Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune, May 31, 1873, Page 4

Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune dated May 31, 1873 Page 4
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.1 TERMS OF THE TRIBUNE. iT.nMa or flUDßonirrroM (payable im advance). Dnßy. b» mail SiS.ttpi 92.80 Trl* weakly (MM) I Weekly 2.00 i’arlfl of n year At llio snino rule. To prevent delay and mbtalces, bo sure and «lvo Pott Olfco nddroii lu lull, includin'! Hlnto nnrt County. Remittances tnny bo tundo either bydtati, express, Post ODlco order, or In roßlftored loilom, at mir risk. tf.iimb to city suiißcnmr.ua. Dolly, delivered, Sunday oxcoptod. Sfi cent* per week. Dolly. delivered, Sunday Included, 80 cent* por weak. Jlddros* THE TRIBUNE COMPANY, Corner Mndlson mid Uonrboru-sti., Chicago, 111. TO DAY'S AMUSEMENTS. MoVICKKU’B THEATRIC—MfidImm Bfrool, between Dnstbom ntul Stale. ICnanßcmont nt Edwin Adama. Matinee), " Wildcat*.” Kvoulur, "The Drunkard.” HOOIjKY’S THEATRE—Randolph ilrcot, between Clark and LaSalle. '' Valoo Bliaino.” Afternoon and ovonfng. AIKEN’S TItnATUR-Wftbflsharrniio, corner of Don crc»3 street. Tho I .aura ICoano Comedy Combination. Matinee, *'SimStoops toConquer.” EvonlOß, "Hunted Uovtiu” AOADRMY 01? MURiO - Halted street, between Mndlion and Monroe. Theatre Comlquo Combination. Afternoon and evening. BUSINESS NOTICES. ABOUT TUB ONLY PHOTOGRAPH OALLKRY lo iho Wt dtalmt ta ABBOTT A TINSLEY'S, IM Stato-si. . .. HOYAL HAVANA LOTTERY—WE SOLO IN drawing ofasd April last tho tf orlfo. Circular! mot: Information given. <l. il. MAjIIINRA A CO., Hanker!, 10 Wall it. P. O. Box -1685. Now York. , ' NO BETTER ACCOMMODATION FOR TRAVEL* on can bo found, than tbo suites of room* at tbo Ameri can Homo, Boston, with bath rooma, olo«ols, oto. at tached. In tho oontro of bualncai and amuiomonta. ‘BATCHELOR’S HAIR DYE. THIS SPLKNDID halrdjo la tbo bo«tln tbo world. Tho only into and por* feet dye, Uartnlosa, reliable, anrtlnttantnncom; noulsap* uolotmentt nn ridiculous tints or unpleasant odor, Romo, dies tho 111 cited! ol bad dye* and vr&tbot. Produce! lia- Eiodlatolymuncrb black or natural brown, and leave* the air clean, sol), andboanllfnl. Tho Rtmuloo. *lanad Vf. A. Untcholnr. Bold by all druggiila. OIIAULKS BATOUIiLOU, Proprietor, N. Y. ©3jie @rikme. Saturday Morning, May 31, 1873. Tho second investigation Into tho alleged lu sanity of George Francis Train has resulted in his discharge. Consideration of tho proposal for a Stato rail-, toad from Leavenworth to Fort Boyal bos boon postponed by tho Agricultural Congress till Us meeting next year. ;’ An attempt was made yesterday, m tho Agri cultural Congress, -to tako up tho resolutions laid on tho table tbo other day, approving tho distribution of tho publio domain among tho Agricultural Colleges, but It was unsuccessful. Postmaster-General Creswoll has decided that tho law which forbids tho transmission of any free matter in tho mails after Juno 80 will put an cad to tho froo carriage of exchanges aud of newspapers within tbo county of publication, as well as to tho franking privilege. A solution of tho Louisiana problem, is offered by tbo Congressmen of the Bt. Louis Conven tion who have returned from their visit to Now Orleans. They propose that a now election bo held, under tho supervision of a commission ap pointed by Congress, and that, in tho meantime, tho Btato bo put under military ruio. Tho Government' is asked by the Agricultural Congress to send its weather reports to all post offleca and railway-stations, so that farmers, who have a more direct interest In the weather changes than any other class, may have tho benefit of them as well as tho readers of daily newspapers. By, claiming precedence on tho Supromo Court calendar, tho Government expects to’ got a decision in tho suits against tho Credit Mo billor and Union Pacific within five years. Tho counsel for tho defendants Uopo to quash the proceedings on tho ground that tho act of Con gress under which they are taken is unconstitu tional. Tho Temperance Bureau baa issued an address to tho voters of Cook County warning them of an attempt that will bo made by tho Germane on Monday to defeat Judge Booth on account of a recent decision which, though ad mitted to be sound law, ia distasteful to tbo beer interest. It advises citizens to re-elect ail tho present Circuit Judges. A mass meeting will bo hold at Martino’s Hall to-night, in tbo interest of the present incumbents, at which Mr. Emory A. fitorra and Mr. Leonard Swott aro expected to speak. The nows that a largo firo was raging in Boston attracted groat attention, and for a time created much excitement in this city, yesterday. Chicago knows what a largo flro la, and has a lively ap preciation of its horrors and its losses. Tho nows that it had boon successfully arrested was a groat relief to tho thousands of persons who gathered round tho newspaper and telegraph offices. Though at ono time It threatened an immense destruction, tho flro was subdued with a loss of $1,200,000, which, as Arcs go now-a dnys in Boston and Chicago, is comparatively small. How much of tho loss is covered by in surance cannot bo told as yet, as tho insurance companies were closed yesterday in honor of Decoration Day. The Directors of the Waterford Bank, in Now York State, have given another illustration of the pernicious custom of compounding felony to recover stolon property,—a custom which boa be come bo rooted In this country that Gon. Fre mont actually proposed . recently to . havo tho sentence of imprisonment passed upon him by tho French courts annulled upon his reimbursing tho swindled French subscribers to tho Mexico &El Faso Railroad. The Water ford Bank was robbed last year of $300,000 by burglars who forced tho Cashier to leave his bod and open tho safe for thorn. After many months of dotcotivo work and pursuit, - tho affair has been settled on a business basis. Tho robbers return tho raonoy, keeping 85 per cent for their trouble, and receive the promise of absolute immunity. Tho proceeding puts burglary in tho category of a commission busi ness, and is in striking contrast to tho way tho Bank of England has brought tho MncDonncli- Bidwoll forgers to grief. The Chicago produce markets wore moderately active yesterday ou tho “ evirb-stoue,” and grain was stronger. Moas pork was quiet aud un changed, at $10.15 cash, and $10.D0@10.55 seller July. Lard was In good demand aud steady at $8.50 per 100 Ilia cash, and $8.76@8,80 seller July. Moats wore inactive ond unchanged at for shoulder#; for short ribs; for short clear, and 10@J2o for swcot-ploklod