Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune, May 28, 1873, Page 2

Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune dated May 28, 1873 Page 2
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2 CONGRESSIONAL EXCURSION. The Real Objects of the Expedition Through tho Southwest. The Indian Territory, Galves tor Harbor, and Mississip pi Improvements. Queer Visions of a United Southwest and Northwest to Control Legislation for tho Nation’s Good. From Our Own Corresvoiulent , New Orleans, May 27,1873. Tho Congressional Convention, ns it was called by tho St. Louis papers, has disappeared as suddenly and unceremoniously as It camo into existence. Ushered Into being at St. Louis as a convention, against its protest, it broke up at Now Orleans without making any sign In that charaotor. In tho history of Congress, thoro has proba bly never occurred anything BO APPARENTLY INEXPLICABLE as this excursion, or delegation, or convention, or bummers' spree, as people have variously estimated it, according to tbolr political lean ings. Tho Chicago Times , with Its thoughts always directed to what is low and moan, charac terizes it as a spree of Congressional dead-beats; tho Now York Tribune has pronounced tho “Convention” a failure, aud stopped right thoro; and other papers have received It as tho dispatches Imvo represented it,—and nothing moro. That tho excursion was some thing more than all this, will presently ho soon. During tho last session of Congress, an In diana Representative and an lowa Representa tive sat chatting over tho AFFAIRS OF THE WEST. The necessity for tho St. Lawronco route to tho Northwest, and of tho Mississippi route to tho Southwest was talked over; tho apparent im possibility of over getting Congress, as a body, to understand this necessity, lamented; and tho desirability of doing something to enlighten tho nation’s representatives agreed on. Said ho of Indiana: “ Why cannot wo bring a few of THE WESTERN MEMBERS TOGETHER, In sojno way, privately, and talk the thing over comfortably, as soon as tho session is over?” Said ho of Iowa: “You cannot do it without attracting attention, and arousing opposition and suspicion.” And they wont their several ways, growling about THE TYRANNY OF THE EAST, and swearing that tho Northwest was cruelly ill asod, aud tho Southwest hastening to a condi tion of ruin; that Immigration must forever cease; that a man might as well stop raising corn; that it didn’t matter what bocamo of tho currency question; aud that protection was a sound that no longer possessed a charm for thoir oars. It ivao impossible tbnt these growlers shouia continue on in this way WITHOUT ATTRACTING BTMPATHT. Those who sat nearest to thorn on tho Con greaaional benches; thoflo who wore from tho sarao eoctiou of country os themselves {those who were from other sections that felt' in some what tho same way as they did; those who aro fond of change; those who smell tho junketing from afar off; those who hated tho idea because ol its daugoroua tendency, and those who ad mired it because of its promise of some thing good in tho way of future pickings; those who hadn’t tho remotest notion what tho idea was. but folt interested In it because it was an Idea: those who bad talked by day and dreamed by night of a future “ Western Empire; and those who liko to have a hand in anything that In going,—gradually got together, as poonlo always uo on similar occasions, and tho idea slowly took SOME KIND OF SHAPE. The Koprcuentatlvo from Indiana and tho Be ■nrcaeutuiUo from lowa, looking upon their handiwork, saw that it was good, and Trent» step further’than they had gono before, and began to canvass among their follows as to how and when, and whoro, it—tho informal conven tion of Northwestern and Southwestern man— should take place. ~ ~l xl lu t.ii» 'i 1 wuouuiuu>n resides a littlo man -uont i foot -i inches in height, who is known as “Mr. Dwyer." Ho calls himself tho attorney of tho ATLANTIC k PACIFIC RAILROAD COMPANY, • who have, of course, selected a Washington gen tleman for thoir attorney by reason of tho. near ness of thoir places of business and base of. operations,—tho.termluuß of thoir road being only a matter of 800 miles or so from. tho Gapi- ■ tab This Atlantic & Pacific Road, many years before they proceeded with construction, ob tained a charter from Congress granting them alternate 10-milo sections of land on both sides of thoir proposed road through Indian Territory, and 20-railo alternate sections through other territory; saddled with tho condition, as regards tho former, that tho grant should not bo mado until Congress had, by treaty or otherwise, EXTINGUISHED THE INDIAN TITLE to said lands. These Indians whose title was to bo extinguished consisted of Chorokeos, Choc taws, Crocks, Shuwneos, Sominolos, ana othor tribes and nations, who bad been driven from thoir possessions in all parts of the United States east of tho Mississippi River, and south of, say, tho Thirty-fifth Parallel, as far west as the Mississippi. Tlioy had been driven west, and driven south ; and driven north; and placed on reservations, and crowded out of reservations, further west, aud sooth, and north; and bad burned and murdered thoir hunters; aud bad been placed ou other reservations; audtbenco crowded, pushed, aud driven off again, until some 50,000 of them proved rather too unman ageable to bo made the subject of further prac tical joking; and, in consideration of thoir as signing to tho Government all thoir right, title, aud interest in all their lands oast of tho Mis sissippi River to tho Atlantic, and north from tho Oulf of Mexico to about tho Thirty-fifth Parallel, they woro made OWNERS OP A TRACT OP TERRITORY north of Texas, south of Kansas, west of Missouri aud Arkausus, ana oast of Now Mexico oud Colorado, unsurpassed in tho United States for its beauty, not excelled iu any part of the world for its fertili ty, and unoqualou in its olimuto, aud as largo os almost any Htuio iu tho Union, except tic baby-neighbor, Texas. This land was con voyed to them, to be theirs and thoir children’s forever, with absolute title, —the foe-simple be ing vested iu tho tribes. But not in tho Indians individually. Uncle Sam knows too much to make a treaty with tho Indiana out of which there shall bo no escape. Tbo loop-hole iu this case was tbo conveyance of tho title to tho tribes, giv ing individuals NO TOWER TO SELL. Thus, Boudinot. a Cherokee, who was educat ed In tho East, tolls us that ho is tbo owner of a tract of several thousands of acres, which ho cannot sell, nor do anything with, except roam over at will and call his own and his chil dren's forever. Bo witli others. Con fiding in this solemn treaty with tho Government, tho Indians removed on to this land, and thoy are still removing there down to this day, in ones, and. twos, ana throes, as thoy aro gathered together from tho fur-off corners to which tho remnants of lost tribes had strag gled. Another railroad company—tho Missouri, Kan sas & Texas—had a charter on similar terms to that of tho Atlantic A Pacific. Both Companies obtained, through tho Government, a permission from the Indians to lay their trucks ACUOfiH TiU5 TEItniTOUY, — tho former from tho Missouri State lino to Vinlta, 80 milou south of tho Kansas State lino, ami tlionco duo aouth to Toxaa; nml tho latter from thoir connecting point, at 'Vinlta, went through all Indian territory between Vinita and Ban Diego, on tho PaoHlo. They thou laid thoir tracks, having 200 yards in width allowed them for all purpoaoa. They havo boon running, ao far an they have penetrated, for over a year,—tho Missouri, Kansas & Toxaa lately connecting with tbo Houston & Texan Central, and giving through connections from Chicago and Ht. Lonio to Galveston, on tho Gulf of Mexico; and tUo Atlantic & Pacltlo stopping short on tho opou prairie, a fow miles west of Yiniia./ Tho intorostu of tho railroad companies are one In seeing the Indian titlo extinguished, because thoir land-grant will be secured. Under theao circumstances, it is not to bo wondered at that tho ball aet rolling by the two fopre&oulatlveQ should receive a friendly push at the bauds of the watchful little Dwyer. It eoon oarao to bo understood that nn excursion ovor tho two lined in question wad to do offered ;by tho railroad companies. St. Louis honrdiot it, aud determined to make the moat ot tho