Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune, June 9, 1873, Page 4

Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune dated June 9, 1873 Page 4
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4 TERMS OF THE TRIBUNE. TXRMB 07 BUCRCnifTIOM (TATAR!,!* IN ADVANOB). 1 v.-.v. ;; S S:88 I'atls of a roar at tho tamo rate. To prevent dolny ami mistakes, bo euro and r|to Post Oflco address In lull, Including State and Count)'. IlojnlUftticca may bo msdo either bydroft, express, Post Olßco order, or in registered toilers, at our risk. THUMB TO OITT BUDBORIHEnS. Daily, delivered, Sunday excepted. Sft cent* per week. Daily, delivered, Sunday included, 80 cents por week. Address THE TRIBUNE COMPANY, Corner Madison and Uosrbora-sti., Chicago, 111. TO-DAY'S AMUSEMENTS. HOOLRY'S THEATRE—Randolph street, between Clark and LaSalle. "Miriam's Crime," and *'Yo Gen tle Savage." MoVIOKRR'B THEATRE—Madison street, between Dearborn and State. The Katie Putnam Troupe. “Bet; or Through Fire and Water." ACADEMY OF MUSIC ({Mated street, between Madison and Monroe. Thentro Oumlauo Combination. MYERS' OPERA HOUSK-Monroe street, between Blato and Dearborn. Moran A Manning's Mlnslrols. BUSINESS NOTICES. LYON'S INSECT POWDER IS USED BY ALL ocean atoamsra, hotels, and restaurants, for clearing them of bugs, fleas, worms, nnd nata. ROYAL HAVANA LOTTERY—WE SOLD IN drawing of S3d April last tho SLOO.pOO jprlxp. Ulrculan pont; information given. <l. D. MARTINEZ A 00., Bankers, 10 Wall-st. P. O. Box 4685. Now York. KIDNEYS AND LIVER—JAPANESE KIDNEY Tills, por Jar, S2O currency i Japanese Livor Pills, por Jap, S2O currency. Ono jar is sufficient to cure either dhoaae, radically. Roglator your lolteni. O. A. MOL LEUT, 431 Dupont-sl., Ban Francisco. Cal., Solo Agent fur North Amorlco. Uht O&Sbwne. Monday Morning, Juno 0, 1873. According to tho latcat figures, Cralg’a major ities foot up' 4,494; Judge Lawrence's, 1,707. Tins gives Craig a not majority of 2,040. Tho Constituent Cortes, In accordance with President Figueraa’ proposal, has replaced tho Provisional Government of Spain by the procla mation of the Federal Republic. There wore but two dissenting votes. ilomphis reports twenty-two deaths from cholera, but claims that this is no greater than its usual ravages at this season. Nashville has been badly frightened over a dally average of seven deaths from tho same disease, but believes that tho worst is over. Tho Republican troops in tho Province of Bar celona have broken into open revolt at Ignolava. Gon. Velarde, helpless to reduce them to sub jection, was compelled to fly to save his life, aud has resigned his commission. A strong detach ment of Government troops has boon sent to tho scone of disorder. Tho farmers of Richland County, Ohio, hold a Convention on Saturday. Resolutions were sub mitted denouncing tho railroad, salary, land, tariff, and all tho other steals of tho day, and declaring that both our political parties wore corrupt and unworthy of confidence. Tho Ad ministration men made a bitter fight against' tho passage of any such resolutions, and rroro able to postpone their adoption. Without taking any action, tho Convention ad journed to moot again on tho 23d inst. A comparison of Thiers* last speech in tho National Assembly with tho utterances of Mao- Wahon shows that thoy both agree in tho aim of their administrations. Franco, Thiers said, wanted a Government which should sternly re press all internal commotions aud free its terri tory from tho presence of tho Gorman -invader, nnd needed no foreign alliauco beyond tho respect of other nations. President Mac- Mahon holds tho same views as to foreign and do zncatio policy, and has taken pains to inform tho world that ho has succeeded Thiors only because of a disagreement botwoon tho ox-Fresidont and tho Assembly concerning tho moans by which Franco is to bo guided to these ends. Tho Elkhorn bridge ou tho Union Pacific Rail road broke down under a passenger train yester day, and tho engine and tho mail, express, and baggage cars wore thrown into tho river. But one life* was lost. Ono of tho wrecked cars was loaded with 80,000 live young floh in tanka, whoso transit through this city was noticed tho other day. They wero of a dozen different varieties, and wore consigned to tho California Fish Associa tion, to bo used in the pisciculture of tho Pa cific Coast. This unusual freight had boon brought all tho way in safety from Charlestown, Maas., only to bo thus precipitately returned to Us native element In tho rivers of Nebraska. Thp merchants of Chicogo, many of whom, for some incomprehensible