Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune, May 12, 1873, Page 4

Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune dated May 12, 1873 Page 4
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4 TERMS OF THE TRIBUNE. nmvu or flOTiflcnimoN (patatu.k m advakcv.). Patls of a year at tlio samo rule. To prevent dolnr and mistaken, bo mro and Biro Post Ollico nddrtsi in lull, inolmliim Htnto and Ooanijr. „ Uomlttnncoa may ho made either hy<lraft, oipross, Post OfliuO order, or in tuglalurod Jotter*, at urn* risk. tkiimh to oitt Bunßtmiiir.nn. flatly, dollvorod, Kunday executed. flft cents per woo!:. Mali/, delivered, Sunday iMeliulotl. W ronifl par week. A duress Till? TUllluNK COMPANY. Corner Mndlaon mid i>carliorn*B(s., Uhloiiffo, 111. TO-DAY'S .AMUSEMENTS. IIOOIiKY'S TURATnR.-ltnmlftli’h street, between Clark and LaSalle. "Risks. *’ MoVIUKKU’S TmcATUU-Madbop ilvool, between Dearborn nml Kioto. Kngai;umuiil. ol Udwln Adaiua. "Tlio Marblu lloart.” MYERS' OPIiIIA-ItOUKH- -Mimrrm street, botwoon Ptnto nml Dearborn. Kitty likuchnrd nurloanuo Com (txiiy "Uad Dlokoy.” ACADEMY OY MUSIC llnWlml nUerit, between MndLi'it mul Monroo,.. Juab llnrl’a Tlicatro Uomlquo Combination. AIUCN’H THKATUJS—Wnbasb avenue, comer of Oon rtom street. San Ittmclsco Miiutvet*. FOUICPAUGH'S CIRCUS-Madlson street, oomcr of Elizabeth. ’ . , 01.011 U TllKATßß—Dosplalnei street, bn*woon MadL ion and Washington. UngsKomcnt of Miss Carlollo Stanley. "Crime} or, Koorolsof City Life." AMPII ITIIKATRK-CTliiloti street, botwoon Randolph smi Washington. Vanek, tlio ttntour* Wht (Hifapta. OTtikmc, Monday Morning, May 13, 1873. Captain Jack and his crow aro now reported to havo evacuated tlio lava beds, and taken to tho open country Nixon, tbo Now York murderer, who was sentenced iobo banged Friday next, has boon refused a stay of proceedings ny Judge Pratt, The Federal Republicans have polled an over whelming majority of the vole, so far, in the election in Madrid for members of the Constitu ent Cortes. The election is not yet finished. The Oceanic, one of tbo illfatod White Star Lino, loft Now York on Saturday lor Liverpool, but, after passing Sandy Hook, vraa compelled to return by a break in her machinery. It will' require several days to fit tbo vessel again for tea. Utah is excited over a decision of tbo United States Court of Salt Lake, which will free a largo number of criminals confined in the Terri torial Prison. The decision is not a now one in Utah or tbo Territories, and covers sithply tbo point that tbo Probate Courts have no jurisdic tion over criminal coses, Its effect is to invali date criminal convictions which have boon ob tained in these courts, and release those im prisoned under them, of whom there are said to be scores. A meeting of tho members of tbo Conch and Car of this city was hold on Saturday, to givo formal and appropriate expression to the grief of tho profession in tho loss of their distin guished bead, Chief Justice Chase. Addresses were delivered by Judge Trumbull, tho Hon. ’ Leonard Swott, tho Hon. J, R. Doolittle, Judgo Williams, tho Hon. Burton O. Cook, and others. Resolutions commemorative of tho public aud private virtuoso/ tho lato Chief Justice woro adopted, and a copy of thorn ordered to ho sent to bis family. - Tito hundred United States troops aro on their way to St. Martinsville, La., to aid in crushing tho “McEncry rebellion." Detachments of Metropolitan- police have boon arriving there dally, Tho Secretary of War has ordered Gen. Emory to give Marshal Packard all the assistance bo, uoeds In seizing boats on the river for tho transportation of his forces. In the face of all this formidable array of State and National troops, tho state mont is made that no hostile bodies aro to bo found, and that tho civil war in St. Martin’s parish is over. Gov. Kellogg has mode no formal requisition upon tho Federal Government for help, and says ho believes tho disorder will bo Bhovt-Uvod. A prohibitory liquor-law is favored by tho Com mittee In tho Canadian Parliament, whiph baa boon studying tho connection between intemper ance and crime. They assort upon official infor mation that four-fifths of tho crimes committed in that country result from this vicO; for in stance, 21,230 commitments of 28,280 made iu Quebec and Ontario were to bo traced directly to intoxication. Tho Committee fortify their state ments by tho opinions of 153 doctors, who agreo that disease and premature death are the results of indulgence in ardent spirits. Tho fiscal oW jeetion to prohibiting the liquor, traffic, that to do so would deprive tbo Btato of an annual revenue, which last year was 35,03-1,513.18, they moot by tho argument that an equal sum would bo saved, under prohibition, in tbo cost of hos pitals, Jails, courts, and the other appliances with which society now struggles against im temperance. Wo have good authority f£u* saying that the statement telegraphed from Now York, a few days since, that tho Chicago A Northwestern and tho Milwaukee & St. Paul Bailroad Companies had decided to pool their earnings and divide pro rn.tu, is at least premature. No such arrange ment has boon yet made, although it is not im possible that it may bo effected in the future. As these two Companies control tho business of Wisconsin and Minnesota tributary to Milwaukee and Chicago, and as such an arrangement would virtually shut out tho public from tho benefits of tho competition now existing, it would be a movement against tho public interests which is to bo strongly deprecated. Tho trade which it would affoot is too largo and too important to bo subjected to ouch a monopoly ns this would impose, and against it tho whole business public should enter ihoir decided protest. Tho Chicago produco markets wore moderately activo on Saturday except provisions. Mess pork wua less active, and a shade weaker, closing at $1G.45@1G.50 cash, and $10.00(o)10.G5 seller Juno. Lard was dull,’ and closed a slmdo lower, at $a.85®8.00 por 100 lbs cash, and seller Juno. Heats woro dull and easier, at OM@OXo for shoulders; for short rlbuj 8^ OXo for short clear, and for mvoet pickled hams. Lako freights were moro aotivo, and lower, closing firmer, at 180 for wheat to Buffalo, llighwluos woro moro active oud firra ot 89M° P or Flour was aotivo and^inn*. Wheat was active and strong, but Mo lower clos ing at SX.2BM seller tho month, audlsx.2BM seller Juno. Com was active, and advoJ icod Mo closing easier, at BOX® uollorthomouth, auddlM @4IXo sollor Juno. Oats woro steady andiloss active, closing at 81Ko flollw month, ( and 0%0 nollnr Jimo. llyn wmt quiet nml nlmuly, «t 00>f@70o. Hurley w«a qulot, nml l(?t)2o lower, ntVlffnSSo for oommou to good No. 2. Hogs vroro iwtlvo and Arm, at 4B.OO(fflB.llB. 