in attendance at the Seminary the past year. They represent twelve colleges, and nine other institu tions of learning, located in thirteen different States and countries, and tho etndents - represent fourteen different States and three foreign countries. Eleven come from Illinois, seven from Wisconsin, seven from Indians, four from Michigan, three each from lowa, end Ohio, two each from Kansas, Minnesota, New York, Ontario, and Sweden, and one each from Colo rado, West Virginia, Pcnnsylvamsj and Maine,' Both of those from Minnesota were originally from Sweden', cud one of those from Wisconsin, and one from lowa, were originally from Denmark. 2. The Scandinavian Department —Tour Board is more deeply Impressed than ever before with tho Im portance of carrying forward with vigor our -work in the Scandinavian Department. ■ From tho host,infor mation we now have, there ia a population of over a million and & half of Swedes, Norwegians, and Danes inlhe Northwestern Stales, and among .them, from forty to fifty Baptist Churches are already organized, containing about 2,000 members, but with fair pros pects of great enlargement if an earnest and intelli gent ministry ii» raised up for their instruction. Tho Scandinavians ore becoming an important portion of onr population. They ‘ readily adopt our customs, and our language, too, as far os they aro- able. But many of -them must have the Gospel in their own language or not at all. - A faithful • ministry among them, educated in both English and in their native tongue, and in their course of etudy brought into a foil knowledge 6( ’ and sympathy with our American churches,’ will greatly assist, not only in leading them to Christ, but in thoroughly and intelli gently 'Americanizing them. Eev. John A Edgren, who had been tcaching in Ibis' department previous to nr>p year ago, and who gradnated from tha Semi nary last year, was compelled ’by ill-health, induced by over-work aa pastor,. student, teacher, and editor, to return to Sweden; and ho was absent mest of the year. But ho relumed to America In February, and in March ‘ ho was appointed instructor of the Scandinavian Department, and also agent to raise 525,000 for its indorsement. In the good providence of God, a Baptist brother in ’Wisconsin has provided for the Immediate Support of Mr. Edgren, and we hope for such encouragement in the work as will to its permanent endowment." Throe Swedes and two Danes have been students in tho Seminary the past year, and Brother Edgren has already commenced instruction in this department. 3. Instruction,— Xho.scveral classes in the Seminary have shown a high degree of diligence in their work throughout the year. In the department of theology, the acnior class has bad three lectures per week, tho middle class two lectures per week, and tho Junior class two lectures per week, during the last half of tho year. In the department of Homiletics an lin- CBual amount of work has been done, consisting .of lectures in connection .with tho use of the text-book; and the criticism of plans of sermons presented by the students. In New Testament literature and in terpretation tho senior have had two - exer cises & week through the year. They have pone through with the exegesis cf the Epistle to tho Hebrews, with tho analysis' and introduction ; have had a course of lectures on the New Testament manuscripts, and a short course also on tho foreign words and idioms found in the New Testament, The tniildia class have also* had two exercises & week through the year. They have studied the Epistle to the Romans oxcgotically and analytically, with intro ductory lectures, end have had a course of lectures on tho History of New Testament Criticism. They have also written essays in connection with tho former part of the work above, mentioned. The Junior class have fiad three exercises a week, through the year. They have rpad the entire gospel of Matthew, with constant reference to * the Harmony of the Four Evangelists. have been ■written by all tho members of tho class, ■ The. Senior/Glass'have had a brief course of lectures on tho Christian Ordinances. In the Depart ment of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature, tho Senior jaud Middle Classes have read pertions of -the of .Exodus,- Leviticus, and Numbers, in conneo-, tlon with a course of lectures upon The Journey to Sinai, tho Giving of tho Law, tho Construction of tho Tabernacle, and the system oLeacrificcs under the Mo saic economy. They have also prepared ■written discussions-of the various objections to-tbe-histor- Jcal truth and accuracy of tho Pentateuch, as stated by Blshob Colenso. The Junior Class has token a full course of instruction in tho principles of the .Hebrew- grammar, read-twenty -or thirty chapters in tho book of Genesis, and the whole of the book of Jonah; with select portions of Joshua, Judges, and Job. ; Exegetical essays have been presented by each member of the class, upon select passages of the OJJ Testament,- They have also prepared written paraphrases upon tho second and ninetieth Psalms. In the' Department of Church History, the usual lectures and instruction ' have been given to the- Middle Class in Ancient Church History, and to ■ the Senior Class in Midievai Church History. In the History of Doctrines the Middle Class have received-instruction on the period from tho advent of Christ down to the beginning of the nineteenth century, with lectures and discussions. Tho class in English Interpretation'have studied the life of-Christ, and large portions of the Acts of the Apostles, with notes. Thisclass have also had a course of instruction In both Moral and Intellectual Philoso phy. Instruction in the Scandinavian Department has been given .for. only a few weeks past, as the teacher '.was. absent.' But a course of- lec tures has been delivered ou Homiletics, which have ; been copied, ; recited, and reviewed by the doss. Essays' have also been written on Bomiletical topics, and sermons have been preached by the students to mixed congregations in two of our churches, and afterwards criticised in the class-room. This is but tho beginning in the Scandinavian Deport- ■ ment. i interior of the Seminary. —The rooms of tho Seminary’ Building have received Important additions to their furniture by the generosity of our friends; and we hope, by the continued contributions of Indi viduals and churches for this special purpose,' to make tho Seminary prepctnaliy a pleasant home for tho student during his course of study. The boarding department has been suc cessfully and economically conducted under the super vision of the Matron, Miss M. J. Foster, and the stew ard appointed by tho students, bo that good board has been furnished at $2.30 to $3.00 per week. Anew reading room has been neatly fitted up, as tho library room was all required by the additions to the library. 6. The Library.— Tho valuable collections of books of tho late George B. Ide, D. D., consisting of 3,000 'volumes of well-selected .theological literature, has been purchased and' added to our library. This is regarded as one of the best collec tions of books . for their number that can be found in our country, and they are of very great value to the Seminary, Nearly 100 volumes of .the books.of our deceased student, the Rev. D. T. Johns, have boon presented by hie mother to tho Semi nary library. The Hengstenburg library, and others now accessible to our students, contain about 20,000 volumes. .$ 48.27 . 22,808.58 2,650.00 . 1,400.00 ~ • 301.30 .$ 27,203.65 4,493.63 ..... 2,815.27 $ 27.208.C5 .$124,360.00 . 5,000.00 . 90,000.00 . 16,375.00 - 6,000.00 11,700.00 ... 6,000.00 . 24,400.00 .. 1,851.00 . 1,875.00 . 391.80 6. Additional Buildings. —A fireproof building for the library is very greatly needed, and the time seems not far distant when larger rooms for chapel and reci tations will also be required. A.wise forecast -would suggest at least the securing of suitable ground for these additions, and for other needs which are sure to come at no distant day. Our Seminary, although it has rapidly advanced to maturity and strength, and to a good degree of - completeness In its present facilities for imparting a thorough-theological education, ie yet in its infancy as to age, and we need to anticipate much future enlargement, and to secure additional grounds before tho rapid encroachments of the city completely preoccupy them.