Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune, May 25, 1873, Page 8

Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune dated May 25, 1873 Page 8
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8 TERMS OF THE TRIBUNE. TEBWS OF SUBSCRIPTION (PAYABLE IN ADVANCE). Daily, by mai1....,5* iS.OO j Sunday. 83*50 Parts of a year at the same rate. : To prevent delay and mistakes, bo sure and give Post Cffco address in .full, including State and County. - . Remittances nsaj bo made either by draft, express. Post Office order, or in registered letters, at ourrisk. THBMS TO CITY SUBSCRIBERS. Daily, delivered, Sunday excepted. 25 cents per week. Dally, delivered, Sunday included, 30 cents per week. Address THE TRIBUTE COMPANY, Corner Madison and Dcsrhorn-sts., Chicago, 111. BUSINESS NOTICES. RUPTURE CUBED BY DR. MARSH’S PATENT Radical Cure Tmss. Spinal curvature, bow lega, club feet, etc,, roucbanioally treated. Trusses, braces, turporters, etc. All Instruments guaranteed. Competent female attendant. MARSH A BOWLES, 103 Wash ington-at. . W%t ©filmic. Snnflay Horning, Hay 25, 1873. THE JUDICIAL ELECTION. The present Judges of the Circuit Court of this comity have announced their candidacy for re-election. Previous to 1870, Judge Williams was the sole Judge of the Circuit Court in this county, and Judge McAllister was Judge, of tho Becorder’s Court. By the new Constitution, the number of Circuit Judges was increased to five, three to be elected on the day of tho ratification of the new Constitution, and one by tho aboli tion of the Eecorder’s Court and the transfer of the Judge thereof to the Circuit Bench. At tho election of Judges held in Angnst, 1870, Messrs. Booth, Bogers, and Farwell were elected. But, at the same time, Judge McAllister was elect ed Judgo of the Supremo Court. The vacancy thus made on the Circuit Bench ■was not filled until November, 1871, when Judge Tree was elected. When those Judges were chosen it was supposed they were elected for the full term of six years. Un der that impression these several gentlemen gave up their practice and their business. It was not until within a very short time that a more careful examination of the Constitution disclosed that all Judges of tho Circuit Court were to he chosen on tho first Monday in June, 1873, without reference to tho date of their pre vious election. Judgo "Williams has boon Circuit Judge of this county ever since 1861, when he succeeded Judge Maniorre; three of the other Judges havo held offico since 1870, and one since 1871. Each of them has Dome a conspicuous part in the ju dicial business of this city; each haa served in the Law, Chancery, and Criminal branches; they have been occupied all tbe time, each term lasting until the beginning of the next ono. They have tried all manner of cases, and the public and the Bar have had an excellent oppor tunity of judging of their ability, their fairness, their fidelity, and, above all, their integrity. During their whole term of service no person has questioned the honesty of . either one of these five Judges, nor is.ihcre any person who now has any serums complaint to make of either Judge, though soma members of tbe Bar would probably like to make a change hero or there. Having five Judges who, at the close of their service, stand before the community unques tioned by any one upon any grave or material points, why Should they not be re-elcci e.i '! The City of Chicago has been exceedingly -uivonato in maintaining an able and upright judiciary; and the fact of having honest courts is of con siderable importance to the character of a com mercial city. "While there are • members of tbe Ear the equals in all respects of tbe gentlemen now on tho Bench, and who would make equally useful and creditable Judges, it does not follow i that that is any reason for a change. The office ; of Judgo is one to which no man shonld ho ele- rated for any reason save Ida < 'a-!iy and fit ness. ; Tho possession of these qualities can be best tested after a thorough trial in the office it self. When judicial officers are found who are above reproach or complaint, to change them is to venture upon an experiment, which is open to dangerous consequences. Tho election of five Judges by general ticket is an important duty. Once propose to make a change for change sake, and for every lawyer who would make a good Jndgo there will be three adven turers running as candidates; and in such a contest tho chances are that whatever change is made will be the substitution of some witless, characterless hangers-on at the Bar in place of ths deposed Judges. There is no reason why any respectable member of the Bar may not be presented by his friends as a candidate to be elected as one of the five Judges; but there are candidates who arc not fit to bo elected, and tho public safety, wo think, suggests that the people, whose' interests are so deeply at stake, should vote for the re-election of the present Judges. It should be home in mind also that votes are required to elect, and that staying away from the polls is not the way to elect good Judges. THE DOCTEIUE OP LOCAL OPTION, Among the numerous legislative remedies suggested for the evil of intemperance is that known as “Local Option,” which prevails in Pennsylvania. It refers the question of prohibi tion to every town or city to decide for itself, free traffic in liquor or prohibition following the majority of legal votes cast in favor of one or tho other. To those who are accustomed to re gard'the majority as infallibly right, or even those who believe that the ruling sentiment of the majority must regulate the personal conduct, habits, and preferences of the minority, this solution of tho temperance question will especially recommend itself. It has, indeed, many advantages over 'prohibition by a Btate vote, since, the communities that are thus con sirained according to one rule in-the use of stimulants are smaller, and those who feel that their personal iibertyis unwarrantably interfered with may choose a more congenial residence with less inconvenience, expense, and discomfort. The abjections to tho system are the same as those which msy be urged to all prohibitory legisla tion, as limiting the exorcise of personal freedom in the use of stimulants in a manner not demanded by the : welfare of society, and shaped rather upon tho prejudices