Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune, June 8, 1873, Page 8

Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune dated June 8, 1873 Page 8
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8 TERMS OF THE TRIBUNE* 'TEEMS or EUBSCBIPIIOtr (PiXABLE m ADVASOE). Dally. by ma 11,....512.001 Sunday. tri-Wc0kr........ (1.00 l Weekly— 2.0U Farts of a rear at the same rate. To prevent delay and wiistnlfM, be sore and give Post Office address in full, including State and County.- Remittances may bo madc-slther by draft, express, Post Office order, or in registered letters, at ourcisk. > TpiMH TO CITY SUBSCRIBERS. Bafly. delivered. Sunday excepted. 23 cents per week. Daily, delivered, Sunday included, SO cents per week. Address THE TRIBUNE COMPANY. . Comer Madison and Dcarborn-sta.. Chicago, HI. BUSINESS NOTICES. ROYAIi HAVANA MTTEET-WK SOLD IN &awta*of 23d April lost the 6600.000 ocT «mt;Urfonaatlon given, J. B-- MABTINJZ AOO-. Ranlmra. 10 Wall-et. P. O- Box *6Bs.Jg°SL^2££k— —— Sunday Homing. June 8, 1873. tttr JUBILEE. The Jubilee is at an end. Our country friends iare gone to their respective homes, and, to all [ppearances, they have had a good time during heir visit. They have soon the new city. They heard the music. They have driven about the suburbs. They have been treated with due consideration, and, probably, there never was a greater festival where there was less of extor tion and swindling. The city will now go about its regular business as usual, and will commence to set itself in order, and got ready for the Expo sition in September, in which it has a special interest, and for the success of which t is responsible. The jubilee was a private enterprise, for which its manar gers are alone responsible Whatever of success has attended it belongs solely to them; whatever of failure may have occurred belongs to them also. The city was a guest, equally with the country, and had no part as host, except in showing the common courtesies of life to her visitors, and, upon this score, probably no fault will be found. jka a popular demonstration, the Jubilee was successful. The object of the managers was to bring a crowd of people here and provide some thing for their entertainment, while ■ they ex hibited to them certain enterprises in which they (the managers) were peculiarly interested. All these objects were attained. The crowd came in goodly numbers. The entertainment was pro vided for them, and the crowd was satisfied ap parently, although it had to endure a considera ble degree of discomfort in its pursuit of pleas ure, which might have been obviated had the managers been less intent upon realizing a large profit, and taken ordinary pains to make the crowd comfortable. The management also would have saved the city from very lavish abuse, in the papers of other cities, had they made proper arrangements for the convenience of the repre sentatives of those papers, and not compelled them to shift for themselves. In these respects, the action of the ■ managers was very shabby and short-sighted. For this and other shortcomings, however, the city is not responsible. The managers pocket the profits; they must pocket the abuse. It was their show, not the city’s. Judged from an artistic point of view, the Ju bilee has done nothing creditable, and it will give no impulse to music in the right direction. There was plenty of material, both in the orchestra and chorus, which was excellent, but it was not util ized. It took four or five months to got the Bos ton Jubilees ready, and It took eix months to get the Cincinnati Festival started, and six months of very hard labor. The Jubilee musi cal features were orepared in a less number of .weeks. Consequently there was no time for Elaborate preparation or careful study,. and the result was that the performances were crude and unfinished. They satisfied the crowd, however, end, as that was tne principal object in view, let them pass for what they were worth. There was, however, one encouragmg feature in it. The larger part both of tho chorus and orchestra, were from this city, thus showing that wo have plenty of good musical ma terial here. If so large a chorus can bo gath ered together at such short notice and sing as well as they did, with so little practice, what may not be done when there is plenty of time for work, and competent leaders to give the. requi site instruction ? In this direction, the Jubilee has accomplished an important purpose, for it baa shown that a legitimate musical festival here is a possibility, which shall be devoted exclu sively to musical results rather than a mere holiday show. In one other respect, the Jubilee did a good work. It brought forward the school children, and afforded the public an opportunity to witness tho remarkable progress which has been made in the depart ment of musical education in the public schools. The display of proficiency was particularly grati fying, especially so, as it did not include the best singers in the schools, who are now getting . ready to graduate, but only .those in the second and third grades. In precision, steadiness, and especially in expression, the children in reality sang better than their elders the day before. The school children of Boston and Cincinnati bare sung at similar entertainments, and, in comparison, the children of Chicago are fully up ■ to the standard of those in Boston, and superior io those in Cincinnati. How that the Jubilee, with its noise and show, is over, the people pi this city should get them selves in readiness for the September Exposi tion. For that enterprise tho city itself is re sponsible, and, if it fails, or is not in every way creditable to the growth and progress of the city, the city must suffer. Upon the various commit tees who are to superintend its details, only the most enterprising and energetic of our citizens should be placed. If there ore to be musical features, then they should be placed in compe tent hands. Whatever is to be done should be commenced at once. It is only three months to September, and it will be folly to defer prepara tions and crowd all the work into a few weeks, amidst