* 7. Finances —Tho past year has not been a favorable one in many respects, either for tho collection of .pre vious subscriptions, or tho obtaining of new once. Yet new subscriptions and collections, including a leg acy, have been made, to the amount of $30,451.91. Tins indicates tho general interest in, and appreciation of, the Theological Seminary, and the favor it meets, even in tho midst of great financial stringency. ‘ The heavy losses of our brethren in the city by the great confla gration of October, 1871, have delayed the payment of subscriptions which were made before the Are, for tho special purpose of canceling our indebtedness. Yet we hnow of no one of these subscriptions which is not likely to be paid. ’ Had not (his great calamity come .upon out city, we had reason to believe that nearly all our indebtedness would have been actually removed, oa itls now all provided for by special bub- Ecriptions. Continued faith, labor, and patience, we be lieve at no distant day will accomplish this desired result. The late Deacou Almon AVhite, cf Goohen, lud.,in his will bequeathed $3,500 to tho Theological Union. Of this snm, $2,500 has already bocn paid. Wo hope others will follow this noble example of Deacon ‘White, and in their wills, If not by actual gifts while living, amply provide for the largest usefulness of the Seminary* In the future. We hare yet before us tho generous offer of the Hon, J. Warren . Merrill, of Cam bridge, Mass., of $20,01)0, on condition that we- have SIOO,OOO in addition, in good securities toward the endowment, besides our liabilities, and building and grounds, Dy tho 20th of July next. Wo cannot afford to fail on this. We hope to reach it, and in order to do so, we solicit the generous co-operation of all our friends. But we cannot stop the work of en dowment until we have $200,000 of productive funds. To secure this' amount, and to provide for necessary enlargement, by additional professors, with additional buildings and grounds, library, and the keeping up of tho whole Seminary in good order, viil give opportu nity for vigorous labors and generous gifts in tho future. Yet we cap rejoice that wo are not called upon to provide for all of these additions at once. From our happy experience in tho post, wo may hope that God will In the future raise up noble and generous friends to meet all these coming necessities. 9, Beneficiary Aid —Tho Northwestern Baptist Edu cation' Society has made appropriations to aid our students as well as those in the University, the past year The great difficulty in getting churches to respond .to .. tho appeals' -of tho Society In time to . meet . tho most pressing necessities of tho students, without compelling the Treasurer of the Society to advance oven thousands of ’ dollars on' hi* own credit, raises the grave doubt whether wo ought to rely entirely and permanently on this source of supply. The founding of permanent scholarships by the Theological Union, on the basis of SI,OOO or mpre, tho income of which shall be devoted to aid our Students in meeting their necessary expenses, is a question worthy of our careful attention. It was adopted.' I 46,217.80 125,517.20 ' Mr. Tyler bore testimony to tho zeal and fidel ity of its Treasurer, Mr. Goodman, who had de voted much of his time, and ought to bo re warded for it. It was stated that there was an apparent loss in assets of $5,009, owing to the fact that verbal pledges to that amount, which had been carried on the books for some time, had been dropped, so they might get dowh to the hard pan. Still it was hoped many of them would be redeemed. . Mr. Holdeu complained of the disregard of their pledges by the Baptists. The Ministerial Convention, after pledging itself to pay for the Ide Library had failed, only about S3OO having been received from that source. If tho mem bers did not raise tho money to pay the second note, he proposed to have it protested, and. hot try to raise the funds in Chicago. There:were too many men, in and out of the dty, prompt to recommend * expenditures in books, buildings,’ etc., but they were very slow in giving money, and, therefore, threw the work upon tho *shom dors of a few. Dr. Norfchrup explained that tho Pastoral Union had not pledged itself to pay for tho hooks... Bounded th© G oepol Trumpet mightily,and spread the akirtaof his garment* over the uttermost ends of tho earth. After Zion bad been filled with tho. sound of his voice for half an hour, the presiding officer told him others had to speak, audit would-be well for him to bo brief. This nettled him, and he expressed sarcastic regret that ho should have to bo corrected, when be liad done so much for tho wprk, and his whole •soul was in it. Then he .concluded by an elab orate defense of religious land speculation, which was a sweet and aceep'r'.blo business, if ‘ the proceeds thereof were dedicated to the edifi cation of the spiritual Ebonezer. Messrs. Cooley, Burton, Chandler, Hdldoman, and Holden wore appointed a committee for tho nomination of officers, v THE - REV. MR. BURTON, of lowa, made a few remarks on tho Northwest as a field for the • Theological Seminary.. The importance of-tbat field -was unquestioned, fill ing up, as itwwars r with such great rapidity. .There must bo a theological seminary overlook ing it, and providing it with mmiaiors, so far as It could* for not all th A seminaries of the coun try could supply the Northwest. The Seminary should send out men, and lot them bp educators of their brethren in tho min istry already in tho field. ' The Bov. L. A.-Abbott, of Wisconsin, was to havo spoken on What ■ Had Been Hone,” but was too hoarse tmsay anything. pOCXOn KKSDMCK epoko briefly on the relations of tho Seminary to tho religious future of the Northwest. Tho Seminary was to create a demand for an educated ministry, against "which prejudices existed in some parts of tho country. When the demand "waa created it had to be supplied. Seminaries veto not trying to foist an educated ministry on on unwilling people. Tho trouble waa. tho latter were demanding it. There were everywhere more ministers than churches, owing to that do mendforoducatodmen. Tho real end and aim of tho beminary was, of course, tho education of the people, tho education of tho ministry being merely a means to that end. The Chicago Seminary was to be tho centre of the religions doctrine of the Northwest, sending out yearly as it did, men moulding tho doctrinal views of the congregations to which they were sent. DOCTOR STOSE made few remarks on “ Beijuiaites for tho Highest Usefulness,’’, one of wnich was more" money, or, rather,- more sanctified money. ■ That given by men who had no right to it was a Carso rather than a Messing. They wanted no Credit Mohilier way of ■ getting it. Another want was more sanctified men, including women, who could not refrain from . preaching the gospel. They wanted more sanctified men for the sem inary benches and seminary chairs. Finally, they wanted more sanctifying mercy, which in cluded all thereat.