hams. Illghwluoa wore nominally steady at per gallon. Lake freights wero active and easier at i%o for corn to Buffalo. Flour was quiet and unchanged. Wheat was active and higher, closing easier at seller Juno, and £1.20K seller July. Com WW active, and higher, closing at 80>6@8D>£o eollor Juno. Oats wore in good demand, and higher, clos ing st $2%0 Boiler Juno. Eyo Was inactive and unchanged at Barley ■was quiet and b toady at 70@780 for poor to good No. 3. Hogs wore in good demand and wore firmer, Boiling freely at $4.00@4.90 for poor to choice, with a few extra at SO.OO. Cattle and sheep wore quiet and nomi nally unchanged. THE JUDICIAL ELECTION NEXT MONDAY. It is impossible to bo too urgent in pressing upon the people of Ohloago tho importance of next Monday’s election, and tho duty of every citizen to go to tho polls and cast his ballot for all flro of tho Circuit Judges who aro candidates for ro-oloctioa. Tho apparent safety of tho situation renders it hazardous, as it opons a loop-hole through which a very small man, of such insignificant proportions that ho has at tracted no attention, may croop into tho local Judiciary and bocomo a thorn In tho eldo of Justice and doconoy for six years to como. It Chicago hod Buffeted from the experience of Now York, Philadelphia, and eomo of tho other largo cities, with weak or corrupt Judges, tho people would not nood any information about tho extent of evil which in competent and dishonest Judges oaninlliot upon a community. Tho errors and vices of a Legis lature, a County Board, or o City Council aro trifling annoyances as compared to tho doliborato misuse of Judicial powor. It has boon a bless ing to Illinois and to Chicago that tho Judiciary of the Stato has always boon of a high order of morit, capacity, and honor. Hitherto tho bum mer element, which is largo In Chicago, as It is in all. metropolitan cities, has never dared to dispute with good citizenship tho possession of the Bench. It must not ho permitted to do so now. It is humiliating to contemplate SB 1 . Sam Ashton in tho character of an aspirant for Judicial honors. Ho is in no eonsc of tho word a candidate, as lie has found no party, no section, no convention, -no caucus, no Journal, no clique ovon to prosout him. This is cousoliug. Yet it Is a fact that Mr. Bam Ashton is running Mr. Bam Ashton for Judge “on his own hook,” and hopes to defeat one of tho people's candidates by reason of tho general belief that thoro Is no ono running against thorn and, therefore, no reason. for vot ing. Ashton bases bis Uopo of a possible success npou tho obscurity of his own candidature, a roliauco upon tho votes of a largo class ho can control, and a bo- Hof that the respectable people will not go to tho poll's. It is reported that Mr. Ashtou is quietly working in tho country towns of tho county, with tho aid of certain old Supervisors, and some men who think that ho might bo mado useful on tho canal, and there is danger that ho may possibly secure a considerable vote In tho suburban townships without creating a suspicion of it in tho city. If this is true, and it will ho safe to act as if it wo ro true, tho scheme can bo defeated by polling a largo vote in tho city, and in no other way. It is necessary that citizens of Chicago should not only como out in moss on Monday, but that they should bo suro to soo that tho tiokot they voto contains tho names of all five of tho Judges,—Erastua S. Williams, Honry Booth, W. W. Farwoll, John O. Bogors, and Lambort Troo. Not ono of those names can bo dropped without danger of thoroby giving a voto for Bam Ashton. Tho fowor votes thatuny ono candidate receives tho bottor aro tbo chances that Mr. Ashton’s bummer votes will outoount thorn. Of coiirao, thoro Is not tho ghost of a ch&nco for Ashton’s election if tho pooplo will como out and voto. Asido from tho - possibility of this disaster, it would bo a becom ing thing for tho pooplo of Cook County to elect their Judges by a largo and noorly unanimous voto. Such an expression of confidence would strengthen our Judges in carefulness and Indus tty. POLITICS IN BOBBERY. At tho Fanners* Congress at Indianapolis, a delegate from South Carolina offered a resolu tion “ That, in order to aoouro a redaction of tho oxtromo rates of railway and marine transporta tion of American produce, it is absolutely neces sary that iron and all other supplies necessary for tho construction of railways, steamships, and other vessels, bo admitted into tho United States froo of duty.” Tho Committee on Trans portation reported against any action on this resolution, “as it was likoly to introduce politics iu this Convention.” Tho Committee on Trans portation must havo strange notions of tbo busi ness to bo performed by tho fanners when they thus deliberately ignore all questions which iu their judgments might conflict with tho notions of existing political parties. If tho farmers pro pose at all future elections to vote aa they havo heretofore dono, with the Republican and Dem ocratic parties, and to oppose tho agitation of any question calculated to injure cither of thoeo parties, thou tho thuo they aro now giving to tho question of transportation is worse than wasted. Tho farmers and producers of tho coun try aro at this time between the two blades of tho tax-gatherer's shears. Sinco 18G0, tho cost of everything they do not produce and which they havo to buy has been largely increased; tho prices received by them for what thoy pro duce havo in like proportion been reduced because of tho advance in tho cost of transpor tation. Tho farmer Is shaved on tho ono side by tho extra cost of freight, and on tho other by the extra coat of what he has to buy.' That a convontion of farmers should think it perfectly proper to break up tbo ono robbery and refuse to break up tho other, can only ho attributed to (ho skillful manipulation of tho managers. That thoy may soo how thoy aro robbed by tho two operations, look at the figures: On tho 28tU of May, 1860, and same day in 1873, the follow ing woro tho prices of wheat, corn, and oats in Oiilcago and Now York,—tho difference In pvico between tho two points being tho cost of moving: , 1880. . , 1873 ■, Chitaffo. Stu> l r or)c, CMcogo. Hew Fork, Wheat fI.UI *1,23 ?U'J SI.OO Corn... Tho advance of freights from Chicago to Now York can ho sccu at a glance. Tho freights 1 by roil to Chicago .havo, however, doubled In the meantime, and this increase must bo added to tli&t between Chicago and New York. In 1860, tho difference on May 28 in tho soiling prices lu New York and Chicago was, par bushel wheat, 10 coutu ; lu 