inevitable hnrty and confusion. It is charged that there has already been a “ ring ” formed to run the Centennial Celebra tion at Philadelphia in 1876. “ Binga ” are just now such favorite political jewelry that people iwe generally disposed to credit their existence whenever and wherever they are alleged to have been discovered. Tho charge of the existence of a “ Philadelphia Centennial Bing 1 * comes from Indiana, and has been occasioned by the treatment of the Indiana Commmissiouor. It wee the declared intention that every State in the.Dnioo shall bo represented, and that every Commissioner shall be a resident.of the State' which bo represents. A ™«n named David 1L Boyd, Jr., was ■ first ap pointed Commissioner from Indiana, mid it was icqnently ascertained that he had not resided In that for some years, and was an employe Of the Central Bailroad. Gov- Han dricks addressed a letter to the President setting forth these facts, and suggesting Mr. Franklin 0. Johnson, of New Albany, as a fit person to represent Indians. Mr.’Johnson was then ap pointed in Mr. Boyd’s place, but, when ho pre sented his credentials to the Executive Commit tee at Philadelphia, he,.was rejected,, and Mr. Boyd was accepted aa the Commissioner. TKe Indiana people claim now that there is a “ Cen tennial Bing” in Philadelphia. The-incident does not warrant bo broad a charge aa. tins, but, if it has been properly represented, the action of the Executive Committee was certainly very singular and ought to he explained. hohsteub tohson come again. The complete letter-writer, Gen. Spinner, the man who signs the greenbacks, haring written to almost every adult person in the United States and England, has now begun upon the inhabi tants of Australia. His correspondent on the other side of the globe is Mr. Thomas Oanby Biddle, of Geelong, Victoria. Mr. Spinner in flicts upon the unfortunate Australian an essay upon “ the cheapest way to pay a public debt.” Mr. Spinner’s idea of the cheapest way to pay a debt is to apply the heaviest taxation that will be borne without a revolution, and use the revenue thus taken from the people to pay off the debt before it matures. This plan of Mr. Spinner is substantially to find out, as near as possible, how much of each man’s earnings is necessary to feed and clothe him, and take all the surplus to purchase at a pre mium bonds bearing interest at 6 per cent. It is immaterial to Mr. Spinner that the money, if left in the hands of the people, would earn per haps twice or three times 6 percent a year; Mr. Spinner insists that they shall give it up to pay off a debt which now does not bear over 5}4 per cent on the average. It is in material to Mr. Spinner that, in order to pay the «nnnal and 'regular taxes, familiea have to dispense with various ordinary comforts ; have to retrench and economize in their food and their apparel; have to submit to various incon veniences in their dwellings and habitations, and that there are thousands who have to mortgage their lands at 10 to 12 per cent per annum to pay the taxes levied to pay off the debt which hears 6per cent interest per annum. The burden of a debt consists precisely in the charge upon the public to pay the interest on it. Our national debt at this time does not demand irumli over 5 per cent for annual interest; that, therefore, is the burden which the people have to bear. Mr. Spinner writes to the man in Aus tralia that the true policy of the United States is to take from the people all their surplus earn ings,—worth to them 10 to 20 per cent per an num, —and apply the money to take up the debt, which bears but 5 per cent interest. It is immaterial to Mr. Spinner that this policy is opposed to the judgment and the dearly-bought experience of every nation that has ever had a debt on the face of the globe. What does Mr. Spinner care for the experience and knowledge of other nations and other people ? What does he care for the experience in this particular of our own Government ? When the War closed, the hand of taxation was laid upon every article produced, bought, and sold, and on every agency for the purchase and sale or transportation of products—upon the living and the dead. Under the pressure of a Presidential election, a large mass of these specific taxes were repealed, but tho revenue in creased. The repeal of taxes was followed by on increase of production and on increase of reve nue. Every time the taxes have been reduced, there has been an increase of revenue. Tho payment of taxes is the sole burden of the debt, and each time these taxes have been reduced the money thus left in tho hands of the people has been applied to the increase of capital in private hands. The Government had nevertheless collected, in addi tion to the sum necessary to pay the yearly in terest, SIOO,OOO, 600 annually to purchase the principal of a debt bearing an average rate of interest of about 5 per cent. This $100,000,000 thus taken from the people annually, if loft in their hands, would be worth to them twice or three times 5 per cent, and yet Mr. Spinner in forms tho Australian gentleman that to take money which, if employed in produc tion, would bo worth, say, 12 per cent, to pay a debt bearing 5 per cent interest, is the cheapest way to pay the debt. It is not merely the most patriotic, high spirited, and jolly, but actually the cheapest! The surplus revenue of tho year ending June SO, 1873, notwithstanding tho repeal of tho duties on tea and coffee, will be greater than in any preceding year. If Congress would repeal taxes to an amount equal to the surplus revenue of 1872-3, leaving the one hundred and more mill ions with the people in the form of productive capital, the revenue from the remaining objects of taxation would increase to an extent that would leave a surplus at the end of 1874; and if this reduction of taxation was continued annually to ■ tho amount of the surplus of the preceding year, tho millions now taken under Spinner’s “ cheap ” system would be multiply ing in the hands of the people. It should be borne in mind, also, that the tax on imports that produces $100,000,600 for the Treasury, takes from