- THE HEV. Jin. COOI ET spoke on the “ Internal Work of tho Seminary:’’ which,ho regarded as of vital importance. He referred approvingly to the social work in the PLEDGES DISREGARDED. THE REV. DR. EVERTS THE CHICAGO DAILY TRIBUNE: FRIDAY, MAY 9, 1*73. Chicago Seminary, and which , was not found elsewhere. The influence of woman was felt hero. The intellectual work of the' Sem inary, as judged by the -results, was ex cellent. Owing to a fine Professor, the class had made remarkable progress in learning Hebrew. All the other Professors were likewise excellent. Ho had also been great ly impressed with the spiritual atmoaphcro.which surrounded the Seminary. They might all thank God that He had so signally favored the institu tion. ---- -- OFFICERS. ■ Tho Committee reported recommending tho following officers: • President —James E. Tyler. Vice-Presidents—-The Rev. J. O. Griffith and Ken dall Brooks. H&eretary— Tho Rev. G. S. Bailey. Treasurer —Edward Goodman. TrutUes— B, F, Jacobs, James E. Tyler. Increase 0, Boaworth, the Rev. Thomas Goodspecd, theHou.Wm. E. timith, of Milwaukes, J. B. Qillcppe, William Smith, of Menominee, tho Rev. J. B. Thomas/F. £. Morse, and C. B. Goodyear. They were elected. Dr. Everts took hold of tho religions land speculation again, and apologized for his previ ous display of 111-temper, on the ground that he was not accustomed to being interrupted. After Dr. Everts had thus crucified tho old Adam, the meeting adjourned. MORE OFFICERS. Tho new Board assembled, and, through the medium of a committee, elected the following oflicers: President—C. N. Holden.' Vice-Presidents— Messrs. Griffiths and Brooks. Secretary —G. S. Bailey. .Treasurer— Edward Goodman. Tho Board then adjourned. ANNIVERSARY EXERCISES. At S o'clock, tho anniversary exorcises of the Seminary took place in. the auditorium of the church, in tho presence of a number of ladies and gentlemen. Tho attractions wore two-fold, — music and divinity. Tho former consisted of organ solos by C. A. Havens, vocal solos by Miss Sallle Fisher and Mrs. F. Ullmann, and a vocal duet by these two ladies. BRIEF ADDRESSES were delivered by members of tho graduating class, on tho following subjects: Alex. Black burn, “Tho Minister a Man;” Edward Ellis, “Polycarp;” W. W. Everts, Jr., “Distinctive Baptist Principles;” W. Leo Farnum, dence ;” Charles A. Hayden, “ Universal Man hood of Jesus;” Charles B. Henderson, “Sov ereignty of Law;” George W. Nead,. “Perpe tuity of tho Gospel;” B. R. Williams, “Charac ter Dependent on Just Views of God.” After .these addresses, which wero generally well written and well delivered, had been disposed of, Goorgo W. Northfup, D. D., Professor in tho Seminary, made a fow remarks and conferred the .degree of BACHELOR OP DIVINITY upon the following persons: Alexander Black burn, Daniel H. Drake, Edward Ellis, W. W. Everts, Jr., Welcome L. Farnum, Charles A. Hayden, Charles It. Henderson, Goorgo W. Head, Thomas T. Potter. Elbert H. Sawyer, Catlet C. Smith, Fred M. Smith, and Robert R. Williams. Diplomas wore given to Rcnel W. Arnold for a two years course, and to E. H. Sherman Hendrick and Henry H. Lipos, who graduated in tho English course. Tho services were then concluded with & bene diction. RAILROAD DEVELOPMENT. President Watson on Cricks Future. From the Seu> York Tribune, May C New Yobk, Aug. 7,1372, James McHenry, Esq.-Dead Sin: In order that you may be able to present your friends in Europe, who are interested in the Erie and At lantic A Great Western Railway Companies, some of tho ideas which I have recently suggested to yon verbally, I now repeat for your careful con sideration the more prominent facts connected with those roods, and iho questions, duo consid eration of which seems to me vital to their per manent success. Apart from all questions as to the cost of transportation over broad-gauge lines in comparison with tho narrow-gauge system, 'which last, for practical purposes', may be assumed to bo of 4.9#, which has been adopted os tho best compromise be tween tbo Eastern and tho Western lines, which may vary between 4.8# aud 4.10 ; X say, with out discussing tho comparative cost of trans portation, Ihougn I believe that* a narrow gauge road may pay largely on its costs, while ono of six feet may be worked without profit, it is plain to all those who have carefully con sidered tho questions involved, that the inability to run connections beyond Buffalo and Dayton for broad-gauge cars is alone a sufficient reason for requiring a reduction of tho gauge of both the Erie and Atlantic & Great Western lines to 4.9#; and, until this is accomplished, tho re sults by tho owners of these roods cannot be so cured. But having secured this change or being as sured that the means necessary for its accom plishment may be obtained in time to moot tho requirements of tho' Erie Company, another question at onco assumes equal or greater impor tonccvand unless wo arc ablo, practically, to ex tend the Elio lino to Cincinnati and the South west. and tho lake ports (including Chicago), to St. Louis and the Northwest and to the Bacifio coast, tho Erie Hoad will romain isolated from tho main sources of profitable business, the ab solute control of wbich as its sources, freed from the capricious and changeable interests of tho managers of other linos, is necessary to en able any trunk lino to command, at all times, its duo and proper share of the traffic which 1 is abundant, out which has been unduly controlled and has reached tho seaboard by the Pennsylva nia and Central lines. RESULTS OF A COMPREHENSIVE POLICY. » • This far-reaching policy was first-acted upon by the Pennsylvania Rd&d. In ten years it has, by leases, running arrangements, and the pur chase of Interests in Western lines, become tho controlling power over many thousands of miles of railroads, bo that its system hasnow become a net work of connections from Canada on tho north to tho .extremist western points ol tho United States; and all these hues* of roads contribute constantly and surely to tho business and profit of the Pennsylvania Hoad. At a later data tho same system was adopted by Mr. Vanderbilt, and the influence of the Central Bead is now al most as powerful in tho West as that of tho Pennsylvania line. So far, the Eric and Atlantic have been unable to compete with their rivals in this field. By the change of the direction of the Erie, it is now, for tho first time, in a position to secure its share of this influence and busi ness. If it fails now to secure similar advan tages, it must as in tho past, compara tively powerless, and its future cannot bo bril liant. In looking over the'whole field of our Western connections and of the main and. constant sources from which our business springs, it nccraed, at first,' almost impossible to oxtond.the influence of the Erie Railway in any direction without at onco coming in contact and in con flict with tho systems of the Pennsylvania and Central roods—already established —ono main lino only, which by its branches and leased roads seemed to meet tho requirements of tho Erie Company, was free from embarrassing contracts or alliances. Thin was tho lino of tho Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati «fc Indianapolis Railway. This rood runs from Cleveland to Columbus, 1153 iailca; at Gallon,Bomiles from Cleveland, a branch runs to Indianapolis, 202 miles, and from the same point another branch extends to Spring field, 37 miles, thence by a leased lino to Dayton,' 25 miles, and thence by its own line to Marietta Junction, 48 miles, and to Cincinnati 7 miles, by a leased lino—all in the State of Ohio. On the north, from Indianapolis to Terre Hauto (State cf Indiana), 72 miles, tho road is owned jointly with the Pennsylvania Company, and thccco to Bt. Louis, 182 miles, over a road jointly leased' by the Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati & In dianapolis and the Pennsylvania Central. It also controls by running arrangement tho lino from Beardetown, on the Illinois River, to Shawneetown, on the a distance of 228 miles, passing through ono of tho moat pro ductive portions of Illinois. It owns a railroad extending from Union, oh tho Indiananolis branch, to Dayton, on tho Cincinnati branch, a distance of- 43 miles, this branch being now used by tho Penn sylvania Road to make its Cincinnati! connec tion from the West. It controls largely the business of tho Tuscarawas Valley Road, 95 miles in length, which crosses tho Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati <fc Indianapolis at Grafton, and terminates on Lake Erie. These lines ag mreeato 1,139 miles, of which 559 miles aro free hold, tho remainder being leased on such advan tageous terms that the leases alone aro worth a largo part of the present capital to any connect mg railway. The Cleveland, Columbus, Cincin nati & Indianapolis Railway forma close connec tion with the Atlantic & Groat Western at Cleve land, Springfield, Gallon, and Dayton. Tho capital of the Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati & Indianapolis Railway is as follows: Surplus cash at end of last fiscal ycar.V i sss’non Surplus real estate.. g jjjjqogp Other assets, as per schedule, exceed...’