reason, foiled to per ceive tho drift of tho ooutrovorsy on tho rail road question in tho rocout session of tho Legis lature, or to tako any interest in tho discussion while tho matter was ponding, havo just begun to discover that something is tho matter. A heavy soap-manufacturor of this city, who has heretofore had a profitable market for his soap in Poorla aud tho surrounding country, suddenly finds himself without a market iu that city. Ho can't ship by rail at a profit, aud ho can't ship by canal because it takes too long. Whether tho consumers of soap in tho neighborhood of Peoria can see their advantage in it may also bo doubted. Tho Chicago produce markets wore quiet on Saturday, except wheat and oats. Hess pork was dull and steady, at 815.50@1G.65 cash, and $15.80@15.85 seller July. Lard was quiet and a shade Armor, at $8.35 por 100 lbs cash, and $8.60 seller July. Moats wore quiet and unchanged, at for shoulders, for short ribs, B%@B|4c for short clear, and 10@12o for sweet-pickled hams, Ilighwinoo were quiet and unchanged, at 000 por gallon, Lake freights wore dull and lo lower, at Co for corn to Buffalo. Flour was dull and easier. Wheat was excited and So higher, but closed weak, at $1.24% cash, and seller July. Corn was quiet and yo higher, closing at 84%@34.%0 cash, and 07K@88o seller July. Oats wore active higher, closing at cash, and 29%’@29%° seller July. Bye was dull and easier at Clo. Barley was inactive and nominal at G3@730 for poor to good No. 2. Hogs wore active and ad vanced 6@loo, closing Arm at $1.00@1.56. The cattle and sheep markets wore quiet and un changed. The Chicago Times has soon At, editorially and otherwise, to indulge in some very able bodied blackguardism because of an annoying error which appeared in Tub Tribune, with ref erence to ono of tho Jubiloo concerts, by which a criticism of tbo overture to "Tannhausor" was printed instead of tho overture to "William Toll," which was in reality performed. As the came error occurred in tho Times of tho samo day, it would have boon more consistent for that ppor to have reserved its abuse for Us own critic, and nob to abuse others for commuting an error which it made itself. With reference to the manner in which the error occurred In Tim Tnimnm, wo rise to ex plain. The writer of the paragraph In question was present on Thursday morning, when the overture to "Tannhausor’* was rehearsed. It wont very badly, so badly that Mr. Gilmore worked upon It for a long time, and, as it even tuated, very properly out it from the programme. The writer took some notes of the rehearsal, also of the two succeeding concerts, on the same slip of paper. At night, in the hurry and con fusion of writing his article, the writer trans ferred from his notes the comments upon "Tannhausor,” overlooking the substitution. Wo tfopo the Times has an excuse equally good. THE CASE OF JUDGE LAWRENCE AGAIN. An idea seems to prevail in tho Fifth Judicial District of Illinois, and in some other places, that If Judges can bo elected to declare tho law to bo different from what it is, tho poor man will presently bo in a much bettor position than bo was before, while the rich, and especially rich corporations, will bo provided with a muoh noodod curb to cheek thoir grasping tendencies. Wo do not perceive in this widoly-provalont de lusion any Communistic notions, for it Is cosy to see ' that those who have taken it up would bo among tho first to suffer from a redistribution of property. They are, for tho most part, fore-handed persons— those who have saved something; who have ac quired farms, horses, cattle, implements, oto., and who could as littlo afford to divide thoir ac cumulations with thoso who havo saved nothing as could A. T. Stewart or Commodore Vander bilt. In foot, they could loss afford it, because if Stewart and Vanderbilt wore turned Into tho street to-day with only ton dollars aploco, thoir experience, prudence, and skill (which are not subject to arbitrary division) would soon put them In. bettor positions than tho average. Honco wo say that tho motives and impulses which led to the defeat of Judge Lawrence ,on account of a decision obnoxious to Ignorant prejudice wore not of a Communistic sort, although they havo some resemblance thereto. Tho notion is, that if the administration of Juatico can bo overturned, or subordinated to tho decrees of a town mooting (which Is tho same thing), then the* millennium of tho poor man will come in—tho poor man be ing always in tho majority. It may bo that this vicious and uncivilized notion will run Its course until cured by contact and collision