event . ' ' IN AN ADVERTISING WAY, by giving tho invited a dinner and steamboat ex cursion, and calling it a M convention. M Now Orleans, blooding and heart-broken, hoard of it, and sent up, with renewed hopes, a deputation to ask tho excursionists to extoind thoir visit to that city. Galveston hoard of it, and voted $20,000 to entertain their guests in a fitting man ner,—not without nn oyo to $8,000,000 or so in tho shapo of an appropriation for creating a first-class port out of Us mud and sand. Tho rolling b&U was NOW OOINO TREMENDOUSLY. The first of tho invited guests arrived in St. Louis on Monday, tho 12th lust. They wore mot by a committee of citizens, who organized them, and treated them, notwithstanding many pro tests, and more laughter, ns a convention of Congressmen, assouibling there io debate on Western interests. Thoro was a mooting called by tho Merchants' Exchange of St. Louis, tho following day, which tho papers reported next morning, under big headings, ns tho 11 Con gressional Convention. ’’ Tho mooting was call ed by St. Louis morohanta, organized in duo form as a mooting of St. Louis merchants, and carried out ns a mooting .of St. Louis merchants. Tho Congressmen were mere quests, sojourning in tho city, on route for Indian Ter ritory. They listened 5 some of them spoke. The mooting of Bt. Louis merchants passed resolutions indorsing river-improvement schemes, and those wore shoved into the reports under tho head “ Congressional Convention and people thought 6t. Louis had got rather a good thing. But tho Congressmen wore not slow to percoivo tho unblushing nature of tho at tempt to misrepresent tho character of thoirvislt, and au informal mooting was called, in tho rooms of him of Indiana, of all tho members of Con gress in town: when it was, after duo consider ation, resolved that they SHOULD NOT IN ANY WAY COUNTENANCE any attempt to organize mooting!) at which they consented to attend, - oitbor tur speakers or listen* ora, ns other than mootings of the citizens of St. Louis; and that, whatever tall talk they might Indulge In qo please tho vanity of tho St. Louis ians, their only action should bo to thank them for their civilities, which was done. They ac cepted tho hospitalities of Galveston, and prom ised to go to Now Orleans, to tnko a look at tho mouth of tho Mississippi. Tho trip through tho Indian Territory awaken ed a unanimous fooling on tho part of tho excur sionists that so magnificent a country could not much longer remain closed to settlement. Strong expressions wore hoard. “ Tho Indian titlo MUST HE EXTINGUISHED,” was a cry that scarcely provoked dissent, until the attractions of the 'Territory had laded be fore tho pressure of other matters. Your cor respondent ascertained tho opinions of enough of the party to bo convinced tuot tho extinguish ment of the Indian titlo is only a matter of time. Tho terms of extinguishment most favored aro those of a bill now before Congress, whore it is provided that oaohlndian, irrespective of ago or sox, will bo entitled to IGO acres of land in fbo simple, Inalienable until 21 years of ago, and, after that, at his or her absolute disposal,— tho Government to bo responsible for the pay ment for the remainder of tho laud as fast os it Is sold, at the rate of 81.25 per acre,— soiling it to whomsovor it likes, either rail roads or settlers, but always accounting to the Indians for tho acres disposed of. Thus, if tho Government extinguishes tho title, and the railroad companies obtain their grant. Government would apparently have, under this bill, to pay the Indians 81.25 for each aero so granted. Tho proceeds of thoso sales it is proposed to fund, for tho erection of churches, school-houses, and public institutions. Tho Indians aro considered GENERALLY HOSTILE to any arrangement for again taking away their lands. Some of them, especially the half-broods, have made excellent farms. Whites can only come into this Territory by marrying with a squaw. If they come in in any other way, they go to Paradise without scalps. Thoro are 50,000 souls, all told, in Indian Territory, including 4,000 freed men and women, THE GALVESTON SCHEME is one that was very little spoken of during tho trip,—the Galveston people themselves having apparently attached far loss importance to it than to, feting their guests with champagne-punch, music, dancing, beach-rides and so forth. But, when tho question comes up in Congress, most of tho Boprosoutativoß will vote for it, on the ground that Galveston is the terminus of the railroad system of Texas on tho sea, and a first-class port it must inevitably become, unless tho railroads tako up their rails bodily, and move them off, on mruum, i» oomo' other direction. _ . , , Tho trip to tho month of tho Mississippi con vinced all those who wore not convinced before, that tho Father of Waters is in a bad way, and MUST BE PUT TO BIGHTS, at almost any reasonable cost. On this point the Congressmen aro united almost fo a man. Tho Fort St. Philip Canal was considered in every way feasible. .The expensive jetties pro posed by certain enthusiastic maniacs, that were intended to confine tho waters of tho Mississippi to such a narrow channel that its volume aud force would bo sufficient to scour away all tho mud-banks,—and, effectually oppose a worse re sistance to tho entrance of shipping than any mud-bank could do,—woro reported upon by Oapt. Howell, of tho United States Engineers, which report, not having boon soon by most of the excursionists, I hero subjoin: The Hon, J. 11. Oalesby, President Chamber of Com merce, Few Orleans: Dear 8m: Tour Inquiries regarding tho application of jetties at tho mouths of (ho Mississippi, for tho jmr poaoofgiving improved chaonols across tho tars that obstruct your commerce, deserve immediate answer. You will find many engineers who, basing their opin ions on imperfect data or misapprehension of foots, will tell you that tho best way to improve your chan nels at the entrance to your port is to build jetties. The theory on which tho application of Jellies is based is this: that, by contracting laterally tho mouth of a liver, tho surface of tho water in tho river immediately above will bo raised, causing increased velocity of discharge, and consc aucntly giving tho current greater scouring power, to io end that this power may act on tho bottom of tho river, and effect a deepening of channel. The theory is.attractivo from its apparent simplicity, and, for tho same reason, W tho first to claim tbo attention of <lul>- biers in hydraulic engineering, who either do u6t know, or olsoloao sight of, tho conditions essential to its successful application. Tho principal of those con ditions are two: First, that tho character of tho bed aud banks of the river at tho point of application bo such that scouring will bo effected in tho bed, in preference to the banks; in other words, tho banks must bo firm enough to withstand tho action of tho current, and tho bottom yielding enough to permit scour. This condition, even men who are not engineers, and who have seen with thoir own eyes tho formation at tho mouth of tho Mississippi, will tell you, cauuot be found there. This formation has boon made by deposit from tho river-water, layer on layer, beginning ot the original bottom of tbo Gulf of Mexico, and, in the course of ages, reaching, in tho bauka of tho Passes, n height but a few inches above tho level of tho Gulf. The formation at the bottom of the river is older and moro compact than that of tho bunks, which latter is of tbo lightest character of alluvium, the pro duct of decayed vegetation, only protected on lUi surface, and that in an imperfect manner, by a rank growth of reed-grass. Let tho numerous bayous branching from the several Passes attest how much easier It is for tho river to break through this feeble barnor between it and' tho Gulf, than it is for it to deepen its bed and tho channels across its bars. Tbo second condition Is, that there shall exist a cur rent (literal) passing tho outer extremity of tho jetties perpendicular to them, capable of sweeping to one side or the other nil deposit made about' tho' jolty heads, and tending to force a now bar outside. No such current has boon discharged at tho mouth of the Mississippi, nought for.' In default of it, Jetties would have to bo built farther and farther out, not annually, but steadily every day of each