of tho ma jority than the necessities of a police regulation. In Pennsylvania, tho validity of tho law was con tested on the ground that the Legislature, in passing it,had virtually delegated the law-making power, which it had no right to do. The Su preme Court held, however, that this was not the case, and the law remains with the distinc tion of producing the moot hotly-contested local elections which the people have over had. Tho Now York Legislature recently passed a Local-Option bill, modeled after the Pennsyl vania law, but Gov. Dix vetoed it. The reasons which ho has given for withholding his assent > era of considerable interest. He does not doubt -that intemperance is the source of a large pro perties of the crists, pauperism, and misery of tho community; lio expresses himself in favor of cny plan calculated to chock intemperance; and he believes in the right of the people to. regulate their local affairs in such manner as they deem to be for their welfare. Bathe believes that the Bocal- Option bill is a limitation of their right to do this. The Supreme Court of New York has held that ale, beer, and cider are to bo classed with intoxicating drinks, and, therefore, under the Local-Option bill, the people would have to vote for the prohibition of ale, beer, and cider if they 'desired to prohibit the sale of wjiisky, brandy, and other alcoholic drinks. Gov. Dix points out that there is a very largo and growing class of people who believe that alo, beer, and cider are rather safeguards against the vice of intemperance than promoters of it. He evidently believes so him self, thongh he does not say so. But ho holds that the necessary prohibition of these malt drinks in a community which desired to prohibit the solo of spirituous liquors constrains a free expression of opinion at tho polls. It might be that those who would vote for prohibiting the sale of alcoholic drinks, if ale, beer, and cider could be exempted, would refuse to vote for a prohibition that should, include these drinks. Qov. Dix does not say that the Leg islature ought to make an exception m favor of ale, beer, and cider, hut he says that the law should have been framed in snch a manner as to leave each community free to de cide whether it would prohibit the sale of spiritu ous liquors alone, and tolerate malt drinks, or prohibit them all, or refuse to prohibit any of them. There were other points of objection which Gov. Dix made to the hill, bnt thin is the only ono of general interest. ■When the bill first passed tho New TorkLegis islatnre, it received 05 votes in favor of it. When the vote was taken on passing it over tho Governor’s veto, it received but 52 votes. This cjifferenco would indicate that Gov. Dix’s reasoning had made a favorable im pression on a part of the Legislature, since tho ultra,' uncompromising temperance man de nounced his action and made tho fight, after the veto, in order to have their record as strong as possible. . Gov. Dix went so for as to say that the bill, as it passed, was more likely to promote the evils it was intended to check than to remove them. This feature of the case, outside of all reference to the doctrine of Local Options, should commend itself to tho attention of everybody who is giving any consideration to tho policy of enforced temperance. The ques tion is whether the general and unrestricted use of ale, beer, cider, and native wines (which will not intoxicate unless, as Gov. Dix says, they are taken in uncomfortable quantities) is not more likely to limit the vice of intemperance than if the cmaade against spirituous liquors is made to prohibit them also. This . question is of im portance whether there is an issue of prohibition or not. If alo, beer, cider, and native wines may be made active temperance agents by displacing the common American habit of taking strong drinks, as many people are coming to believe who would not formerly listen to each a doctrine, then it is certain that there shonld be no political, legislative, or social movement against these agencies. This is about what Gov. Dix meant in his'veto of the Local- Option bill as it was passed. DARWIK—AGASSIZ. The believers in the Darwinian- theory—of whom there are many—are apt to forget that Mr. Darwin himself has never claimed for it any higher value or authority than that of a con jecture supported by some curious facts. Dar winism is not one of the positive sciences. Its conclusions ore not yet susceptible of demon stration by the five senses. Nor is it one of the inductive sciences. It does not proceed from known facts to a generalization of the order of nature. It depends altogether upon a priori reasoning. Known resemblances of species have suggested to Mr. Darwin, as they had previously suggested to the author of Vestiges of Crea tion, the possibility that all animated nature, including man, might have been propagated from a single germ through successive ages of evolution. To show how this might have been accomplished, Mr. Darwin published his work on Selection in Eelation to Sex, exhibiting a tendency on the part of animals to propagate and preserve the race from the highest and most perfect specimens, while the weaker and loss perfect are crushed out in the struggle for existence. To this fanciful idea Dr. Bastian has added another, that the original germ may have been'produced by the operation of nature from inanimate vege table matter. He claims to have produced Bacteria —microscopic animal germs—from solu tions or infusions of hay, turnips, and other vegetable substances which had been sub jected to heat 'sufficient to have killed any animal life, and which, having been inclosed in air-tight , vessels, could not have received any animal germs. from the atmosphere.. The Trench chemist, Pasteur, denies stoutly the possibility of pfoducing ani mal life in this way, alleging that Dr. Bastian’s experiments are unsatisfactory, since the heat which he employed was only 212 degrees Fahren heit, the boiling point of water, whereas it should have been fully 1,000 degrees to make sure of. the destruction of all animal life contained in the infusions. Notwithstanding the nndemonstratod plight of the Darwinian theory, so-called, the number of its adherents is large, and embraces so many of the foremost thinkers of the age that it is deem ed necessary for writers oh tbo philosophy