.’.’.."l ijooo'ooo The shares of the Company have paid annual dividends of 7 per cent and upwards from the time of the completion of the road, twenty years ago. The railway, to a considerable extent, has been constructed from revenue. The 559 miles (freehold) represents a coat of only' $30,000 per mile,'which would scarcely pay for the raiisand rollhfe stock. The largo surplus real estate ownoa by the Company is more than suf ficient to pay olf its whole bonded .dept.. Banning arrangements by--which a largo portion of the. traffic, of ell those linos can be secured for this combination, are now of fered on the most ’ favorable terms, and can, bo„ closed any time;' so that the mileage to bo added to the Erie and Atlantic by this combination is over 4,000, at a cost so insignificant, in compari ‘ eon with certain results, as to seem almost in credible. . . Never has any similar power over business boon within the control of either of the‘trunk lines at so small a cost, nor whore every dollar invest cd was in Itself secure beyond peradventuro, without' regard to the incidental advantages arising from such a power. • The accompany ing memorandum of what 1 think proper to bo expended on tho Erie lino may seem to you very greatly in excess of previous estimates, but I as sume that we can borrow any necessary sums from time to time if lenders are assured that tho money is wisely expended, and that both princi pal and interest are safe. In tills estimate I have* in most cases assumed a larger amount as necessary than will be needed, and I have in tentionally omitted many items of groat value, among others the 430 engines now on the Erio, which will reduce those outside limits of ox- Ecndltare. My object Is to ask for all that may o necessary, and which I know can bo amply se cured and profitably used. These expenditures will extend over a period of three years,, a comparatively small portion only being needed now. My further ob ject is to show that the Erie Bailway can he made the most important of all existing linos of internal communication, can earn and pay large annual dividends with certainty, and that we can secure a greater success than was ever before attained by tho owners of a railroad property. Without those additions, and without a compre hensive and far-reaching policy of extension of its business and influence, it cannot be profit able in any considerable degree to the stock holders, nor secure to the public the advantages which were tho chief object of its creation. To secure these results the credit of the Company is of the first consequence. We must be placed in such a position at the great moneyed centres as will enable us to borrow almost at will for every legitimate purpose at low rates. In the meantime wo can show to, our stockholders that our policy, while it is liberal and comprehensive as to the future, works no present injustice to them; and it is imperative as a part of our plan that expenditures, proper ly chargeable to capital, should be so charged and mot, and that tho clear net comings from ; this time shall ho divided, soml-annually, as e&rnod, among tho owners of this property. T am yours, faithfully, P. H. Watson, # President of the Erie Hallway. The following statement, showing tho dis tances on tho Erie B&ilw&y, and the estimated cost of necessary improvements and extension of the road, and of its equipment, accompanied the letter: New York to Buf- alo 423 miles z 2 —846 miles single track HornellsvlUo to Salamanca 82 miles x 2-264 mites single track Salamanca to Dunkirk 40 miles Single track Third track, JersoyCßy to Port Jervis, for light • passenger ; traffic, to bo laid with steel top rail, taken from present . 1 . track 83 miles single track 1,144 miles siogio trade. , 2,238 miles single rail 3,112 miles eteel rail, 60 lbs per yard (equal to 47,143 tons per mile) equals 09,566 tons, which at $l2O per ton, equa15..511,947,320 Less the value of 1.421 miles iron rail, 70 lb per yard, 78,155 tons, at $55 per ton, equals 4,293,535 $ 7,649,395 laying track, spike, ties, and stone ballast, on 1,056 miles 3,210,240 Wideuiug roadway,ties, and laying 88 miles third track. Jersey City to Port Jervis.... 2,001,000 Additional Biding at various points along line 2,000,000 Grading and masonry 3,000,000 Iron bridges..... 1,200,000 New shops, grain elevators, depots, engines* bouses, end improvements of stations.... 2,009,000 400 new locomotives, at $12,500. 5,090,000

10,000 now freight cars, at $750... 7,500,000 Changing 11,000 cars from broad to narrow - .. gauge at slotf each 1,100,000 Extending road to Scranton coal field, in* eluding purchase of coal rights, con tracts, etc., bo as to secure for transport lion 1,000,000 tons annually...... 3,000,000 Completing Hudson & Newark Bailway, and depots and lands for some on branch 1,000,000 Purchasing Car Company interests in can now in use, under contract. 1,000,000 Amount of common and preferred stock, ' funded debt, and rentals funded 145,000,000 Total capitalization '. $184,720,635 Amount of annual interests at 7 per cent.. 12,930,44-4 The road, completed and equipped as pro posed, within five years, would earn, at the very lowest, 940,000,000 per year, of which 35 per cent would bo net. But the earnings would probably .far exceed 940,000,000, and the not re ceipts might reach 916,800,000 or 918,000,000 per year before the five years roll around. From this it is plain that, notwithstanding tho reck lessness and prodigality with which, for so many years, her resources have been squandered, a great prosperous future is still possible to Eno, if she can command tho large sum of money required properly to develop her great estate yet remaining, and - can be admin istered, under a comprehensive policy, with systematic economy, integrity, and fair business ability.. The necessary funds being se cured such are the natural and acquired and readily attainable advantages of her position as a great channel of commerce, that it would be come a comparatively easy task to render Erie as prosperous and profitable aa any railway in America. . The Vermont Central in’ New Bands. Tho Now York, Boston & Montreal Railroad Company has obtained within a few days con trol of the old Vermont Central system of - rail roads, extending from Butland to Bur lington, from Burlington to St. Albans, from Bt. Albans to Montreal, and also tho roads to Ogdansourg, to Montpelier, to White Bivor Junction, to Windsor, to Bellows Falls, and thence to tho Northern Railroad at New London, Conn., making a system of over 200 miles com pleted and equipped, with 200 locomotives, 4,000 freight cars, 140 passenger and baggage cars, and a telegraphic system. Tho road-beds are said to be in good condition, and the equipments as good as those of the Boston & Albany. The earnings last year were between 95,500,000 and €6,000,000, and the net earnings about 91,500,000. The roads embraced in this system have been in a Receiver’s hands for about ten years. Gov. Smith, as Receiver, has man aged the lines in the interest of the bondholders, and his acts have been approved by decrees of tho Court in every instance. Last fall, Gov. Smith’s’notes went to protest, and this broke tho credit of tho roads. Ha, seeing that it would be futile to attempt to control the roods with a broken credit, went to tho Vermont Legislature and procured a charter, organizing a company called-tho Central Vermont, instead of the Ver mont Central. It was to absorb this entire sys tem of roads, and take the place of Trustees and