1873 it is 88 cents ; corn, in 1860, 8 cents ; in '7B, 27 cents ; oats, in ’CO, 10 cents ; lu ’73, 25 cents. To those differences must bo added an average advance of 10 cents per bushel iu the freights to Chicago. The cost of moving a bushel of grain by rail to Chicago, • and thence by water to Now York, has, taking thoso sales of May 28, 1800, and same day in 1873, as a guide, advanced 20 cents ou wheat, 20 cents on corn* 20 cents ou oats. Tills Is claimed, and substantially with truth, to ho so much deducted from the selling price of thoso Tim CHICAGO DAILY TRIBUNE: SATURDAY, MAY 31, 1873. grains at tho placoof growth. This is the shavo made by tho advance in rates of transportation. Tho other shave is perhaps still groator. In 1800, 600 bushels of wheat, oven at sl.Ol, would purchase In Chicago more pounds of blankets, more yards of woolou cloth, moro yords'ot'tKT’r*' pot, more yards of alpaca and women’s dross goods, moro bar Iron, moro out nails, moro glass ware and cutlery, than tho same amount, of wheat will buy now at tho advanced price. Owing to tho advance in freights to Chicago by rail, tho producer goto hut a fow cents moro por bushel for his wheat than ho did in 1800, and, talcing tho amount ho actually receives, tho pro- . portion of those goods that ho con purchase with tho proceeds of COO bushels of wheat is 80 per cent loss. lu tho case of corn, tbo price ho receives at his home for COO bushels will not purchase 60 per cent of tho amount of those goods which tho samo amount of corn would have purchased lu 1800. Tho man who raises com pays In 1073 ah aver age of 60 por cent moro for trausporking this com to market; when ho goto to market, ho has to pay an average of 60 por oont moro for all ho needs than ho did in 1860. Tho result Is, that ho is shaven by tho advauco in tho rates of trans portation and by tho advauco in tho prico of tho exchange commodities. Tho advance In tbo cost of transportation rests, it is claimed, and justly to somo. extent, on tho great increase in tho coat of constructing and operating railroads, and tho remedy proposed is to establish by law arbi trary rates beyond which it shall not bo lawful to demand. In the matter of tho coat of other commodities, tho Immense advance Is duo to tho law; that low authorizes tho manufacturers of woolen cloth, cotton cloth, iron, carpets, and other fabrics, to demand from 40 to 60 por cent advance on tho prices of thoir goods, and, to mako this-'enormous extortion possible, prohibits tho sale of any foroigu-mado goods except at a like advance. All that is required to reduce those enormous prices is tho repeal of tho law which protects them, which upholds thorn, and which prohibits tho purchase ot Hko goods at lower cost. And, In tho faco of this notorious fact, a committee of tho shorn and shaven farmers de clares that it is not proper to consider tho repeal of that law, because to do so would introduce politics into tho proceedings of tho Convention. This resolution is on a par with tho speeches of a year ago in Congress against any Investigations of frauds upon tho Treasury, be cause to do so would “injure tbo party,” and by injuring tbo party tho country would suffer. If tho present rates of transportation were fixed by statute, and wore confessedly made exorbitant In order to enable railroad capitalists to plunder tho public, would it bo out of place for farmers to demand tho repeal of that statute ? Why uot, then, as appropriate for thorn to demand tho re peal of that other statute which compels them to pay from 40 to 60 por cout moro for ovoiykbing they buy than they could purchase it for if that statute was repealed ? THE liABOE-QTJEBTION IN MASSACHUSETTS. Wo have received a copy of tbo fourth Annual Beport of the Bureau of Statistics of Labor In Massachusetts. The report is a very ablo and •valuable presentation of tho facts pertaining to all classes of labor In that State, to tbo condition of tbo working people, their wants and tboir sufferings. On page GO it gives a statement of the wages paid to coob of 06 branches of un skilled male labor, embracing all occupations not mechanical, and tboso show an average of daily wages of $1.72 for an average of 03 bouro per week, at 265 days’ labor in a year, and on average aggregate of wages of $133.00 each per year. Tho highest wages paid is to browory toamstera, who got $2.25 per day, the next are those laborers employed in public works. In no case, however, is the em ployment for loss that ton hours per day, Tbo general condition of tbo unskilled laborers is that of a baro oscapo from destitution. As a class, they all havo families, and, oven with tbo earnings of wives and children, a more sub sistence is obtained. With regard to tho factory operatives, tho con dition of things is hardly any hotter. Tho opera tives havo not, iu hardly any case, any iuterost in tho mills iu which thoy work. Tho mill-stock at Fall River is mostly owned by families. Ono mill is owned by five persons, brothers and sis ters. Another family owns flvo mills and hold shares in other mills. Shares in those mills aro worth SI,OOO on a par value of SI,OOO. Inßork shiro, a largo mill is owned by ono family. In all places where textile fabrics nro tho loading industry tradesmen cannot safely give credit, bocaueo tbo operatives aro constantly on tho vergo of poverty. In ouo place, tho factory owner keeps a store ou his promises, charging an advance of 10 per cent on tho first cost of tho goods. Tho bille of factory families average per month, groceries, $215 moats, §10; fuel, $5; rout, $10; total, 810, requiring dally wages of $1.70 per day for twenty-six ddys per month. Tho wives, children, and men have to bo clothed besido. A consequence is that a largo propor tion of tho factory people aro working iu dobt. Tho average earniugs of men engaged In tho manufacturing and mechanical Industries Is $530.C2 per year. Tho difference between skilled and unskilled labor is so small that this sum represents thorn all. With those earnings, tho inability to save, secure a homo, or acquire a competence, is easily under stood. Bo generally aro factory operatives In dobt. that a special branch of law business has grown up iu tho factory towns, whereby tho wages of operatives aro attached to pay their debts at stores. While expenditure for spirits is reckoned among ono of the causes for im providence, tho report thinks that poverty of income is also a strong provocation to intem perance in drink, and that tho lack of moans to enjoy Innocent amusements to tho poor, and procure comforts at homo, often load men to tbo well-warmed saloon and Its lively company. In a majority of cases, when savings aro laid by, it is done, says tho report, by stinting tho household in matters of education, health, and culture. Tbo report includes and approves an essay upon poverty by Im Steward, a thought ful and industrious mechanic, in which tho sub ject of poverty is discussed. Ho assorts that poverty makes independence impossible. It hinders progress, loading to more suffer ing and crime than nil other causes. There is a closer relation between poverty and slavery than tho average abolitionist over recog nized, Tho motive of slavery was to got tho slaves’ labor for nothing. Tho motlvo for wage labor is to secure some of its results for nothing, ami, iu poiut of fact, wugo-lahor has boon moro profitable than slavery, Tho report, in considering the subject of wages, places two facts together j 1. That wages have steadily Increased for hundreds of years. 