'l'horo tvm ri lor Imof: okttlo, and llio tnniliot wnri Btrongor, with eulon at tf3.6oifflo.l2J.jf. flhooil woro unchanged. , Tho notion of Qov. Bovoridgo in removing the Commissioners and Warden of tho Penitentiary is to bo regretted, Thoro can bo llttlo doubt llml tho Conamlsoionors and Warden wore re moved, aud tho now Commissioners and Warden appointed, upon purely party grounds. That iho Governor has permitted ouch considerations to Influence him at all with respect to ouch offices is extremely unfortunate. In contemplation of law, thouo officers aro to bo re moved only for oanso. If tho , causo in, this Instance had boon onytliing but an insatiate grood of plnco by other aspirants, wo Imagine tnkt tho Irregularities pointed out by tlio recent Legislative investigation would have boon doomed by tho Governor only of sufficient gravity to re quire on admonition. Tho Penitentiary Is run ning along smoothly and profitably, and, while wo have no reason to anticipate that tho now officers will prove faithless or loss successful than their prodoccssoro, wo repeat, that tlio making of those offices gifts with which to re ward parly blowers Is unfortunate and to bo rogrottod. Tho Buprorao Court of Tennessee has rocontly made a decision which would uqt havo boon ron doroda dozen years ago in tlmt Slato. Two colored men claimed to bo heirs of ono Philip Garner. Tlio claim was resisted on tho ground that tlio parents hud boon slaves, whb wore in capable of making a contract at tho time of their marriage, and that the marriage was thproforo unlawful. Tho highest court in Kentucky had taken this ground iu two oases, holding that no legal rights could bo acquired by a marriage • between slaves or by tboir offspring. Judge Hoad,' of Tennessee, refuses to bo governed by tho precede Ms cited, because ho holds that such a doctrine iu opposed to natural Justice end sound morality. Tho statutes of Tennessee woro formerly construed to refer to while pooplo only, but Judgo Hoad maintains that tho marriage of slaves was still valid under tho common law, and that conse quently their offspring must bo regarded os legit imate whether born in slavery or subsequent to their emancipation. Scarcely any other doctrine could find support at tho bands of an an Ameri can Court of tho prosont day. The Attorney Goncral-of tbo United States has certified to tho War Department that, under tho act of the last Congress, requiring tho retention of one-half tho pay of tho Union Pacific Railway Company for Government transportation, such authority extends to retaining one-half tho tolls on Government transportation over tho railroad bridge at Omaha. In making this decision, how over, ho disclaims any ofilcial judgment upon tho question whothor the railroad begins on tho lowa, or the Nebraska sido of tho river. Ho in forms tho War Department: . J-YrM— I That the act of 18G2, incorporating tlio Com pany, and tho amendatory act of ISCi, aro to bo taken together as ono act; and qb thoy provide that ouo-half of all compensation for services rendered by tho Com pany to the Government shall bo retained for tho pay ment of its bonds and Interest, without naming any spociAo scrvlcoßi and as said acts grant railroad, tele graph, aud bridge franchises, the provision as to compensation applies as well to services under tho other franchises. ' iVcoml—Thai under tho act of 1873, nil compensa tion for services to tbo Government by said Company upon its railroads of any kind is to bo retained so long as any interest in tho United States by tho Company upon its bonds remains unpaid; aud that tho railroad of tho Company across tU« bridge is cue of tho rail roads to which said net applies. Though tho Attorney-General is careful to ex clude any decision of . tho matter as to whoro tho eastern end of the Union Pacific Hallway begins, yet tho decision that ho doos make practically covers tho case. If tho biidgo over tho Missouri Bivor at Omaha is no part of tho Union Pacific Bailroad, then it will bo difficult to understand how tho tolls for transportation thoroou can bo retained by tho Government. If tho tolls oh' transportation for tho Government, over tho Union Pacific Bailroad, which it is lawful for tho Government to retain, begin at tho eastern end of tho bridge, and not In raidrivor, nor on tho Nebraska side, then the Union Pacific Bailroad must begin at tho same point. | Captain Hall’s Arctic Expedition cannot justly bo called a failure.* Ho did not entitle him self to tho reward of .£5,000 which was offered so long, ago us 1770 by tho English' Government to the explorer who should got within 1 degree of tho North Polo. Ho boa not discovered tho northwest passage, a channel which the commerce of tho world has long since ceased to think about; but ho has undoubtedly by hla intrepid explora tion added to our geographical and scientific knowledge of that mysterious northern region with which tho names of Cook, Boas, Parry, Franklin, Kano, and Hayes are forever associated, 110 has carried his vessel within 4GI miles of tho Polo, 210milesfurthor thanDr.Kuno wont, and fl.greater rcachofPolarnavigationthan has over- before boon accomplished! and ho scorns to have discovered tho true entrance into the open Polar Boa, which has eluded preceding explorers. Capt. Hall, of whoso death on Nov. 8, 1871, tho world lonrnpd . yesterday for the first time, from tho lips of nineteen survivors of’lua party, was iu early life a prominent journalist of Cincinnati. He l>ocarao deeply interest ed iu the subject of Polar exploration by following tho career of Dr. Kano hi his two Arctic expeditions, as well as watching tho searches, for Bir John Franklin. Ho determined to join tho search for tho lost navigator, and in 18G0, when 85 years of ago, sailed on an expedition of which a largo part of tho cost was supplied from his own moans. Ho was more fortunate iu his search than any of his predecessors, and brought back with him, after au absence of two years and throe mouths, some very valuable information iu re gard to Sir John’s fate. Ho published a narra tive of his voyago under tho title “ Explorations ami Adventures in tho Arctic Bogions." Ho made, a second expedition iu ISGi, dur ing /which ho spent five years in loom ing* tho Esquimaux language, and hal>- Ih) of life. Ho secured many relics of tho Franklin crew, and* discovered beyond a doubt that they had perished, and when and whore. After' his return ho spout a year In scientific study, and sailed iu July, 1871, never to return. Tho Polaris, which carried him, was a Government steamer equipped with