of life how-a-days to. declare themselves for or against -it, and oven religions publications have begun to inquire bow’ their respective creeds will square with it, if, in the future, it shall be accepted as an ex-; planation of the origin of man. Mr. W. E. Greg, in his late volume on the Enigmas of if/c,—a very profound and ennobling work ;in mimy respects,—makes the startling remark that there are very few thinkers who have given an unprejudiced examination to the Darwinian theory who have not given their adhesion to it —a statement which we take leave to deny very roundly. Certainly there is not a more careful investigator of natural science in the world than Prof. Agassiz. This learned satant recently de livered a lecture at the Unsenm of Comparative Zoology, at Cambridge, Mass., on • tho brains and mental powers of the lower animals, in which he practically demolished tho so-called science of Phrenology, and inci dentally gave a severe thrust at the Darwinian theory. All «wtmal life, unless derived from the division of another like itself, he says, proceeds from an egg, or ovule. This egg never develops into anything superior to the parent organism It may, and sometimes does, develop into some-* thing bnt there ls no instance in which it has been known to yield, or evolve, any higher type than itself. 'Whether any Droßreseit© ©to THE CHICAGO DAILY TRIBUNE: SUNDAY, MAY 25, 1873. lutlon can bo traced through successive geologi cal epochs is a question as yet wholly unde termined, with .nothing in the observed facta of the present epoch to favor such a supposition. "I leave that part of tho subject,” he says, “ out of consideration now, because it requires a vast array of geological and palaeontological facts for which we may not have time in this course. I confine myself now to the history of the egg, and repeat emphatically that, as far as we know, the egg evolves nothing but what it has received from progenitors, and does not necessarily evolve that, in' every case, wholly or uninterruptedly, there being sometimes a break in tho continuity of inherited fortunes, and a re production of them after a lapse of one or more generations.” Wo give place to Prof. Agassiz’ lecture, with tho accompanying illustrations, in another part of this paper, and invite attention to it as one of the most interesting of modem scientific dis- cessions. MIXED MARRIAGES. Tho question which creed shall have the social and educational charge of children bom of a marriage between a Roman Catholic and a Protestant, has recently come up in England in a very interesting form, as it involves many of the nicest points of the question. Tho case, briefly stated, is as follows: On the 17th of March, 1851, Thomas Andrews, a Roman Catho lic, married one Ellen Fleetcroft, a Protestant. Before the marriage, a solemn compact was entered into by the parties, that, if the marriage should have issue, tho sons should ho brought up iu the faith of the father and tho daughters in that of tho mother. One son and one daughter were bom, and, iu pursuance of the agreement, the son was baptized in tho Roman Catnolio faith and tho daughter in the Protes tant, the latter having Protestant sponsors ap proved by the father. In tho year 1863, how ever, the fathorfollill, and, disregarding his com pact, while lying at tho point of death ho executed a document which purported to direct the educa tion of both children in tho Roman Catholio faith, and appointed his brother, Joseph An drews, also a Roman Catholic, their guardian. No notice, however, was taken of the document until the year 1870. Meanwhile the father died, and the widow married again; and tho daughter, who had been left utterly destitute, was for nine years after her father’s death maintained and educated by her grandmother in the Protestant faith. In 1871, the guardian, Joseph Andrews, claimed possosaion of the child in order that she might do sent to a Roman Catholic school. Tho grandmother naturally disputed tho claim, whereupon the guardian, in February last, applied to the Court of Queen’s Bench for a writ of habeas corpus ordering tho grand mother to produce the daughter, that she might be given up to her testamentary guardian. The case was very fully hoard, and tho Court in its decision declared that tho right of the father was paramount and could not bo affected by the ante-nuptial agreement. Tho Court said: “It is with great regret that we, therefore, feel our selves bound to hold that, assuming tho validity of the guardian’s appointment, and notwith standing the lateness of tho application and tho apparent harshness of such a proceeding to wards the grandmother of tho child, we have no discretion to refuse the writ, and we shonld bo bound to hand over the child to the custody of the guardian as the only custody legally free from restraint.” The decision closed, however, with the intimation that, “ In dealing with ques tions of this nature, the Court of Chancery, ex erting the prerogative of the Sovereign as par ens palrice, has assumed a more extensive au thority than that " exercised by the com mon-law courts. To that prerogative the friends of the child then made appeal. After tho judgment of the Court of Queen’s Bench, an application was made to the Vice-Chancellor for an injunction to restrain tho guardian from interfering with the custody of the infant, and it was granted by him. The order was appealed against by the guardian, hat tho Vice-Chancellor’s decision was. sustained by tho Lords Justices, and tho child was given to her grandparents to bo educated as a Protes tant. The three principal points decided by the Lords Justices were as follows : 1. That an agreement of the, kind made by Andrews and his wife is not binding as a legal contract, and that the father has tho right to determine in what religion the child shall be educated, and that right cannot be surrendered by any agreement into which he may enter. 