with ono remarkable fact, viz., that law and Jurisprudence wore invented to protect tho poor against tho rich, the strong against tho weak, tho ignorant against tho cunning; that civilization con sists in nothing else than in furnishing to tho poor, the weak, aud tho ignorant tho same advantages legally which are possessed by tho rich, tho strong, and tho cunning naturally. In tho times when man was little more civilized than the gorilla, Mr. Darwin tolls us that there was a struggle for existence, and that the stronger and more perfect specimens of tho r&co crushed out tho weaker and loss perfect. It was not necessary for Mr. Darwin to toll us this, for tho globe is covered with tho proofs of it, written and unwritten. Thoso wore tho days when might mode right, 11 Ero human statute purg’d tho general weal." Whatever progross mankind has mado from a savage state has boon accomplished by substi tuting law for might, and putting into the hands of tho humblest and weakest suitable and suffi cient machinery to obtain justice from tho pow erful and unscrupulous, wherosoovor his rights are infringed upon. In tho courso of ages thoro has grown up, in pursuance of this com mon movement of mankind, a code known as the common law. This Is tho codo which a Chicago newspaper declares is unsnitod to tho people of Illinois, because it is “an outgrowth of monarchical institutions"! This is tho codo, for thorough knowledge and impar tial administration of which Judge Law rence has boon driven from tho Conch. It happens that a confidential attor ney of tho Chicago, Darlington & Quincy Railroad —ono who has hold that relation for ton years consecutively—has boon substituted in his place. And hero wo find an illustration of tho point with which wo began this article—that when in tho courso of human events it is doomed necessary to overturn law and to substitute tho decrees of town mootings for tho decisions of courts, tho rich and powerful will tako care of themselves, while tho poor and ignorant will not bo takon care of at all. Thoro is no fear that any man possess ing a hundred thousand dollars will not bo well protoctod under such a regime. Ail his rights will bo secure. Ho will attend to that himself. To poddlo decisions for votes is no worso than to pcddlo thorn for money. Doth involve perjury. Doth require that tho Judge shall violate tho oath which bo takes to deal Justly and impartially. To un derstand how tho community would be situated in such a caso, just fancy that all laws aud courts wore abolished—for that is what is moaut by electing Judges to doddo this way or that way, according to tho real or supposed wishes of tho majority. It would bo much cheaper to abolish tho lawa and courts at onco, for that would savo tho salaries of tho Judges, and would como to tho samo thing in tho end. Tho laws and courts being abolished, who is most likely to suitor ? Tho rich can biro protection, the strong can protect thorn solves, tho cunning con evade injury, while tho groat mass of tho people must Buffer every spe cies of wrong aud injury against which tho law now shields thorn, and on account of which law and its administration havo boon toilsomoly wrought out during forty oonluriosof tho world's history. Tho vory last to suffer from tho abol ishment of laws and courts will bo tho “ mam moth corporations," whoso accumulated capital, armlos of servants, discipline, and adroitness of management will always socuro to thorn all that thoy aro entitled to iu any condition of society whore it is possible for tho mass of mankind to maintain an oxistouco. There is a rumor among the legal profession of this city that tho Supremo Judges havo re vived the notion of resigning which some of them seriously contemplated at tho time Judge Thornton withdrew from tho Couch. Tho reason for this rumored action is materially tho same as that which prompted Us consideration in the Arst instance, strengthened by tho manner in which Judge Lawrouco was defeated, and the necessary Inference that a Judge must pander to tho popu lar excitement of tho time if ho desires to retain his position on tho Couch. Tho resignation of tho Supremo Judges, or any number of them, at this time, would bo a more serious disaster than the defeat of Judgo Lawrouco, and almost a breach of faith with those. THE CHICAGO DAILY TRIBUNE: MONDAY, JUNE 9, 1873. who havo no sympathy with tho popu lar rage of tho moment, and who look to tho Su premo Court to protect tho interests of tho peo ple oven against their own misguided conduct. Tho election of Mr. Oraig in no wise Jeopardizes tho usefulness of the Supremo