especial reference to his needs, with a picked crew, scientific observers, and all necessary appliances, for which Congress hod appropriated SIOO,OOO. Ho was sanguine of reaching the North but has perished in tho THIS CHICAGO GAILY I'RIBUNE: MONDAY, MAY i 2, 1^73. attempt. another nncriflro to tlio ambition to which Kano nml Franklin gavo tboir lives. THE NEXT CONGRESSIONAL INVEBTIGA* TION. Tlio next hobhloii of Congress will find, na the last flosuiou found, material demanding imme diate and searching investigation. The case of Phelps, Dodge it Oo- will oomo before tho Forty third Congress no Orodit-Mobllior did before tho last aosslon of tho Forty-second Oongroso. It will present a crime perpetrated under tho forms of law more vilo and degrading than tho grand combination for defrauding tlio Government in Union Pool lie. It will involve oillclalH who worq engaged in a huge blackmailing transaction, and will develop the nefarious ways and moans adopted by spies, informers, ami vampires who operate under tho protection of Gov ernment authority. Tho demand for,’ this 'lnvestigation will como from tlio entire mer cantile community of tho country, which cannot ‘afford to permit ono, of its members to bo bled after tlio fashion in which Messrs. Phelps, Dodge it 00. wore plundered, since they may all bo subjected to tho same process. Tho-invosti gatlon must bo pursued with open doors. Tho evidence whioh shall expose tho dirty tricks to which Government spies resort must bolnld be fore tho public. It may bo that tho law will pro tect tho officials who prosecuted tho firm, but tho investigation Is uocossavy for two reasons. If tho law does protect such villainy as has at tended tlio Pholpn-Dodgo case, it must bomado l so odious in tho oyoa of tho pooplo that they will demand its repeal. If it does not authorize tho proceedings that have boon adopted, tho per petrators of tho outrage should bo brought to condigu punishment. It has boon shown that, out of an importing business amounting to about £140,000,000 dono by Messrs. Phelps, Dodge it Co. fin tho space of five years, the Government lost atiovouuo iu du ties of only SI,GOO, aud that this* Joss resulted from tho tmlnlolligiblo and uujnat diameter of the Import law, which it is almost Impossible for any business man to comprehend, and utterly impossible for every business mnn to •strictly ob serve, It boa, moreover, boon proved that the houao of Phelps, Dodge it Co. hod no intention of defrauding tho Government, that tho system of their invoices was uniform, that it was as apt to bo in favor of the Government as in favor of themselves, and that it resulted in their over paying rather than under-paying the duties that lawfully accrued during tho five years. Those facts, which have only boou/known to the public within the last few days, Wjro known to tho spies, the informers, tho Customs officials, and tho Government prosecutors all tho time. : Yet, in tho faco of this knowledge of tho inno cence of tho firm of all wrong-doing, tho Cus , tom-Houso gang, Aided and abetted by tho Troao- , ury Department, enforced, tho payment of $271,023 to cover tho loss off SI,GOO to tho Gov ernment. This largo sum "does uot go to tho Government; if it did, lt"M ’ould novor have boon exacted. Tho Qovcmm&uj. gets a comparatively small share of It, and iboj.-oat is divided, accord ing to tho law, amoug tfho Customs officials, , the United States District Attorney, and tho informer. There is a. si /ong suspicion that other persona, not entil led by law to sharo tho spoils, have como injfora division for their co-operation in working*, up tho caso, and tboir Influence In securing a compromise. Hero is another reason *. why thoro should bo Congressional Investigate m. If thoro are per sona who bavo used Umirfi nfluonco, or lout their aid toitho successful-com plotion of this black mailing transaction, and w ho aro uot entitled to any of tho profits umlorti ho law, they must bo exposed, and made to disg orgo. Tho tempting bribes which Government offers wo infamous enough without any oxtouoa )u of tho oystom to outsiders. A Congressional investigation is further de manded as au aefe of justice Uo Messrs. Phelps, Dodge & Go* Tho linn is composed of gentle men who had built-up a refutation for com mercial integrity by tile Uovotinu of a lifetime to their business. Their? commercial honor was naturally l dear to thomibocauso it was the result of honorable ambition emd labor ; it also hod an important business valine as determining the re lations they could m'aiutain with other com mercial .houses. Tho Now York Custom- House clique sought ► to ..destroy this rep* ■illation, this . accu mulation’ of a life’s labor at quo strok im Phelps, Dodge , & Co. wore branded as « »mmou swindlers. Tho telegraph was busy in . .retailing the degradation to which they had I toun brought. Business circles wore permeated with tho belief that mat- ters wore oven worse tl.| am tho Informers repre sented them to bo, and, i vdion tho firm paid over tho $271,023, out of whi 5h :thoy had been black mailed, tho Government for having compromised the prosecution; for so small a sum when it supposed to >, entitled to .much, more. Shall u practice, be- toh iratod which may blacken the.good uamo and ruin the credit of any commercial house iu which th o spies may find unintentional regularities undue a law that iu at. once complicated and unjust ?l yfi ’his is tho ques tion for Congress to docido.| ; ‘ kAt common law tho clique that has porsec aito»l tho firm of Phelps, Dodge it Co. would tio •imllctod for con spiracy and visited with a punishment commen surate with tboir otffcnso. It woo eprtulnly a serious /error on tho part of Messrs.. I‘holps, Dodgo & Co. to yio!c.