2. That the father may waive or abandon his right to have bis child educated in bis own relig ion by acts which amount to abandonment, and that the husband waived his right by not telling his wife when the girl was bom that he wished her to’be baptized as a Catholic, by his not hav ing shown any displeasure when she was bap tized as a Protestant, and by baying concealed from his wife the making of his will. Further more, that Joseph Andrews, tho guardian, lost his rights under the will by not asserting bis authority for years, and by hismot having ob jected to or opposed the Protestant training of the infant until 1871, eight yoarsafter the father died. 3. That when the father baa so far waived or abandoned bis right, the interests of tbo child are to bo considered and followed. In fixing these interests, the Court decided them from tho temporal point of view entirely, as her religions principles had not become fixed to any such de gree that a change would materially affect them. In the judgment it was, said that the mother’s relatives had acquired a strong (affection for tho girl, and tho girl for them, and,(aa she must bo educated by charity, it was better for her that she should bo intrusted to those whoso kindness she had already experienced. The decision is an eminently just one. If the mother had been a Catholic, under this decision tho child would have been educated os a Catho lic. There was, therefore, no discrimination in a religious point of view. Tho right of the father to dictate the education of his children was clearly established, but; under tho law, ho had abandoned, that right by not demanding Jt. Correct as the judgment was under the law and from an abstract legal point of view, there is only one matter which is left open for discus sion, and that is, the equity which allows the husband to break at will a clear and reasonable agreement with bis wife in a matter so important as the religions education of children. Some of the English papers are al ready making an issue upon this very case in favor of infusing equitable principles into the administration of the common law. The astronomers have got by the ears. One of the profession recently discovered a planet be tween Mercury and the sun. Immediately came another astronomer and laid claim to the dis covery, which he bad made some time before. And then another who asserted that there were two planets between Mercury and the snn. And then still another, who says there ore no planets at all in that quarter. The four havo commenced a pitched battle. Other astronomers, young and old, little and big, learned and unlearned, axe mixing in the quad rilateral fight, and the way in which spheroids, tangents, right ascensions, left declinations, parallaxes, planes, ecliptics, and other things are fiying back and forward, is a caution to people with weak nerves. It is evident from all this that these people, whose concerns ore prin cipally with the stars, ore very earthly in some of their habits. HIGHER EDUCATION OP WOMAN. Among the subjects discussed at the recent Social Science Convention held in Boston was “ The Higher Education of Woman," in which Col. Higginson, Prof. Agassiz, President Eliot, .of Harvard, President Raymond, of Yasser, Mrs. Julia Ward Howe, and other poisons of dis tinction, took an active port. The interest of the subject was considerably enhanced by the emi nence of the debaters and the different views which they advanced. In the course of his re marks, President Eliot said that it was always a marvel to him how different people arrived at different conclusions with the same facts before them, and through the same process of reasoning. It is on this account, however, that Social Science Conventions have a value for the community, and it was particularly unfortu nate for the cause of woman in this' particular discussion that Mrs. Julia Ward Howe lost her temper, and thereby furnished the scoffers with material for maintaining that women are not adapted for deliberative discussions, though the point was not mads against her. Col. Higginson read the paper on “Tho Higher Education of Woman” which gave rise to the discussion. CoL Higginson is an expo nent of tho doctrine that “Xcs races se femini senl." He claimed that man is by no means sure ■ of retaining his superiority. ,Ho even, • intimated that the distinctive ad vantages of the male portion of the human race arc gradually being absorbed by the female portion, though he did not say whether or not the female portion is likely to lose its distinc tive advantages with the new gain. He is not only an outspoken advocate of opening the doors of tho higher collegiate education to women, but of the joint and co-ordinate education of the sexes in the same 'colleges. He opposed himself to what he held to be three popular fallacies on this subject, viz: That women require different diet because of their physical differences; that they ore inferior 'to men - intellectually; and that they labor under a hopeless physi cal inferiority. His observations have been, that the laws of digestion are the some in men and women, and, therefore, do not affect tho relations of sexes. His conclusion is, that if they can assimilate the same food physically they may also digest the same mental pabulum. On the subject of hopeless intellectual inferi ority he did not dwell long, as indeed there was little reason for doing, since the fallacy has been exploded in a thousand instances, which are at tho tongue’s end of every one interested in the advancement of woman. He scoffed at tho Michelet theory of woman’s constitutional frailty, and cited instances in which the female sox had borne up with equal success under severe mental discipline. The death record of Oberlin College is one of the best instances he brought forwarit Out of eighty-four yonng ladies who have graduated from this institution since 1811,. seven have died, or one in twelve; out of SBB young men who have graduated during tho same time, thirty-four have died, or one in eleven. Tho subsequent pursuits of these collegiates, however, may have bad much to do with determining this result. CoL Higgin son advanced the curious idea that- it will be the young women of the middle and poorer classes who will avail themselves of the future oppor tunities for higher education. This opin ion was evidently based upon the ground that the pursuit of social and fashionable influence absorbs the time and attention of the young women in the wealthier classes; but it is to be hoped that, if women are to enter the higher fields of education to the same extent as men, the wealthier classes will share the advan tages as much among the women as ; among the men. Concerning the just education of tbs youth of both sexes, Col. Higginson’s opinion is, that the growing favor: of the elective system of study in our colleges will cause it to act as an important agent in bringing both sexes together in the same institution. The general adoption of fiiia system would then meet the obj oction that tho system of education lor woman should bo more elastic than that for man. Col. Higginson relied mainly upon the results of the joint system at Cornell and Oberlin, and in the public schools,