year, to keep paco with tho advance of tho river deposit into tho Oulf, provided they nroattoraptod, and tho attempt warranted by having the relative character of bod and banks favorable. . . For the reason that these two conditions aro not to be found at tho mouth of tho Mississippi, careful in nulrlea have, lime aud ngalu, pronounced tho applica tion of Jottles ot either Southwest Puss or raw a I’Outrouot worthy of trial at Government expense. If enthusiastic Jetty-men wish to pass from theory to practice, they can olways gain consent to spend their own money la building jollies at Southwest Pass, and, If they succeed lu doing good, they will have fair claim on the Government for recompense. jctUoa have once been attempted there, aud not only reported a failure by tho inspecting officer, but aban doned by Messrs, Oralg k Illghtor, who made tho at tempt. The full particulars of this may bo found lu Kx. Doc. No. B, IXO. of Hep., 1W Cong., ad Sosa.. Tho practical experience gained by that failure, I presume, will deter tho Government, though It may not deter adventurous jetty-men, front slaking more money in such Attempts, Yours very truly, O. W. Howell. Oapt. of Kng., U, H, A. But, important qb tho maitora horotoforotroat od of may ho regarded by thoao who aro In terested in them, they aro dwarfod by compari son with tho otToct tho lioproßoutativou seem to consider thoir long sojourn in tho moat intimate character together may havo in BlIAl’INa FUTDUK LEGISLATION. Tito Indiana and lowa gentlemen referred to in the beginning of tills report saw, as they told your ' reporter, in thla “accidental” gathering, just tho opportunity thoy had desired, It began to' dawn on the minds of others that this Wont was a greater country, oa Been by tho oy6s, than they had con ceived any idea of by seeing It on paper s that. If tho Southwest wanted a port on tho Gulf for tho trade of Texas and (bo Southwest, aud tho south THE CHICAGO DAILY TRIBUNE: WEDNESDAY, MAY 28, 1673. era. portion of the groat Mississippi Valloy.—tho moaning 6f which they now for thofirettlmo understood,—tho Northwest also'hod Its needs in the shApo of wator-trausportotioh 5 add that, “If tho Edst- was banded as one man to oppose this waiter-transportation for both the North- N woat and Southwest, tho Northwest and- South west might come somo day to - -- * HAND THEMSELVES TOGETHER, to show tho East that, whilst tho'Northwest alone was powerless, and the- South west alono was powerless, together they wore irresistible. In point of fact, there was no one on board so ignorant but ho know that tho now apportionment has given tho West tho nu merical superiority in Congress. BloiVly, as all groat bodies move, tho idea passed througU its successive stages, until it injured, by tho usual R recesses of button-holing, gossiping, and io mysterious workings- of men’s minds, which no ono understands; hut all have at somo time or other had to nclmiro and marvel at, Into a tolerably well considered scheme to obtain for the West CONCERTED ACTION IN CONGRESS in regard to Us material interests. Perceiving this awakening, as it may bo termed, your Cor respondent questioned most of tholUmois mem bers, the Indiana and lowa mon so frequently referred to, and all whom ho know, or could got an opportunity to speak to. From ono of the Illinois members bo learned that the fooling had become very high, not of hostility to thd East, but of now-born enthusiasm for tho West; that somo of tho members had boon talking extrava gantly, hut that tho solid body wore agreed as ono man to bring up some question or other at tho next Congress by which tho strength of tho Northwest and tho Southwest COULD BE DEMONSTRATED. Already a proposal had been mooted, and In formally discussed, as to tho desirability of nom inating for Speaker a Western man, and Mr. Hasson had actually boon named; but, after further consideration, it was considered that Mr. Blnino should bo allowed to take bis seat without opposition, and that tho -West should make no sign until mem bers began .to moot at Washington, when loaders, or representative men, should bo agreed upon, to whom tho conduct ot affairs should bo intrusted, much ns tho Liberal party in England follows Gladstone, and tho Con servatives Disraeli, with tho difference that hero all sides in polities will bo represented and united. Your correspondent was desired, par ticularly, in reporting. tho state of feeling that had sprung into existence on this subject, to ho careful to state that thoro Io no fooling of opposition or antagonism to tho East, but a strong determination to . UREAIC DOWN THE MONOPOLIES AND RINGS by which tho East has for so many years ruled; to unite tho West for tho purpose ; not to compel legislation for tho benefit of tho West, or to prevent legislation specially intended to benefit tho East, but to boo to it that all sec tions of tho country aro legislated for alike. With this now-horn understanding strong in alt men’s minds, tho Congressmen parted at differ ent points on the route north of Now Orleans. THE GERMAN MOVEMENT. Its Object, find By Whom OPRfinlzcd. To the Editor of The Chicago Tribune Sir ; In order to dispel tho false impression which - scorns to prevail, in regard to tho present Gorman oxcltomont, among thoso who do not tako tho Gorman papers, and do not understand tho Gorman language, allow roo a column to briefly state tbo facts as they appear to mo. The first knowledge tho English-speaking peo ple had of this formidable movement was a re port of tho mooting hold in tho Seventh Ward, entitled by The Tribune, “nosing's Now De parture,” and by- tho several other English pa pers as “Tho Bummer Movement,” “The Beer- Guzzlora’ Meeting,” Tho “Sabbath* Breakers in Council,”“Advocatosof Free Whisky and Froo La gorou tho Bampago," with various other insulting remarks which wore calculated to convoy tho idea that tho whole Gorman population of Chicago woro up in arms upon tho subject of drinks, and wore an intemperate, lawless crowd, determined upon debauchery and drunken revelry upon tho American Sabbath. Of course, it is the object of moat of thoso journals to misrepresent and put tho worst appearance upon ovory movement not in accord with tho views of thoir political masters; and, therefore, nothing but vilification at the hands of those papers is expected by the Gormans, wherever they assemble for consulta tion and deliberation upon any question. This malicious and flippant talk of associating every German with froo boor, froo manners, and a disregard for the rights of others, is an insult which baa had its effect, aud its results must bo felt by thoso indulging in it, sooner or later, to thoir own disadvantage. Now, for tho truth of the matter. Tho Gor mans contend that, in a Republic, as well as under their owu monarchical Government, they havo tbo legitimate right to pass the seventh day of tho week according to tho dictates of their own oonaciencoa. Tho party in power In sist that tho Sunday, which tho Puritans chose to turn into a Jewish Sabbath, shall bo observed by all tho people as a day of humiliation and prayer. Eero is tbo conllict; and The Tribune rightly defined tho movement when it said that tho question with tho Germans was, whether, under our form of government, those who are wedded to tbo Puritanical Sabbath havo a right to force their views and customs upon those who favor tho Continental Sunday. Tho question is not whothor I wish to drink a glass of lagor-boor or wiuo, in company with friends or family, on Sunday, but whothor any other man or sot ot men shall have tho power to say I shall not. Tho Gormans look upon Sunday as a day of rest from labor, for recreation ; this recreation to bo sought, when not interfering with others,in a way that best suits thoir incli nation ; some at home; others at saloons, whoro the newspapers are found and friends ore mot; and others, again, with thoir families, at tho pic nic or Sunday concert. An American Bishop, tho Rt. Rev. W. E. Annitago, of Wisconsin, on tho 13th of February, 1872, in an elaborate ad dress ou tho Gorman Sunday, expressed tho principle for which tho Germans aro fighting, when ho said: Our conflict of this question has been brought about chlpfly by onr largo German immigration, aud I shall apeak therefore, henceforth, of tho German rather than tho Continental Sunday. If we inquire into tho history of