Receiver. The new Company, it is understood, was organized,. and stock was subscribed for to tho amount of 82,000,000, at St. Albans, Vt., a few days ago. Financiers from Now York subscribed about 9500,000 of tho stock. These gentleman are interested in and own a largo part of tho stock of tho Now York, Boston & Montreal Railroad Company, and con sist of W. Butler Duncan, of Duncan, Sherman & Co.; T. W. Park. George H. Brown. J. Q. Hoyt, A. McKinney. Christopher Meyer, George H. Bissell, John H. Cheevor, John S. Shultz; A. A. Soloven, and others. This system of roads will thus become practically a part of tho exten sive system under tho management of the -New York,.Boston & Montreal. A Western Railroad Consolidation* George E. White, President, of No. 74 Wall street, called, yesterday, a meeting of the stock holders of the Chicago 4 Northern Pacific Air- Line Bailroad of Wisconsin, for the purpose of perfecting a consolidation of the rights, powers, franchises, and property of that railway Com pany with the rights, powers, franchises, and property of the Chicago 4 Northern Pacific Air-Line Railway Company. The line of tho first mentioned road extends from Genoa, Wis., to Duluth, Minn., a distance of about 350 miles. It is a consolidation of the Chicago 4 Northern Pacific Air-Line, and the Chicago 4 Lake Superior Railroads. It was in tended, when completed, to form a lino between Chicago and St. Paul and the Northern Pacific' Railroad. The latest financial statement at hand, dated a year ago, shows the capital stock to be $8,750,000, of which 6502,500 was paid in. The officers are: President, George E. White; Vice- President, George D. Groves; Treasurer, John C. Baines; Secretary,'Williamß. Ohadaey; Gen eral Manager, James L. Anthony. The Chicago 4 Northern Pacino Air Lino Rail way of Illinois will extend, when completed, from Chicago, DL, to the State lino of Wisconsin fa distance of 49 miles), where it will oonnoot with the Wisconsin Railroad of the same name, with which it is to be consolidated. The authorized capital stock is $1,250,000, and the funded debt is the same amount. The consolidation will be effected in Janesville, Wis., on Jane 4, IKE TRANSPORTATION QUESTION. Address of 'Cov* Smith, of Georgia,’ to tlxb Farmers of ihe Tfeitand North*, west* ' ■<. T Executive Depabtmext, State or Georgia,) Atlanta, May 1,1873, i TotMFarriierso/tfUlFestanZTrnrtfiicest:' * . I recently addressed an invitation to the Gov ernors* and other prominent citizens of many of the States, .tojnoetinconvontion at Atlanta,- on the 20th instant, for the purpose of considering the means of securing cheap transportation be tween the Atlantic seaboard and the groat basin bf the Mississippi. The vast common to all sections .qf the country, to be secured by a wise solution _of this groat question, will, I trust, be deemed -a sufficient apology for my addressing you this communication. Our interests in the matter are, in a largo measure, identical, and; this identity should insure a hearty co-operation be-. tween us. In the-four States of South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Alabama, there is ah an nual deficiency of 50,000,000 bushels of grain. This deficiency Is increasing, owing in the gradual increase of our available form labor, and the rapid increase of ' our non-producing population. To supply this deficiency we are now, and hereafter snail he, in a great degree dependent upon the fanners of the West and Northwest. , Honda, it - will bo seen that the South is vitally interested in the success of any schema which will diminish the cost of trans portation upon Western products. Deeply im pressed witn the importance to thorn of tho great interest involved in this question, the people of Georgia are ready- to give their influ ence and aid in behalf of any practical measure which will insure the accomplishment of so de sirable an end. The present hlgh ratcs of freight compel us to employs largo portion of our limited labor in tho production ot food crops. This diminishes the production of cotton—our only reliable ar ticle of export; and, at the same time, deprives the West and the Northwest, to that extent, of a market, To illustrate; the average production of corn in the four States mentioned is ten bushels per acre. To make up the deficiency in the quantity how produced, it would be neces sary to cultivate at least 5,000,000 acres. This acreage devoted to cotton would yield at least 1,250,000 bales, worth, at 15 cents per pound, $125,000,000. Deduct from this tho value of tho com which tho same average would produce, at $1 per bushel, and we have $75,000,000 to repre sent the amount of the loss suffered by tho Southern and Western farmers, for tho lack of facilities fqr making a cheap interchange of pro ducts. This direct loss is greatly increased by the reflex operation of the causes under discus sion. The high price of food increases the cost of manufacture as well as tho production of cot ton, and so of ovory other article we need;: While tho Western farmer realizes butapit tanco upon his teeming crops, every manufact ured article which he uses comes to aim burden ed by onerous and oppreaivo tariffs. Cheap, transportation from the West would not only cheapen food, but would, as a consequence, also cheapen labor. Tbia result would enablo tho manufacturer to supply our wants at greatly re duced prices, and would enablo him to compote successfully abroad, as well as at home. Our. manufactories would increase; oar exports would be doubled; our shipping interests revived, and the balance of trade would bo once more iu our favor. But, without speedy relief, existing evils must increase and spread until poverty and' bankruptcy overshadow the whole land. Tho feverish anxiety which pervades tho pub lic mind is abundant!v - shown in tho fact that Congress Is gravely asked to take control of the entire railroad system of tho country, and by leg islative action to regulate their charges. Wheth er would mitigate or aggravate, tho evil, — whether by Congressional .management the cost of operating the roads would bo so diminished as to afford the desired relief,—are questions which I will not here discuss. I only mention them to show, that a groat, pressing necessity underlies* this whole matter, which cannot remain longer unheeded. The entire valne of a bushel of corn, transport ed a thousand miles by rail, la consumed by the cost of transportation. This leaves no profit to the carrier, none to the shipper, and not oneccnt to the producer. So that if the railroad should carry corn for its actual cost and nothing more, from St. Louis to Savannah, or from Chicago to Now York, the producer would still receive no adequate remuneration for hia labor. Neither can the indefinite multiplication of railroads, nor any legislative restriction as to freight charges, euro the evil, so long as tbo actual cost of ope rating railroads remains undlminished. . Until this coot shall be reduced by moans not now known, aresort to either of the remedies propos ed will prove a mere expedient, which, in tho end, will surely disappoint public expectation. Wo do not want expedients or partial remedies. A cure of the evil is demanded by tho farming interest of the country, and to nothing short of this should wo look for permanent relief. In seeking this relief, tho first step to be taken is to find a less costly mode of transportation than that by rail. Experience teaches ns that water furnishes the cheapest means of trans portation known to tho commercial world, and there is but little reason to doubt that tho solu tion of this "whole question will bo found to rest upon the connection of great lines of water com munication between the West and the seaboard, wherever Nature provided a way. Build the Ni agara Ship Canal, connecting the lakes by an un broken cb&in of navigation from Chicago to the sea; connect Lake Champlain by ship canal with the Hudson; enlarge the Erie Canal, if feasible; extend your water lines from tho Lakes to the Mississippi by every