Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune, May 13, 1873, Page 4

Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune dated May 13, 1873 Page 4
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4 TERMS OF THE TRIBUNE. TCntfß or SDBBOBIPHOM (PAYABLE in advanos). •:vr.:fß3B PitU of a year at lh* Mint talc. -.ToprorpnfcdoUy »nd mltlalcOß, bo «uro and giro Post Office address In lull, Including nlato and Ooviitr. _ -Remittances rosy be made either bydrnft, oxpron, Feat Offlco order, or In registered lollora, at onrrliK. g.. ~ . THUMB TO CITY BUnaUIUnRRB. ally, dollrcrod, Knnday executed. '26 couta por w«e|c. ally, delivered, Sunday Included, SO emit* per week. Addrcaa TIIR TRIBUNE COMPANY. Corner Madlaon and Dcarborn-aH., Ulilongo, 111. TO DAY’S AMUSEMENTS. HOOLOTS THEATRE—Randolph street, bolwcan Clark and LaStllo. "Uiaka," fiIoVIOKER’S THEATRIC—MntIIaon street. between Dearborn ami HUto. Engagement o! Edwin Adama. "Tho MatUlo Heart," MYERS' OPERA-HOUSE—Monroe Street, between State and Dearborn. Kitty Blanchard uurloiquo Com pany "Bad Dlokoy." ACADEMY OF MUSIC - llalited atmt, between Madl'on and Moaroo. Joah Hart's Theatre Oomlquo ComblaaUon. AIKEN'S THEATRE—Wabash avonno, cornet of Con* Cross atrout. San Francisco Mlnatrola. FORBPAUOU'S OIROUS—MadJaon street, corner of Elisabeth. . OLOBBTHEATRB-DeipUlncs street, bn'weenMadl aon and Washington. Engagement of Alls* UarlotU fitanluy. "Orlnto; or, Booruta of OltyLuo." AMPHITHEATRE—CIinton atroot, between Randolph «uid Waa blog ton. Vanek, the IVeatldlgltatcur. BUSINESS NOTICES. BATCHELOR'S HAIR DYE. THIS SPLENDID halrdio is the boatin tho world. Tho only true and per fect dye. Harmless, reliable. andlnitantanoous'.nOQlaap- S ointments norldloulooa llnla or unpleasant odor, Romo* lea tho U1 effects of bad dyes and waaboa. Produces im mediately a superb black or natural brown, and lease* me hair clean, toll, and beautiful. The gonidne, aimed W. A. Batchelor. Sold by all druggist*. OILARLKS BATCHELOR, Proprietor, N. Y. Wat (SSl&fo&t Ql&bwtt. Tuesday Morning, May 13, 1873* Tweed is to bo tried again in two weeks on tho charges on which ho recently escaped con viction by tho mismanagement of tho prosecu tion and tho disogroomout of tho Jury. Fifteen additional indictments have boon found against Uun, on which his trial begins to-morrow. The law of Now York requires that at each session of tho Grand Jury its attention bo called to the enforcement of tho Usury laws. In ac cordance with this custom, Judge Davis yester day charged tho Grand Jury of New York to find indictments for tho violation of tho laws. Tho Republic has boon declared for by a Repub lican Conference at Birmingham, England. How large or influential tho mooting was does not ap pear, but its influence is not likely to equal among average Englishmen that of tho em phatic letter John Bright addressed tho Con ference disavowing any sympathy with their movement, and condemning the whole Republi can agitation. About a thousand of tho minors who have so long boon on a strike at tho mines near Youngs town, Ohio, have returned to their work. Two or throe thousand of the strikers still holdout, and the mine-owners declare that 'they will not toko them again Into their employ. Their places are to bo filled by immigrants, of whom 1,000 have been engaged In Now York. One hundred of these arrived yesterday and went to work, protected by tho police. The complaints which havo lately been made concerning tho inspection of grain in this city are repeated from LaSalle, Ottawa, and other points along tno Illinois A jUloh/gon Canal. Shippers are said to bo sending their com East by rail; in some cases taklngit from warehouses situated on tho very bank of tho canal, and hauling it in wagons for miles .to tho railway stations. They prefer, they say, to pay the extra freight ond soli' their corn as No. 2, rather than to send it by water to Chicago to bo graded rejected. In spector Harper, it will bo remembered, has ex plained that whenever corn has boon graded re jected, it has been because moro or loss of it was damp or dirty. This is in accordance with the law winch forbids him to grade any lot of grain higher than tho poorest quality it contains. Civilization has yet some work before it in this country when two men can deliberately, in presence of witnesses, and under tbo delusion that they are doing an honorable act, stand at ton paces apart and shoot each other to death. This is what tho two young Virginians did who fought a duel near Richmond a few days ago, tho cause of which was a difference between them concerning some young lady. It was thought that the experiences of the war bad blotted out with blood tho false notion of chivalry that formerly prevailed south of Mason & Dixon’s line. If tho war had failed in any man ner to eradicate thooo ideas, It was thought that intimate relations with the carpet-baggers would have completed the work. As both those agencies scorn to have failed to break down tbo duello as an institution, it is time that the law ahould stop in and punish the survivors, whether principals or seconds, in a manner that will dis courage dueling in tho future. The Directors of tho Milwaukee & St. Paid Railroad have boon holding a meeting for several days In Now York, which has given rise to sev eral serious rumors. Close upon tho statement which wo have pronounced at least premature, •that they had agreed to pool their earnings with those of tho Chicago & Northwestern Company, comes tho report that they will refuse to accept the St. Croix & Superior land-grant given them by tho Wisconsin Legislature at Its last session. The grant is worth several million dol lars, but to recover it the road must build about .840 miles of track, laying CO miles this year and 40 miles each succeeding year until tho road is completed. Tbo Milwaukee «k Bt. Paul and tho Chicago & Northwestern Companies woro competitors in tbo lobby at Madison for tho land-grant, and ono of tho reasons given for this refusal of tho successful road to accept tho grant is, that tholr rivalry will he ended by the arrangement to pool their earnings, and that both Companies are satisfied to have prevented other railroads from getting tho grant. The Chicago produce markets ware rather loss active than on Saturday, aud generally steady, except in provisions. Moss pork was excited, and advanced 500 per brl, closing easier, at «16.75(5H0.87X cash, and $10.95@17.00 seller