Bench, for, oven if it shall prove that ho accepts hia election in tho spirit of a class-agent, tho Oourt, which was bofoi'o unanimously opposed to tho recognition of class-demands, will have a minority consist ing of only ono member opposed bo It. Tho election of Mr. Bcholilold in Judge Thornton’s place is simply tho substitution of ono good man and ablo lawyer for another. On tho other hand, tho resignation of tho remain ing Supremo Judges would bo to take away tho only practical opposition to tho present wild purpose of "reversing” tho Su preme Court, and to givo the fanatics who insist upon this creed full scope to work out their short-sighted folly. It would bo tho fruition of tho insane movement whioh has resulted In tho defeat of Judge Lawrence, and which has noth ing whatever to do with tho farmers* fight against monopoly. Wo do not boliovo that tho Supremo Judges are prepared to take so serious a respon sibility upon thoir shouldorsaswouldbo involved in their resignation at tho present time. They owe a duty to tho people oven in spite of popu lar abuse, and they must not betray the Judiciary of tho State into tho hands of domogognos, which they would bo likely to do by resigning now.” THE FATE OF THE MODOC ASSASSINS. Under the clear and well-written opinion of Attorney-General Williams, which is published elsewhere in this issue, there la no doubt that tho Modoc murderers of Gon. Gauby and Mr. Thomas will bo brought to a speedy trial before a military commission, and sentenced to ho hanged. Gon. Davis has already indicated his conviction of tho necessity of proceeding in this way, in order to impress upon tho hostile Indi ans ovory where that they may not with impunity break faith and commit murder; and, now that tho legal department of tho Government has clearly demonstrated his right to try Capt. Jack and bis murderous companions without further formality, tho Indian sentimentalists will scarce ly bo ablo to defeat his policy. Thorocan bo no reasonable doubt that tho United Statos Government has fall authority to act In the case of tho captured Modoos Just as it would bo justified in treating a foreign foe under tho same circumstances. The privilege demanded by tho various Indian tribes, that they shall bo regarded as separate nations, bos always boon conceded by the United States Government. Tho power of making treaties has boon accorded to thorn, and it Is in this shape that all agree ments botwoon thorn nnd tho Government havo boon made. They have assumed tho war-mak ing power, and, from timo to time, havo organ ized wars against tho United Statos of long duration and bloody results. On these grounds thoro could bo no other way of dealing with tho Indians than ac cording to tho usages of civilized war fare, whioh constitute a common law of nations ponding hostilities. It is a declared principle of martial law that a prisoner of war remains an swerable, of tor hia capture, for crimes committed boforo his capture, and, under this rulo, Jack and his associates in tho murder of Canby and Thomas aro answerable to military authority, ‘ and not to tho local civil law which is suspended during a war.. Attorney-General Williams is of tho opinion that tho Modocs should ho tried boforo a military commission instead of a court-martial, as their crime does not come under tho military statutes bat under the common law of war. Ho cites as precedents tho trial of Mexican officers boforo a military commission during tho Mexican War, when they had broken parole; tho trial and execution of Wirz for his barbarous treatment of Union prisoners at AndorsonvUlo; and tho hanging of tho assassins of President Lincoln under con viction by a similar tribunal. Tho crime com mitted by Jack and his followers—tho assassina tion of tho hearers of a flag of truce—ls properly regarded os ono of tho most horriblo known to tho law of war, and it naturally comes under the summary jurisdiction of a military commission. The opinion of Attorney-General Williams Is timely and important. Thoro is littlo doubt that tho Indian sentimentalists of tho Interior Depart ment would h&vo made an effort to intorcedo in behalf of tho Modoc assassins if they had been turned over to tho civil authorities. Thoir ac tion in tho cases of Satanta and Big Tree has already indicated the extent to which this class of persons will carry thoir mockery of mercy. In tho hands of a military commission tho coun try may fool certain that Jack and his compan ions will moot thoir Just doom ; and, as Indians havo a special aud wholesome dread of hanging, tho execution of thoso wretches, will probably