the people some $200,000,000 in addition to pay tho bounties to the protected classes. The repeal of protective taxes, which now produce $100,000,000 revenue, would be equal to the re peal of $300,000,000 of actual taxation. But Mr. Spinner disregards such trifling facts as these, andinsists that the cheapest way to pay off a debt of SIOO, bearing 5 per cent interest, is to take S3OO of the surplus products of the country, worth 12 per cent per annum, give S2OO away, and pay the principal of tho debt with the re mainder. ’ Tho necessity for checking tha dangerous practice of carrying concealed weapons has just been illustrated simultaneously in New York and Chicago. A couple of youths in New York, both under the influenod of liquor, got into a wordy altercation in the presence of the mother of one of them. Eevolvors wore speedily whip ped out by both, and one of the young men fired, killing his mother instead of the compan ion at whom ho aimed. The dispatches bring the information that this youth has been dis charged, with a mere censure for carrying a deadly weapon. Thecasedemandedsomethingmorethan this. The altercation was of a nature that would hayo passed oft in a trivial dispute, or at most in a few blows, which would hayo sobered both combatants, had they- not been possessed of weapons at hand, ojlering a constant temptftjon to use them. The result was, that a son kiliod Jjis mother. ; A case in -pomt was presented in Chicago a few days ago, in which » bsek, con taining four or' five loafers, deliberately ran down and overturned abuggy, in whioh a gentle man <wid lady were riding. The outrage was so pilpable that some persons who saw it followed THE CHICAGO DAILY TRIBUNE: SUNDAY, JUNE 8, 1873. tho carriage with the purpose of identifying the rowdies. The latter, as soon as they perceived that they were pursued, pulled out their revolvers and.began firing at their pursuers. It was a mere chance that nobody was hit: Aside from the rare cases of deliberate murder, most of the deaths from violence are ihe direct result of tho common and pernicious habit of. carrying concealed weapons. It is so general, in fact, that no fashionable tailor thinks of making apair of breeches without a hip pock et at the rear, to accommodate tho revolver. It is quietly assumed that everybody has need for such accommodation. Many a dispute, which would otherwise have been harmless, has resulted seriously, if not fatally, from the gen eral convenience of having a pistol or knife handy. Nearly all the States have statutes prescribing penalties for carrying deadly weap ons, but there seems nowhere to be any dispo eition to enforce them. ME. MILL AS A UTILITAEIAH. An interesting discussion has sprung up since the death of Mr. John Stuart Mill, on the atti tude of that great thinker toward the Utilitarian system of morals. The subject is not well suited to the columns of a daily newspaper, bnt, as other American journals are tolling what they know, or don’t know, about it, wo shall take leave to do the same. Wo remarked in a former article, in opposition to the commonly-received opinion, that Mr. Mill could not be properly classed as a Utili tarian. This was Mr. James Martinoau’s opin ion, as expressed in his Essay on Mill, and such is the opinion of an able writer in the - April number of the Sea Englander, whoso article on “Moral Intuition vs. Utilitarianism” is well worth reading. Such, also, is the opinion of Prof. John Stuart Blackie, whoso work, enti tled “Pour Phases of Morals,” is one of the healthiest books of the season. Utilitarianism is that system of Morals which denies the existence of innate ideas. It is a branch of the system of Philosophy which de rives all ideas from tho operation of the five senses, and denies that any ideas exist, or can exist, which are not bom in tho organs of seeing, hearing, feeling, tasting, or smelling, of which Locke is reckoned the father iuEngllsh speculate e philosophy, though the system is as old as classic Greece. To this school of philosophy Mr. Mill did undoubtedly belong. Ho places the bounds of human knowledge within the limits of Expe rience, and defines a Cause to bo “ invariability of sequence.” When the sun shines upon the water, evaporation is the invariable sequence. When we place an acorn in tho ground, un less disturbing forces come in, ■on oak tree is the invariable sequence. Wo know these things to bo facts, but we do hot know (accord ing to Mr. Mill) anything about'the causes of -evaporation or generation. Those things are be yond the limits of our experience, beyond the reach of our senses, and therefore unknowable. In short, there is no such thing as a cause in his system of philosophy, but only an existing order of events. Logically, therefore, Mr. Mill should have been a Utilitarian, for this branch of the general .system derives all moral concep tions from Experience, and denies that there ever was, or ever can be, a moral idea obtained from any other source than the aggregate, tabulated, observed results of human conduct. There is nothing virtuous per se. Chastity only becomes a virtue after the evil effects of unchastity have been observed. A lie is better than the truth only because the ten dency of a lie is to produce confusion, uncer tainty, hatred, war, and other inconvenience. Benevolence is better than selfishness because benevolence results in the greatest happiness to the greatest- number. Of course, such a system must have a beginning somewhere. If there are no innate moral ideas,- where can we get a start ing-point for any system of morals ? The Utili tarian finds it in the desire of happiness,—a uni versally-diffused —we had almost said instinct, but the system forbids that we should have in stincts,—a universally-diffused fact. The real motive of all our actions is happiness,—that is, self-interest, more or loss enlightened. With the vicious and the selfish this motive is apparent, but it is none the less active and omnipresent in the virtuous and the benevolent. The virtuous man knows that virtue will most promote his happiness. He excels the vicious man in knowl edge, and in the ability to postpone a present good for a greater future good. 