to confirm his position. The discussion which followed tho reading of Col. Higginson’s paper was varied and instruc tive. AH united in the belief that woman should be accorded facilities for higher education, but they differed as to the means. Prof. Agassiz has been a practical worker in this field,' for it was he who threw open the doors of the Har vard Museum (which is not strictly governed by the discipline of Harvard College) to both sexes. It is also his intention to open tho Anderson School of Natural History, winch may now bo regarded as a fait accompli, to young women as well as to young men, and he stated that he had received about an equal number of applica tions for admission from both sexes. He could not agree with CoL Higginson, however, on the laws of digestion. His'own observation has been that the preferences, appetites, and needs of women with reference to diet were not the same as those of men; but he did not know that this should necessarily affect their mental disci pline. President Raymond, who is at tho head of a college for women, is so much in favor of their higher education that he oven condescend ed to say that, soma time, Yasser .College might throw open its doors toyoung men. President El iot,of Harvard, opposed the general application of the joint-education of sexes to all tho higher institutions. He holds'that the system is as yet experimental, and that it would be little short of folly to jeopardize the usefulness of such uni versities as Harvard, Yale,: and the like, by in troducing the practice of co-education of sexes until tho present experiment should be demon strated to be a success. He is also strongly im pressed with the belief that the lesson of those experiments is not' in favor of tho system, and ho points to Oberlin College, and President Fairchild’s experience, as furnishing tho reasons for this conclusion. Oberlin began by admit ting girls and boys alike to tho college course, and it admits them still; hut a separate course of. instruction has already been estab lished for the girls. Tho last catalogue of Ober lin shows that there are 140 girls in what is called the Radies’ Department - and only 8 in the college. The proportion of girls in the college is constantly failing, while the number of girls in the separate department is constantly increas ing. . President Eliot says that this is also the case in many other Western institutions where girls and boys are educated together, and that the Matron of Oberlin College, after a long ex perience, told him that she would not allow her daughter, or any other girl in whom she was in terested, to go through the regular college course. The most practical suggestion which President Eliot made was that those interested in the higher education of women should endeavor to build up day-schools of a high standard rather than boarding-schools of any kind, where it re quires special care to prevent evil in the contact of a Iqrge number of girls. At this point, Mrs. Julia Ward Howe lost her temper, and the dis cussion was soon brought to a close. All who took partin this discussion, in one way or another, favored the enlargement of the educational facilities for the female sex, and the best sentiment of the time and country will be found to agree with them. As to the co-ordinate education of the sexes, there ore already enough institutions that have applied the system to demonstrate its advantages and disadvantages. During this ex perimental epoch females have hardly any more right, to demand admission into colleges for males than the male sex have to demand admis sion to educational institutions for females. The latter would be regarded as a piece of inex cusable impertinence. REVIVAL OF MUSIC IN CHICAGO. The success of the Cincinnati Festival is al ready beginning to make itself felt in a musical revival in Chicago. Tho lethargy which has fol lowed tho fire is at last broken, and the musical elements of tho city are beginning to crystallize into shape again, and so rapidly, that it will not be long before Chicago will resume her old place as one of the great musical centres of the coun try. The regeneration has commenced in a very remarkable way. Hitherto, the moat of our musical, successes ' havo grown out of an ■ influence exerted by tho Ger mans upon the Americans. This time it is an American influence which has caused the awakening and which is inspiring tho Germans to a stronger effort than ever before.. It has, in fact, become a necessity for them to rouse them selves and do something, if they wish to preserve their old supremacy. Before the Cincinnati Festival, the Apollo Club had already caused an uneasiness in the German societies. Although •an American organization, it boldly entered into the Gorman .field, and its progress was so rapid that it soon placed itself at the head of our local societies and excelled tho Gormans on their own ground. IVith such a competitor, they felt the necessity for action, and the succinct account of tho con dition and operations of their societies, which we publish elsewhere, shows that they have been at work developing their resources and strengthening their material. " Then come tho Cincinnati Festival, three-fourths of its musical organization being American. Its effect upon the German element is shown by the extracts from tho Illinois Slaais-Zeitung and tho T Veslliche .Post, two of the most reliable musical papers in tho country, which we publish elsewhere. The Germans know very well that one of their strongest holds upon tho sympathy and admiration of the Ameri can people has been that of music. They have waked up in time to realize that their hold is weakening, and that the sceptre may slip from their grasp unless they show that they are worthy .to wield it by more decided action than they havo exhibited for a few years past. Especially is this true in Chicago. It were useless to deny that, whatever has been -accomplished