June. Lard was quiet, and 10@15o per 100 lbs higher, closing at $0.05 cash, and $0.10(5)9.13 Xi seller Juno. Moats were quiet and unchanged, at tor shoulders, B>£@B%o f or short ribs, B%@BX° tor abort clear, and for sweet-pioklod bams. Lake freights wore moderately active, and easier, at for corn to Buffalo. Bigbwines were less active, and a shade easier, eiß9>£o per gallon. Flour was quiet and un pbansed. Wheat was lees active, and a shade higher, closing strong at 61.29 } i seller tbo month, and $1.20% pash or seller Juno. Com waa active and unchanged, closing higher at seller tho monthj anti 42)tJo seller Juno. Oats wore quiet and steady at cash, and 83J£o eollor Juno. Rye was quiet and un changed at Barley was inactive and nominally unchanged at 74@83 for common to good No. 2. Hogs were in good demand, and sold at $6.00@5.60 for poor to extra. Tbo oattlo market was active and Armor. Tlio expression of opinion accredited to Dr. 1.1. Hayes, tho Arctic explorer, concerning tho loss of the Polaris and tho death of Oapt. Ball, Is rather startling. Tho statement made by tho survivors scarcely warrants the extreme conclu sions that Dr. Hayes has repohed, viz t a suspi cion that Capt. Hall had boon murdered. Yot Dr. Hayes’ ideas concerning Arctic expeditions aro entitled to serious consideration, and it la certain that tho statements of those who havo escaped so far havo loft the Hall expedition in a mysterious and unsatisfactory shape. Dr. Hayes cannot understand why the party rescued should havo been deserted by tho ship, nor why there should have boon tho reported division of stores, if (hero had not boon some trouble on board; and he refuses to credit tbo statement that Oapt, Hall died of apoploxy, be cause that disease is unknown in tbo latitude described, and Oapt. H&Uwas by no moans of apoplectic habit. Thoro are certainly some sin gular features about tbo whole case, which, as yot, remain unexplained. If there waa any mutiny or other serious trouble on tho vessel, as Dr. Hayes seems to think, it Is pretty certain that it will come out, for tho survivors aro too numerous to koop tho socrot.. It is also entirely probable that tho Polaris .will yot bo board from. It is fit that public attention should bo drawn to an order said to have boon iosued from Washington, a few days ago, authorizing Gen. Emory, at Now Orleans, to solzo any steamboat which ho might need for the transportation of United States troops. Tho order was forthcom ing upon a report modo by Gen. Emory, in which bo represented that ho could not obtain a steamer to transport his soldiers. This order proclaims tho falso and dangerous idea of exec utive power which prevails in tho present Administration. Tho nation is at peace; the war power is vested in Congress; tho Govern ment of tho State of Louisiana has not called upon the Federal Government in tho formal manner required to put down an insurrection; Gen. Sherman had especially ordered Gen. Emory to tako no action in the Louisiana diffi culties “which would require the sanction of tho President}” tho disposition of tho Adminis tration has boon to retlro as much os possible from tho complications which it had precipitated in Louisiana, and there was no military neces sity which could bo cited in excuse for au invasion of private rights. lot it is ordered that, a United States Gouoral may seize steam boats at will, and for his own purposes, when ho cannot hire them. If steamboats, why not any other property which a General or commanding officer may deem necessary or advantageous? Where shall this kind of authority end? If an arbitrary seizure of private property is thus di rectly ordered in time of peace with impunity, what would bo the nature of a Government or der which tho people of this country would bo likely to regard in tho light of a dangerous usurpation of power ? RAILROAD CHARGES AND OPERATING EX- PENSES. .The criticism which some people down East aro making upon tho recent Convention hold at the Astor House, la Now York, is, that there was no attempt made to present any tangible and useful facts that might lead to tho solution of tho railway problem. Tho Convention mot, lis tened to some speeches, and passed resolutions, tho purport of which was a demand that railway charges should bo lowered, that now linos should bo built, and that Congress and tho Stato Legis latures should interfere to suppress railroad abuses in overcharging cud discrimi nating. It Is safe to assume that tho farmers expected something more than this from tho Now York Convention. Theso aro general demands which they have re peatedly made themself os, and which they aro more competent to sustain than any small body of men assembled In convention. Bat the gen tlemen who mot in Now York might have made themselves useful to tho anti-mouopoly move ment if they had collected facta bearing upon ibo gonorol question, if they had considered tho influence of those facta upon tho causes of com plaint, and had submitted tbe results of their investigation to tbe people. Tills la what must bo done boforo tbo anti-monopoly movement can bo crystalled into a practical, working shape. Tho points of attack must bo well de fined, or tho vitality of the movement will ho dissipated. Among tho actual and important facta which tbo New York Convention neglected to consider, wore the relations between railroad charges and operating expenses. There are many other cir cumstances affecting tho question of transporta tion which are material to tho complete compre hension of the difficulties, but those relations will servo to show what tho Convention, ought to have dono. ‘Without a fair consideration of what tho railroads are doing In tho way of lessoning transportation rato%audof what they are forced to pay as operating expenses, it la Impossible to gauge their responsibility for tho peasant eltua- Hour. In tho annual report of tho Lako Shore & Michigan Southern Railway for 1872, tho Direc tors tell the- stockholders that “It has bo oomo evident that low rates must pre vail, and that a trunk lino like this must depend for its prosperity upon tho increase of the volume of Uo traffic.” Tho details of tho report indicate that tho man agement have pursued tho policy thus sot forth. From 1868 to 1873 there has boon a steady dimi nution of tho rates. In 1668, the rates of freight averaged 2.43 (two and forty-threo-hundrodths) cents per tou per mile ; In 1860, 2.3-1; In 1870, 1.50; in 1871, 1.89 ; In 1872, 1.37. There has been, meanwhile, an increase of freight earnings, hut not in proportion to the increase in tho freight that was moved. The freight earnings. increased 24# per cent, but the freight actually carried increased 20# per cent. Ail those changes have been In the Interest of the shipper, and in the direction of the very policy which tho people demand,—on increase of business by a reduction in rates. Tho report points out that, if tho rates of 1608 had boon retained, tho business of 1872 would have yielded $22,183,761, or 22 per cent on the capital stock, instead of $12,613,400, which wore the actual earnings, or barely 8 per cent on the Invested capital. The Directors say that, but for tbo substitution of steel rails for I iron rails In renewals of tho track, theso low rates could not have been reached without iso- ♦THE CHICAGO DAILY TRIBUNE: TUESDAY, MAY rifleing dividends. It is farther worthy of note* that, while this railroad has increased its facili ties, improved tho ebaraotor of tho road, en larged Ub business, and reduced its rates, tho gross operating expenses and taxes wore in creased. They amounted to 07 -per cent of the gross earnings for 1872, while they wore only CO porcoht for 1871. AslUs thodoolarodpolioy of tho road to rodaco rates and Increase Us business, It. is fair to presume that tho increase in operating expenses was through no fault of tho manage ment. ' Tho Dalco Shore & Michigan Southern Rail road Is not tho only one which makes a similar exhibit. The following tohlo shows tho annual rates for tho post flve years—tho earnings por ton par mile—of tho Miohignn Central Railroad t Local Through bminesf,. ' buiinets. JBOB O.CO coni* 1.89 cents jgno 3.53 cent* K63 cents 1870 3.30 cent* 1.40 cents 1871..,. 3.0* cents 1.13 cents Tbo same tendency to gradual decrease of rates will bo found in this statement, and it Is worthy of noto that tho reduction In local rates has boon oven more steady and uniform than that of through rates. It is also true that, with this decline in earnings por ton por milo, tbo operating expenses havo largely increased. It has boon estimated- that tho cost of fool and labor has increased 26 per cent, and that of ma terials nearly 60 por cent. Iron rails now cost SOO por ton that formerly cost S7O; stool rails formerly obtained for SOO now cost $125; ro rolling that formerly cost SBO por ton now costs S4O por ton. Noarly all other material needed for maintaining tho rood has increased in price proportionately. With this increase of expenses, tho road has reduced its rates. Hr. David A. Wells recently mode an examination of tho Now York Contra! Railroad accounts, and-found tho samo facts,—an increase In tho operating oxpens-- os aud a decrease in tbo freight charges por ton per milo. Tho Aslor House Convoution should have taken cognizance of those facts, and pointed out their import. If it bo true that aomo railroads are making honest efforts to roduco rates, tho people should know what railroads are doing this, and what railroads aro failing to do so. If tho railroads which doslro to reduce rates find themselves balked by increase of taxation, ad vance in labor, and tho greater cost of all tho materials they use, tho causes that produce those results should bo run down aud explained. No intelligent and successful fight against monopoly can ho mode without a full un derstanding of those causes. It Is well enough to make such war upon railroads as will compel them to reduce their charges to living rates, but they cannot bo made to do moro than this. Capital will bo withdrawn, aud talent aud energy diverted Into other channels whenever anything moro than this is enforced by tho people. If, in tho meantime, there are false theories of Gov ernment which constrain railroads to pay moro for their material, their fuel, and their labor than they ought to pay, then it is tho duty of tho anti-monopoly loaders to attack tho causes over which tho railroads have no control, and to break them down. THE MATTER OF STATE TAXATION. Senator S. P. Cummings, of Fulton County, at the close of tho Legislature, addresses a loiter to one of his constituents, in which ho oxultingly states that it has boon determined at Springfield to abandon tho one-fourth valuation heretofore followed for State taxation, and to adopt tho full, or cash, valuation. Mr. Cummings has con siderable to say about making every person pay taxes according to tho value of his property, but fails or omits to stato either of tho very ques tionable ends which are to bo accomplished by this change of valuation. In tho Constitution there are two provisions which havo proved very objectionable to local politicians. They road as follows: 1. County authorities shall never assess taxes, the aggregate of which shall exceed 75 cents per SIOO valu ation, except for tho payment of Indebtedness existing at tho adoption of this Constitution, unless authorized by a vote of the people of tho county. S. No county, city, township, school district, or other municipal corporation, shall bo allowed to become in debted In any manner, or for any purpose, to an amount, Including existing indebtedness, In tho aggro • gate exceeding 6 per centum of the taxable property therein, to be ascertained by the last assessment for State and county taxes. Tho effect of those has been to limit taxation for current ,expenses, and also to stop further indebtedness. Intelligent and patriotic Boards of Supervisors all over tho State ace loud in condemnation of provisions of tho Constitution which prohibit thorn selling bonds and spending tho money, and which restrain them from raising funds by taxation to ho by them distributed. But there Is another trouble in the way. Tho tax-robbing act of 1869 provides that, in all counties and towns which havo contracted debts in aid of rail roads, all Stato taxes collected on any increase In tho valuation of property in such counties and towns over tho valaation of 1669, and all taxes on tho property of railroads aided, instead of being paid into tho State Treasury, shall bo hold to pay tho interest on those .railroad-aid debts. Tho assessed value of taxable property in 1868 was about 6480,000,000. In 1871, it was $500,- 000,000, and It Is now proposed to make it $2,000,000,000. Tho amount of mouoy to ho raised for State revenue for 1873 is $2,500,000. This comparatively small amount could ho as well raised on tho valuation of $500,000,000 as upon tho $2,000,000,000; but tho rail road-ald debt and tho other debt of the counties is beginning to be seriously folt, and now it is proposed by such towns and counties to avoid taxation for that dobt by directing tbo State tax to that purpose. Tho aggregate railroad-aid dobt duo by coun ties, cities, and towns in this State is $13,603,058. Tho amount collected in 1671 to pay interest on this debt was as follows: Collected from lovy for interest, $691,159 Collected from properly of aided railroads.. 