proposed route, where Na ture has provided a way; improve the naviga tion of your rivers, so that barges may pass through their ontiro length without hindrance, and you will have done'more to relieve your selves from your present troubles than-you can justly hope to secure by any other means. In this way tbo railroads may be made the feeders and distributors foryonr great trade arteries, and the causes which now induce them to enter into extensive leases and combinations, in many in stances so injurious to. the public interest,would, in a great measure, cease to exist. • A glance at the map will be sufficient to show , that from the great lakes to the Mississippi River there is a vast expanse of country, divided by the Apalochian chain, which separates the . waters of the Atlantic from those which flow in-: to the Qulf of Mexico. Tho Ohio.and tho James Bivore havo their sources among the mountains of this chain; and further south, also the Ten-* hessoe, the Coosa, and the Ocmulgee. Recent surveys have demonstrated that it is feasible to connect by canals the Ohio with tho James River, and the Tennessee with tho Ocmulgee; and thus, so to speak, turn tho Mississippi into the Atlan tic at Norfolk and Savannah. . Tho merits of the James Bivor and Kanawha Canal havo been fully discussed, and I will not pause hero to repeat tho many reasons which have been offered in favor of this great work. I crave your attention, however, for a moment, while I point out: some of the advantages which would flow from tbo construction of tho Atlantic & Great Western Canal, connecting the Mississippi, through the Tennessee Bivor, with the Atlantic Ocean' at Savannah, Georgia, The Tennessee enters the Ohio a short dis-' tanco above the continence of the latter with the Mississippi. From this point the general direction of the Tennessee is southeast to its treat bond at Guntsraville, in the State of Ala axna. - At tbat point the Coosa and the Ten nessee approach each other, there being only, a narrow neck of land between them. Across this isthmus a canal thirty miles long would connect these two rivers, and open navigation to Borne, Ga. From Borne the route follows tho Etowah to its nearest point of approach to the Ocmulgee, River, and down tho latter to the City of Macon, and tbonco to tho sea. Nature has already sup plied tbo greater portion of this route, re mains for ns to complete the work which she has" already begun. Ttio route has been by distinguished engineers of tbo War Depart-" moot, and has been pronounced by them emi nently feasible. - • . > t It offers to you tbo following advantages: First, cheap transportation. According .to the' official reports, the cost of transporting a ton of grain from St. Lonls to Savannah by this route, would bo 84.88. It costs by rail $14.40. The saving upon each ton would be $0.23, amounting in tho aggregate to $14,000,000 per annum upon grain alone, to bo divided between the producer and consumer. Second, this route would be open. tbe entire year, never rendered impracticable by, ice in winter, nor by drought in summer. Third, it would greatly increase the coasting trade, fur nishing employment daring the winter months (when the Niagara ahip-canal shall be opened) to the steamers and other vessels engaged dur ing summer upon the lakes. Fourth, the route passes through immense forests of yellow pine, r and you would bo enabled to obtain the best lumber in unlimited quantities, and at low prices. Fifth, it opens to you all tho Southern States cast of the Mississippi River as a market for your grain, bacon, hay, and other products, the demand for which will constantly increase. In this market you would be absolutely without a competition. Sixth, it would furnish cheap transportation for raw cotton to your section, and for the manufactured article in return. Such advantages would certainly develop® the manu facture'of cotton to a vast extent k the Western and Northwestern States. I would lake great pleasure in meeting with tho farmers of tho West and Northwest, and uniting with them in considering the vast inter ests involved in the questions briefly alluded to in this address. 1 cordially invite the granges in these States to tb the proposed convention, assnring them-that, the; iwiß meet ■with a hearty welcome from onr people. .'‘Let;iiß meet face to see if there is not a safe and sure way of escape from -the trouble in which onr respective sections and peoples are in volved. James M. Smith. \ ? * THE PENITENTES. Bemarkdl>lQ.Org:aiUzatio]LAmoagtlie Sew Rites and KlorribleCruelticß. „ v ... , 1 t From tht Buffalo TSxprets. The following statements form tho greater part iof a privatoJotter received by a lady of this city from her son. It may be proper to explain that tho Territory of Colorado embraces a small tract which was formerly a'part of New Mexico, oh which are some ancient settlements; Tbtkzdad, Cob. April 14,1873; Wherever throughout the sonthwestem terri tories a Mexican “plaza** is situated there'is to .be found a lodge of tho* Penitentes. Its strength is proportionate to the number of. the inhabi tants, auco * almost ‘ every' person' (male)' is a member of the order; this at least among the poorer ; and more ignorant classes. • It is, how ever, by no means rare to find, men of culture and intelligence among the' members, and I am informed' that two of the most prominent mem bers of the. Now Mexican Bar owe allegiance to this infamous organization; it'is certain that a lawyer resident here made application to be ad mitted, but was refused as being a heretic and a foreigner. Such men of coarse undergo the or deal only-because of the immense influence thereby acquired over the natives. : • -.* The order, as implied by its name, is religious in its character. Of its foundatiou nothing posi tive seems to be known* I am disposed to be lieve, however, from the nature of theceremo-* nice, that it was introduced by some of the early missionaries, members of the order of. “.Flagel lants,” whose creed was identical with that of the “Penitentes/-both believing that by acute bodily suffering they atoned for and condoned all their sins, past and future, besides laying up treasure sufficient to exalt .them toV dignified position in heaven. Now, however, either, the Penitentes have deviated from the traditions of the fathers or the Church has effected a change of base as re gards them; certain it is that the two institu tions ore at variance, and the dignitaries of tho Church have vainly exerted all of their .immense power and influence in attempts to suppress’ the Penitentes, showing by their failure the strength of tho latter; for in this country among the Mexicans the voice of the Padre is infinitely more powerful than would be that of the Al mighty. - , Of tho Oonstititutioh of the order or lodges very little is certainly known. The have officers, chief of whom appears to be one who officiates l as Chaplain and Master of Ceremonies; the members are sworn to secrecy and compelled to pass through a terrible ordeal on being initiated, and have to take part in the public penitential ceremonies yearly. After undergoing, the pen ance (more* or less severe as prescribed by the chief) for * certain number of years (three or four),, each member is exempt, and thencefor ward acts as attendant on,' or punisher of, those who ore snll “in the valley. 