the Gorman Sunday, wo shall find that it haa tho highest sanctions of Luther aud his brothor reformers. Those great men were but human, and could no more restrain (ho Reformation-pendulum at once in its proper act than tho rest of ua can In minor matters. They found tho Lord’s day Included a great number of church festivals and fusts, alt put ou a liko ground of obligation, and burdening tho people. TUcic reforming zeal undertook to discriminate bo tween tho Sunday and tho othor days, among tbo latter retaining certain great festivals, but very Jealous for tho paramount authority ot tho Sunday. They wero not agreed among themselves about tho-ground of its obligation, and, us discussion wont on about it, Lu ther, aud even Calvin ond others, woro drawn into giv ing their authority to what seems to ns lax observance of tho day, In their fears of tho people’s relapsing Into uureformed practices, or adopting views of thoir owu opponents. For Instance, Luther’s saying, quoted from Ids table-talk; “If anywhere tho day Is made holy for tho moro day’s sake, If anywhere any ono seta up Its obscrvuuco on a Jewish foundation, then I or der you to work ou It, to rido on It, to danco on It, to feast on It, to do anything that shall remove this en croachment on Christian liberty.” And what ho coun seled ho seems to havo done ; and, as it was a conven ient mode of proclamation of reformed views and practices, ono in harmony with the national instinct for out-door onjoymeut, whatever tho previous Sun days had been among tho throng of holy days, tho Ger man Sunday now was established with all the honors, and with all tho earnestness, of the loaders of the Reformation, Iho cuHtoni is hallowed to thorn by education, by aßßuctatiomi of their children, of thoir frloudH, living and dead, thoir homo, anil tlio Fatherland. It in no more than plain common-acnbo to look at It with their eyes, to admit whatever good there 1b In it, and enlist thoir aid with bouio other argument than that onr Sunday la of tho Lord, while theirs JU of Ihodovll; and that Is actually whul they constantly havo to hoar upon tho subject. Tho love of ouUdoor life I havo referred to la a national trait of the Gorman race, ami It la ope which wo Americans may woll envy and imitate. I have soon a little bit of yard In a crowded city, containing u small grußH plat, and a shrub or two. made (ho chief econo of family recreation, despite tho larger and well furnished parlors. And lot It also ho borne In mind that it. Is always /amity recreation that they seek; that, lu their simple amusements and pleasures, men, women, and children participate. It la not their way to leave home and all its af. fectlouu and . lutluenccj, and go to places and entertainments to which they cun* not tako their wives and sisters. All who have scon them In thoir own country wilt testify to tho quiet and well-behaved crowds which nssombfo In gardens ami parks,—evidently nut for entertainments, for. In many of the moat frequented,uouo are allowed,—still less for hard drinking or other vice,—hut for the enjoyment of their friends and of out-door life, lam not prepared to pronounce a Humluyaftemoouso spenUnf/-frufc«Hj/ less Innocent than that of many of our native popula tion, In which a lazy sloop, after tho children Ixuvo been sent to tho convenient Sunday-school, a special .dinner, and tho Sunday papers are tho chief employ ment, even when conscience, personal or traditional, forbids riding, and visiting, and walking out. Let us make no naked Issuo with tho Gormans. In tho Fatherland, mm whom all honor for their Christian ity havo followed the custom wo condemn, To us, with our habtls.and opinion*, it would bo wrong;-but. to lh(hn| attending clrcmhslanocs will make it right or liavo no'ftirlhor Argument to nso In support of which' tho present Gentian, movoroont* .was inaugurated than that advanced' by Luther when ho B»id,jMf auvwhore tho day in mado holy for tho more day's sake, If auy whoro any ono sots up Its observance on a Jow-_ ish foundation; thon 1 ordor you to work on lt. to rido on It,' to dance on lt,-to do anything that; shall remove this onoroaobmont upon-Christian liberty.” - - -- -- ; Now for tho so-callod “ nosing’s. Now Do parturo.” Tho a nationality, aro democratic in .tholr-views upon all questions ; and, had it not boon for tho oirourastanco that tho Democratic' party had boon tho party of tho slaveholder, but fow'' • Gormans ■ would have boon found -under -tho banner of tho opposition party. ■: As tho parties stood, tho mass of tho Ooftnans joined the autl-olavcry-or Republican party, and from Its earliest organization, In 1850, formed its most earnest and powerful foreign •, element. Tho ihonaands who lio on tho Southern battle-fields •• - hoar tes timony to tholr fidelity to tho principle of hu mail liberty. Tho war ended and slavery Abol ished. tho Puritanical olomont controlling tho Republican party, always busy about other men's salvation, always laboring to scour© Hoavotv for somebody olso. ond thereby noglooting thoir own spiritual antics, sot about to find some other evil. not national, to agitato. Intemper ance and Sabbath-breaking offered a Hold. These' questions had boon abandoned in 1850, in ordor that tho Gorman veto might ho carried wholly ovor to tho now party. At 'tho first intimation that tho Republican party, after tho close of tho war, was to bo mado a whip with which to lash ovory man who differed with tho loaders as to tho matter of appotito and conscience, tho moro intelligent Germans—those who hod stood with tho party for principle, and not groed— turned tholr boons upon the whole crow, and, in. 1870 and ’7l, when tho Republican Legislatures of nearly every Western State began- to enact their prescriptive laws, tho.. dissatisfaction among tho Gormans became so general that: in tho City of Chicago. It required; during tho last - Presidential campaign, tho .almost superhuman efforts of tho office-holders and tho Illinois Slaats-Zcitung to koop thb Gormans from golug over, on masso to tho Liberal party. Tho rigid enforcement of. tho Sunday laws, soon after tho November election, wore not of a character to modify tho aversion, already strong,* against tho ruling party; and tho most super-, llcial thinker, at all conversant-with tho Gorman mode of thought, could predict that, by tho next election, not a corporal’s guard could bo found, in either of tho States of Illinois. Indiana, Ohio, Missouri, Wisconsin, lowa, and Michigan to voto , tho Republican ticket. In this city, tho indignation of tho Gormans against tho Slaats-Zoiiung in general, and Sir. Hosing in particular, was gathering strength daily, because of tho treacherous course pursued by him and his paper during , tho campaign. They charged Mr. Hosing with duplicity, inas much as tho ropoalof tho obnoxious Sunday ordinances, thoy bollovod, hod boon In his power for years. Thoy now contended that Mr. Hosing preferred to lot the law stand, for the purpose of playing tho rolo of mediator between tho Gorman and tho aggressive “ Yankee.” Every two years, or when members of tho City Coun cil, I’olioo Commissioners, and a Mayor wero to bo elected, ho hod tho power toßavo tho “ Vator land,” by nominating candidates for tho. differ ent ofucos who, at his. .command, al lowed tho law to remain a doad-lot tor upon tho statute 5 and, . during Mr. Hosing’s supremacy over tho Gorman Republicans of Chicago, I am not awaro that ho has ovor made an effort to havo those laws repealed or modified. Mr. Medill was tho first Republican Mayor who has darod to ignore Mr. Hosing and enforce tho law. A .Republican Logismturo has enacted aTomporanco law,- in spite of Mr. Hesing and his paper. Even a Re publican Chief of I’ollco has not boon • disturbed by tho abuse doily hoapod upon him by tho Illinois Slaats-Zcitung. more was Mr. Hosing s iulluonco with tho Republican party ? was tho query among the Gormans ; and it dawned upon him, ono day, that ho was fast getting into tho situation of a ship’s captain without a crow, and that, if ho did not make hoato to roach a safe harbor, himself and paper would laud high and dry. single and alone, upon tho sand-bar of pro scriptive Republicanism.' ‘ ' , Tho fact of his conversion, however lato, and of- lending tho influence of Uls paper to the cause whicli ho had heretofore Indirectly aided In defeating, is to his credit, ovon now ; and it is hut natural that tho Gormans, without dis tinction of party, should receive with great sat isfaction the -news that thb Btaata-Zeitunn had acknowledged its past error, and, although un der compulsion, agreeably fallen into tho lib oral ranks, hauling down from its staff tho flag' of tho party that would make all tho inhabitants of tho globo shape themselves into ono pat