119,070 Oouuly taxes from aided railroads 42,181 Town taxes on railroad properly 01,759 State taxon increased va1uati0n,............ 00,162 Tax not yet collected 50,687 Total. This largo Bum was raised la about ouo-balf tbo counties and towns of tbo Slato by direct levy, (ho act of XBGB only permitting a “ grab " of $60,000 of Btnto revonuo for this pur* poso. It is now proposed to quadruple tbo assessment of 1868, and bavo tbo State tax collected on a valuation of $2,000,000 000. At tbo valuation of 1871, (bo proceeds of tbo tax on only so much of $20,000,- 000 of property as is in tboso particular counties and towns would bo available for tbo interest on tboso railroad-aid bonds ; but if tbo valuation of $3,000,000,000 be adopted as tbo basis of taxa tion, then tbo proceeds of tbo tax on so much of tbo $1,520,000,000 worth of property as is found in these counties and towns will bo applicable to pay the interest on these bonds. To raise tbo $3,600,000 needed revenue for 1878 on the as sessed value of $3,000,000,000, will require a rate of tax of one and one-fourth mills on the dollar'. But, under the act of* 1809, this rate will havo tobo increased in order to supply tho deficiency caused by tbo diversion of tho tax to pay tho local railroad-aid debts. The practical operation of this business can be soon in tbo case of Sangamon County. That oounty and its towns havo a railroad-aid debt of $401,000. Tho assessed valuation la 1608 was about $10,000,000; In 1871, it was $18,000,000; In 1878, It will bo $63,000,000. If tlio State tax was levied on tho samo valuation ' as in 1871, the rato to raiso tho required revenue would bo 6 mills on tho dollar. In this latter case, the tax on Sangamon County for Slate purposes would bo $05,000, of which $60,000 would bo paid into tbo State Treasury as revenue, and $16,000 as applicable to interest bn tho rollroad-oid bonds. Butin 1878 the mills rate on the valuation of $62,000,000 will produce tho same amount of revenue precisely, $06,000, but that revenue will bo paid into tho Treasury, as follows: Taxon $10,000,000, paid In as Slate revenue,...sl9,6oo Tax on $43,000,000, increase in value over 1808.. 63,600 Total (ax of Sangamon County. Under this increase of valuation, Sangamon County, instead of contributing her legal sharo : of State taxes, $06,000, win only pay Into tho Treasury $12,600; and instead of having to raiso $52,000 to pay Interest on her local railroad aid bonds, (hat sum will bo taken from tho State Treasury and applied to that purpose. Thoro aro fifty-four counties in tho State having this kind of indebtedness. The towns of Fulton County havo & heavy debt. To pay tho' interest. on tho railroad bonds requires over $1,100,000 annually. They; propose, therefore, to appro priate four-fifths of their legal obligations for. State revenue to pay their local Indebtedness. If this woro a matter between the bondholder and those towns and counties, which already aro fooling the conseqaenoos of their rashness In voting those railroad-aid bonds, it would bo of no particular concern to tbo rest of the State. But the counties which have no such debts will havo to meet the deficiency, and, instead of hav ing to pay their proportion of the two million and a half revenue required by the tax, they will havo to mako good the deficiency caused by tbo diversion of moro than a million of that revenue to pay tbo local debts -of the other counties. The time has now arrived, wo think, when the legality of applying a tax levied for State fovonuo to pay tbo Interest on a local debt contracted by the City of Springfield, or any other town, should bo tested judicially. In ibis whole proceeding the hand of tbo bondholder is manifest. It is not enough that those counties shall bo mortgaged' all over to pay those railroad debts, but it is now proposed to levy a tax upon tbo property of all the other counties to pay tho principal and In terest of that debt. Tho reasons, therefore, for Increasing tho as sessed valuation of tho property of tho State from five hundred millions to two thousand millions of dollars aro three: 1. That cities, towns, and counties may quadruple their present debt. 2. That counties may raise by direct tax for current expenditures throe dollars whore they aro now limited to soventy-flvo cents. S. That tbo Interest on tho thirteen millions of out standing railroad-aid bonds, Instead of being raised by direct taxation on tho property of tho municipalities owing it, may bo paid oat of tho revenue raised for State purposes. Wo submit that none of those reasons aro saifiGlout to jus tify tho robbery they involve. MORE PROGRESS BACKWARD. On tho Ist of May, 1873, wheat was sold in this market at51.15(3)1.25. Just thirteen years be fore, May 1, 1800, wheat sold hero atsl.ol@ 1.1% in gold. Tho premium on gold May 1, 1878, was 17 cents, and tho gold value of wheat at Chicago, 93c@$1.00><J’— three to flvo cents lower per bushel than it was thirteen years ago. Vet, In 1860, wo woro exporting only 4,115,163 bushels of wheat, and 2,011,786 barrels of flour, or 17,218,833 bushels of wheat In all; and last year our exports of wheat woro 20,423,080 bushels of wheat, and 2,514,525 barrels of flour, or 88,995,- 695 bushels of wheat in all. With a demand Jor export moro than twice as groat as existed In 1860, and with a crop of wheat far loss than twice as groat, wo find It selling for less money in gold than it commanded in 1860. Tho necessary inference is, that tho homo mar ket is not so good as it then was; that tho peo ple of this country cannot afford to consume as , much wheat as they did in 1860. This is an ugly conclusion, especially for tho protectionists, who havo boasted of tbo wonderful improvement in tbo homo market which tboir system of taxation would produce. But tbo facts prove that it is true. Tho census of 1860 gave the wheat crop of 1859 as 178,104,944 bushels, and In tho fiscal year