1 * Ido not know positively whether tho order has any object, be •yond punishing its members. As, however, they hold meetings periodically throughout tho year, it probably serves as a sort of national organi zation. binding together in one brotherhood all those in onr population of native!birth. : With the season ofLont comes tho suffering of the penitente, and unless he be of those who have been purified through much . tribulation, severe punishment is which is done in wise: - The presiding officer of the lodge : takes a seat in a room alone and blindfolded.: Ter him comes the. penitente, crawling on bis knees, shrouded from head to foot, and'blindfolded ; confesses his offenses and bears his sentence—a sentence from which there is no appeal, although there is no doubt that in many cases it sends the poor wretch to meet death by tho most hornblo tortures. • ' * . • -. Tho penitential* ceremonies are begun on Ash Wednesday, and continue through tho entire- Benton season until Good Friday, when they cul minate, and at midnight end. As tho proceed ings of ono day will' servo as a sample, x wiU'tell you what I saw on Friday at & small place a few miles below here, named Chihli, which 1 selected os being the nearest, though as there are a half dozen lodges in a circuit of as many' miles there was noJack of choice. The scone of operations is tho bank of a small “arroyo” between two hills. On tbo western bank fa tho “plaza,** consistingof the usual fiat roofed, adobe houses, in one of—which is tho lodge-room. Facing ns, and across tho arroyo is & solitary house, like tho others, but with a cross in front. .Looking up tho stream we seo another cross at a distance of about 500 yards., Scattered about and seated on the ground in groups are, may bo, 300 Mexicans, chiefly women. Loung- Jng among them are a dozen or so Americans, at— traded hither by curiosity to see, as they say,' “ the darned .brutes kill themselves.** .. We do not have to wait long for the curtain to rise, for hardly have wo had time to note the surroundings and to speculate on the weight of tho twelve largo crosses lying in front of tho sol itary house, when the performance commences. -■ s From that house homes the sound of- music, *' and presently emerges a man playing a fifo, and ; another chanting m a most lugubrious voice what are supposed to bo prayers (Latin). Tbeso come directly toward us, and as they - cross the . arroyo are met by all the Mexicans assembled.' * Every person in tho concourse is prostrate on tho earth, and continues in that until the “ chaplain ** has recited more prayers, when, after kissing the ground; all rise. Forming in a sort of rude procession, they take their way slowly and by a circuitous route towards the farther cross, stopping at intervals of may be a hundred paces to repeat the prostration and kissing process, ’every one* or rather howling, at the extreme pitch of the voice. So for os 1 could make out by listening intently, no ono paid the slightest attention to tho air, tone, -or words-of his neighbor. The music was, per haps,.. equal to tho howling of a.-thousand coyotes.’ * - ■..• ; : _Thaso being Fairly' sped Upon their way, tho “ solitary house ” disgorges thirty-one more be ings. First came another priest (of the order), another fifer, and a man bearing aloft an imago of tho crucifixion; these three walk backwards towards tho crosses, and are followed by four teen penitentes, each one accompanied by an at tendant. The penitentes are. all naked, except . for a breoch-cloufc and a cloth which shrouds the' head in order to prevent recognition. The whole appearance expresses the moat ab- • joct abasement. Crouching by the side-of their attendants, with heads almost touching the ground, they creep to the crosses—ono end of each of- these is lifted by an attendant, tho peni tents lies on his face and a cross is'laid on ■ each' ono of twelve, the remaining two being bound in such & manner as to make it impossible for them to movo their arms or to step more than a few inches. , . • All lie prone until more chanting has been < done; then rising, the end of a heavy cross is < laid on each man*s shoulder,'and they slowly bo- 1 gin to traverse the thorny way—tliomy it is in < very truth; for it is covered with the spines’- of: i the cactus and prickly pear. Some of the first, i cut on the spot, are inclosed, that you-msy judge < how pleasant it may be to walk with naked foot on such a carpet, or to lie thereon with *a heavy ’ . beam resting on the body. As this is done we ; see plainly that this is not the commencement of their gpdnances;. backs and breech-clouts bear bloody evidence to tho contrary, as also do -the fearfully emaciated forms, .worn by pain and pri vations until they hardly seem to belong to living men. ; .♦But they ■’go on, slowly, steadily, -tottering . sometimes from weakness, yet never faltering, never flinching; thus they perform,tho terrible task. Every few minutes the. officer presiding .signals ahalt/theattendants take the-crosses and hold them until the penitentes are on their' faces,'then lay them" on their * naked bodies, which, for any : symptoms ; of life. they- display, might be taken for those of dead men.. . when* ' the chanting mummery is at an end -for the mo ment the wretched fanatics resume their journey. . _ On reaching the other cross which I have men-; iioned, they trot briskly around it, deposit their, loads . and crawl abjectly to it, placing"’ themselves with . heads almost touching, and' forming in appearance tho.spokes of a huge wheel. Next ore more prayers, the entire con gregation, who have comb on tneir knees a, dis tance' Of fully a hundred yards, joining in. Then they retrace their steps with precisely the. same ceremonies. - An incident marks tho return, which, though it may be ludicrous in itself, serves by contrast to make the spectacle more saddening. - • A tame antelope belonging to the settlement, attracted by tho procession, breaks through the crowd, takes a position in lino with and close to' the two - leading penitentes, and marches quietly and them; at. each halt bending his slender limbs and slowly lying down, to rise again at the same time as the others. One of tho attendants; finding himself too warm, takes off bis coat. and coolly adds it to tho load his man, already staggering, has to bear. One of the sufferers especially excites atten tion and pity—a boy of apparently not more than 15 years. Me bears up bravely, but toward the end he totters and reels at every step, and would fall but forthe hand which, without aiding, keeps him erect. All finally reach the cross in front of the lodge, march around it, and then place their burdens where they first took them up. ‘ Then, after per forming the same ceremonies as at the other end of the route, all disappear within the house the curtain drops, and the first act is ended. Whilst waiting for whatever might come next I strolled among the crowd. All the Mexican men and women were squatted on the ground smoking, talking, and laughing as if at a fiesta. amopon. dooiyl thought to ■ so, ceremoniously removing my hat„l walked in’ and found myself in an ordinary house plastered with mud and entirely without furniture. Wn. tidng"onothor open door'to the" lef fcl entered there, and was glad to have done so, for it was one of the rooms pertaining to the penltsntoa 'lt'was a room about twenty feet long, twelve -feet wide.andeoven feet high, neatlyplastered and whitewashed, the floor of santLand too room des titute of furniture, save that in the further cor ner was a sort of .altar made from a table and covered with a black shawh Two other shawls one,black, one black, one parti-colored, hung on the walls, one behind, the' other to the right of . the altar, on which were placed several images. One of the Crucifixion and one of tho Virgin and child especially attracted my attention; the lat ter from its grotesque resemblance h i expres sion, attitude,and apparel (oven to the scarf over , the head) to a Mexican woman and child; the farmer because, being spattered with blood all over, it-looks so horrible : and-ghastly. Two women knelt before those objects, absorbed in prayer. - I was about to leave, when I noticed the pecu liar appearance of the walls, and asked a man who had just come in the cause of it. Ho said it was Sanrjre de los Penitentes (blood of the pen itentoa.) And so it really was. It was impossi ble to place the tip of tho finger on either walls or ceiling without touching one of those crimson splashes, thrown there from the whips with which they flagellate themselves. My observa tions made, I hurried out, and r drove to the arroyo, the shrill notes'of tho fife giving warn ing that the second act was about to commence. I arrived barely in time to witness the egress from the honse of the.actors. First,.as before came fifer, priest, and image-hearer; following them three penitentes, each one armed with a whip. And here let me tell you what kind of whip they use. It is made of tho leaves of a "plant which grows ail over this country in great pro fusion, and is commonly known as “ soapweed,” its root being pounded and used by the natives in place* of soap. Tho real name la “Yucca” (Spanish bayonet), and it is, 1 believe, a kind oi lily. It has a bulbous root, and hairy leaves fully two feet in length, with edges and points that cut like knives. These leaves are hardened by fire, and are then plaited into thongs, about eight inches of tho end being allowed to hang freely.