2. That tho masses havo no vet boon, anil can novor bo, taught to hoard. Upon thoao facta is baaed the proposition that wages must from necessity roprosont tlio amount of wealth tho masses consume; and It la expected, that civilization of tbo future will And thorn 'conßurning many times their preflont produota. It la tho constant exertion necessary to labor and produce that hoops us In oxcollont pbyßlcnl.condUlon; and, if It wore possible to imagine all classes consuming alittlo loss than tboy produced, it would take but a abort tlrao to giro thorn tbo valuation of tbo country. Assuming tho able-bodied worklng . men of tbo country at 8,000,000, and each saving SIOO a year, tbo annual saving would bo SBOO,- 000,000, and in thirty-seven and a half years this would equal tho wealth of tbo whole country, or $80,000,000,000. Hut of what avail would bo the mere possession of this wealth ? Who would pay interest on it ? It in lobor that pays inter est. When labor, however, becomes tbo lender, who is to borrow? But whoa men can not obtain interest on their money, they will uao it in Increased consumption. Progress, therefore, Is in increased pro duction and consumption. “ Mon should not bo wasted that things may bo saved; nor b lomacba starved to save food ; and stomachs aro not tho only organs that can bo starved.” . tVago-laborors, however, oro at tbo moroy of those of thoir class who aro content with baroly pay enough to maintain tbom, and tho low wagoa tboy get govern tbo price of all tbo rost. Tbo remedy for this is in tbo elevation of this latter class. Thoao cannot bo rcaobod until wealth la more bountifully distributed in tbo abapo of higher wagoa, and wages must continue to in crease until wage-labor shall coaso to bo profit able, and that system bo succeeded by tbo co operation of tho masses. The report claims that it is cheap labor serving corporate wealth intent upon nothing but wealth that la danger ous to our institutions. How this Increase of wages to a point whoro wage-labor will coaso to bo profitable, and therefore bo aban doned, is presented aa tho problem of tbo day. As a part of this question, tho report elaborately discusses and controverts tbo doc trine' that cheap labor produces ohoap things. If this woro true, high-priced labor would not bo dosirablo. Ono moans of reaching the abolition of tho wage-labor system Is co-operation, and for this tho workman must bo cultivated far beyond his present state. Tho failure of co-operation heretofore baa boon tho want of capacity, educa tion, and especially executive ability, among tho working class. Co-operation is of necessity at war with competition and monopoly. Tho knowl edge and powor necessary for tho workingolossos to co-oporato can only bo acquired by slow and natural stops. . . Ono of those stops proposed and recommend ed by tho report is a reduction of tho hours of labor. This, wbilo increasing wages, will not in crease tho cost of production, audit is now the most practicable measure that can bo promoted by legislation. It is claimed that an increase of wages, or of comfort, has followed every reduc tion of tho hours of labor. , Tho report refers to tbo objections made to tho reduction in tbo boars of labor as precisely tbo same that have boon made daring tbo last fifty- years, when other reductions were pro posed, and claims that they have all been re futed by actual experience. Wages are regulated by tho habits and customs of tho people, and the reduction of an hour a day cannot force peo ple back to tbo stylo of living and to tbo ex penses . of ' twenty years ago. People will continue to livo as they do now until they change for the hotter. Dec larations that “If wages are not reduced the mills will stop," “ capital will move else where," etc., are treated as because, so long as capital is dependent on investment for its reproduction, there la no fear of its re moval to tho permanent injury of tho country. Wage-laborers are consumers to tho full extent of tbolr earnings. Tho redaction of hours in England, twenty years ago, boa boon followodby an increase of produotlou. Ltkorcsults have fol lowed in every coso In tho United States. In answer to tho charge that manufacturers cannot afford to roduco tho hoars of labor, tho report cites the case of tbo Union Mills at Pall lUver, which, witUa capital of $160,000 in Juno, 1804, have divided in eight years one million of dol lars, and tho capital stock is worth $7,000 a share of SI,OOO. This corporation declares it would ho ruinous to capital to roduco tho hours of labor. Tho report claims further that a reduction of the hours of labor Is duo to tho physical condi tion of tho workman, especially in factories. It quotes Sir. Edward Atkinson, who Insists that eleven hours per day is too long for tboso who are likely to bocomo tho permanent operative clous, and ho has no doubt that tho continuancoof such a term of labor will causo any population to coasoto bo progressiva. Tho report recom mends tho adoption of tho Eight-Hour law in all manual labor on public works, and that tho hours of labor in all manufacturing and me chanical establishments bo limited to sixty hours per week ; that no child under 13 years shall bo employed at all; and that between 13 and 16 years thoy shall bo employed only five hours per day. ARE SHIRTS LUXURIES P Tho reasons given by Mr. Holley, and by Hr. Randal), and by the other members of Congress, Democrats and Republicans, for the repeal of tho duties on tea and coffee, \7tire, that those ar ticles wore necessaries of life, and that it was