during which that crop was marketed we ex ported 17,213,883 bushels, leaving for consump tion 155,891,091 bushels, or 4.95 bushels per capita. But the crop of 1871 was 280,722,400 bushels, of which 88,995,605 bushels woro exported, leaving 191,720,705 bushels for consumption, or, with a population of 40,374,000, only 4.74 bushels per capita. Tho ratio of 1860 is taken according to population at tho close of that fiscal year, namely, at tho taking of tho census, Juno 80; therefore,,for fair comparison, tho population of 1872 must bo computed with just two years' increase since tbo census of Juno 80, 1800, and cannot bo lower than tbo number above stated. Tho estimate of tho crop of 1871 is taken from tho official report of tho Agricul tural Bureau, which ordinarily allows too largo estimates for crops. It appears, then, that the people of this country in 1860 consumed 4.95 bushels of wheat per capita, with Chicago prices Mayl, $1.01@1.12 in gold. But In 1872 they consumed only 4.74 bushels of wheat per capita , and Chicago prices now fall to 980@51.00% In gold. Not only Is tho homo market able to consume leas wheat to-day than la 1860, in proportion to population, but the same ia true of oil coroala. In 1850, according to tho census taken Juno SO, 1860, wo produced of wheat, corn, oats, rye, barley, and buckwheat 1,239,030,915 bushels in all, hut during the year ending Juno SO, 1860, wo exported of these products 22,055,185 bushels, leaving for consumption in that year 1,216,171,* 001 bushels, or 88.08 hushols per capita , taking tho population of Juno 80, 1860, as before. But in 1871, according to tho Agricultural Bureau, wo produced of the same crops 1,628,776,100 bushels, and tho commercial statistics show that during the year ending Juno 80, 1872, wo exported of those products 07,614,- 705 bushels. This leaves for consumption during tho year ending June 80, 1672, 1,401,281,805 bushels of cereals, or 80.19 bushels per capita, We may add that while tho con sumption of 1671 was larger—and just one bushel per capita larger than the consumption of 1800—that of 1870 was still smaller. The census gives us the facts for that year, both the ,$1,103,047 I,- 1873. crops of 1809, and the population by which they wore consumedj so that tha result for that year Is more roUablo, and gives a basis of moro just comparison with tho ofllolal records of 1800 than any based In part'npon estimates, The crop of 'cereals, according to the census, was 1,888,102,053 bushels j the exports, 07,200,031 bushels; and tho consumption, 1,830,811,092 bushels, or bushels por capita—over four bushels loss for. every inhabitant than tho consumption of ton years before. The homo market proves to be worth loss to the farmer than it was beforo the adoption of the protective system. Ho is forced to a greater dependence upon foreign trade for tbo consump tion of bis products, and especially of his wheat. In 1860 wo exported only 10 per cent of our wheat, and In 1870 about 20 por cent; 18.79 per cent of the crop of 1600, 22.60 por cent of tbo crop of 1870, and 10.91 por cent of tho crop of 1671. Average for throe years, 10.10 por cent. Instead of making him moro independent, this blessed tariff has mado him moro dependent than ovor before. And now, Great Britain begins to got tho larger sharo of Its grain from Odessa. Tho imports of wheat into British ports for four years past compare thus t >.505,000 Total From ' From imports, United Stale*, Jtussia, e\rt, . act, owl. 1809 87,095,829 13,181,607 0,108.831 1870 80,001,209 13,371.032 10,300,108 1871 .39, 407,0<0 13,405,057 16,639,435 1673 41,090,338 8,000,403 Tho rapid dooroaso in imports from this coun try will arrest attention not less than the groat increase of imports from Russia—of which we have not tho figures for 1872, but the startling dooroaso of American wheat, taken with iho In otoobo of 2,600,000 owt. lu all British imports of Wheat, indicates that the imports from Russia must have risen above twenty million owt. Not loss significant is tho decrease In British Imports of American flour, which fell from 2,148,261 owt. in 1870, to 1,794,805 lu 1871. and to 743,412 owt. In 1872. • In 1801 wo sent to England 3,794,865 owt. of flour; in 1862 wo sent 4,409,684 owt., and in tho throe years 1861-3, inclusive, 68 per cent of all tho flour imported by Groat Brit ain was from this country. But in 1872 only 10 per cent of her flour imported came from us. In 18G1-3 we sent to England 87.5 por cent of all her imported wheat j in 1872 wo sent only 20.6 por cent of tho wheat Imported by her. With our foreign markets thus failing, and the home market able to consume loss wheat per capita than it did thirteen years ago, Is it any wonder that pricos fall and farmers arc pinched ? Lot them put the blame whore it belongs,— upon tho Iniquitous system of wholesale rob bery called protection. By that system tbo la borers, tbo groat majority of oonotunors In ibis country, aro so pinched that they cannot con sume as largely as thoy did thirteen years ago. By that system, now as at every other trial of its workings in our history, tho natural increase of exports has boon chocked, and iho most val uable foreign markets closed ogaluat us. By that system tbo cost of transportation and iho cost of production havo both been enhanced, and tbo farmer, plundered when ho soils, Is also plundered when ho buys. That system is his chief enemy. Permanent relief for tbo evils which oppress him can come only when be has uprooted forovor the system falsely called pro tective. ■ THE MORALE OF THE CINCINNATI FESTI VAL. Tho groat musical festival which closed at Cincinnati last Saturday was-uot tho moro pass ing event of ft week. Its Importance is not alone to bo measured by tbo fact that It was the greatest musical success of tbo age in this coun try, greater oven than tho festival which pre ceded it in Now York, under tho auspices of tho same true musician and accomplished conductor, but It was also an experiment, which, because it was successful, must have a lasting and radical Influence In shaping tho standard of mnsio in tho West, just as the New York festival will have in tho East. In these respects, Hr. Thomas has proved himself a national benefactor and made for himself & national reputation. Ho oc cupies tho same position to-day in this country aa Fasdelonp in Franco, Costa in England, Wag ner In Bavaria, and Liszt in Austria and Hunga ry. Ho Is tbo monarch of music, and bis edicts will hereafter bo