'Virtue is pru dence—-vice imprudence. The benevolent man knows that he may some time stand in need of help; therefore he gives money and time to help others! The Christian'believes that by faith and works, or perhaps by faith alone, he shall gain heaven and avoid hell. The motive of self-interest is all the' same in his case, although the expected reward is post poned beyond the present life. The only examples which the world furnishes of virtue pursued for its own sake, without the hope of reward or the fear of punishment, are found among the Stoic and Buddhist philosophers, who were fools 1 Take out the underpinning of self interest and the Utilitarian system, so far as it seeks to explain the origin of moral ideas, falls to the ground., So far as it seeks merely to classify,—showing how moral ideas tend to promote the greatest happiness of the greatest number,-j-it is an important branch of moral science. But this is not what is under stood by Utilitarianism. To bo a Utilitarian, one must affirm that there are no innate moral ideas, and that all moral conceptions arise from ascer taining how tho greatest happiness of the great est number is practically produced, and codi fying the results of the inquiry into such me chanical attributes as virtue, truth, benevo lence, justice, honor, etc. In order to determine whether Mr! Mill was, or was not, a Utilitarian, it is only necessary to find one deliberate utterance of his affirming tho existence of a moral idea having its origin inder pendently of experience, and not founded nearly or remotely upon self-love. It would be easy to find many such. In his review of Benlham, the first paper in bis “Dissertations and Discus sions,” and tbe one which set all tho Bentham ites pouting, be says that we naturally feel pun when we see one of our fellow-crea tures in pun, and ib&t this sympathy cannot be traced to any selfish origin whatsoever. We do not feel pain in such a case because we fear that we, too, may suiter pain. We feel it because a sentiment of pity—an emotion of benevolence—-baa been implanted in us I Again; the writer in the reto. Englander, to whom wo have .already referred, adduces a remarkable passage in his Beview of Six William Hamilton’s Philosophy, in which Mr. Mill gives a ride thrust at Mansel’s doctrine of Beligious Nescience, to- Trifc: .. • If, of the “glad tidings n that there exists a Turing xrfrnfp kfrtha eTpellmdea which the highest human mind can conceive, ezlrt a decree moonoeir- •able to ns,'lam informed Hint the ■world is, ruled by a Belngwhose attributes are Infinite, but what they are wwcannotleanrynor what are the 'principles' government, except that the highest human. does not sanctionthem 5 convince me of it, and i will bear my fate as beat I may. But when lam told that I must behove this, and at the same time’ call this Being by the names which express the highest human moral ity, I say in plain terms I will not. ' Whatever power , such a Being may have over me, there is one thing Ho n ot do; He not compel mo to worship Him., I will call no Being good who is not what I mean when I apply that term to my fellow-creatures! and if such a Being can send mo to hell for not so calling Him. to hell I will go. This is anything hut Utilitarianism. The self interest, or “greatest-happiness” principle, which culminates in sending a man to hell of his own accord, has no place in the categories of Bentham, or Hobbes, or Helvetius, or the illus trious sire of John Stuart Mill. The general tendency of Mr. lUll’a polltica and social writings, though making the largest -account of utility, and of the “greatest-happi ness" principle, is not Utilitarian. “ Utilitarian ism,” as Prof/ Blaclde justly observes, is a misnomer for the system which it .rep resents. “ Extornalism "is the proper phrase to designate it. Christianity is utilitarian-in the sense of being nsefuL So are Stoicism, and Platonism, and Buddhism. A system which de rives moral ideas from those things which are external to us, as opposed to the system which makes account of innate ; ideas, should be called Extemalism. By adopting the word utili tarian, it has, in some measure, stolen a upon the world, Mr. Mill’s eth ics, on the whole, are not based upon Extemalism. To tell the truth because it is true, not because the greatest happiness of the greatest number is promoted by it, nor because •you will go to hell if you don’t, is the strongest impression left upon the mind of his readers. He could not otherwise have acquired his great influence upon the thought of the present age. We close by quoting a passage from the last chapter of Prof. Blackie’s “ Pour Phases of Morals": Among living thinkers there is none who stands be-. fore the public more prominently as the exponent of the Utilitarian ethics thsn John Stuart MRU- But whatever may be the merits of ibis distinguished writer in the domain of logic, polities, and economics, which seem most cognate to his genius, there can be little doubt In the minds of thoughtful persons that bis book on Utilitarianism has done more to under mine than to sustain the doctrine which it professes to expound. And, the reason of this lies in a cause which is not lpp« condemnatory of the doctrine than it is CQmpiimpntary to its champion. Mr. hull is too good a to be the consistent advocate of a system which, as compared with other systems, is fnTidnmfmtally; bad. Ho is too earnest an apostle of the real moral progress of man to be a thorough-going champion of a school whose natural element is epi curean ease, sensual indulgence, and prudential calcu lation. His heart revolted against the degrading ten dency of a philosophy .which gave a primary impor tance only to what is low, and left the highest ele ments of human nature to make a respectable show be fore men with a borrowed and secondary vitality. But at-the same time he was j a disciple of the school, and the son of hia father, and thus, by education and a sort of intellectual heritage, his bead was committed. to a doctrine for which his heart was naturally a great deal too good. . . And thus, while he defends ■Utilitarianism successfully, so far as results go, ha has succeeded only by throwing overboard all that is most distinctive in the doctrine, and adopting secretly all that is most peculiar to the teachings of his oppo nents, - - TEE WISCONSIN BOEGIA. It baa been loft for Wisconsin to discover a jury that takes no stock in emotional or percep