accomplish moro in tho interest of frontier peace than many regiments of soldiers and hosts of Indian Agents. THE "CREATURE" AND THE 4 ‘ CREATOR.” A correspondent asks of The Thiddne some information in regard to tho rolationa of 41 crea ture " and 44 creator," which have formed the staple of tho resolutions passed by numerous farmers' mootings, and applied to charters issued by tho State to various railroad corporations. Tho oaso of tho Alton & Bt. Louis Railroad is ono in point. Under tho charter granted by tho Stato of Illinois, this road is authorized to fix its own rates of freight and passenger transpor tation. Some years after granting this privilege, tho Stato passes a law under which is presented a certain uniform and fixed rate for all tho rail roads lying within Illinois, and demands that tho Alton A Bt. Louis Railroad shall conform to it, Tho Railroad Company sots up tho contract under its charter that it shall bo permitted to establish its own rates, and refuses to surrender tho privilege. Tho Supreme Court holds that this contract is valid, and that tho Alton A St. Louis Railroad may resist tho arbi trary infringement of tho Stato Legislature, and continue to fix its own rates so long os it does not transgress tho principle of common law which demands that rates of transportation shall bo reasonable, and that thoro shall bo no unjust discrimination. Thereupon tho fanners pro ceed deliberately to 44 rovorso" tho Supromo Court on tho ground that tho Railroad Company is tbo croaturo of the Stato, and that 44 tho croa turo can in no coso bo superior to tho creator." This Is tho dootrino of secession. It Is pre cisely tho samo principle which tho Southern States applied to demonstrate tholr right to withdraw from tho Union. They hold that tho General Government—tho creature—could not bo superior to. tho States—tho creator { and that tho States could not dologato to tho Central Government powers which they had not tho right to recall. When tho Qonoral Government began to assume a shape which was uusatlsfao- Tory to them, they proposed to exorcise thoir righto as creator, aud sot up another General Government which suited them bettor. Thio was tho Justification for secession. Tho dootriuo found many believers. Tho majority of tho cit zons of cloven States gave In thoir adherence to It, and believed in It so religiously that they took up arms In the cause, contended for thoir as sumed right fiercely for four years, ond sacri ficed thoir property, thoir homos, and thoir lives to establish tho theory that " tho creature can In no case bo superior to tho creator." At that timo, however, and os applied to tho right of a Slate Government to recall tho powers It had delegated to tho Federal Government, tho farm ers of tho North and tho Northwest bad no sym pathy with thoso relations of creature and cre ator whioh they now advocate. They woro among tho readiest to respond to tho call of tho Fodoral Government for volunteers to resist this theory and to put down its application. They ■ rushed •to arms willingly * nnd oagorly to crush out a fallacy which thoy rightly concluded would load to universal anarchy. Thoy made tho noblest sacrifices In tho work of overcoming its advocates, and thoy aro to-day cheerfully paying taxes to discharge tho national debt incurred in dofonso of tho obligation of a contract, by which tho Statos delegated ton Cen tral Government certain authority which a num ber of them subsequently proposed to recall. Wo presume that no largo number of tho formers have committed themselves to tho in consistency and folly of supporting tho doctrine which will Justify secession at any timo. Wo prefer to think that those who havo applied tho secession theory to tho railroad question havo done so unmindful of its tmo import. It is probable that many of thorn havo taken thoir cuo from tho Ohioago Times, which has had a good deal to say about "creator” and "creature.