obeyed, because ho has shown himself to bo a competent master, and has pro duced a success out of pure musical merits, without having recourse to any sensational or ex traneous auxiliaries. There has hitherto been no mnsioal event in this country with which tbo Cincinnati festival can bo compared. Tho two Boston Jubilees had nothing in common with it. They, filled a larger space in tbo public eye and ear, they mode moro noise, and wore in tbo na ture of very glittering pageants, but they did nothing for musio while they were in progress, and, if they havo had any influence since they transpired, it has boon a bad one. They died and loft no slgni Tho Cincinnati festival was organlzodde novo, out of apparently crude mate rials, and with many misgivings on tho part of Mr. Thomas that tho performers would weary of their work, and that tho public would not accept tho work, oven if they performed it well* It was in every respect a doubtful experiment, Tho tastes of a certain class of Gormans wore offended because tbo festival did not have tho boor and the Qomuotliohkeit of tho saongerfests. Ho also ran counter to the American taste, which likes to be tickled with noise and show. Ho put his festival exclusively upon its musical merit, and there ho determined It should stand or fall. Ho mode only two demands; first, that only tho best musio should bo and second, that It should be performed in tho best manner, and he insisted upon those-demands with tho stubbornness of a musical Omsar. What his programmes wore is already known. They represented the highest order of music, and from tho first note of tho “ Dottlngon To Bourn," to tho lost note of tbo u Walpurgis Night," with tho intermediate “ Orpheus" and tho Fifth and tho Ninth Symphonies, ho had not only tho sympathies, but tbo enthusiasm, of tho vast audiences. Five years ago, tho man who had said that an audience of 0,000-pooploin Cincinnati would rise to their foot and cheer the Ninth Symphony, would have been esteemed a madman. Tho reason of its success, as well as of the success of all thereat of the music, was, that tho people hoard it given for tho first time as it should bo. It gavo them on indication for tho first time that there was something higher and hotter in music than the cheap stuff to which they had always listened, and which was tho common property of hand organs and brass bands, country singing-schools and Boston panjandrums. The amount of fatiguing work which was douo by tho chorus and orchestra, by Mr. fiingor, the chorus-master, and Mr. Thomas himself, by day and by night, for several months, would hardly he believed if it wero told. Tho success of the festival was Thomas’ greatest reward, and hereafter, both In , New York and Cincinnati, these festivals will be annual events. Next year they will also bo bold In other places la the United States. The feasibility of giving one In Chicago was dis cussed'ln .Olnolbriatl, and by no pno more earnestly than by Mr. Thomas himself. In re gard to such an ovpnt, there are two important questions to^bo,considered. First, hare we men sufficiently Interested In music to guarantee tho expenses of such a festival simply for the salts of music? We have men enough who will guarantee anything that makes a groat popular display and offers opportunities for advertising. But have wo those sufficiently Interested In art, to do something for tho sake of art, .without reference to dollars and cents and self-glorifica tion? That Is the first question’ to bo settled. Having settled this, have wo tho material for a chorus ? Wo make no roforonoo to soloists or Instru mentalists, for thoso could bo imported. Have wo tho singing material ? Tho Cincinnati oborus was a very remarkable ono. In reflno mont and quality of voice, It has had no equal la this country. Throe-fourths of It was from Cincinnati, and it was throe-fourths American, and a largo proportion of its members, especial ly in tho sopranos and altos, belonged to tho ! oldest and woaUhiosUfaiulllea In Cincinnati. This chorus studied and sang for tho sako of music. There wore no jealousies, no bickerings, no soloists. No salaries word paid them, and all paid thoir own expenses, not ovon hav ing the roward of complimentary tickets for their friends. The Executive Committee It self bought its own tickets. It Is morally 00% tain that wo have not now the material for any oborus at all. There is not a society of mixed voices in Chicago. If might bo possible to or ganize a small chorus, by dint of hard labor which in tho course of tlmo would bo ablo to pro duce such mnslo as was sung In Cincinnati, but to establish a largo and competent chorus seems woll nigh Impossible* Chicago, like Now York, is a cosmopolitan city, with a changeable popula- | tion, and spread over a groat area of territory. It is only an old and stationary pop ulation of leisure and wealth which can produce such a chorus. Now York could not do it, and so the Boston Handel and Haydn Society, was Imported for the occasion of tho festival in that city. Cincinnati had the material at homo, and Its singers sub mitted to a drill and which wore rigid ly Bovoro, and at the closo of tho festival woro as enthusiastic as whou they commenced. Tho result of that festival to-day Is, that Cincinnati Is tho first musical city of tho West. Chicago has a musical public—that has already boon suffl oloutly tested—but where is our chorus ? Where aro our sopranos and our altos who will onduro Thomas* discipline for three or four months at thoir own expense and with no hope of a solo ? Ono thing, howovor, is ‘certain, that if Chicago would hold out a sufficient financial and musical inducement, and If its singers will subject themselves without mur muring to Mr. Thomas* discipline, which has neither nonsense or child’s play la it, Mr. Thomas will mako the experiment noxt spring. There is ample time between now and winter to think of it; but it must bo thought of with strict reference to art, and nono whatever to show or advertising. Jubilees of show can bo got up without musical labor, but festivals liko those of Mr. Thomas aro organized to educate the musical taste of tho people, and to develop , tho truo refinement and sublimity of tho highest class of music, To do this must require months of hard labor. Is Chicago ready for a festival a year hence? . Tbo Emporor William, of Germany, line once more been made & target of by some ambitious fanatic, but, with tbo usual