\ to tho ox* tortiona of a blackmailing /ring, but it wan a mis take which other busmens men mig:ht muko under tho sumo ciuoamsiaucos. There ia ono low which would tocliffically hnver hold tho firm responsible for tho /full value- of-tho goods which had not beau ua invoiced aa to include all possible items of oxpouco in truneporiatJon, ' packing, otc. Nb jury could; ovor have boon found to glvo a voi:dlot tor thin amount to divide among spies and, informers,but many nmr clmnts, liko Phelps, Dodge «y‘oo., would havo decided noUto take tho risk. IThoro is another law of recant dato which autliorixcn tho Gov* ormuout apioß to traverao tho country, pry into tho a Hairs of merchants,; overhaul thoir books, and expose Thorn nto fow business men who would, not rnthor bo lded to a coiiflidomblo iimoimtUlmu submit to • this inquisition. Tho temptation is a largonmo far tho spies. Tho informer In tho Pholps-Dohgo cose—ono of thoirown clerks—rotoivod $70,000 (moro money than 7te could havo named other*- wise In a lifetime), Informers will not bo scarce* at this rate of wagos, and spies will do a thriving business. , Now tho business momof thiswountry havo & right to demand whothor, and to what oxtont, this system of blackmailing is authorized by the United States Government, Thono is no way so direct and tboroughito show thcrenJ character of this system and to bring,it into lasting disro* puto, as to havo an opou Congressional luvootlga tlon, which, by tho way, should not: bo confined to tbo Phelps, Dodgo <tyCo, yise, but should in- cludo other transactions, not quite so notorious but equally flagrant, which have lately disgraced the records of the civil serviced » MR.'DUBOHARD 'ON BACK-PAY. 1 Wo print the loiter of the Hon/ir. O. Bur ohard, member.,of Congress from this Stale, on tho salary question, of which wo had previously given Iho substance." Wo'have-no wl6h to do him inJuaUca, and, therefore, lot him .state ilia own case, in his own words. Ho proposes to take the increase of pay for, the last Congress,!/ the next Congress (of which ho is a member) shall loavo the law, fixing iho pay at S7,COD, im clmngcd. If iho next .Congress shall repeal tho law, then Mr. Burch’ard will restore tho “hook pay H to the public treasury. Otherwise, ho will retain iho hook-pay,, on tho ground that hlsQor vices during tho last, two years veto worth as much'as thoy will bo during tho next two years. - Tlio next Congress will contain 174 now mom: bora, being a majority of tho whole. Those mou will moot lu December, aud will find that their pay has boon fixed by a previous Oongroso at $7,500 per annum. Thoy will assume, very nat urally, that tho pay, as fixed for them, with out tboir votes, was doomed by those who pre ceded them a fair compensation. They will vote with great'unanimity that,.as thoy had nothing to do with fixing their own pay, and as nine months.of their term will havo already ox ■ pirod, they will leave tho law aiono, so far as it applies to them. No person in any way exper ienced in such matters can havo any doubt :that all tboso now members, who nro In no way responsible for tho legislation of ‘last winter, will vote against any diminution of thoiromipay. Mr..Burchard knows this, and everybody olso knows it, and, therefore, to hold -the back pay for tho last Congress dependent on tho action of tho next Congress Is holding it upon a certainty that tho possession will bo per manent. Tho question of receiving or refusing tho $5,000 extra pay voted to each member of tbo last Congress is a more question of conscience, which each, member must decide for himself. Mr. Burchard cannot cscapo this responsibility by transferring it to tho next Congress, nor by putting the money up as a bet on what tho noxt Congress will do. This question of conscience turns upon tho consideration whether' Mr. Burchard, elected to Congress to servo two years at a compensation fixed by law, is Justified in talcing an increased compen sation, voted at tho close of tho session. If ho thinks so, ho 'should take tho monoy; If ho dooa not fool hp can do this conscientiously, then ho ought to refund it; In either caso ho is solo Judgo os to tho propriety of bis action In a matter so purely personal, and, having made his decision, ho must bo prepared to abide tho judgment of tbo public upon it. If ho thinks that, taking $7,500 for tho next Congress is as bad os taking it for the last Congress, wo should advise him, if our advico woro asked, to refund that also. THE LATE ME. MILL. Tho dispatches which bring us the sad tidings of tho death of John Stuart Mill announce that ho has loft in manuscript his autobiography. Of nil his contributions to literature and learn ing, this will probably bo tho one moat eagerly and widely perused. Mr. Mill's influence has extended over tho whole clvilizcd.world, through tho medium of a comparatively small number of persons. Tho works to which ho applied him self word mainly of an abstruse and forbidding typo. They wbro such as attract only highly cultivated minds, and ouly a portion of those. Their influence and permanent value consist in tho fact that thoy lie at tho ground work of knowledge. Ho essayed to go over again tho pathways of Aristotlo and Bacon, not os an imitator, hut os an independ ent thinker, to establish the limits of tho hamau mind, and to define tho processes of its opera tion. Whether his system of Logie, which em braces the host results of this gigantic under taking, bo altogether true, or partly defective, Is a question upon which future generations will probably bo as much divided os tho present. It is certain that no discussion of tho subject can bo cbmploto which ignores what ho has , said. Hie latest critic, M. Taino, deems it incomplete in confining human knowledge to tho limits of Experience. An American critic, Mr. Bpwiaud G. Hazard, has' Ingeniously ot taokod his theory or definition of Causation. But whatever may bo said of tho details/ even upon so important bronchos os those, it remains that his “Logic’’latheheat . extant work on that subject”, and is.probably tho ono upon which ; ho preferred that his famo as a thinker should rest. , . In his Address to tho students of St. And rew's University—probably'the most comxiro lionsivo essay on tbo belongings of a liberal edu cation that tho English language affords—ho said that tho thing which distinguishes one man above another in Intellectual stature is tbo’ ability to judge of tho value of evidence.This is a very broad definition, and tho more it is .examined, tho moro true it appears.. What docs this or that fact signify—in law, history, physical scionco, potitical or social philosophy ? It may signify ono thing or many things. It may.slgui fy tho very opposite of what appears on tho sur face, To OopornlcuH tho apparent motion of tho heavenly bodies signified something far dif ferent from what his predecessors had conceived. To Adam Smith tho utility of obtaining by ox-, change that which could ho procured by loss effort thau by direct production, seemed os truo when applied to nations, os to individuals, al though his contemporaries did not so regard it. Mr. Mill's was pre-eminently ono of those minds qualified and trained to judge of the valuo of evidence, and this qualification mado him the first authority and foremost expounder of Political* Economy in the world. Al though not claiming to ho discoverer