* But thoy must remember that tho Times has always advocated tho dootriuo, and favorod its application to tho right of secession as well as tho right of recalling privileges granted away in Stato charters. Tho Times was in open sympathy with tho seceded States, and never missed on opportunity during tho War to oxiond to thorn such comfort and aid as It dared to express. But, at that timo, tho farmers woro all ranged on tho other side, and denounced tho Rebel sentiment of tho Times as vigorously as they fought to put down tho Bohol army. Tho Times is, therefore, only following out its native instinct in its present advocacy of tho dootrlno that "tho croaturo con in no case bo superior to tho creator,’* but tho farmers, in adopting it, would forswear tho loyalty which prompted them to fight for tho maintonauceof tho Fodoral Gov ernment. If tho Stato is in all cases greater than that which it brings into being, then it is in all cases superior to tho Fodoral Government, whioh was tho product of Stato concessions. If tho formers hold this to ho truo, tho danger may present itself at any timo when thoy will bo called upon to admit tho right of ovory Stato to withdraw from tho Union. To this danger must ho added another, viz: tho invalidi ty of all contracts at any timo whoro tho princi pal of tho contracting parties may dosiro to ab rogate tho agreement. It is supremo folly for tho farmers to expose themselves to thoso dan gers when tho highest Oourt in tho Stato de clares that tho railroads, no matter what thoir charters may bo, aro prohibited under tho com mon law from charging unreasonable rates or making unjust discriminations. THE RAILROAD QUESTION IN IOWA. Tno Auti-Monopoly Convention which mot at Dos Moines on tho 7th inst., composed mainly of formers and mechanics, will probably oxort an important influence upon politics hi lowa. Liko tho Livingston County Convention in this State, tho Dos Moines Convention assumed an iudopondout attitude, and mado tho preliminary arrangements for organizing a now party outside of tho two existing parties, tho stops taken in this direction being tho adoption of a resolution to call a State Convention on tho 18th of August, to nominate a county ticket, and to select delegates to a State Convention; a State Cen tral Committee was also appointed. The resolutions which woie adopted sufficiently re veal the issues upou which tho anti-monopolists will go Into tho next campaign. They declare that they will support no mau for oillco who is not in full accordance with their principles; that class legislation is subversive of Bopublican principles; that V the doctrine of vested rights under which railroads claim exemption from legislative control cannot exist without infring ing on tho rights of people general ly ”; and that tho giving of salaries to ofllcors disproportionate to the finan cial returns of labor in industrial pursuits should bo stopped. Tho resolutions close with an emphatic condemnation of tho Congressional salary steal and of tho action of tho President in signing tho bill, and they demand its re peal. Most of thoso resolutions touch upon ques tions which ore of pressing importance, and in volve reforms which ore proper issues in a po litical campaign. In altering tho relations now existing between tho railroads and tho Legisla ture, however, tho anti-monopolists should take care lost tho remedy prove worse than thodlsoaso. Tho Legislature of Illiuols has passed a law making railway charges proportionate to dis tances. Some of tho roads which It affects run to tho Mississippi lUvcr, connecting with lowa roods which wore built with special reference to Chicago and other Eastern markets. Say that tho rate of charges in this State is 5 cents for CO miles, then it will bo 10 cents for 100 miles, 15 cents for ICO miles, and so on. Now, if tho Legislature of lowa adopts a similar lino of polioy, what will bo tho result P Tho rates of freight will be so Increased that it will bo abso lutely impossible to move freight from tho centre of lowa to Chicago, or any Eastern point, or to rocolvo goods in return. The further west from tho contro tho freight is to bo shipped tbo worse off will tho shippers bo. By such an insane polioy, lowa would literally fence herself off from any market at all. A very largo proportion of her producers would bo un able to ralso anything except for local consump tion. Real estate would depreciate fully one half, and tho groat cattle and com raisers in Wentem and Control lowa would find their occu pation gone, aud would discover that, In seeking to regulate railroads, they had literally regu lated tho business of production out of exist ence by cutting themselves off from a market. But, tho anti-monopolists will say, if wo can’t gob to Chicago, wo will go to St. Louis and Mil waukee. This Is plauslblo ; but thoro Is an ob stacle In the way. Tho lowa roads wore built chiefly with reference to Chicago and Now York, not to St. Louis or Milwaukee. Practi cally, they have no communication with those cities. There are now flvo principal roads in lowa, tho Dubuque & Sioux City, tbo Chicago & Northwestern, tho Chicago, Rook Island A Pa* clflo, tho Ohicngo A Southwestern, and tbo Bur lington & Missouri Bivor, with tholr re