tional insanity. There has never been a more ingenious plea of moral irresponsibility, or a more plausible and well-connected story of hal lucination, than that presented by Mrs. Lamb, who admits that she poisoned her two children, > and an old woman, and a man named Boyal Gar land, and who is also suspected of having poisoned her husband. _ Tct the jury brought in a verdict of guilty, setting the case as one of murder in the first degree. Capital punishment having been, abolished in Wisconsin, Mrs. Lamb will not suffer death, but will bo sentenced to imprisonment for life, and stay in the Penitentiary until some sentimental Governor shall conclude that her insanity has passed off, and that she may safely resume her place in However,' the result of the trial is a vast improvement upon the customary verdicts in similar cases, and it is more likely that Mrs. Lamb will be kept out of harm’s way in the Penitentiary than if she had been turned over to an insane asylum or permitted to go free, r. . Mrs. Lamb’s was a case of perceptional insan ity. According to her version of the series of deaths which she caused, she was irresistibly impelled to the acts by a prompting spirit that appeared to her from time to time, and insisted upon her Wiling these people as a religions duty. The disease which occasioned the perceptional vivacity which enabled her to see tho spirit that no one else saw, and caused the perceptional obliquity to all moral scruples, appears to have been of long standing. A physician who had attended tho woman when she was a girl, twenty-three years ago, testified that she had those insane spoils then, at which times she im agined herself talking with some familiar spirit who wanted her to kill-somebody. Shortly after this, the spirit abandoned her and did not appear until the day of herinsband’s death. 'While she was holding his head in her arms, ho exclaimed, “ I see Jesus,” and died. At that very moment, she saw tho apparition, and, from that time on, it haunted her. It began by upbraiding her for mourning over the death of her husband, who was happier than if ho were alive. It then made her believe that her son was overworked and weary, and that it was her duty to put an end to his toilsome life. So Sirs. Lamb yielded, and poisoned the boy. Then tho spirit per suaded her that her little daughter was too good and innocent for this world, and that it was equally her duty' to put this child beyond tho trials and temptations of a wicked world, lira. Lamb consented to do this also, and felt the usual ■ consolation of a pious soul that has followed its religious prompt ings.' Then the spirit told her that she must relieve other people of their earthly miseries. She resented this, as she concluded that she had not the same interest in tho happiness of stran gers as in that of her own family. Thereupon the intangible essence grew very angry, and, partly in fear, partly in religious enthusiasm, sho extended her charitable work of sending people out of this vale of tears by first billing . Mrs. Ottman, and sub sequently Mr. Boyal Garland. After hav ing poisoned these persona, Mia.' Lamb felt a serene consciousness of well-doing, and basked in the approval of her presiding , genius. She would have gone on in her good work, but the prompting spirit suddenly discontinued his visits, probably thinking that she had done her share in helping mankind, to' shuffle off. this mortal coil. * • ‘ If it be admitted that this hallucination really existed, —and it is much more credible than that doctrine of. insanity based upon momentary emotional aberration ' like that of young 'Wal worth,—it is a Tery serions guestion whether the Wisconsin not'right? in spite of it, in finding _ tho. signing her to life-imprisonment. If there were such a chain of circamatanoba is was sot npin Mrs. Lamb’s defense, it was' the result of ig norance and superstition. It would be a danger ous precedent to admit that the law may he sus pended for these causes.' Such a doctrine would undermine the : whole edifice of society. Mrs. Lamb’s will was in its normal condition. It is admitted that she* combated the .promptings of the spirit which suggested the murders. Though her perceptions were befogged,; possibly by . fanaticism,.... to the extent that she actually believed a spirit was attending her, she had reason enough to argue the ease with her intangible adviser, and will enough to re sist his promptings for a time. If aho permitted her reason and will to be finally overcome by a flood of superstition, then it was time for the law. to step in and supply the deficiency. The Wisconsin jury has set a good example, one that may be imitated with conspicuous advantage by fill juries who are called upon to compassionate people convicted of deliberate and intentional murder by reason of emotional or * perceptional insanity. - * - CITY NUISANCES, Th* Tribune gave some account, a few weeks since, of a cue in Paris in which the au thorities took official cognizance of the piano nuisance. A single gentleman, occupying bachelor apartments, had applied for protection. against the incessant dramming and banging of the piano by a young woman who lodged in un comfortable proximity, and whose musical per severance tortured him, as ho thought, be yond the measure of hia sins. The Paris Justice, who possibly knew how it was himself, prescribed certain hours in which young and industrious pianists, lodging in houses where thin partitions prevail, may prac tise the scales to their heart’s content, and other hours when ■ man’s inalienable right to eat and sleep in peace shall not be trampled down by musical amateurs who abound in all large cities. It may have been this liberal application of the common law which prompted a resident of a London suburb to apply to the