good luck of the European sovereigns, escaped with only a bole through bis holmot. It will bo remembered that a desperate attempt was made upon the life of tbo Czar, somo time since, in Paris.. Amadeus was hardly on bis Spanish throne before tbo assassins tried to shoot him. Napoleon was zdauy times exposed to assassination, but seemed to boar a charmed life, and oven tbo good 'Vic toria has not boon exempt from the assassin's conspiracies. Tbo dispatches give no clue to tbo causes which led to this attempt upon tbo life of tbo Gorman Emporor. Els visit to Bt. Petersburg, it is now rumored, is for a distinct political purpose, and Bismarck wont with him to negotiate, or, at least, to prepare the way for a treaty, it is said. Tbo Prussian press baa all along sided with Bussla in her designs of making the. conquest of Eniva, and has assailed England without reserve. Tbo at tempted assassination, however, could hardly have grown out of political matters. Tbo asser tion in tbo dispatches, that it was a priest who fired tbo shot, would seem to indicate that religious troubles wore at tbo bottom of tbo affair. Tbo course of the Emporor, with reference to tbo ponding strpgglo between tbo Old Catholics and tbo Ultramontanos, and tbo rigid mannor in which religions establish ments bavo boon regulated and in some instances suppressed in tbo Gorman Empire, may have led somo roligioua fanatic to attempt tbo dood. Notwithstanding all tho privileges of royalty and tbo splendors, of courts, thoy must bo vory materially offset by tho reflection that ovory timo royalty goes off for rooroation it sots Usolf up as a target' to bo shot at. It may be possible, howovor, that royalty becomes accus tomed to the operation as cels do to flaying, and that tho proverbial unskillfulnosa of tbo hunters of royalty has ceased to arouse any fears. Tho last decision rondorod by Chief Justice Chase, which would have ■ an Interest on this account alone, concerned an accident life In surance policy. Tho case came from Mich igan, and was one in which tho heirs of tho de ceased, who had come to hie death by violence while waluing, sued for $5,000, tho amount of an accident policy which ho had taken out for one day on tho day of his death. Payment was refused because tho policy stipulated insurance against accident and death while “traveling by public or private conveyance In tho United States or Dominion of Canada.” Tho assured proceeded by steamboat, after purchasing his Insurance ticket, and then walked about oight miles to his residence. It was during this walk that ho met hla death by violence. Tho Mich igan Courts bold that tho death did not come within tho terms of tho contract, as walking was not “ traveling by public or private conveyance,” and Chief Justice Chase's opinion affirmed tho judgment of the State Court. Church Disbanded* Special Diivatch to The Chicago Tribune, Ja-sksville, Wls., May 13.—0n Saturday night last tho Trustees of tho Court Street Methodist Church voted to close tho church, turn it over to tho mortgagee, and disband the society, on ac count of tho inability to pay tbo interest on their debt, and keep the building In repair. Yes terday tho Society ratified tho vote, and the last services wore hold last evening. The debt amounts to nearly SIO,OOO, most of which was advanced by E, liemlugton, of lUon, H. *• NOTES AND OPINION. It Is rory much questioned by Republican newspapers In Minnesota whether thb 1b a good year for Miv William D. Washburn, of Mlnno* spoils, t6 nm for Governor. The Minnesota member of the family does not, it is understood, agree with the Wisconsin and Illinois members in their regard of tho Farmers' Movement, —Eligible for Ohlef-Juatlcoi Roscoo Conk* ling, of Now York { Timothy 0. Howe, of Wia consin j William M. Everts, of Now York \ George H. Williams, of Oregon. Tho Oonkllng Interest Is backed by politicians In Maryland, "Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina (being tho now vacant Circuit), since Oonkllng would uudouhtedty arrange to take his own homo Circuit, vice Ward Hunt, resigned, leaving a place on tho Bench for Oroswell, John Pool, Hugh L. Bond, or somo other good friend to tho Administration. It was understood, last winter, that Mr. Hunt was appointed only to keep tho seat warm nntll such time as Oonkllng might bo ready to take it. —Tho Pittsburgh Gazette (Administration) says: The position of (bo Chief Justice should ho filled hf a person of ripe ngo, eminent at tho bar, profound!/ Vented in those broader questions of tho law which come before that Court for determination. It should not bo filled by a political partisan, in the narrow sense of that term ; but by a man or pure character, of high purpose, of solid attainments, and znatura , udgmont. Thus far we have beard of no one, in 'tho list of tho mentioned candidates, who moots this •alimalo. —Tho Book Island Union does not accept as final tho press telegram from Washington thafc tho Hon. John B, Hawloy has returned his ox* tra pay Into tho Treasury, and says thero aro pe culiar reasons, in this individual case, for being suspicious. A brief line or two from Treasurer / Splnnor would solvo all doubts; but, then, / Treasurer Spinner's silence can only bo unlocked - by tho Congressman in question. —AU over tho country, from Malno to Cali fornia, tho people and tho press arc beginning to talk of tho now men to bo next olootod to Congress—ln 1874. Itscomato bo everywhere conceded that “ now men ” will bo elected* —Tho Freeport (111.) News says: Wo apprehend a change more radical than any politi cal change during tho history of our country will taka place during tho next two years; and that in 1670 such a turning of tho tables will occur as will teach politi cians that they must obey the will of tho people ; that they must bo honest ond economical, and legislate for the good of the whole country; (hat monopolies, cliques, and Credit Mohlliors cannot control tho Exec utive, Judicial, and Legislative Departments of thla Government. —Tho farmers’ movement (though thousands of men not farmers aro Interested in It) is an awakening of tho mass of ibo people to regain their own. It is. or may bo, a breaking of tho thralldom of party. It will load to tho detection of rascals who havo done their wickedness bo hind tho Boroon of party. It Is a tumbling from their stools of local political rulers ana man agers. If, with this sudden realization of power, tho pooplo recognize also the dominion of conscience; if men realize that tho man who says that knaves cannot bo deposed from high places is a coward, and that tbo man who votes for a rascal becomes to a certain extent respon sible for that rascal's coarse, tho country will be generally blessed through tbo present moving of tbo masses.