spective branch roada or feeders, which aro tributary to pblcago, Now York, and Bouton. Those roada havo coat twenty flvo or thirty million dollars, and lmvo required many yoara to construct. To open now and sufficient routes of communication with St. Louis and Milwaukee, which aboil bo ablo to ac commodato tbo trado of lowa, la Impracticable, owing to tho want of capital,—which will bo ia no basic to mah into a State whore such doc trines provail. But suppose that tbo trado la diverted to tboso two cities. Tbo producers of lowa now have tho advantage of throo compet ing oitloa. Tho competition would then bo nar rowed down to two, and this narrowing pro cess would toll against tho whole State, while a largo part of lowa would bo destitute of a market altogether. Moreover, tho trado diverted to St. Louis must got across tbo State of Illinois somehow in its course eastward, and must come in collision with the tho Illinois pro rata law. From whatever standpoint this question is viewed, there can bo but one conclu sion. Tho regulation of tho freight tariffs in proportion to distance would in lowa bo suici dal. and its only result would bo to out that State, or a largo part of it, off from a market altogether. If, however, tbo anti-monopolists fancy that tbo railroads aro infringing upon their rights, tbo Legislature has tho remedy in Us own hands, can apply it any time, and might havo applied it long ago. Ono of its roads, tho Chicago. Bock Island & Pacific, in accepting tho land-grant, voluntarily conceded to tho Loglslaturo tho right to control its freight tariffs. Hero, therefore, is a case whore tboro Is no question of vested rights. Tho road is under tho absolute control of tho Legislature, and, if they want to tost this matter of freights by statute, why don’t they commence by regulat ing froighto on tho Chicago, Book Island & Pa cific, which they can do at any timo without violating any vested rights ? This would vir tually rogalato tho tariffs on tho other four roads, would satisfactorily test tho whole matter in controversy, and would save a groat deal of useless gabble. NOTES AND OPINION. In view of tho fact that Chief Justice Law rence, one of tho ablest and most splendid ju rists that can bo found In tho entire nation, boa through a strange and short-sighted eaprico of tho people, been thrown aside to make room for a mediocre,—a man who is utterly and fearfully incompetent to discharge tho duties of the high and responsible office of Judge of tho Supremo Court, ono may well express tho apprehension that tho system of selecting judicial officers by popular vote Is, after all, a " fallacy." In other official positions, tho accidental election of a botch or blockhead, although unfortunate, is not fatal. It is a mistake which carries no disastrous consequences with it. But to hayo an unqualified and an unfit per son elevated to an office in which are to bo settled tho most delicate, abstruse and important questions that transpire among men, and States, and communities, and for tho proper discharge of tho duties of which peculiar and distinctive qualifications aro essential, is a reproach to our popular form of government. Wo can only say that Illinois, uy electing this "political bummer," this man Craig, over Chief Justice Lawronco, has lowered itself in tho eyes of tho world .—Springfield Journal . —Thoro is no denying tho fact. It is tho County-Boat decision which defeated Charles B. Lawronco. It was tho opposition in his own county that proved his Waterloo. Hod it not boon for this, ho would havo boon nominated at Princeton and elected without opposition.— Knoxville Republican, . —Tho Hon. It. M. T. Hunter is urged for tho Conservative nomination for Qovomor of Vir ginia. It would bo difficult to fiud a man more fitted for tho position. But, while Grant is hob nobbing with that ex-guerrilla and slayer of weary stragglers, Mosby, tho Admiuistiatlon press will cry out against tho conscientious and able Hunter as an ox-robol.