better to retain tho tax on cotton shirts and re peal that on toa and ooffoo. Tho revenue from toa and coffee in 1871 was 810,202,082. Tho amount received from tho duty on cotton manu factures was £10,771,003. This was tho amount of taxes on tho throo articles. The total was about £30,000,000. Rut tbo tax received on tea and coffee was a revenue tax, and was all paid into tho Treasury, while the revenue received from cotton goods was only a portion of tho tax. Mr. Rurohard, a member of Con gress from this State, and a member of tbo Committee on 'Ways and Moans, from official papers before that Committee, made a statement to the House a year ago of tho whole tax collect ed of tho pooplo on a variety of articles, and from this statement wo learn that tho tax paid by tho pooplo on tho cotton goods purchased by them was as follows: Tax on imported cotton goods 110.771,000 lax ou domestic cottm goods a5.7W.00p Whole tax paid by tUo people on cotton goods .$10,600,000 Received by tbo U. B. Treasury 10,771,000 Tax distributed an special bounty to maziu- factors of cotton .£15,729,000 It will bo soon that, Usd Congress repealed the tax cm cotton goods, tho relief "would havo boon forty-alx and a half millions of dollars & ypar, and tbo loss of revenue only ton millions and three quarters; while by totaling tho tax ou tea and ooffoo, the tax repealed was only nineteen millions ami a quar ter, all of which was lost to tho rovonuo. Tho articles upon wbloh this tax of forty-six millions of dollars is levied and collected, os distinguished from tea and coHoo, aro classed by Mr. Kelley and tlioProtootionlsts as luxuries,and some of.them aro tho following: Unbleached cottons, bleached cottons, colored, stained, or printed cottons, Joans, drillings, ginghams, cot tonados of all kinds and varieties, cotton vel vets, cotton thread on spools, corsets, skirts and drawers, cotton hosiery, lacos, braids, gimps, and cords. Out of tho consumers of thoso articles tbo tariff extorts forty-six millions of dollars tax a year, of which loss than olovon millions aro paid into tbo Treasury j tho other thirty-five millions of dollars, being tho bounty collected In tho name of Protection, being divided as divi dends among tbo mill-owners of Now England. Tills sum of thirty-flvo millions of dollars is equal to 175,000,000 of bushels of corn at 20 cents per bushel. It takes 175,000,000 of bushels of corn to pay that portion of tho annual tax which does nob go into tho Treasury, on tho shirts, calicoes, drawers, spool-thread, Joans, delaines, drillings* corsets, shoots, and other cotton goods used by tho people. For tho luxury of wearing cotton shirts and drawers, and calico and delalno goods, tho people pay thirty-flvo millions of dollars special bounty to thomiU ownors who manufacture tho goods* A protectionist Journal says Freetraders do not deny that wo ought to work our Iron mines, but insist that they can ho developed without protection; but Mr. Mill Bays if they can't bo worked without protection they should remain unde veloped forever. This shown that Mr. MiU has studied political economy only from an English standpoint, and renders his book on tho subject worthless to every other country. As Mr. Mill is objected to on account of bta “ English standpoint,” wo commend to tbo writer of tbo foregoing Mr. Amass Walker, of tbo United States of America, who says, in bis Science of Wealth, tb&t (f tbo wholo amount of money that has boon wasted in “protecting" iron mines and mills in this country bad been put oat at interest, tbo annual income from it would bo sufficient to furnish us all tbo iron wo should want for all time to come, without labor. This would bo a borriblo plight for protection ists, surely—tbo Idea of getting iron without la bor 1 Wbat they contend for 1b tbo largest amount of labor for the smallest amount of iron. Tbo free-traders contend that the object of iron industry is to have iron, and that, if thero be any way to have two pounds of iron with tho. same expenditure of labor that would bo re quired to make one pound, tbo former method is preferable to tbo latter. In point of fact, tbo iron industry of ibis country teas developed, and, relatively to agri culture, successfully developed, before ever a protective tariff was enacted boro, and in spite of (ho hostile legislation of Great Britain. What wo want now is something, to protect agri culture, if tho policy of robbing Peter to pay Paul is to continue. A bounty of 10 cents per bushel for raising corn would bo every whit as reasonable as a bounty of 87 per ton for making pig-iron, or S3O per ton for making steel rails, and would go far towards equalizing tbo rates of profit between corn-growing and iron-making Tbo rush of correspondents to Vienna is de veloping sumo homo truths with reference to that city and its surroundings which ore not al together to its credit, and take off much of tho romance which has boon associated with it. One' correspondent has already discovered that tho Viennese know how tu swinoiO. ‘ Anutlior 'Says' that tho best hotels there are not equal to sec ond-class American hotels. The correspondent of the London Daily Hews writes : “Tho whole of tho Continental newspapers ore warning the public against tho high prices, and advising their readers to defer visiting Vienna until tho hotel keepers, restaurants, and others aro brought to their souses. Tho Vienna press condemns this want of patriotism and fidelity to strangers, whom they ought io take in very differently. Tho warning is having its effect, and prices are coming down. Thirty-four hotel-keepers were summoned before tho Magistrate tho day before yesterday. Another English correspondent takes off tbo romance of tho Beau tiful Blue Danube, as follows : “ There may bo occasions on which tho Danube may truthfully bo termed blue, and there certainly are places whore it may bo styled beautiful j but my ex perience of its waters is that they boar a marked resemblance In color to mud, and that wo should have just as much right to hold tho Thames off Blackwell to ho of a ‘ beautiful blue.’ The banks are monotonous and uninteresting. Tho Dr&u threads her way along narrow channels between numerous islands, each ono flatter, less picturesque, and loss diversified than Us neigh bor." Evidently tho picture is not so bright as it has boon represented, and tbo Weltaustellung bos exhibited many things of very little interest whichhad bettor boon concealed. A correspondent asks us to publish tho report of the Government survey of tho Nicaragua route for a ship-canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Bo far as wo know, no official report has yet boon made public. The sqr veyors spout tho last two or throe sea sons examining the Isthmus of Dariou whore it is narrowest; but while thoy found that & cau&l at one or two places was possible, tho outs wero so deep, and to construct the canal would bo so expensive, that tho engineers reported the routes practically impossible. Recently thoy have surveyed tho Nicaragua route ; and somo correspondent reported iu tho newspapers that a favorable location had boon found. From tho Ray of Guatemala tho route is up tho San Juan River to tho Loko of Nicaragua, and thence through a low volley, If wo mistake not, only 12 or 16 miles to tho Pacific Ocean. Tho canal would bo fed in both directions from tho lake, and it la understood that it affords an abun dance of water for that purpose. At last accounts, tho surveyors wore running linos from tho lako to the Pacific, to determine which of two or throo routes had tho greater advantages, There was in tho Paris Exhibition of 1807 a pro file of tho Nlcaraugua route for a ship-canal }rom ocean to ocean, and perhaps, if our correspondent has the official reports of tho Exhibition, ho may find exactly what ho wishes to know. Tho profile showed tho route to ho perfectly feasible; but by whom tho survey was made, and the particulars iu regard to it, wo .have now no moans to Uotoijnino, as everything wo had of that kind was destroyed by oar Great Eire of 1871. As soon as the Government en gineers make a report, wo will lay it before our readers, MoUomot Pasha, the Minister of Police at Con stantinople, evidently has a hopeful son named Said Boy. Said, having got into difUoulty at homo, one day turned up ?u Romo and intro duced himself to Monslgnor Ilussoun, formerly Patriarch of (ho Armenians, as an envoy from tUo Turkish Government charged with u mission to tho Vatican to bring about a settlement of tho ArmonlonOhurch difficulties. Tho result of his mission was, that ho was introduced to Cardinal AntonolU and by AntondU to' tho Pope. Ho had throo or four Interviews with tho latter, and was treated very handsomo ly; stopped at tho Cardinal's house, and en joyed hie excellent table; borrowed 0,000 francs of tho Moneignor, and some from tho Cardinal, and then, in police phrase, “ lit out," and hasn't boon hoard from since. The said Said is evident ly a progressiva youth. NOTES AND OPINION. Dudley W. Adams, of lowa, Grand Master of tho National Order of Patrons of. Husbandry, discovers, by this tlmo, what sort of thing the average, politician Is. Mr. Adams first passed through tho ordeal of being denounced by all tho organs of 00,000 Republican majority in lowa, as a Democratic emissary designing to load good Republicans astray. Tbon Mr. Adams was dis covered to ho a good Republican, and tho right sort of man for Lieutenant-Governor on tho ticket , with Carpenter I Now Mr. Adams Is found out to bo a rascal of deepest dyo, guilty of unutterable crimes,—a man to bo executed, pos sibly, if hanging hod not been abolished. All this by tho Republican party-managers and tho organs of 00,000 Republican majority in lowa within the space of ouo calendar month. And all tho whilo Mr. Adams has boon at his rural homo, apparently tho quietest man in tho State. —Opinions differ as to tho Credit Mobllior case docketed at Hartford, Ct. Tho Madison (Wls.) Stale Journal thinks tho allegations are enough to sink any company 5 but tho Boston Journal thinks our long-suffering Undo has only “ bought Into a lawsuit ” that will last till tho bonds mature, —twenty-five years hence. —Tho Pennsylvania Republican Convention meets at Harrisburg, Aug. 18; and what sort of a representative body it will ho tho Pittsburgh Evening Telegraph (H. Bucher Swoopo) shows, vis. t Oue of tho misfortunes of our times is, that delo* gates aro instructed, not by tho people Jn convention, ut by the managing rings that pack conventions and nictate who shall represent tho party. • Tho fiat week to May, dolcgatoa woro selected from AUoghony Coun ty to a State Convention to moot tho middle of August, —on Interval of three and ft half months,—and tho time of holding tho State Convention had not then cron been announced. So in other counties: and. when our people awako to the importance of tho State Convention, they will And themselves forestalled, tho delegates sot up, and, os our Harrisburg cotomporarr suggests, ‘'lnstructed.” hut not by tho Republican party. Itlstothla shrewdness in taking advantage of tho people that tho ring-managers owe thalr con trolling influence in tho councils of tho party. Of course, then, all expectation of purifying .the party within the party may juj well bo dis missed foe this year, in Pennsylvania. But “ stick to tho party” all tho somo, and purify it (if you can) by and by. —Tho People’s Convention of tho Third •Judicial Circuit of Illinois, which mot at Polo May 27, and nominated tho Hon. William B&igo, of Loo County, for Circuit Judge, adopted tho following among other resolutions: itoo/eec/, That It Is tbo souse of this Convention that it is not compatible with the dignity ami purity of tho Bench that tbo Judges oftho courts should bo Indebted to railroad companies for froo passes, and that, in tbo language of an eminent Massachusetts Judge, wo boilovo them to ho in tho nature of a petty bribe. —Hosca W. Parker, of Now Hampshire; is the average Congressman of tho period,—a period of party bumming and personal shamelessness. Mr. Parker voted “No” to tho salary grab, Indig nantly, defiantly, and ovory time; mado a point of it with his constituents in the March election; got an increased majority;—and has now pocket ed the swag, which was all tho while within roach. It may bo said Hr. Parker is a Democrat, but that couuta for nothing. Bomuol Sholia bargor (Republican) did a moaner thing ,* Van Trump (Democrat) con discount Shollabargcr; and Hannibal Hamlin lays over ’em all. Those are some of your professional politicians, who sot up'io cheat tho people with their “two par ties ” and a toss for a choice. Aro tho gamblers always to win ? —Tho Massachusetts Labor-Reformers, who proposo to boln tho field, this year, with a mqro thorough organization than over bolero, woro able to poll 21,916 votes, on short notice, in 1670, since when they have not attempted to interfere with tho plans of eminent statesmen who had tho salvation of the country in charge. Tho country being saved, tho Reformers doubtless think it is time ZfassachttseUs was looked after. —Maryland elects a Legislature this year, and tbo Legislature elects a United States Senator. It was figured up by tbo Baltimore American, after tho Presidential election, that, although tho popular majority