of now truths in this science, hut ..rather a. surveyor of tho field in its then condition, his work Ims boon assigned, by thoso most compe tent to judge,tho very highest placo In that de partment of knowledge ; and, although' some things have boon added since his treatise was published, it still holds tho undisputed suprema cy which it first achieved as a systematic work. Tho facto and processes which constitute tho science of Political Economy are of so compli cated ond slippery a nature that very few minds arc competent to analyze and imprison them. Mr. Mill succeeded so marvelously in this branch of inquiry, that, If ho had done nothing else, his reputation would have boon high aud lasting, Political Economy revolves about Mill—takoa for a otarting-polut or a point of outlook—aa Uatrooomy revolved About Nowtou lu his day, * although ho was not, aa Newton wan, a groat I dJacovoror. To atudouta of this science tho moat interesting dibouaalona that havo taken placoof Jotoyears aro, that in which Prof. Oalmoa hou antagonized Mr. MiU'adoflultlon of tho prov ince of tho aciouoo Uoolf—tho latter holding that It (lonia only with the operations of tbo human mind, while tho former contends that it Includes also tho materials of tho physical universe, which' are tho objects of human desire; that In which Prof. Donomy Prico has antagonized Mill’s doctrine that tho demand for money Is tho whole amount of goods and services offered in tho market, arid vico versa ; and that In which Mr. Thornton has antagonized some of Mr. Milt’s views on tho laws governing tho question of Labor and All those eminent thinkers concur in giving him tho fore;- most place, and in reckoning themselves among his followers.' No one is doomed worthy of a placo among economists at tho present time who has not mastered what Mill nas written. In Logie and Political Economy Mr. Mill achieved his highest success, yet his labors as a social reformer may prove to bo those which will cause him to bo longest remembered. Ills Essay on Liberty Is one of the noblest exposi tions of tho'right of personal independence (which ho conceives to bo tho one thing most essential to human progress) that was over given to tho world. Tho tyranny of arbitrary power, tho tyranny of custom, tho tyranny .of majorities, and' of .social op probrium aro all aliko clubbed ' to tho earth by tho ponderous blows of his logic. Of Ids latest considerable work, on tho Subjec tion of Women, it may bo remarked that ho has , loft nothing .to bo said by anybody who shall como after him. Tho central idea of tide work is that tho world cannot afford to reject or refuse to omploy any talent that tho Creator may send nto it; that history and daily experience tench that women possess tnlont equally with men, or, if not equally, that their deficiency is duo to want of equal education and opportunity. Upon this ho supports tho claim of women to nil tho rights which men pobsobs, Including political rights. Ho advances this claim upon utilitarian grounds, leaving tho question of abstract right to bo fought over by those who have a taste for that branch of tho controversy. As a moralist, Mr. Mill has been reckoned tho ;apost!o of Utilitarianism, but, os Mr. James Mar . tinoau observes in his critical essay on Mr. Mill’s works, ho fell considerably short of tho expec tations of that school, for, although horn and i nurtured In tho tenets of Jeremy Bontham, and hailed by his followers as tho rising star in their flnn&mont, ho gavo only a qualified ad hesion to their doctriues. To tho younger generation of English thinkers and Ull&’ateurs, and especially to those of a radical hont In poli tics,. Mr. Mill has,boon a prophet. Ilis advice and counsel havo boon sought more eagerly and greater deference paid to Ida opinions than to thoso of any other man of our time. His mind was critical rather than creative, but as a critic ho woa unrivaled. Confidence in his sin gleness of purpose and devotion to tho truth, as implicit as that which tho disciples of Bocratcs reposed in their teacher, was tho reward which ho earned from tho groat body of tho intellectual classes of Groat Britain, and of America as well. To tho Conservatives and most of tho aristocracy of England ho was a hcle noir, all tho more feared and disliked by reason of his indifference to wealth, power and social prefer ment. To him tho absolute equality of all men and women, In respect of rights as members of human society, was too plain for argument, and tho denial of such equality was fit ouly to ho tho subject of indignation. - Mr. Mill loaves no 'children to Inherit his groat abilities and fame. Miss Helen Taylor, tho daughter of his wife by a former marriage, Is known to Amoricau readers as ono of tiro con tributors to tho FortniglUbj Review, and ns tho editor and compiler of tho miscellaneous works of Henry Thomas Buckle. THE WATER AH3) DEER OF CINCINNATI. Tho recent musical festival In Cincinnati has invested that city with unusual interest at tho present time. Tho festival features have already boon very thoroughly presented In these columns.' It only remains now to speak of a few of the domestic features, and, of tbeso, tho groat Foun tain, tho Suspension Brldgo, and Lager Beer are tho most prominent, that engage tho atten tion of a stranger in tho river plateau. Tho suburbs and elegant residences on tho outlying hills are so far elevated above tho noise and smoko of tho city, and differ from it in so many essentials, that it is like going into a now world to ascend thoso heights. Goethe's well-known lino, “On every height thoro lies repose, ’* applies to Clifton, but Clifton is not Cincinnati. It has not tho innumerable fruit stands, tho turbid river, the classic Bhinb with' its heterogeneous smells, the hundreds of second hand stores, tho diminutive and dirty horso-cara which look llko overgrown turtles os tboy slowly, crawl up tho hill-slopes, tho dingy buildings, the bad hotels, nor the band which plays very badly. at tho barracks on tho other side of tho river, ■ and which belongs to Cincinnati by virtue of tho musio which comes wafted over tho Ohio from tho sacred soil of Kentucky. Tho Probnsco Fountain is a uoblo work of modern art, of which tho city may bo proud, although its surround ings are but commonplace and Us finely mould ,od figures spout very dirty water. Like tho rest of the city, it must inevitably got dirty, however, and this is to'bo regretted, fo», In design and execution, it is a credit to tho Munich moulder who has worked it out without once having' recourse to classical forms. Tho whole story of water in all its forms and functions is admir ably told in' tho graceful and powerful figures and in tho relievos. At tho same time It is to bo rogrot tod that such artistic figures should bo mado tho reservoir and distributor of such dirty water, ami that it should