in music hero in the past, was ac complished by the Germans. Tho pioneers of music in Chicago were Bergmann, Aimer, Unger, Lob, Balatka, and others,—all Gormans. Tho Philharmonic Society owed its great success to the Gormans. The Gormans gave us our first orchestras. A German opera troupe com pelled tho Italian troupes to give us better performances. The German singing societies have lived to see scores of American societies go out of sight. Since the fire, however, tho Ger mans have done nothing here in music. It was reserved for an American society to give the first impulse to music, and at last, as' wo havo said, the Germans have realized the importance of the situation. They havo recently taken an impor tant stop, in which not only the musicians but all tho prominent German citizens have participated. This step is tho reorganization of tho old Chicago Liederkranz, and tho organization of a first class orchestra. For the accomplishment of these purposes, a large number of the leading German citizens have met and subscribed a handsome guarantee fund, and tendered the lead ership of tho society and orchestra to Hans Balatka, formerly of this city, and now leader of the flourishing Milwaukee Musical Society. Mr. Balatka now has tho proposition under consid eration, but wo feel authorized in saying that ho will accept it, and come here and give his best energies to the work, and that he will organize his orchestra upon tho plan of tho New York Philharmonic Orchestra, which The Chicago Tbibuee has so often advocated as tho only sound plan ; that is, to make the musicians themselves interested in concerts, on tho co operative plan. As this in a public matter in which all are interested, it will guarantee us in making the following extract from, a pri vate letter wo have received. Mr. Balatka says: “Amusician should be progressive. It is true I do not think that every simple motion is progress; but my judgment in this respect is governed by tho same principles which tell me that not everything written by Beethoven, Mo zart, and other masters is sublime and heaven-; ly, but that just and sound criticism must reject many of their works as antiquated or inferior to their best. My motto is eclectic: Select the best from the beat. My aim will bo to produce all compositions in an abso lutely faultless manner, and secure for Chicago an orchestra that would bo a credit to any city in the Union.” In these few words Mr. Balatka hue sounded the keynote of success. Ho will find excellent material here for an or chestra. Ho has tho advantage of knowing tho people and what they want. He is one of the few musical conductors in this country whose reputation has exceeded local bounds, and no one can doubt his enthusiastic devotion to music as an art or his indomitable indus try. If ho will but keep that one word “progress" steadily in view, we have no donbt of his ultimate success and a rich reward for former impecunious years of toiL He will receive a hearty welcome from his German friends, and, we doubt not, Ameri cans, remembering his former services, will also' extend a cordial and helping hand to him in his great work. Tho time was never more oppor tune for musical regeneration, and American competition will hasten on our musical millen nium. .■ THE PASS SYSTEM:. The representatives of the principal railroad companies of the country are at present agitat-, ihg the feasibility of abolishing the free-pass system. The evils' of that system are so appa rent that it is. almost unnecessary to mention them, and yet, when the railway officials have the remedy in their own hands, it is extremely doubtful whether they will have the courage to apply it, although they are unanimously agreed that it should be done. In one direction, how ever, they have made progress. A correspond ent writes: “Hitherto the railroad companies have carried visitors to and from the State fairs at greatly reduced rates. Articles intended for exhibition have been transported free. This generous policy has been abandoned. The com panies have decided to exact full tariff ‘rates in future. They avow a willingness to-oblige the societies, but claim that to favor them would discriminate against regular travelers. The same reply has been given to applicants on be half of political conventions. The State Bepnb -11 can Convention of lowa received the first re fusal Beligious societies are treated in the same manner. There is no discrimination.” This is a long step forward in rail road reform, since there is no good reason why politicians, ministers, or any other people attending fairs and conventions, should travel at lower fares than people on the same train attending to their ordinary business. In other words, the roads have no right to dis criminate against regular travelers. But, having reached this position, it is strange that they do not see that tho free pass is a still worse dis crimination. If A rides free on a railroad, B has to suffer for it, and whore any considerable percentage of travel is gratuitous, the burden upon the rest is an onerous one.. Transportation is as much a matter of consumption as anything else in the market.. The recipients of railroad passes do not get their clothing free or their flour free; why should they get their railroad travel free ? What legitimate equivalent do they render to offset this favor? What right has a railroad company to impose a tax upon freight in order to offset tho decrease in passenger receipts caused by the granting of free passes? Tho President of the Union Pacific Hoad said: in a recent conversation that the grant ing of passes was a loss of hundreds, of thousands of dollars yearly to that road,' and thin bas led to the abolition of tho system. The same is true of every road in pro portionate degree, and it is greatly to bo ro- ‘ greited that they do not follow the action of the ; Union Pacific. Another strong point against the pass-system is the fact that the discrimination is in favor of a class who can afford to pay their fares. The beggars for passes are Congressmen, State legislators, merchants, capitalists, ■ editors, and others who have no need of them. Poor men don’t got passes; - it is tho wealthy and influential only who are able to procure such favors, . and they are just the ones who do not need' ; them. The middle classes and the poor are to-, ’ day