tern. Mr. Hosing and his paper * alone had changed, and “ lioslng’s Now Departure,” as styled by Tun Tribune, applied but to Hosing and his paper. Tho Gormans had all gono ahead months hoforo him. It would not bo right to impugn Mr. Honing's motive In this Now Departure: and woboliovo, as ho has energetically affirmed, that ho is will ing to work in the ranks, and does not purpose, or has boon intimated, to use his conucm'on to bring the “ German element ” again under his control, that its votes may bo ot hand for his own aggrandizement or party capital, rathor than for the principles at stake in the present movement. So much by way of explanation. Now that the Gormans have put the ball in motion, to oontiuuo the calling and nolding of purely Gorman moot ings as advised is a groat mistake. Lot the call bo a genera) one. Let every man who believes in liberty of opinion, liberty of action when the rights of others are not interfered with,—in foot, the honest, liberal-minded men of every nation ality who would see the country saved from plunder, fanaticism, and domagogery,—put him self upon the side of Reform, and join tho Now Movement, wbioh must eventually lead to victory. A. Geruan-American. SUBURBAN* BOUTU EVANSTON. Tho Trustees of this suburb mot on Monday night last, and wore called to order by the Presi dent, J. B. Adams. The following ; gentlemen answered to their names s N. Morpor, 8. Qoodo now, N. Dldior, A. E. Warren, and J. D. Adams. A petition for a sidewalk bn the west side of- Chicago avonao, commencing at tho north lino of tho village corporation, and extending south to Lincoln avenue, signed by J. .A ..Ambrose aud others, was referred to tho Committee on Streets and Alloys. A petition for a sidewalk on tho south side pf Lincoln avenue, from tho railroad track west to tho ridge, signed by J. B. Adame and R. R. Hoglo, was referred to tho same Committee.* . Tho Commlttoo on Streets and Alloys reported In favorof opening Maple avcnnofromCraln street to tho north lino (Of Lincoln avonuo, CO feet in width; in favor of opening Groenlear street, tho samo width, from ■ Chicago avenue to'CAsbury avenue, and recommended that a sidewalk ho built on Benson avonuo. Adopted.' A petition for a sidewalk on tho south side of Washington avonuo, from Ridge to First stroot, and also the west side of First street, from Lin coln to Washington avonuo. was road aud re ferred to the Committee on Streets and Alloys, Tho Board thou adjourned to moot on the first Monday in Juno. EVAKBTOK. ' During the storm on Monday afternoon, tho house of Mrs. E. F. Potter, on Judson avenue, which had boon raised from tho foundation and placed on stilts for tho purpose of building on another story under it, was blown off tho posts and bodly damaged. Mrs. Potter escaped with a few bruises, and some workmen who wore under tbo bouse came out uninjured. Tlao Last Bouton Platform. Uoaton Correetwndence o/ the Worcester Spy* At tbo door of the chapel whore tbo social sci ence mootings woro hold, a small trpet was dis tributed (I don't know'by what society), contain ing those “Perfect truths of Christian worli life.” Tho laud shall never bo sold, . . Every human being ban a free and inalienable birth right of (ho nao In tho laud, Society merely holds tho land In trust, and Is bound to guarantee the free exorcise of this right. In working the land, society Is bound to act as a puro democracy or union of democracies. Every person Is hound to live wholly for others. Society Is hound, so far ns It can, to provide tkonccd ful condition to enable ovory one to Uvo wholly for oth ers. There Is no capital but labor. Persons only have a right to products; and that right is to a share. . All tmiUo shall be at cost; and time alone shall meas ure cost. Only like In kind shall be exchanged for like in kind—things for things, use for use, help for help, skill for skill, thought for thought, love for love; and uo exchanging of one kind for another shall over bo made, ns things for use, for skill, and tho like. — l Tho Montgomery (Ala.) Advcrtieer estimates that tho monoy paid. for tho cotton crop of last year’s growth will not fall far short of $830,- 000,000. Of this sum about $35,000,000 havo gone to the speculators and first purchasers, leaving $295,000,000 to the producers. Alabama’s share of the magnificent sum is nearly $85,000,- 000, ofltimaUug hot crop ut 400,000 holes. , - THE-COURTS. i ■■ . . , 1 .-- , ! |''; ' j • 1 1 1 •, ■. : trouble Among Several Dry Goods Firms. A'Olasslcal Town in Litigation--- Tho KJokke Case. Bankruptcy : Notes—Tho Courts Gen- erally—New Suits. j Tho case of Shanahan, ‘West Sc Co., against \jhom a petition in bankruptcy is ponding, was up before Judge Blodgett yostorday, on a mo- tion to soil tho assets of tho ostato. Tho ease was postponed until to-day, whon tho following potltion, signed by several of tho most lufluon ' tlal diy goods firms in tho city, will bo presented: To tho' Jfon, Henry W, Blodgett, Judge of the United • SUites District Court .* We, tho subscribers, respectfully represent that wo aro creditors of UlO respondents aforesaid. That wo aro opposed to tho unrestricted sale of stock of goods and fixtures ofsald respondents by tho Provisional Assignee heroin, or to any satu thereof, contrary to or '.different from tho continuation of sales of tho samo .at retail; unless tho said respondents shall become tho purchasers of said stock, etc.; or uulcss tho same shall bo sold to somo party to whom‘ two of sold respond ents shall consent that tho samo may bo sold. And •wo hereby petition your Honor that tho present Pro visional Assignee, In sold cause. Mr. John T. Ohumas oro. shall bo forthwith removed, and that Mr. L. B. Oolby, who la a disinterested person, shall bo appointed ' Provisional Assignee In hla stead. That wo doslro tho removal of tho present Provisional Assignee because ho Is an employe of John V. Farwoll b Co., a creditor Burcla, and wo bailors bo la aullug mure aiiovilj tui their Interests thon for tho general Interests of re spondents, and all tholr. creditors : and. bocanso tho sold Chumoscro has been mingling tho goods of said Farwoll b 00. with tho goods of respondents, and' • selling tho same at tho expense of said respondents for tho benefit of said John V. Farwoll & Co., and be cause the said Provisional Assignee, John 13. Chum asoro, baa colluded with bis' said employers, JohnY.' Farwoll b Co., In obtaining and accepting tho notes of respondents, said Shanahan-b West, to tho amount . of (1,300 or (hereabouts In excess of a certain article of compromise,' which sold John V. Farwoll b Co. signed and executed In November, 1873, as one of tho credi tors of said Shanahan b West, whereby thoy agreed, along with us, who wore then also creditor# of Shanahan b West, to tako and accept 70' cents on tho dollar for their claim against them In full settlement thereof; and, having signed tho sold agreement along with ourselves ana other creditors, who In good faith accepted and acted conformably thereto in consideration that all of us wero bolug paid tho samo pro rata, they, tho said John V, Farwoll b' Co., In fraud of said settlement required and received from said Shanahan b West, tholr notes for 100 cents' on tho. dollar, .70 per. cent thereof payable to thom sclvcß.and 30 per cent payable to thoir employe, John F. Ohumasoro, present Provisional Assignee heroin, whom wo dcslro your llouor to remove. Arrriiolbrr b Knrrsn, Field, Leiteu b Co., . Carson, ITrtiK. Scott b Co,, Spender 11. Peon, - Bioiuxidb, Siiaw b Winslow, Z. Sterns b 00. A CLASSICAL TOWN IN TROUBLE. F. A. Smith, attorney for tho town of Oicoro, yesterday filed a pncclno In a plo& of dobt against Goorgo ana 0. W. Sherwood and Hiram P. Crawford ; amonnt of dobt, 80°,000 ; dam ages, SIO,OOO. Tho action is brought on a bond signed by defendants for O. W. Sherwood,' who was Supervisor of tho town of Cicero, and ex officio Town Treasurer, to rooovor for tno failure* of said Shorwood to pay over to his successor in olfioo, in