of tho Stato was against tho Bepuhlic&ns, tho vote, as then cast, would havo given tbo Bopublicana tho Legislature. —Tho Trinity (Texas) Advocate makes a throe column editorial review of its Boprosontativo Herndon’s defense of tho Congressional salary steal, and says: In conclusion, wo regret, on Mr. Herndon’s account, tho tockkea abandon with which he plunges Into uu eager responsibility for all tbo odious features of this recreant pleco of Congressional iniquity, defending it in auch a spirit as seems to ovinco a determination on his part to coerce public opinion st least into an awe-' stricken silence. But the public havo already decided,' from (bo facts In tho promises, that tbo measure is In defensible upon any ground; that, as a measure of Jus tice, the increase of salaries was not demanded; taking tbo whole proposition together, as a measure of econ omy It is an empty pretense; that, as a measure of pa triotism, it is sheer domagoglsm; and wo tell Mr. Herndon frankly that ho cannot hope to survive it. —lt is not good policy to abuso Congressmen because thoy do not return their back-pay until the public indignation was aroused. Tho door of repoutauco should not bo closed for a year at least, Give every member a fair chance, and perhaps we may make a great many thousand dollars by it. Who knows but tbo Fourth of July will bo celebrated by tho return of a largo amount of back-payji Think how tho American Eagle would rejoice over such a scone, — Madi « son firfa.) Slate Journal.. —Others have returned their back-pay. who ore abused tor not having done so. Whether it is wise iu them to thus disregard public clamor whoa thoy could stop it by a word, is a matter wholly personal to thomeelvos. It shows tho courage of conscious rectitude, but a disregard of tho injunction to “ Lot your light shino. A good oxamplo is valueless whoa hidden.— Albany {N. Y.) Journal —While it Is true that a large majority of the non-politiolana condemn tho “ salary-steal," It is Just as true that ovory ono of the professional politicians do not coudomn tbo rascality. And as tho latter faction control tho party machinery and its policy this condemnation is futile unless those loaders aro “cast out.”— Juneau {Wie.) Democrat. —Wo advise all honest men to out looso from party trammels and party prejudices, and sup port none hut honest men for cilice, regardless of party distinctions based upon worn-out issues. What iu moat needed now is organization, based upon live issues, with honest men to tho froqt and rogues in tho rear. Tho latter class, unfor tunately, wore allowed to bocomo loaders iu both of tho old parties, and have retained their posi tion by appealing to prejudiced instead of to honest instincts. In tho meantime tho rogues liavo boon plundering tha people, and pocketing tho plunder.— Kcoktik {lowa) Constitution. —Tho immense importance of tho questions Sowing out of tho Rebellion, tho disturbances tho South, the reaping tho fruits of tho war, —those have boon tho catch-words, and havo been admirably used to keep tho country as long as possible from turning its attention to eco nomic questions, and to tho certain detection of tho enormous inequalities which havo fattened quo class of tho, community upon tho industries of tho rest. The time has now come for a “now deal all orouud.”— Terre Haute {2nd.) Gazette, —Lob this movement of tho producing classes take right hold of (ids thing, regardless of past party mfforonoca, and sob the country right.— Lawrence {Kan.) Standard. —politicians iu tho livery of the Administra tion aro coquetting with the Patrons of Husban dry in tho most amorous way. Nothing like it has boon seen since Susannah and tho elders. Wo trust that a triple band of virtue surrounds the bucolic maiden, or her fate la sealed, and she will have to tako her place among the dis reputable companions of tho party which Is at tempting to ruin her.— Davenport {lowa) Demo crat. —While tbo granges may carry some local oleo lious, wo do not see bow tuoy aro going to dooldo national questions, for tboro Is as much differ* mice among tho farmers on those questions as heretofore. Moauwhiio, (he Republican party is not dead. If tho Democrats thluk it is, lot them dare to mako a nomination, and soo bow quickly the Republicans will take tho field and flog them so they will have no dosiro to proooh the funeral EwfcMß ° VOt tholr opponollla (JV, Y.) who tho United Stales. alßßnwod tho people of -Kansas, is . in Inaugurating a campaign to A ho p l w ? tt . n<3 ° vaCQ Qt by Caldwell's resignation. Lot no hope bo will not succeed t ana lot us also hope that tho people will inaugu rate campaigns all over tho country to raise ibo moral and Intellectual status of United States Senators.— Harrisburg (Pa.) State Journal. —Wo regret that such a powerful and respect ed organ of popular opinion as Harlan’s Wash ington Chronicle should persist in denouncing the recent Congressional Convention in this city. We admit that there was no money to bo mado out of this Convention, but wo can’t soo why tho late' Senator from lowa should take It so much to heart. Inasmuch aa ho is no longer a Con großsmon, and would not have boon ‘‘W if then’ ad boon a chance.—£l. Louis Republican. * —Russell Sago, Vice-President of tho Bt, P Railway, will loam that it is not “just thing " for non-resident Directors of his o <™ WS Sf ° f W ' BConßta -^^Sn —Tho Now York Tribune taya tin'. n,. p.„. Il vor bridge nmiogora "tm «»,' *4 ono ono whoro tbolr oattanloß calloil lor T n W )i«l. iSS! Bum | anil they cannot explain w y fj/ “•* iug miUlouß buvo gone. *An luw .ti 10 mißs duotßd during » befttod polillcTooife 'T’ '“"r »han they can survive, and ber .co cvmv effort u bent to escape an InvoßtiiraU' in , ort . * B tho people as Imperatively demand 8 ” BrnSrim sSaWfrws jiS! Signed 8 ! 