Hammersmith Police Court for protection against the screech ing of a peacock at untimely hours of the mern- ‘ ing, from the precincts of a neighboring back yard. If anything under the sim could be main tained in a court of justice it is that a peacock’s notes are shrill, piercing, discordant, and vile beyond description, and that it is the habit of this fowl to indulge his musical villainy at even more unseemly hours than the amateur pianists. It devolved upon the complainant, however, to prove this, and the result showed that there are two sides even to the argument on a peacock’s vocal attractions. The complainant set up that he had an invalid wife whom this saw-filing bird was killing by inches. The attending physician was called and testified that the screeching of the peacock, which began about 3 o’clock in the morning, was really injuring his patient. Per contra, the defendant’s counsel contended that the sight of so handsome a bird was conducive to health and longevity. One witness expressed himself delighted with the musical achievements of the peacock, and the defendant’s daughter stated that she and her slater were accustomed to wake up at the first, sound of the peacock’s voice, and then “ turned round and went to sleep again.” The inference from this is that a peacock’s song is a sort of a natural soporific equal to hops or hydrate of chloral. The Magistrate finally dismissed the case. If we should take only the result in the Paris case and that in the London case, the conclusion would be that per sistent and vigorous thrumming upon a piano is a greater nuisance than apeacock’s vocalization. This is possible; but the London Magistrate seems, to have been convinced that there was good cause for the complaint against the pea cock, and ho only refused to suppress the melo dious bird because he could find no statute or precedent that would justify such action. Peacocks and pianos aro not the only metro politan nuisances which cannot well be abated, and Fads and London aro not the only cities where they prevail.- George EBot says that a cock crows early in the morning just as if, for sooth, the snn had got up bn purpose to hear him. This is a sample of the characteristic con ceit of all early-risors. It has been condensed into the proverb that the early bird catches the •worm. It is also significant of the arrogance with which the staple metropolitan nuisances assert their impertinent and irrepressible char acteristics. There is the musical enthusi ast, who scrapes and scratches on his violin of a Sunday morning when ho ought to go to church and let his neighbor stay at home in peace and quiet. No neighborhood is complete without a dog that bays at the moon, or a cat that gathers in a select party of acquaintances for a midnight concert, or a goat that brings his perfumery or pokes his pertinacious nose into your back-yard. If there are none of these, there is sure to be a steam whistle two squares distant, or a next door parrot that provokingly learns to call your servants dr your children, or a mocking-bird that viciously imitates cat-calls and the yelping of dogs, and sings boat at midnight. The inevitable hand-organ has of late years been supplemented by °™«H troubadours who scrape a violin in about the same position and manner they would saw a stick of wood and twang on a harp after a fashion that would set David raving mad. The number of peddlers—the rag-man, the fish-man, the orange-man, etc. —who make early morning hideous, increases with the growth of every city, and they cultivate a monotony that extends to all the various trades and to all quarters of the globe. 'When the cry of “Fresh fish 1" is heard at 6 o’clock in the morning, mispronounced so that it sounds like “ Dried beef!” one may imag ine himself in New York, London, Paris, or Berlin. ; It Bounds alike in all languages and aB cities. There is a sort of tradition about it. handed down a long lino Of generations and dif fusing itself wherever the pernicious custom ob tains of driving around carts and feeding horses on the new trees you have set out along your sidewalk. If Sancho Panin, who said •‘God bless the • man who invented sleep,” had lived' in a city with its variations on pianos, peacocks, fiddles, hand-organs, harps, dogs, cats, parrots, pets, goats, peddlers, steam whistles, et id genus omne, he would have relig iously cursed the metropolitan Macbeths who murder sleep. If there is any excuse for pro fanity or taking the law into one’s own hands, the most severe moralists will admit that it is to ho ■found "in' that class of puisances of which the Paris piano case and the London peacock case are the legal representatives. Prof. Otto Struve has succeeded in. obtaining a sight of the'companion-star to Procyon, the existence of which was announced eleven year* ago by Dr. Anwers. after a careful cslcnlatioh of the movements of the principal star. Prpcyon_ is the leading star in_ the constellation, of the teaser Dog. The existence of the com* .panion-Btar to.Sirius,. the brightest star in the ; Greater.Dog, was aimflarly suspected for. many years before the minute speck of light was first seen, in 1862, through the glass : now in the, equatorial refractor at Chicago. Since the arrival| .of the glass in this city it has done no such: work. In the hands of our Astronomical it is unused and unusable. ; A .Washington dispatch to an evening organ” in thin city, at present representing the Pension Agency, says that the Treasury Department: contemplates a flank movement on Messrs. Phelps, Dodge & Co., and intimates that Secre tary Bichardson would bring a criminal proceed ing against the firm, which has not been barred ont by the compromise, if .it were, not for “ the desire of the Treasury Department not to render itself liable to a charge of persecution in'this case.” A dispatch of this Kind, communicated to : an Administration newispaper, looks as though there were persecution indeed. It is much more of a persecution of Messrs. Phelps, Dodge & Co. to spread abroad the impression that the Gov ernment might bring criminal suit, and is de terred by motives of charity, than if such suit