accordanco with tho law and resolu tions passed In tho Town. Board, a balance of SI,OOO or SO,OOO, which ho retains os commission on moneys ho has . handled for-tLo town. The objection to tho commission is based upon the gronnd that defendant is charging commission on money transactions which occurred previously to his holding office, and on which commission had already boon paid. Complainants also aver that Sherwood retains moneys which ho claims as commis sions on negotiations of certain town bonds, which, they aver, bo handled in so peculiarly dextrous a manner, ‘alternately ‘ selling, buying, and reselling them, that his commissions thereon amount altogether to some 20 per cent. THE ULOKKE CASE. Tho Klokke case came up yesterday afternoon in tho Criminal Court on tho domurror to tho replication of tho relator Klokke. Tho argu ment of Mr. Klokko was based mainly on tho constitutionality of tho Mayor’s bill. Gen. Stiles and Mr. Tuloy appeared for respondents. Mr. Tuloy characterized tho relator as a repre sentative of a class in society very powerful for good, or otherwise, as tho cose may bo. If Mr. Wrlgut was not sustained, it would appear that no ppllcoman had a right to act authoritatively, and the result, so far as tho public arc concern ed, would bo baneful. Tho matter was taken under advisement by Judge Troo, who will give his opinion in a few days. UNITED STATES COURTS. In tho matter of $2,000, claimed to bo in the hands of Herman flpruanco, belonging to tho Commercial Insurance Company, after reading the evidence taken before tho Register in hank ruptoy, the Court took tho matter under advise ment. In the case of Joseph R. Payson, As signee Ropublio Insurance Company, v. Goorgo W. Barnett, plaintiff got a verdict for $8,012 ; Same v. T. H. Ferris, plaintiff's verdict, $2,434.08; Samo v. R. T. Chappell, plaintiff's verdict, $1,621.80 ; Same v. Orson F. Johnson, Elaintlff’a verdict, $7,000.00; Samo y. L. Z. loiter, plaintiff's verdict and judgment, $8,012.18 ; Same v. A. D. Waldron, plaintiff's verdict and judgment. $003.52 ; Samo v. E. Skin ner, plaintiff’s verdict and judgment, $008.52 ; Same v. Wilson Houso, verdict and judgment, $1,217.01 5 Samo v. L. Hinkstor, plaintiff ’s ver dict and judgment, $912. In the.Circuit Court George H. Saokott files his pncclpo in a plea of dobt against Samuel Zepp for $8,101.75; damages, $5,050. bankruptcy matters. In tho matter of A. Charles Braun an involun tary petition was filed by Raphael Phillips on promissory notes for $‘121.57 and $211.02 on an open account, the suspension of which is charged. Complainant also alleges that Braun is insolvent ana unable to pay his debts. ’ Tho ease of Alexander B. Murray Was refer- rod to Register Hibbard. : In tho matter of John F. Collins on order was ■ Issued for tho examination of debtor on 29th May before Register Hibbard. • ; The matter of Joseph Parkor ot al. was refer red to Register Crain, of Freeport, fob final re- port. 1 In tho matter of Raphael J. Prinz, a dealer in chromos. an insolvent, Nathan Elsondratli was elected Assignee. ■ • CRIMINAL COURT ITEMS. 1 James Gibson, a lad, was tried on tho charge of stealing a gold watch from tho residence of a T.-Morohouso. and found guilty. Being under ago/ho was sentenced to eighteen months in tho Reform’ School. Thomas .Roaoh, Thomas Sidney, and James Carroll, were triodfor the larceny of a lot of ci gars of the home-made stamp and four hotfclos of liquor from Henry Mullor and Adam Bosnor. Carroll was found not guilty, and Roaoh and Sidney wore - oohvlotod and. remanded for sen tence. ■ , ‘ The three prisoners, O’Qary, Flynn, and Mc- Namara, pleaded guilty to a charge of riot, and wero fiuod SIOO each and costa. ■COUNTY COURT ITEMS. ' Tho will of James English was.proven, and let ters testamentary woro granted to Mary English, under a bond, to bo approved, of $8,200. Betsey Brown was appointed administratrix of tbo estate of Andrew Larson, under a bond of $14,000 to bo approved. In the ease of Austin F. Haven, ot al., minors, an order was issued authorizing tbo guardian to pay two-thirds of $2,000 to the United States for a claim duo by tho deceased father of minors, Luther Haven, as lato Collector. Silas B. Mitchell was appointed administrator of tho estate of 'William Ellis, an old resident of Chicago, who died May 10, leaving $15,000 worth of real estate, and Kocmiilus of tho valno of about SBO,OOO. ' Deceased . loft him surviving Mrs. Margaret A. Mitchell, wife of administrator, and Ezra B. McOugg. Among tho bequests may ho mentioned one to St. Joseph’s Orphan Asylum of $3,000; one to the House of tho Good Shepherd, $3,000; and to tho Aloxlau Hospital of Chicago, $5,000. Tho will was executed on the 23d of March last, when tho deceased felt that his dissolution was rapidly approaching. TUB COURTS IK BRIEF. J. P. Root. County Attorney, will file in tho Circuit Court, on behalf of tho County Board, a bill v.-Thomas Bryan, os Tmstoo, and Charles N. Holden, Charles W. Marsh ofc al., Trustees of tho Northern Insane Asylum at Elgin, to compel Bryan to convoy to tho County Board 22 foot of ground on Randolph stroot, adjoining tho Me tropolitan Block, which was devised by tho lato Jonathan Burr to Bryan, in trust for on Insane Asylum, which should ho built in Northern Illinois. Mr. Burr died in testate. Tho lot is to bo held in trust and rents to.boused by tho county, and this is all tho county can got. Tho value of tho ground rout la nhout SSOO. An answer will ho filed ooinoi doutly with filing tho hill, and tho decision will ho got at amicably.- ' ■ . „ 1 Samuel J, Walker files bis hill In tho Superior Court against E. B. Paiuo, John W. Burst, and others, asking for an injunction restraining them Iron further prosecuting tm action of ojociiuout wherein llioy aro plftintifTfl. and Jolm Iforavtli; and Ohirloe V. Dyer aro defendants, bitonght to rocovor of tbo notth K or th 6 north-1 VoatV of northeast k’ of southeast jof 806. 22/ T. 88N.,'8. UE.of Bp. m. ! 1 [ <>> \ 7 Tbo ease of David JL Ford v. Andrew J. Gull-" ford in ono that promises in tbo future to bo lu toroating. Fora, who was in difiloultloß. sold bin foundry_amt_JrontWorklng bualnoaa iojiis. oroditbra, who founded tbo Chicago Water and Gas Pino Company first'of oil. and then sot to work rounding car-whoola, stoves, and other useful implemcnte. —His-bookkoopor,—Andrew J. Guilford, outorod tbo eorvlco of tbo now Com* pony, and sometime after Ford . began action against him on a charge-which resembles larceny so closely that tbo element of fuu is scarcely dlscomiido. Ford began two suits, ono civil, tbo other criminal, and bad defendant detained on both. Ho was bailed, however, by sovoral Influential citizens, and yesterday bis at torneys filed a stipulation in tbo civil ease, be fore tbo Circuit Court, slating that, although SlalnUll failed to filo his declaration on tbo ay on which it ought to havo been filed in time for tbo term on which tbo suit was brought, and tbo defendant is entitled to a non-suit, ho waves his right thereto, provided iho plaintiff shall filo hie declaration within 10 days from tbo filing of ■defendant's stipulation, In which caflo defendant will take no exception, and interpose nO objec tion thereto. Defendant also expresses his will ingness to have the trial taken up os soon as possible. Edwin J. Bradford files his bill in the Superior Court against Etholbort J. Drew, William H. Sampson, tbo Bank of Chicago, and Charles'.2l. Tasker. Complainant is the heir to an. estate, from bis father, consisting’ of Bub-Lots 10 ana 11 of Glasscock's Chicago Subdivision of Lots 8 to 12, inclusive in* Block 21, School Section Ad dition to Chicago. Hu asks for, and obtains, Judge Gary’s injunction restraining Eth elbort ’J. Drew from ooUlootlng or receiving iho routs and other pronto nf Bttklostato.- and from drawing out of iho Bank of Chicago Iho amounts lying tUoro at' complainant's credit, and restraining the bank from paying him the money, and restraining Charles u. Tasker from paying to Drew certain promissory notes amounting to $16,000, and re straining the firm of W. H. .Sampson & Co. from paying Drew any of th,o rents of complainant's property until tho matters of difference between the parties to tho suit aro settled in a court of law. NEW SUITS; . Toe Superior Court.— 43,s2B—John A, Wright v. A. B, Waldron, Jacob B. Flagg, and Citizens’ Omnibus Lino; assumpsit, $2,000. 