supporting the passenger business of the railroads in this country. It is a system, more- ] over, which cannot be used without being abused. Sharp as the railroad officiate may fancy themselves, hundreds of passengers are riding every day whohave no right to, and passes are hawked about from hand to hand, notwith standing the announcements on their backs that they are not transferable. It is an injustice not only to the railroads, but to the entire class of travelers who are compelled to. pay their fares, and the railroad companies are not doing their duty by their stockholders, or by. the community in general, so long as they refuse to check tbe evil. The application of the remedy should be. - mads universal. No man can show any ■: good reason why he should , travel free, any more than he can- show a good ' reason why ho should go to a tailor’s and get a .suit of clothes free. As long as tbe railroad can furnish him on equivalent for his money, ho should pay for it, no matter who he may be, or how high in station. There should be no exceptions, not even among railroad men. If an agent of tbe Burlington Hoad travels upon the Illinois Central Hoad, : be should pay his fore, and vice versa. All should be brought to tbs . same standard. , The result of this would be not only a great increase in the receipts of the' roads, but the public and the roads would speedily coma to a. mutual understanding: They would be mutual ly independent of each other in matters where' independence is desirable. Tho roads would be more free to act, and mors likely to act, in the; interests of the people than they are now. The public would ha benefited because the roads* would be more amenable to criticism than they are now. Standingupon the same footing, the pub lic coulddemand its rights wia-*, t prejudice,'and. the railroads could demand their rigo>_ nnc j o jj_ tain them. -The acceptance of a free pass necc.' Barfly involves a prejudice, if nothing worse, in; favor of the road which grants it. The receiver has no other equivalent which he can render, and tho time will come' sooner or later when he must perform the service for - which tho pass was given. As' dong” as ' Congress-' men and State legislators have - their pockets full of railroad, passes, it is impossible to completely break up railroad cor ruptions or do away with the .burdensome exao-; tions of passenger fares’ and freight -taxiffd,v which fall upon those who cannot afford to pay. them; but who are compelled to pay them -in order really that rich and influential men may ride free. -Wo hope, in the interest .of equal jus tice to the community and for the best interests, of the railroads themselves, that the managers; who are now agitating this question may have tho courage to completely eradicate tho'eviL : THE “SCAVENGER.”, To the Editor of The Chicago Tribune: Sm: It was long ago remarked that the great: c eat rogues cry “ Stop thief ” louder than any one else. So perhaps the venerable editor of. the Chicago Times would like to divert the attention' of the public from the debased specimen of hu manity he presents, by calling attention to the faults and failings of men of more or less local or national reputation. Or, perhaps, it eases his. guilty conscience to find that other men axe not. guileless; or it may be his. avarice is so great that, if to pander to the prurient tasto of a fol low being would bring in a single 5-cent nickel in ■ excesai of the average daily receipts, ho feels im pelled so to do.' . ' Whatever may bo the . object, the result re mains the some. There are certain birds which, because of their useful way of disposing of de caying animal matter that would otherwise be come offensive, are called Scavengers. V Th<t proprietor and editor of the Times is a Scaven ger, and a poor one at- that, -The • birds pass ing under that title do their work thoroughly, and put completely oat of sight that which is' offensive and noxious. Bat this man Scavenger patiently,'peraeV6ringlj,and diligent ly seeks ont the carrion which he scents so far then what?' Docs he pact at it to de stroy it ? Does ho bury it beyond the ken of the He who would.'thusmoke: the world a -httle purer and brighter would deserve the ; world’s thanks. But no,—he must "needs bring the disgusting moss ont into the broad light of day; call a whole city full around it; then turn it over, and upside down, and inside out, in the light of the world I - He must needs spread it and scatter it to the winds, that they may carry the seed broadcast, that it may spring up and bring . forth—yes,,/mil Every seed after his kind! Eor the worthy husbandman, a worthy harvest. ’ . , There Is not a disreputable thing of a dirty hole in tbe city (or outside of it, for that matter) that is not visited to bring to the tight ail that is polluting. And even this is not enough. This semblance of - a man - must needs attempt to bring the Church of Gpd down to a level with these iniquities. ‘Disgraceful is no name for such work; disgusting is no name for it; there must yet bo coined a word to express the utter and perfect abhorrence in which such employment should be held. None are perfect: In the Church are grievous sinners. In the Church, and out of it, are yoed men, who have dons soma things which they themselves are - ashamed of. And who is there that sometime in his life has not been guilty of things that the very thought of smites into his : innermost conscience ? If to bring these things before the world-wonld serve some good pur- Cs, there might be some apology for so doing. , when the sole object is to pander to a taste for all that is vile and low, and tho transfer of a few dollars to an editor's pocket, the work ii the most despicable that could ’be engaged in. It is only a wonder that this chief Scavenger can find assistants who -will bring them selves ■so , nearly down. to his level as to aid btm in this dirty business. If there is the least spark of manhood left in them, let .them quit it; and let the worthy chief canyon this business as best he can.