were actually brought. If the Government «n‘nim that it has a good case against these gen tlemen, or any of them, why does itnot come into the courts with it ? Shall the Government set the example of compounding felony ? Or te it fair or decent to take . advantage of its position to calumniate men’s characters while it refrains from coming into court and making good its insinuations by proof ? We have had enough of this irresponsi ble blackening of character in the Phelps-Dodgo case. The Government will not make itself any more liable to the charge of persecution if it brings criminal suit than if it remains under the present strong suspicion that it has lent it self to help informers, detectives, and spies carry out an infamous blackmailing scheme. The court is just where this case ought to have come long ago, and the Government should have no hesitation in bringing it there. If the Government fails to do so, Messrs. Phelps, Dodge & Co. should take the initiative. We printed last week an account of an at tempted killing of one editor at Atlanta, Ga., by another. Mr. Bt. Clair-Abrams undertook to shoot Mr. Cary Stiles because Mr. Cary Stiles had said to somebody else that Mr. St. Clair- Abrams had negro blood in his veins. . The kill ing was postponed for the time being. On the, same day that this affair occurred at Atlanta, there was an actual homicide at Opelika, Ala. Mr. Thomas Phillips, who had held various offices in that county, and was a most estimable and honored citizen, was shot and killed by one John Hooper. The story of the causes leading to the killing runs that Mr. Phillips and his wife and a number of colored per sons were involuntary witnesses to some act of indecency on the part of Hooper and a young woman; that, next day, Phillips admonished Hooper on his conduct; and that, while Phillips made no further mention of it, the affair was soon made public; whereupon Hooper sought Phillips and shot him, killing him instantly. The lady involved was of respectable social standing. The Atlanta Herald published a full report of this affair; and now another Hooper, brother of John Hooper, has written a letter denouncing the EerdUls correspondent as a falsifier, and demanding his name. The edi tor of the Herald is the Mr. .St. Clair-Abrams who figured in the other slander case ; and, if ho refuses to give up the name of the corre spondent, ho will have to deal with Mr. Hooper, and, if ho gives the name, then the correspond ent will probably have to attend to oomo shooting. - Gen. Tan Suren, tho deposed Chief Commis sioner of the United States at Vienna, has :writ ton a letter to tho New York papers which is cal culated to strengthen the impression that he has been badly treated, so long as the Government fails to produce substantial evidence of his guilt. Ho attention to the fact that Mr. Jay said, inhis dispatch to the State Department, that “ There is nothing whatever affecting tho integ rity of the Chief Commissioner, Gen. Tan Boren.” He says that the only tangible charge which he can discover is that Gen. Mayer, one of the sub ordinate Commissioners, had borrowed money from men who had already secured places for tho establishment of restau rants. But, if the Government can produce nothing more than this, it will bo difficult to jus tify its conduct in summarily deposing Gen. Tan Buren, blackening his name, and bringing odium upon his family, and putting additional disgrace upon the American people. Gen. Tan Buren expresses the fullest confidence that he will be righted in time. ‘ ‘ But what reparation,’ he asks pertinently, 11 can be made for the gross indignity that has been visited upon myself and the gentlemen associated with me ?” We be lieve that Gen. Van Buren is the kind of man to follow up his persecutors, if wrong has been done him, and we hope that the responsibility of the “black smutch," as Bayard Taylor has properly called the whole transaction, will be traced to the quarter whore it belongs. It is elated that there are already22,soo claims on file before the Commission on SouthornLoyal Claims. This Commission was appointed under an act of March 3,1871, authorizing citizens of the seceded States, who had remained loyal to the Union cause to present bills for property ntynoeoMarily taken or destroyed by United States forces. The time for the presentation of these claims was limited to two years originally, but it is now intimated that Congress will make an extension, so that the list may yet be materially enlarged. The Commission is now issuing a pamphlet containing a hat and descrip tion of the claims presented thus , far, in order that the Federal officers in various parte of the country may report on such cases as they maybe familiar with. It is probable that there will be many efforts to swindle the Government under the cover of these claims. The 'Washing ton correspondent of the Boston Globe says that many of the honest advocates of secession are scandalized at seeing so many people who acted with them now coming forward to disclaim their Bebel attachments in order to taka advantage of ■tho present opportunity... Ho cites one case, in which a Virginia lady was expelled from a South ern Methodist congregation for thus forswear ing her former sentiments. The sincere ex- Bebela may now do the State some service by exposing those shams wherever they find them. ■ An important decision was rendered recently in the Council Bluffs (Iowa) District Court, which will be of interest to the order of Odd Eel loira. 