- A largo nnmberof thongs are bound to . a stock so as to rcsomblo in form a fan, and the whip is complete, makings scourge that I imag ine is almost, if-not folly, ns severe as the dread ed “ knont.” "With the first step each penitente raised his whip with both hands and struck across his left shoulder with all his strength on his own naked back, almost pausing until he had withdrawn it, when with the next step ho atruck bimafllf |n tho some-manner across the right shoulder. And they proceeded,—with every step a blow,—right, loft,-right, left, with a regularity and monotony that was positively sickening. They had not proceeded ten steps on their way before the whips were tinged with red, and before they had gone fifty these instruments wore of one uniform dull red, and the blood was dripping from every thong and running down from the lacerated and quivering backs, crimson ing again the scanty pieces of cloth, which was each man*s only covering, and, running down to bis feet,was thence absorbed by the thirsty earth. This seemed to me evidence of suffering suffi ' ciently great to atone for any degree of crime, but it w&s not enough for tho penitentes. In place of following the same road as their predecessors, they slowly turned to the left, and climbed tho hill at ft point where the cactus spines literally covered the ground, and where it Was impossible for them to step and not bo pierced, by them. You will hardly. believe that across such & road, and enduring such tortures, those men walked a distance of .three miles; and yet it is a fact. I do not know that they whipped themselves during the entire time; and yet I think they did. At any rate, going'arid re turning, 1 saw them inflict on themselves pun ishment which would have killed most white men. . .. The second act was not concluded when the third began. A few moments after the last party had left one of'the attendants came out, and, going to tho crosses, selected tho lightest, and returned with it to the house. I wanted to know what would be done next. One man isaid. that.. they would, crucify a penitente and “ stick him np.** Another said that they would hind ono to the cross and drag him as far as the cross had before been carried. But the question was set at’ rest .in five minutes. Another fifer, priest, and man carrying what the Americans present irreverently called “ ThaLit tlo Jesus.** made their appearance, and following them witii much difficulty, & solitary penitente who had both arms extended, and tightly bound to the upright portion of the cross, which was laid lengthwise across bis shoulders, the two ends projecting beyond the hands- Standing a few paces from tho door he waited until followed by two more, each one of whom named one of those terrible whips. 'Placing ' themselves behind him, each one strikes him be ; low the shoulders. He takes slowly a step for ward—they strike him again. And so ho goes on, for every step two blows; |ho waiting un til they strike fairly and then taking his' next step' in advance. Jfot more than a tenth part of his journey-la accomplished when he stops, reds, and seems about to fall. The regular whiz of the whip is never intermit ted/ every blow i& laid on with cruel energy, but at a whisper and a eigufroin the presiding fiend the two executioners aim their blows an inch or two lower. Every time the. victim’flags they apply the same remedy/ selecting some now spot on which to operate until tho entire backhand sides are cut and tom and bruised alike, and tho flesh hangs in shreds, and* patches, while cross, victims, and executioners are equally bespat tered and covered with blood. I am compelled to turn away so sickened and horrified that I can hardly see, and, for tho moment, as weak as an infant. . 'You may think this exaggerates, xt is not. The horrible truth cannot, be. .If figures will enable you to better comprehend tho enormity of this last piece of* infamy, hereihey are. I timed the operation myself: ■ It took that poor wretch to walk to the farth . eat. cross and return precisely one horn and forty minutes, during the whole of which time he waa receiving-’at tho rate of fifty-four blows per minute;-so that he had to endure no leas than five thousand four hundred stripes.- . As it was nearly sunset when ibis last exhibi tion was concluded, and as I was moreover really sick, I left and returned to town. Of the whole thing nothing surprised me more than the non chalance with which- a wagon-load of Mexican “ladies,** who* were among the spectators, looked on the entire spectacle. •’ I have given you above the programme for one day (at least a portion of it. for, os I said, tho exercises wore. Kept up until midnight), hut I have mentioned only a few of the many modes of torture in use among these people. As, for instance, oh the (Thursday) one man trod his thorny path bearing on his shoul ders a load of prickly pears, so tied that the spines wore continually penetrating and lacerating him. Another, bound hand and foot, was compelled to Eerform the first half the journey on his knees, oing unable to move but two or three inches at a time. Betaxning he was unbound sufficiently to enable him to rise to his feet and step about a foot.: The ropo was then tied to his waist,' which was attached four others, tho ends, of which were hold by aa many men. One of. them . waa placed in front, one behind, and one on each side of tho penitents, who then began his return trip.—Hehad walked nearly to the end of his tether, when the man behind jerked him sharply; bound as ho was, ho was*of course unable to re tain hia feet and fell. Ho' roso again and was treated by one of tho others to anpthpr dose of the same kind, and in that manner performed a ' part of his journey. Somotimcshe would boal lowcd to-walk a little way, Lut presently, from one 'of his tormentors—no never knew from which until it was too' late to-’ save • himself— would come a sharp pull at the rope, and down he fell. Presently ho fell and forgot to rise, he could not. He was lifted to his feet, fell sgfiß, and then* the four dragged him to the house ,as they might a dead ox. And soon. . , ‘ You wonder how these people can stand much and live. It is wonderful; they certain# have powers of endurance greater than I sup posed possible.. But they do not always fiT*| • * The poor wretch dragged by the rope was ueau before he was taken into the house, and was, C“ Friday; lying there awaiting burial. Four mOTS were there whose recovery was said to be .b°Pr less. Thero is no doubt that many are y 64 murdered; no ono mil ever know how ■ they arc taken away and secretly bunco. xn» can be easily done, for the inhabitants -Vr Slazas are all natives, and,aa few of them are p Ividually known to the Americans, the dead an» not missed except by their own people. * - Yon will wonder further that the American do not interfere and stop these practices, xnj do not appear to care, or, if they do, : “ that more of the brutes don’t kill themaelvea There exists not much liking between the cans end Americans, and the authonhesin *u new condition don't worry themselves a trifles. Besides it might bo dangerous to tomptto stop the “Penitentes,” *s® *ha southward, the natives greatly outnumwr whites. Joss H. lUwaua-