—Xctorcnce (Kan.) Journal. —lt Is well that thtf pooplo aro rising to dis pute with these monopolies their right to imperil the industrial enterprises of tho country by their unreasonable demands. — J } rotidcnce (Jit /.) J , rc3s. —Tho nation can with ns much propriety taka charge of milroad routes aa of water routes; while there can bo no doubt that tho Constltu- tion gives it power, under the clause to regulate commerce between the States, to do either—pro vided the public welfare demands it. But it must move with discretion, and preserve a das regard for tho rights of all. And this, wo un derstand, is all that tho formers of the West do* mand.— Viica (JV. Y.) Herald. —Tho combination of tho Chicago & North* western and Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroads throws the entire railroad system of Wisconsin Into tho control of a powerful monopoly, and will bo almost certain to precipitate tho anti* monopoly question upon thqpooplo of this State. Though our sister State of Illinois has boon dis* tractod with a llorco ogitation of tho vexed qa6s*» tlon, Wisconsin had not shared tho excitement, but now it is quite sure to speedily ensue.— Fona du Lao (jVts.) Comrjiomccmfh. —The Hon. Adalbert Amos, of Main© or Mas sachusetts, who now represents iho power of Federal bayonoto In‘Mississippi hi the Uuitod States Senate, has appeared in a* now rolo. To the glory of his achievements in the army and his distinguished history in tho United States Senate, ho now odds the title of Vice-President of the National Cheap Transportation Associa tion. Just think of Amos, a West Pointer by education, a carpet-bagger, and tho jauntiest kid-glove gentleman in the Senate, fooling an interest in the necessities of tho honest fanners and hard-palmed workingmen of tho United States. His connection with cheap transporta tion savors very much of an effort to manufac ture cheap capital to aid in making him Gov** ernor of Mississippi. —Yew York Sun, —The members of Congress who united in tho passage of this salary swindle seem to have sup posed that it would bo a nine-days’ wonder—, something which would elicit comment at the beginning and immediately after the injury was consummated, but which would soon bo forgot ten and cease to bo an object of attention. This idea seems not to bavo been justified by subse quent experience. It is a matter for continual comment, and tho people do not forgot it.—iViff* adelphia Inquirer, —Wherein it becomes loss of a crime for ft Congressman to tako money out of tho public treasury ami bestow it on somo local institution than to use it for individual purposes has not yet been explained.—JPoiTWtoti (iff.) Journal. —Lot tbo North loam that tho veriest military despotism is preferable to tbo reign of savago blacks, led, organized, and compacted by more savage white men. We do not say this because Kellogg reigns. Tbo difference between Kellogg and Warmotb Is not worth tbo toss of a penny. Tho evil lies behind and beyond all this, and is inherent and inseparable from systems instituted by which ignorance and brutality may bo subor dinated through tbo ballot-box to purposes of basest selfishness, corruption, and scoundrolism. —Memphis (Ttvm.) Appeal —lf tbo people of Louisiana find themselves unable to reassert their rights, they will probably keep up tbo contest until the sham under which they have been living for years gives way to a military government. Of the two evils this ia preferable, and when tbo sabre is again placed across tbo Pelican State, Cassandra can move northward with her voico of warning.—Vicfcfi 6urg (Miss, - ) Herald. —From present appearances tho people of the United States will not become fully seuoiblo of tbo terrible consequences of Grant’s despotism until it is too late.—ffaiuciton (Tex.) Yews. —lf it was tho Eev. Anybodyolso. with say S. J. after bis name, who was appointed by Presi dent Grant to mako a tour of the American Con sulates abroad, and not tbo Bor. Dr. Newman, would there not bo a bowl about it all over this country, and when would tbo last bo heard of Priestcraft and Jesuitry? But why is anyßer. Dr. appointed on such a mission?— Dubuque Tel cgmm. —Mrs. Stanton says: “Lot women assist themselves now os they have never assisted themselves before. Lot them take caro of their own interests. They have too long lot their benevolent instincts work toward tho Church and men; lot them now attend to themselves. Lot the churches alone; don't carpet churches, don't have fairs to deck thorn with painted windows; don’t give your ministers donation parties; put all your energies Into earnest work for your own emancipation. Make a social revolution. Carry tho war, U need bo, Into your own families; lot the baby go with out bibs, tho husband’s shirts without buttons, tho homo without care, until the men give In. When they And their comfort depends on allow ing ua the ballot, they will wheel into lino and give it to us. Women have too long petitioned and hogged of men; lot them now make siege and carry tho war Into their homos. It is coming to that, sirs, and it Is going to ho a dor.r piece of business for you. Wo are going to vote --peaceably If wo can, but with war if we muat.” —Those who have actually drawn tho money out of tho Treasury and then returned It, have rooognizod the fact that they are guilty of taking that which did not belong to them, and thob* re turning docs not do tho head nor the heart any credit, nor rotiect any lienor upon thorn. We do not refer to either political party iu.parlioular,be cause tho members of each havo boon guilty of the same outrage, and are alike culpable; but wo wish to impress upon the minds of tbo people of all parties tho necessity of repudiating the whole lot of political mountebanks who arc and havo boon disgracing this nation for years past. —Paxton (JW.} Journal, —lt is useless for tho President of tho United States to try to conduct our Government on monarohiaV plane, for, while “ Kings or Queens may do no wrong, we have conclusive and un deniable evidence that a President oan.—i xhp* bucua Herald;

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