43,029—'T0wn of Oicoro v. Ooorgo Sherwood, 0. W. Bhorwood, and Hiram P, Crawford; debt. $00,000: damages, SIO,OOO. 43,639 Ohsrloa.T. KUzanoth.WhUloy; divorce, on ground.of y cruelty. 49,531— Mary v, Ezekiel Hawkins; divorce, on ground of cruelty. 49,532—Wi11iam G, v. Mary J. Corbin; divorce, on- ground of desertion. 49,634 Frank v. Frances Oolbaba; divorce, on ground of im potonoy. 43,535—Edwin J.. Bradford v. Ethollbert- J. Brew, William H. Sampson, William L. Pierce. John O. Sampson, tbo Bank of Chicago, and Charles H. Tasker. 43,530—5&mu0l J. Walker v. E. B. Paine; bill for injunction. 49,637—Appeal. 43,- 638—Joseph White v. Peter M, Unngstono and Eph raim Crockett, Jr.; -trespass on the case. SSOO. - 43,530 —Michael Evans and John Hickey, copartners, v. Mar tin J. Ryan and James H. Carroll; assumpsit,s6oo. 43,640 it. B. Wells ot ah v. PhlUlp Rohman and Welly: assurapslt, S6OO. 43,541—Ardc1l J, v. Elbert. B. Ireland ; divorce on ground of adidtoryr 43,543 Felix Lobon v. Joseph Benard ; confession -of Judg ment, $375. 43,543—Hermann G. Powers ct al. v. Eliza Heacock et ul.; bill to establish lien on W. }4 of N. W. K of See. 4, T. 37 N., R. 12, E, 3 p. m., In tho Town of Palos. Tub Oinourr C0urt.—7,097-fr— Appeal. 7,099 Samuel Tomlinaon v. John McOaffcry; ejectment from-LoUi 1, 5, 7, aud 9, Block 10, Minnehaha, Walker Bruce's Bubdlvlalou of w47 acres of wJtfofswV 2,38,13; restored cose. 7,100—W, W. Burwlck and Goorgo Mnnou v. Ann E. Hralh and-Leona' B, Tyler; assumpsit, $200; restored case, -7,101—D. Brandt v. W. F. Thompson ; appeal. THE FARM AND GARDEN. A Question in Itcffard to tho Value oC Plowing’—How Plants Aro Fod-IHa nuriutf on tho Surface—Shallow Plowing—Tlio Best Winter Apple— The Plum, with Some Suggestions ■ In Regard to Improved Varieties, : and a Collection of tho Native Fruit —How the Grape Has Been Im proved. « From Our Agricultural Correspondent. Champaign, 111., May 33,1879. There have boon some experiments made by our broom-corn growers, that go to show that plowing, either dcop or shallow, as a prepara tory operation for tho planting op broom-corn, is a work of much loss value than is generally supposed. Tho tost has boon made during the past two seasons, and will bo continued through tho present one; Tho result Is, that simply bar-' rowing tho soil and planting have produced an - equally good crop. The past two seasons have boon dry and high ly favorable to this plan, on account of the ab sence of weeds and tho vigorous growth of tho corn, and it la possible that tho present changed con dition of tho soil and weather may not bo as. satisfactory; but it will bo of interest to know what that may bo. If wo can save tho labor of deep plowing, it will bo no small item deducted from tho total cost of culture. There aro many people who contend that DEEP-PLOWING is not at all essential to good crops, and that all wo need in this direction is' tho opening of tho surface so aa to admit air, moisture, and heat; and that tho air and moisture, carry tho plant-' • food, that is so abundant In tbo atmosphere, to tho roots of plants for thoir uso 5 that this heat, aud air, aud moisture induce chemical change thats in .* some way aid tho growth of plants, or servo to build up thoir solid tissues. No doubt there is much in this, and that our deep-plowing is often a damage rather than a benefit. It is not probable that any absolute rulo can bo laid down, but tho farmer must at all times exorcise a sound discretion in tbo motto, It was not long since that, to spread MANURE on the surface, and harrow it In, was considered heterodox; but to-day it has become sound doc trine, and tbo old, tedious process of composting, rotting, and pulverizing has booomo and a now doctrine is taught in its place. Wo have found that manuro acts a two-fold part,— one in supplying plant-food diroot to tho soil/ and tho other in changing tho mechanical con dition of tho soil so that it absorbs and holds tho plant-food that is prepared-in that groat chemical laboratory tho atmosphere. If wo have learned all this from observation, In spite of old habits and old teaching, may it not bo possible that wo shall learn something in regard to tho soil and its relation to plant-growth ? Wo know that tillage compacts tho soil; while, laying it down to grass, it soon becomes •friable, soft, and finely comminuted. And in this wo havo tho lesson of a TRUE ROTATION,— not of one kind of grain after another, but of any kind of grain wltn tho grasses aud clover. Wo havo been making up too many medical pro scriptions in order to doctor our soil, and now wo may do a good thing to look a little moro carefully into its mechanical condition, and boo what changes can ho mado for tho better. Wo aro not long In being convinced .that -water must not ho allowed to stand on tho surface, and this loads to uudor-dralns and to surface drainage ns a necessity. I havo no doubt that wo shall soon bo nhlo to obtain ANNUAL CROPS OP CORN, in seasons both wot and dry,—for wo shall hava our soil In that condition, that It can bo planted without reducing- it to a bed of mortar by tho 'uso of plow and tho tramping of tho team. IF SHALLOW PLOWING is just as good os deep plowing, or oven hotter, wo shall havo gained an important fact for a wot ported Hko tho present.—for every farmer knows that to turn a very shallow furrow when the laud is wot, will prevent that packing of the boLI that is so much feared duriug such periods, and which Is euro to iujuro the crop moro or loss. Shallow plowini turns tho rubbish under tho soil, whoro it wit soon rot and bo out of tho way; aud it also de stroys tho woods. When-wo sow tho small grains very early in tho spring, thoir growth smothers out tho woods; or, in oaso of a failure, the woods smother out tho orop. And this TEAGUES US TWO THINGS t First, to sow early; and, in tho second place, to put in sufficient seed to occupy all tho sur face, so that tho woods will havo little chance to grow, and that tho surface bo kept shaded, thus preventing too rapid evaporation, and to keep tho surfneo open to tho air, tho heat, and tho moisture. Wo now put in tho early spring crop with tho harrow and cultivator, and Insure a hotter yield, and at a much loss cost, over tho old plan. Wo havo vastly cheapened tho corn crop, but wo have' not got to the bottom yet,—for, in addition to the cheapening of tho annual outlay of labor, wo must look to a steady annual yield IN'THE UNFAVORABLE an well as favorable seasons. Com la the groat staple of the farm, and in more the measure prosperity of the farm than any otbof staple, cotton not excepted. 1 J. j, , THE DEBT APIT.E. - AUbo last meeting of the Warsaw Horticultu ral Society, the question was t What one variety of apples comblnoa In tbo greatest degree the three following ooudlllouß s bearing duali ties. keeping, and commercial value 7 , ...'Xbe-mnmbcra-parUclpaUug.ln-Uia-qneeUon- wore— the Messrs. Grovcra, Hathaway, Gregg, Peyton. Her man, Tyree, Hoy, Warner."'Willis’, Hammond; and the Secretary. It was decided that the Bcn.H&vlS apple mot .those requirements-more .fully than any other variety,— Willow Twig would stand next according t<? tbo re marks of thesd - speaking on iho subject, . , . ■ .. - ■, • ; It- Is proper to observe hero tbnt tbo Hon Davis applo ‘ ‘ grOwn la this locality is not tho leathery, tough, taste- < leas applo Which noems to attach to it m other local* ' Hies, but 1b a lino, handsome, largo applo, of uniform • size. and,'although not tho flnest-flAvorod-applo on the list, Is nevertheless a very good applo, and leads oil others in boating and keeping, and uoau everything 'm tho market. It 1s boliovod by some that tho soil of tho- whilo-oak' clearings, having a more or less substratum of limestone, has something In fa vor of orchards. This is more especially so commenc ing Immediately south of*. Warsaw, along- tho Umber ndgos< -At all events, tho Don Davis la grown in Its greatest perfection In thtao localities.' Tho apples be fore tho meeting woro noted for their size, beauty, fla vor, and perfectly sound condlUon. - Wo shall not be toppplnloa to whom, apple, of tbo variety ox hlhltodat tho Juno mootiug,*.