0 relieve Iboso VIT pfe" willhS-!S|ie doia)™VwX W ° U ° P ° “ the nStMto iopSoS° f and Is, therefore, in a fair wav to •SUe reform, Wovor,lanotYoboteouffiw by the resolutions of a convention ot rahrnml manager* or by tho notion of a fow fZI keepers, but must surimr from tim 01 Sn^r^moiT 111 " 18 thotnaol ™-- THE INSANE OF ILLINOIS, Official statement l»y tJ»o Mocrotarr ot tfco Board ol Public CUaHttam. Th©.question, how many insane persona nrn thoro In tho State of Illinois, important in Itself has*rccently attracted more than usual atten tion, iff consequence of some published otric-- tmoa upon tho ouumoratiou mode by tho Board of Public Charities. Those strictures appeared Anjfc ialho remarks prefixed to the statistics of misfortune In tho ninth census, and have boon. S^Ste ooodbytho preßs throUßhoUt It m»y bo well, in olluflbn to tho anblect, to say at the outset, tbafc tho inference drawn by some writers for tho dally newspapers, that tho discrepancy between tho enumeration of tho in sane by tho United States Government and that made by tho Board of Public Charities Indicates a fraudulent Intent, Is wholly baseless. No such Intent is possible, for tho reason that, whatever tho number of insane may bo, nono of them ore a public charge, except those carod for in Stato asylums and in county alms-housos. If tho Board should assort that there aro 20,000 insane in lUinols, tho statement made by them would not increase tho number of insane benefi ciaries of tbo Btoto and counties, by a singlo Imtiont. No patient can bo admitted to any asy um or hospital in tho Stale, except by verdict of a jury of hla or hor own neighbors, household ers, and heads of families. Still further, this Board has not ono penny of tho public money in its hands or under Its control, for any obnritablo purpose whatever, Tho funds appropriated by the State for tho relief of misfortune aro in tho hands of the trustees of tho various Stato insti tutions. Tho allegation of fraud requires no further notice; it is simply a misconception of tho relations of tho Board to tho subject. Tho explanation of tho existing discrepancy is. very simple. Tho two enumerations woro mode, by different methods, of .which ono was moro efficient than tho other, but neither euumoia-. tion is accurate or complete. The enumeration mado by tho Oonaus Bureau was by personal inquiry from house to house, by tbo persons employed to take ‘ the census. Tho enumeration by the Board qf Charities was made by correspondence with all tho physicians in tho State who could bo induced to reply to tho circu lar lotto* addressed to them all, without excep tion. •. Tho whole number of insane persona in any community can never bo absolutely ascertained. la tbo first place, tbo lino which divides sanity from insanity is indefinite. and with regard to doubtful or latent cases, tnoro always must exist ‘ a wide diversity of opinion among those who know the suspected individual. In the second place insanity is regarded by multi tudes of persons as a disgrace, and tho fact is carefully concealed from tbo public as long aa concealment is possible, r Again, thoro oro many obstacloa to a complete enumeration, in tbo in difference, ignorance, indolence, and incapacity of-tho agents to whom tho task is entrusted. No one but a statistician by profession can know or appreciate tho magnitude of tho undertaking* and the Impossibility of attaining moro than aa approximately accurate result. But between tho two methods indicated above, tboro can bo no question as to which Is tho most trustworthy and efficient. . Tho failure to socuro a return of all insane persons In the Stato by tho census department arises from two causes. Many census takers neglect or rofuso to put tho question to the bead of a family: “Aro any of tho members of this family insane or idiotic ?” They shrink from so abrupt and apparently impertinent on in quiry, and content themselves with asking tho neighbors in a casual way whether there are any insane or Idiotic persons in that vicinity. X know this to bo so, because an unusually intelli gent and competent Marshal told mo in private, conversation that this was hie practice. But, if tho inquiry is put, there are very many who will not reply truly, butwhoeay, “No,’’even although the existence of such inmates of tho house may bo notorious, * ' Physicians, on tho other hand, have no tempt ation to conceal tho truth, if assured that thole confidential communications wUi bo respected. They are bettor Judges: also, of tho fact of in sanity or idiocy than the friends aro. If they can be induced to speak, it is evident that their testimony will bo more valuable that of tho friends themselves, and very much moro valuable than that of any or dinary census taker, making his rouud of visit! for pay, without seiqntifio or philanthropic iu« . torest iu hie work, ■ The experience of this State and of Massachu setts both confirm tho statement just made. Tho first enumeration by coireapoudonco with physicians was mado under authority of the Massachusetts Legislature in 1854, by Dr. Edward Jarvis, ono of tho most eminent of all living statisticians, and revealed tho same imperfec tion iu tho census returns, an imperfection in herent Ip thq system. Indeed, Gen. Walker, tho Superintendent of tho Census, admitted to molnpriratoconversation a few days ago, at Now Haven, tho importance in tho change iu the method of enumerating thq unfortunate classes, when tho noxt census is token. Tho truth is, that a comparison and consolida tion of the two lists shows that thoro are over 3,000 Insane persons in Illinois, The oensua takers reported 1,000 and failed to find about 1,400 of this number, Tho physicians reported 2,300 and failed to report about 700 to' tho Board of Charities. But tho testimony of tho census takers to iho existence of those uuroported by physicians is perfectly reliable, and tho testi mony of physicians to tho existence of those uu reported by tho census takers is equally worthy of coufldouco. I do not contend that my list is complete—l know It ia not ; and Gen. Walker, if - ho Is wise, will add mit tho imperfection of his own. It is duo to him, to spy that tho last census, under his super vision, is in all respects superior to any which has boon taken heretofore, and that nothing could bo moro unjust than to hold him accounta ble for tho negligence or errors of his subordin ates. My personal relations with him aro of tho most friendly nature, and no motive prompts this reply other than a dosiro that tbo interests of tho insane as a class may not suffer by base less allegations of fraud, on tho one hand, or by a mistaken estimate of the extent of this calam ity, upon tho other. Faen. 11. Wines. May 29, 1873. JTlurdorcd tor Ilia nonoy, OI.EVKLAHD, May 00 —Sloven Sawyer, aged CO, living now Bollovuo, 0., loft homo last Mon day for Elmoro. Q., having SGOO on his person. Not returning at the appointed time, BDaroJj was mado, and to-day bis dead body was found In a ■pill-pond half a mllo from Bollovuo. Hl» money and watch woro gouo. It is supposed bo was murdered for bis money, On Wednesday night a dead body was found in Grand lUvor, near Delta, Midi., wblob has boon idontltled as John Hilton, of Lansing. Ho has boon missiug s(uco the 2titb,aud is supposed to have committed suicide. Ho leaves a wife and two children.

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