Lave boon located in such a dingy and unpropitious quarter of tho city. It is as much out of placo ns would bo an elegant eta goro in a kltcbou. Tho Suspension Bridge is a noble achievement of scionco, and tho magnifi cent arc suspended by its thousands of filaments from tho lofty and massive towers combines a perfection of symmetry with strength possessed by no other similar structure in this country. Prominent as those . two features are, however, the -third is tho most promi nent of all. Gambrimw Is tho tutelar divinity of Cincinnati. Tho amber canal, with its squalid surroundings, which cuts off ono section of tho city from tho other, llko a very dirty ribbon, is in very truth tho Bbino, although it has no cas tled cliffs, no vino-clad hills, no poetic or legen dary associations, and no Uudtrio floating in its thick and nasty flood. Tho people beyond the Bbino devote their existence to boor. They drink it six days in the week, and violate the commandment by not resting on the seventh. Beer Is the motive power, tho Inspiration, tho beginning and cud of life, tbo hope of youth, tho reward of ago; and tlio only sadness which op presses tho minds of thoso dwellers across tho BUino is that they must pay five cents for a throe cont glass of jtholr sine qua non. A stroll through tills classical region by day or by night convinces a stranger that tho pooplo do nothing but drink boor. Tho flow ls : oxhaustloss. Rivers of boor, mountains of pretzels, and huge carta of sausages disappear down (ho Tontonio throat daily, and on any ptroofc at night you may buy hot Borllnor Worst with caroway-scodod broad and tumlppy hoibo-radlsli, from porlpatotfo vendors who soil thorn, as oho of iho sausage-peddlers remarked to tho writer, “ for th’o good of tho human rnco.” It must bo, also,‘that all ibis boor is sold . for tho. same lofty. and uusolflsh purpose. There ;ls no danger that tho supply of boor will give out, for all tbo largo saloons have a browery attached, so that tho flow Is continuous. In those hngo saloons, wboro hundreds may .congregate, glasses clinic and pretzels snap to tho mnnio of Strauss and Qtiugl, and distressing questions in metaphysics, bounded only by iho limits of tho Ewigkolt, oro discussed with a volubility and fervor which would involve a fight in four minutes among moro hot-blooded drinkers. As ibis, however, would waste time, which might ho devoted to boor, tho phlegmatic Gorman wisely does nothing of tho kind. Attached to nearly all those brew eries oro music-halls and theatres, where very gross German coryphees execute very thick footed and stoutrlimbcd dancing, and whoro there is vory bad acting and cheap panoramas of tho German war'sotting forth tho glories of Friedrich Wilhelm. When all of those are In full blast, with tho blowing of brass bands, tbo din of talk, and tbo clinking of glasses, tboro io no look of excitement on tho further side of iho Rhino. As long as tho Cincinnati boor Is so good and Cincinnati water so bod, there Is no reason why the former should not take tho placo of tbo loiter. Viewed from this standpoint, tbo onor gotio and persistent efforts of tho. Cincinnati Commercial to got tho price of boor reduced aro in tho Interest of virtue and morality. No ono can drink tho water without being tbo worse for It, both In soul and stomach. On tho other hand, no ono can drink tho boor without being tho bettor for It, provided bo Is a virtuoso in boor-drinking. If 'not, ho should not strive to omulato tho capaci ties of those dwellers on tbo Rhino, who have storage sufficient for a barrel per diem. Already, however, in this land flowing with malt and hops, there are muttorings of discontent. The Oom mon Council of Cincinnati have succeeded iu passing an ordinance to closo up tho musical and torpslchorcan departments on Sunday. Should they go still further and try to stop tho boor also, then tbo old battles of tho Nibolungon Lied will bo fought over again on tho banks of iho Cincinnati Rhino, and tho tawny haired Gorman warriors will dispute tboir rights with the nabobs of Clifton and tbo merchants of tbo Ohio. When that timo comes, tbo now placid Rhino will soo other sights than hroad-boamod canal-boats lazily floating along, and bob-tail borso-cars crossing Its bridges. Cincinnati will bold to Its boor until every otbor interest is sac rificed, and is right in doing bo as long as tbo bcor is so good and tbo Probasco Fountain spouts such muddy impurity. NOTES AND OPINION. Tho Roohollo (Hl. 'jlicgistcr throws Sir. Burch ard overboard, and nominates James K. Kdaall to bo bis successor in Congress. It squarely tolls Mr. Burchard that ho " has gono too far to rccodo, and ho caa road his doom iu tho hand writing on tho wail.” —Tho Bloomington (XU.) Pantograph says of tho consolidation of tho Chicago & Northwestern and tho Chicago, Milwaukee & St. I'aul Railroad lines, that It— •' la simply one rnoro illustration or tno constant ten dency of railroad monopolies to corobluo and consoli date, ami thereby destroy tho hope, which la still en tertained by some, that railroad charges may “ regu late themselves 11 under ** free competition,” Tho combination of tho two toads , named will place pretty much tho whole railroad sys tem of tho region northwest of Obicngo vir tually under ono management. Considering, too, tbo intimations which were given out a few weeks ago, that the St. Paul lines have already boon swallowed oy the Pennsylvania Central, tho uow report indicates that another approach has been made toward tho destiny which seems wailing for all of us in tbo near future, of becoming tho very humble oervants of Col. Tom Scott, tho coming monarch of America by virtue of hl» own ership of thoruUroad system of tho continent; Pleasant prospect, isn’t It? ” —Tbo Grand Jury at St. Paul, Minn., has resolved.to tako up tho State Treasury defal cation. * • —Of tho Kentucky resolutions tbo Cairo But lelin (Liborul-Domocrat) says t ' Tho dog tcill return to his vomit, ond why should not tho Democracy of Kentucky—blcsa Us old sou\ J— return to the resolutions of *OB7 Thuso resolutions nro of excellent quality. They have tbo flow of ago about thorn,—aro so old they must bo read through spectacles, even by tho political youths of tho country. They are good, being old, , and wo hopo tbo fossils may enjoy them; nut, as for us,— why, wu prefer tho piety of Unrlau, tho honesty of Ames, tho political aogiioUy of Fnmk Blair, or any other worthless thing. They, wero to our taslb in their llmo, hut our palate his be uomo more delicate, and wo must wait until wo boemno' stronger before wo shall consent to swallow any more doses of sugar-coatedsecusblou, labeled "Biaieltfghls.” ,—lu , Connecticut tho Legislature represents , towns, not population ; and it has como to paiQ I that ono-flfth of tho population ©loot a majority in tho legislative bodies. Of courso tho'small towns like this, and have boen qblo to defeat all propdsitions of constitutional reform, requiring, us they do, a majority voto iu ouo and, a two thirds voto In tho 1 now proposed to disregard tho two-thuds -rule. Gov. Ingorsoll says ; i In 1818 the Convention was assembled by resolution ,of tho General Assembly. I recommend thouajupnow. And I Indulge the hopo that, before tbo expiration of the present oUloia! year, such a Convention will have assembled, and completed a work which tho people of Connecticut will opprovo,nud of which the initiative honor will belong to tho General Asuembly of 1873. 