•--* 1 >. • Thus, year after year, wo lobboq tbo list of apples } and tho fovorltosof tbo Eastern orpbord ists ore disappearing from ‘our oroliarda, and wo aro making a select list for tbo Northwestern markets. Samples of tho Bon Davis grown on ■those timber-ridges havo boon sent mo ou sev eral occasions, aud havo boon all that is claimed for them; but. on our common prairio soils, if may bo a question if tho Willow Twig is not thi most valuable of tho two or would it not b< well to plant lorgoly of both, for they both fill nearly all tho requirements of the best orchard apnlo? ~ t • Tho Bon Davis Is an annual bearer,—ratbot . moro so thou tbo Willow Twig, That tboy wllT toko tbo placo of tho Gre««lmr *»wi TtnUWin. n quito certain, uut or 2,000 varieties of iht opplo, wo may plant twenty-five of tbo boat, oi perhaps wo will do bettor to confino oursolvos t< half that number. Wo have but ono strawberry, one cherry, and one pear that tower above all their follows, and wo shall no doubt bbobletfl .find ono plum that will bid defiance to all ad conditions. Thus ono after auotbor of oul difficulties are removed, and tbo Woat will in timo bavo all tho good things that belong to the temperate zone. OUR NATIVE PLUMS. HAWebvxlls, Hancock Co., Ky., May 15,1873, Noting your article In Tim Chicago Tmd. une of tho 7th, I toko tho liberty of sending you a conv of the American Journal of Horticulture for March. IBC9, containing &n article of mine on “ Tho Plum, and Its Improvement.” Since that time, I have paid con siderable attention to tbo plum, ond am making Us cultivation a specialty. Tho Minor (Townsend) I flnd of no value hero. ' Tho true Wild-Goose is a superb dura. The Newman I place at tho head of tho list, lattlo Porter, Bo Caradono, • and a number of others promise well. Tho Newman and Oblcachorry aro the only plums that are entirely exempt from the depre dations of curcullos on my grounds. Tho Miners were all stung lost year, Yours truly, ; B. L. Athtti, Tho article alluded to enumerates flvo species of native wild plums 5 and Mr. A. suggests that, ' with crosses or thoso aud o‘f tho Europoau plum, , wo shall in tlmo have a" hotter and hardier plum thati tho old blue plum of Europe. Our • Galena 'friend will bo a little surprised at tho statomonl In regard to thoir favorite plum, the Townsend. Either tbo skin on ihb plum, ad grown ht Hawes villo, Ky., ia thinner, or the ouroullo are more persevering. > Tho Chickasaw plum Is a native of tho South-' oru States, and is npt found wild north of Ten nessee. Ouo of tho sports of this plnra is known as tho Newman plum, and la much prized in Kentucky. It is ox a beautiful glossy rod color, with a purple bloom, with small white specks. Ho claims that tho• Myriibolan is & native ilhm. aiid not a foreigner, as some claim ; but it s not a Chickasaw, but rather of tho Illinois stock of plums, and is often sold under tho namo of Illinois. Tho wild-gooso plum, Mr. A- thinks may bo a cross between tho. Chick asaw and tho Prunus Americana. Ho further ' states that, in producing it from ■ seed, it varies largely; and this accounts for such a variety of opinions in regard to it; and 'this brings up tho question, Who has tho' original, or rather who has tho host solo variety, of this fium ?. Our agricultural and horticultural socle lea would do well to pay some attention'to this point, by offering largo premiums for the best native plum ; and in time we shall havo some* ‘ thing of value. 1 Should tho Chicago Exposition giro a place to • ' native fruits, it would do well to offer premiums ' for tho Bovoral vanotion of thoso NATIVE PLUMB, and- thus 1 ' gather' samples from iho Southern. ‘ , Middle, and Northwestern States. This would bring the Townsend aud Minor from Galona,and -, Wisconsin, tho Chickasaw, tho cherryplum' or - IMyrabolan, the Moose or P„ Americana, the Canada or common wild plum of tho "DpperMla sisßippl, tho sand plums of the Lakes, and tho 7 Californio plums. ' Such a collection bf'pluma ’ would bo of interest, and. the first one In tho his tory of the country; for thus far our 'native ' iluma have attracted no attention; but, now hat tho Europoau. plum la' giving, the at- . tacks of iho borer, tho black-knot, -> tho ouroullo, aud climatic changes, wo aro compelled'to give , tho native respectful attention, k ; Now that tho Legislature has reorganized THE INDUSTRIAL UNIVERSITY, and is about to put it on a practical basis by taking it'out of the hands et clergymen, doctors, lawyers, and profOßsioualmon, ills possible that the now mon to be appointed to manage it may bo induced to givo some of thoso practical sub jects a little of thoir attention, in place of so much mere literature. It istruo that wohavo had ' some remarkable lessons in forost-troo planting, . for the cost of tho experiment, ana remarkable for tho littlo practical knowledge to bo derived from them. The main conclusion - at which tho experimenter arrived was the fact that the prairies have to bo first subdued, with a crop of cottonwoods to prepare thorn for other useful trees. So much having boon prov ed, lot us proceed with tho native plums, and liko 'needed investigations, under tho care of that in stitution that ought to moke tho farmer's son a hotter farmer, if it fails to mako him a bettor •preaohor, abetter politician, or other profession al man. ' ' Wo havo gone through a similar history with.. THE GRATE, making now crosses, and- now wo have a good showing In this fruit, both ..for wino and tho table ; and this gives us encouragement to mako further experiments with crosses of tho native and European plum, in the hopo of obtaining something that shall bo of value. It is no now thing, ana all wo have to do is to give it timo aud attention* *’ Sural. • NEWS PARAGRAPHS. • Tho estimate of tho Barhadoos sugar orop this • year is 10,000 hogsheads, —Hero is tho latest Yankee trick's " Proper ty-holders at Niagara and' others interested : aro •making a spacious park on tho American sldo* ol tho Falls, so that nobody can got a yipw of thorn until ho has paid a certain fOO for admission la thoinclosuro.”, • ‘ ■ 250 th anniversary of tho settlement of Now Hampshire was celebrated lasi Thursday nf-' temoou, In the HopresontaUvoH' Hall, Lu Concord. The exorcises comprised aii oration by Charloa H. Hell, of Exotor, and tho reading, by William L. Foster, of Concord, of a poem written by Miss ' Edna Doan Procter, of Brooklyn, N. Y. ' —Collector Bailey, of Albany, last week, re ceived from Commodore Vanderbilt tho sum of $61,153.48, being tho interest at-1 per-centra' month on tho amount of tax claimed (by the: United States Government from March7,lß73,' tho dato it was demanded. The following state ment shows tho amount received: Tax, $460,720 ;'' penalty, $23,036; interest, $64,153.18. Total, $547,000.48. This Is bosldo costs and expenses. —A very handsome young fellow from Balti more assaulted a citizen on the street at Staun ton, Virginia, and was sentenced to tho chain gang in default of payment of his flue. Whiio •the gang was working near a girls* somiu&ry, tho girls caught sight of his handsome face, which so appealed to tho sympathies of tho ten der-hearted creatures that they “chipped in’ 1 ‘ and paid his flue, 1 —A. Vermont man caught the small-pox, four years ago/, and before tho nature of the disease was known, several persons took it from expos-- uro. They havo since brought a suit against him for damages on tho ground that ho must have known what was tho matter when ho was taken sick, and that it was through his careless* ness that they caught tho disease. The case has boon tried once, but the Jury failed to agree, and it is now trying a second time. —A Boston commercial traveler waa arrested In Spriugllold. Hass., last qoek, by a State Con stable, for selling a pair of shoqldor-bracos to a clerk in a store where he was I negotiating for or ders, and compelled to pay a iuioof $54.20 foi “peddling without a liconoo,” before ho could regain his lioorty.' In the - meanwhile, ho spent some time in the look-up before a' Justice could bo summoned and his trial take place, i —Tho contemplated celebration at Trairio dq Ohlen on the 17th of Juno next, of the 200 th an uivorsaryof tho discovery of tho Mississippi Rive? by the Jesuit Fathers, Joliet and Marquette, is abandoned.' J. G. Bhea, M. D., who was selected as orator on tho Occasion, from his largo scholar ship in tho early French explorations of the Northwest, on account of ill health declined coming, at too late a date to proouro another proper person-

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