-. '■ There should be some way to punish such an . offense against common decency. Why should it not be a punishable offense to publish aught concerning any parson, unless the party shall be mentioned by his or her proper and legal name ? . Then the mean and cowardly evasion of the ex isting law, as practiced by tbe editor of tbe Times, would be of no avail. The newspaper press must have come to a very low estate if, to be self-supporting, it has to bo prostituted to such yileness as the Times takes pleasure in. , ; ■ln all else, without doubt, tho Times is a good and able paper. When its editor shall have re formed, or bispaper shall have passed into other hands, then perhaps it may tone a proper rank .among the leading and respectable papers of tbs country. C. O. Jlaots. FLOWERS—MAKE HOME BEAUTIFUL. To the Editor of The Chicago Tribune : . Bra; Having been disappointed many times -in sowing tho wrong seeds, or sowing the right . ones too early, in this district of low barometers, thermometers, and what not, and thinking some of your many readers might wish to beautify . their, grounds and avoid failure by knowing tbe experience of others, I therefore give mine in the culture’ of flowers, and hope that Chicago, as a wholo, will cultivate these summer beauties more than heretofore. ASSPAXS. . It does' not require extra skill to raise animals. They will grow wherever the sun shines, in al most any kind of soil. ; A rich, sancy loam, well drained, is the soil heat suited to them, and is what wo can boast of. They require tittle or no attention after thev are once started, but ’richly repay the cultivator, if heed is paid to -their wants. The following list comprises soma of the choicest, that will do finely In this dis trict r :• Abronla fragrans; '■'Antirrhinum—allcolora; - Aster—rose-flowered, truffanta, and tbs peony flowered,—no garden shonld be without one of these varieties; 'i - ■Balaams—camellia-flowered; spotted German, ■ 'rued the Solferino; • Browalliar—blue and white; Clarkia integripeteln, and double red and ■white; ' u-Candytuft—purple and crimson. . Ganna Nepafensis, and annei, —stately plant* ; - ’ :i Chlora grandiilora; ■ •-■Chrysanthemum—all varieties; - ' Dianthua—all double varieties mired,—they are splendid; ’ • ■-Delphinium elatior floro-pleno,—germinate hard: - ■ Lobelia erinns speciosaand white; * Lupins—all colored —elegant; -^Mignonette—Parsons* now tree and new white; ; Marigold—French double, Bunnett’s new or ange, and miniature; ~ • Hirabilifl Jalapa—scarlet f white, and chamois; Panay—best English varieties, —lores shade; Pholaßrnmmondii—all colors ; ' Petunia—single and double ; \ Portulaca—double and single ; - ytimnrm purpurea major, for lawns • Solanmn—white egg,—ornamental, egg-plant; t^tock—ten woehs, German, dwarf varieties of all colors; | : Yorbena—of all colors; ' ' Zinnia double flowered, elegant—all colors. ? cxtaißrno piakts. .•; * . , , /Cobffia scandena—purple,—has grown 200 feet in one season; ■ .Convolvulus Major (morning-glory); -Dolichoa Sablab (hyacinth bean) ; .HGonrds— cyclahthara oxplodens,—curious;. Quamoclit (cypreaa-rine) ; . : ,;P'eas —flowering, all colors : , , . .jrPhaseolus (flowering beans); -Thopseolum Peregrinnm (canary-bird flower).' ' - • • • BULBS., ■ The Gladiolus. I find that the bulbs coating 10, to 25 cents have as fine flowers as those cost ing SI to $3. They can bs planted out from the. •Jflt of May to the middle of Jnly. Plant three inches deep, and in clnmps of sis or more. - | - DAHLIAS. ■ . . Got a few of the colored ones, and plant them in clumps three feet apart. TUEEBOSE. It is now too late to start these for outdoor blooming. Can bo bought from the florist for a smaU'amonnt. They are sweet. We had some ;laat season with thirty-eight flowerets on. TerJ respectfully, _ , ; ' Axia'ieob. .. English Dramntlc;Ccnnoratilp ■ A regular feud has broken ont betweenthe ■ ' managers of the French Theatre hare and the .■ Chamberlain, in regard to the exercise of the censorship of the latter. ' The managers com plain that whether they gohack to tho old pieces .: v-'tako up now pieces, almost every play of merit. ■ Si* fee unfit for performance on tho . & b ptb?c apathy iide. Considering what sort of incidents aS represented in Italian operas, it seems rather ab surd to be so particular about the French plays.- ‘ ’ ■lt should bo remembered that it is ora? j, on . don that tho Lord Chamberlain has any au.aw ty. Beyond London thero is ;no censorship- -r of any kind, and managers can bring out what , "plays they choose. A month or two since a bur-- . fesqne called the ,''‘Happy Land,” in which Hr. ; i Gladstone, Mr. Ayrton, and Mr. Lowe were per ; sonally caricatured, was poremptorfly stopped by thoiord Chamberlain at the Court Theatre, : -.in; London, and has since been allowed to be.. played only. in.a modified form. But last nigfcw ■ ' the same piece, withall the original dialogue »nfl.r the three political caricatures prohibited by mo Lord Chamberlain,'was; produced atthoßrmce.; . of' Wales Theatre, Liverpool, before onimmense . ’audience, including the Mayor; and several local magistrates. It is stated that the representor tives of the Ministry were haUed with shouts ox. laughter, and the political hits received with up-. - roanoua applause, tho occasion being made qmte.. a political demonstration. No interference mm. = the performance_or , the impersonations of mo .. throe Ministers was attempted.-- From a London Letter. . ' ' ' ■ ' 1 :*: ; Fracas Between Circus j3lcn. ; _ . An exciting encounter took, place at the St Joseph Hotel ,on Monday evening, which grew, out or. the rivalry existing between the Greet Eastern and Forepaugh circuses. An agentrf, the Forepaugh shows, Mr. Dingess it seeraa, ' took umbrage at a circular issued m the uiteres?- of the Groat Eastern by A. Atkinson, said area lax coiitftfafag sentiments severely reflecting Dingess’ character, etc. Dingess the matter about the hotel, and, moe "g. Atkinson, denounced him as a liar and scoundrel, - and applied other epithets to bun such « «• ' calculated to precipitate a fight undsr wdiug circumstances. Atkinson knocker against a billiard table, and followed npthoWQw by drawing his revolver. A chase ensued, A"™ son being the pursuer. was _ intercepted and became persuaded to-«cgp violent purpose. Dingess caused Atkmao rest, shortly after, on a charge of ““ -jm intent to kill, and bad was placed at George Glover ; .becoming secanty ior ammmt. Next morning Atkinson want Justice Frame, bat Dingess ( h,i. appearance.. and, admitting the son paid a fine of 85,’ and the affair South .BendXZhdJ Tribune, May **•

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