1 The case was substantially as follows: Margaret Holloway and R. Holloway, her bus* band r were members of the Odd Fellows’ Protec tive Association of Council Bluffs, In April last the wife died.' One Hippie; of'Keokuk, held a judgment against both- husband and wife, and garnisheed, the Association to .which they he* Tonged: The Association made' answer that it was indebted *to Holloway- In - the mm of SI,OOO, hut moved; to discharge the garnishee on the ground that it was a life insur ance company, and, therefore, that it came -withindhe statute exempting policies pflife'izt*' suranco from liability for the. debts of the inJ surod. The salt was finally carried'up to the District Court, and the Court sustained this view of the case. In the language of the de< cision, “ A wife dying whoso life was insured, the creditor of the husband, if the policy was in favor of the husband, could not reach the pren ceeds of the policy.” The’case will bo carried to the Supreme Court of the State. ~ The New York Tribune having held up as' aq example to the American women who are visit* ing Europe the lady of - Charente who hired out as a servant one year, sending her entire waged to the National Treasury to help pay the Get* ’man indemnity, the New ‘York World calls aU tention. to the fact that the average contribution* of the American , women since the war far ex* ceed those of the. lady of. Charente. It take* •the case of the annual expenditure of a servant* girl in New York, as follows: Cost In Articles, • - Jv.F. Taxi 30 yards of calico, 20 cents per yard $6.00 .$2.00 15 yards alpaca, 50 cents per yard 7.50 S.OO 3 pairs shoes, $4 per pair 12.00 4.00 6 pairs hose, 40 cents per'pair 2.40 80 Underclothing 8.00 2.00 1 woolen shawl 6.00 2.00 1 bonnet , 6.00 2.00 Hair-pins..... Pina Sundry other articles.... Total This tax of 318.20 paid by the servant-girl since 1865 amounts in the eight years to 3115.60, while the contribution of the woman of Charcots was 350. What is paid by this one girl is paid by all the other women of the country,' accord* ing to their, expenditure.' Tinder the Prencb law, the 360 of the woman of Oharente wont into -the Treasury; while, under our law,-of the $145.60 paid by each American woman,- only $46 was paid into the National Treasury,—the re mainder being paid over to swell the profits ol the manufacturers. A few days since, we credited the Government with an economical streak in saving the Treasury several thousand dollars by the consolidation ol several diplomatic representations to the petty Central American Republics. There is evttentlj room for still further economy. The Treasury Department keeps two wagons to carry its maik and other packages. One of these is & two* horse offico-wagon, and the other a one-horse wagon. It appears from the report made by the Superintendent of the Treasury building, on Feb. 3,1873, that u the care of horses for m&Q and office-wagons and repairs of wagons and harness” for this Department cost the Govern ment, during the last fiscal year, $11,687.45. Out of this amount, $2,699.93 were expended foi repairing these two wagons, and the repairs ol harness, $1,131.88. In the aggregate, it hak cost nearly SI,OOO & month to keep, these .two wagons running, and $225 per month for repair! alone, although the work done is .very light in character. The amount saved in the diplomatic department is almost offset by the amount ; wasted in the official stables,- In commenting upon the late Boatonfirp, thfl Springfield Republican supposes that Hie Man sard mil como ; in for the anathema usual in such cases, but suggests that it would be 'more ap propriate to blame tho practice of'tolerating great furniture establishments in the densest business portions of large cities; "It was hi one of these repositories that tho lata -Boston firs originated, and also in a similar establishment that the fire broke out which swept a block Of stores on Wabash avenue, in this city, Mon day afternoon. Thera is no doubt that’there would bo great protection against Are In dtj regulations that should prescribe limits for all groat storehouses of especially combustible mar teriah In the largo furniture establishments it is customary to do tho finishing part: of the manufacture, and tho work is of a character to seriously jeopardize surrounding property. Foi selling purposes, it would not bo necessary to do this work or to keep on band so large an amonnl of inflammable material on the same premises with tho stores. Ocean freights on grain have been advancing at Now York for some time, and have at last reached 13 pence sterling per bushel to Liver pool. This is equal to 2G cents in gold. Amen canmoney. The reason for this advance is the insufficient supply of vessels. We receive from Europe every year 100,000 immigrants, who pajr for their passage hither in vessels owned abroad. All tho freights wo receive from Europe, and we send abroad, are transported in foreign owned vessels. Though wo have the greatest abundance of tho best material for ship-bmld ing, the law of tho United States so taxes that material that wo cannot build ships; the law prohibits our purchase of ships; and we are . indebted to other countries for the , means of getting to and from Europe, and of sending our exports and mskmg our imparts. Wo might bo the ship-builder for all other countries, or might bo the earner of the commerce of the ocean; but the law says w® shall not, and the country must submit. ; The Maryland Diocesan Convention of Protestant Episcopal Church, now in ae^mid Baltimore, has taken ah important stepforwsru in repealing the..,canon of lay, discipline for* bidding theatrical exhibitions and other vain and light amusements. Tho action of the Car vention meets with the approval of tbelaitfi hut the venerable Bishop of Maryland, got too old to enjoy- amusements of any hind, has filed a protest against , tho repeal, ah* _ dares that he shall not consider himself boaM by tho action of the Convention. ANOTHER SPECIES OF DEAD-HEADING. Ottawa, HL, Jans t, To the Editor 0} The Chicago Tribune : _ ' ~ A ‘ Sm: lam in possession of a headism practised by the Inier- Ocean. . A* greasmah Palmer is franeing letters on for tho office. Its written instructions to sentativesof the Inter- Ocean in regar , tion-retnms were sent out in of that' character, the upper bearing the frankof may not bv dead-heading on th ® P“lS itof4 :ji»rt per, bm certainly very few yet reached such a depth. Ibe*® B it the envelopes in question, and can when necessary. 1 hope Tua Tmauss its metropolitan .tiality it has tho poor arantry devOa, sin is, that theyoccMionaUynde.“£££ 0I1 » pass, or go to a on&horsa I, , dead-head ticket. lours very truly,. n 6.00; 2.00 ,ssi.9o tiaja

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