1 —Tho organization of tho Ooimootiout Legis lature, at Hartford, May 7, was as follows i Speaker of the House, William W. Eaton (Dem ocrat), of Hartford, by 121 votes, to 70 for John T. Wait, of Norwich. Clork of tho House, Samuel A. York, of Now Haven ; Assistant, IS. H. Hyde,. Jr,, of Hartford. President of tho Bonato, Allow Tommy (Republican), of Norwich, by 11 votes, to 10 for Pliny Barton, of Salisbury. Oiork of tho Senate, Qoorgo I£. Cowell, of Wator bury. — l Tho Indianapolis Journal (Morton) believes tho Republican party will bo essentially reorgan ized, and tako advantage of tho drift of tho times. It Buys i Tho-American mind Ja radical: tbo glory of the Untied States is in-tho future. It lives on hopo, not memory. llouco, aa long as the Republican party is the parly of progress, It will coutiuuu to maintain Its uacoudoncy, in spile of constant changes and local and temporary defeats. - —Tho Farmers’ movement has passed its in cipient singes, and is arriving at a condition of such thorough organization that its supporters may bo cousiderod as coinitituting a “party.” Tins moans more, perhaps, than appears at'first night it is this that gives tho movement its political significance; a body of mou no organized /. aa to hb cApablo of intelligent, concerted action, luhHt necessarily oxort a groat intluonco lu politics! Its creation as a Parly will prevent Its force being diverted into otnor channels, and its mou will bo choson in regard to its ends ns a party, It must bo evident that fiscal and econ omical matters will bo raised to tho first Imnor tanco in the politics of tbo future. Mpcu of what has heretofore been sot fortli upon tho subject Is outrageous -folly, and will disappear before tho . dint of criticism, but wo think that bqiuo. tangible expression of doctrino will yot bo promulgated.— Baltimore American, .—Tho people of Wisconsin will Took with ap prehension upon tho consolidation of those two groat rival companies, and the “ monopoly war ” will uow have a significance hero, that it has never before possessed* If tlie railroad com panies combine for thoir own advancement, tho pooplo should unite for thoir own aolf-protoc tiun ] If those corporations support candidates in thoir own iutorosts regardless of politics, tho pooplo should repudiate the old rotton concerns that claim tbojr party allegiance, and voto for tho mon they know can ho trusted in any emer gency. Food attorneys and hired lobbyists figure most conspicuously iu our political convoutions, and havo controlled tho party organizations for thoir own selfish ends. Lot tho pooplo ijndorstand this fact; lot them disown such leadership; tot thoia emancipate themselves from tho shackles of party, and unite as ono mafi to put down iho rings and monopolies that are. burdening their Imlmifcrins, corrupting their representatives, and 'endangering free inatHr.- tioiiH in thin country.— Madison (Wis.) Dm.c cral. —The people are awakening all over the laud, and their voice is being hoard, and their lata t power is hold in wholesome fear by tbo official servants who Jmvo betrayed their trusts. Let tho good work go oh i “keen (Uoball a-rolthig on.” Don’t, feo.'.it blind,' but, when you know you’ro right, go abend, no matter who stands m your way. Croat© a more healthy public senti ment ; lot your agents in office understand they aro not masters.— Waterloo (Iowa) Cornier, . —When men boldly do wlmt they think right, with no fear of party or party- leaders, and car ing nothing for the demagogues sol up by rings and cliques, there will nob bo much danger of things going wrong, not for very long at any rate.— lndianapolis Lines, —Wo preserve on unshaken faith In tho ablUiy of tho American people to come to correct con clusions .... wo must know whether railroads can carry our grain to market and afford uo a profit for producing it or not ? and, if so, will they do It voluntarily or not ? If not, what in tho quickest and surest way of compelling them to do it ? Those questions require nu answer. Antiquated precedents and legal technicalities cannot change tho facts or necessities of tho ease. They aro bnt smoko, and can do little for iho mutual prosperity of railroads and people.— Fairbury (111.) Independent. —llailroad monopolies stalk kneo-doop in tho rights of tho people, and will only build whoa am! wboro they chooso. Don’t talk twaddle about soaring thorn; they only laugh in their omnipo tence at what weak mortals may throat io tio thorn with.— Ohcroltco (Iowa) Times. —lt has long boon a shame and a disgrace to tho nation time wealthy corporations should have tbo power to do Just ns they pleased without ruy regard to tho rights of others. Not onlyhnvo Legislatures succumbed to potent roanous, but oven courts have boon found their willing tools, and vonal and corrupt Judges have prostituted tho provisions of Justice to tbo basest uses. Lawn passed for the protection of tho pooplo have boon wantonly disregarded, and regulations so onerous have been nnvdo'tlmc popular patience is near tho point whoro it ceases loboamtuo. There io one thing certain, and that is, that something must ho done.— Lafayette (lud.) Journal. —The evidence is cumulative on all sides that tho Itopubllcau party, having accomplished tho eroat mission tor which it was organized, baa ogonoratod u gigantic machine for enrich ing favorites at tho expense of tho people.— Lansing (Mich.) Journal. —' Tl*ro must ho some now hooka opened, now loaves turned over, and another system of polit'- cbl government adopted.— Clinton (Iowa) Age —ln view of tho report made to tho Lake Shore Company, which wo Imvo brlofiy epito mized, Mr. windom’sSonato Committee can hardly fail to investigate tho matter, and to report how many participants there are in tho profits of tho loading railroads; whether, m fact, tho proceeds of tho tremendous traffic of tho West have first •to be divided (with colored-car proprietors, who aro also railroad officers, and afterwords with tho •stockholders of tho companies, or whether tho latter arc tho solo beneficiaries of tho rates charged.— St. Paul fJfinn.) JVe.ss. —lt strikes us If ‘‘ tho pooplo,” over in thole natural and historic lives gave emphatic and un mistakable expression la utter condemnation of any matter, it lias been on this salary steal. Anything moro unanimous and raising above all party feelings and considerations, wo venture to say, was Dover before witnessed in this or any other country.— Rock Island (III.) Union, —Wo have a very decided opinion that accopt injjbaok pay and devoting It to any uto under the direction of tho party to whom it has boon paid is all humbug. An unconditional return of tbo money to tho United States Treasury moans business—anything short of that la sham.— Jacksonville (III.) Journal. .'lho Iflon. Hi o« Dnrclmrd on tbo Sal ary education* From the Warren {Til.) Sentinel, April 24, In reply to a lottor of inquiry from tbo editor of tbo Warrou Sentinel to tbo lion. H. 0. Bar chard, that gontloman makes the following re ply. Tbo lottor was not written for publication, bub inasmuch as tbo subject is ono of gonotal interest, and not fully understood by tbo masses, wo take pleasure in laying before’our readers Mr. Burclißrd’B views, trusting to Ids generosity not to moto out to us severe cenuaro: Preetobt, IU,, April 16,18 ft. My Dear Mr. Oann : You alludo in your letter of tbo 11th inst. to tbo salary question. The ultimate disposition of tbo increased amount to bopaidmo as amom bor of tho present and last Congress, under tbo provisions of tbo act passed at tiro last session, will depend upon the future action of Congress In regard to tuo salary of . its members. I was, as you are aware, opposed to tbo increase of Congressional and other salaries at tho timo ib was made. I thought that a member of Con gress, with proper economy, could Uvo in a suit able manner, oveu in Washington, upon tho salary aa lb stood, although to save or accumulate for his family ho must, as tho Hon. B. 0. Cook of this Stato did, seek other remunerative employment. Bub oven if inadequate, 1 preferred to accept tho compensation which tho law then gave, rather than, by my own vote, increase my compensation for that or tbo succeeding.Congress to which I was a member olcct. If, however, tho vote is hereafter to remain at $7,600 . per annum, as fixed by that act, thon, In my judgment, mem bers oi tho last Congress aro equitably entitled to bo paid at that rate as much as members of tho present or succeeding Congress. If com pensation is to bo measured by attendance upon Congressional duly at tho Capitol, and by necessary expenditures iu official service, mom bore of tho last Congress ought to Imvo tho higher salary. They wore detained at Washington during three regular sessions of Congress while tho law now requires but tiro, Why should Gon. Logan not bo paid aa much for his services during tho month of April two years ago while a session required his presence at Washington, as ho or Gov. Oglesby aro drawing for thin month while at homo ? It was no more discreditable for a member to vote to increase his salary in the expiring than to voto to increase it in thoVollowing term. Ho would iu either caso bo voting money to himself, and that, in my opinion, is tho objectionable feature of tho Into legislation on salaries. Tbo luombora elect to the present Congress as much con tractedto servo, during their full terms at tho, old rate as' tbo out-going • members did for theirs. Tho member who has conscientious scruples about receiving tho in creased .compensation for" service iu tho-last. Congress can not consistently accept tho iu- 1 creaso for llio present Congress. Should tbo law increasing Congressional sal aries for tbo future bo repealed and tho former rate of compensation, bo ro-oatablishod, it will then, as it seems to mo, become tbo duty of a mombor of Congress - to retain for oJliclar service in the present and last Congress only tho ralo thus decided to bo sufficient, and to return to tho Treasury wbnc over .iu excess of that sum ho may havo received for either Congress. Borao who mako no objection to tho increase for tbo future, or admit that to ho right ami proper, severely criti cise the law merely because it gives “ back pay.” They fall, however, to point out any diiVoronco iu tbo morality and propriety of a vqto to increase compensation, whether given at tho end or at the commencement of a term. They do not explain why a member of ono Congress elected to another can voto himself or accept with more propriety increased compensa tion for tbo succeeding Congress than bo can voto or accept tho samo for tho expiring Con gress. In ovory oaso whoro tho salary has hoen raised the increase has taken effect from tho commence meat of tho term . lb bus heretofore noyor boon considered disreputable for tho Increase to apply to tho Congress passing tho law. In 1860, and again hi 181U5, Congressional salaries woro deemed by tho members Inadequate, and at tho closo of . tho long session, when more than two-thirds ’ of tho sosuion bad expired, tbo increase teas made to (Into back to the commencement of the term, Mon of unquestioned integrity, who wore tboli and now aro regarded ns puro and Incorruptible statesmen, snob as Howard, Boutwoli, Sumner, Stephen A. Douglas, Joshua lb Giddings, E. B. Washburno, and scores of others I might name, still in public life, received “backpay” from the beginning of the term, Some of them voted pgalnst Die passage of tho law increasing salaries, but, as ib became and re mained tho rato of compensation for their suc cessors, itono of thorn doomed it dishonont op discreditable to rocoivo and retain tho compen sation given by tho law to tho Congress pass ing it. Jft Tho question of Congressional salary will doubtless ho passed upon by tbo mombors elect when assembled at tho noxt session. If, review ing tho action of their predecessors, they decide that tho compensation is too high, and shall ro dnpo it from tho present rato, 1 shall doom it my duty (o pay into the Treasury whatever excess above the rale permanently established I shall hays received under the present laio. But if it is ad* mlttod that tho salary should stand for this and tho future Congress ns now fixed, I can nob soo why lam nob equitably, os well as legal ly, entitled to tho same compensation given by tuo law for more laborious, continuous, and ox- Vousivo official aervlco iu tho Jato Congress. X am, truly yours, H« 0. Button xrp.

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