—J Veto York Sun. —According to tbo Springfield Republican , tho principal reason for tho failure of tho State Man agement hill for tho Hoosao Tunnel, lino, in tho Massachusetts Legislature, was that tho seem ing majority for it was not sincere and earnest. That Journal says: "It was rather a majority against tho other plans of consolidation. There are but a few people yet, at least, whoso advo cacy of State railroad management Is moro than skiu-doop. If Charles Francis Adams, Jr., and Oov. Olaflin had really believed in it, they would hardly have gone away, one to 'Vienna aud tho other to California, when tho most favorable at tempt to inaugurate tho experiment in Massa chusetts was ponding,” —lntimations are given out in various quar ters likely to bo well informed, that Mr. Dawes is likely to resign his seat in Congress from this district, and that, consequently, among the ele ments of political interest and excitement this fall will bo the choice of his successor. Why he is to resign is not so clearly intimated; but tbo supposition is a transference to tbo President’s Cabinet, or to a first-class foreign mission—n supposition which tbo peculiar political tone of Mr. Dawes' Greenfield Decoration-Day address is thought by tbo people who affect to bo wise above their generation, to greatly support.— Springfield Republican. —lt [tbo Walworth parricide] is tinctured with that straugo notion of masculine chivalry which erects women into something resembling divin ity, and punishes discourtesy to her as sacrilege. There’s a something indefinable about this maudlin sentimentalism that throws a glow of heroism round tho murder that is done under Us influence. It’s tho fashion of tho time to hold woman’s comfort, and oaso, and her good nomo of such supremo account that human Ufo weighed in tho halauco against it kicks tho beam, and society is almost ready to justify any murder that has (l a woman in tho caso.’’ It may bo that this fashion of chivalry has an olovating and ouuobllng influence; that such deference to tho goutlor sex is calculated to soften and refine tho hardness and harshness natural to man; but wo submit that it might stop somewhat short of murder. It ought uot to bo necessary to any woman’s comfort or happi ness to havo a man killed in her behalf. Hu man life should not ho hold quite so cheaply.— JVcio l r or& Tribune. —Tho effort to turn public sympathy in favor of the young parricide Is already apparent. Ev ery circumstance is exaggerated to magnify tbo provocation, as if tho purpose woro to obtain be forehand a public verdict justifying tho homi cide. Tho truth is that no conceivable circum stances loss than imminent danger of deadly violence can justify tho crime youug Walworth committed. Unfortunately for such a hypothe sis, ho has himself given conclusive evidence of tho malice which prompted tho crime.— Boston Advertiser, —Wo aoo no oscapo for young Walworth. By confession ho fired witUmalico. By another con fession ho thought ho saw his father put his hand to his pocket. That plea is mode one timo too many. It might havo done for Stokes, but it never could bo used but once. Putting one’s hand to his pocket does not constitute an assault on another person in the same room. MuOh as wo carry revolvers, they are not frequent enough to Justify such a ruling. Pockets are common, ana men cannot go about their business or con duct their conversations with their palms hold aloft. And if. in a moment of epizootic agony, one should thoughtlessly make a dash for his kerchief, must his lifo pay the forfeit ? The young murderer has friends of iulluenoo and wealth, but, in tho angry mood of public opin ion, oven those will ho a misfortune to him,— Springfield liepuhlican. Gtlmoro lit Milwaukee* Special Dispatch to The Chicago Tribune. Milwaukee, Juno B.—Gilmore’s band appeared before a largo and cultivated audience ibis evening, at the Academy of Mnslo, divested of tho auxiliary forces mono necessary as an ad juunt of tho Chicago Jubilee, and appearing witli tboir own members only. They gave one of tho most brilliant concerts over given in lids city, and it is safe to say that Milwaukee has hoard tho finest efforts or Mr. Gilmore and his celebrated hand in tho West. Tho audience wore enthusiastic in their demonstrations, de manding encores of Mr. Arbuoklo and several other solos, and applauding each and every piooo, in itself a gem, to tho very coho. Ocean Steamship Nows* New Yoke, Juno B.—Arrived, steamers Wis consin and Oceanic, from Liverpool. New Yomi, Juno B.—Arrived, steamer Egypt, from Liverpool LITERATURE. Liberty, Eanalltft Fraternity* With tbo ovont still fresh la our sympathy, of tho death, at Avignon, of “ ono of tho foremost thinkers and statesmen of modern times, M —a man whoso exquisite personal worth, with its story of devoted affections, has furnished tho pootio counterpoise of his Qradgrind philoso phy,—nothing can ho regarded with Indifference that has any vital connection with tho life-work of John Stuart Mill. At this moment, when a general Interest is ozeitod, and closer attention is directed to his views, there appears among tho now publications an earnest opposition to tho political doctrine of Mr. Mill, and Its es pousal by party creed, from tho pen of an Eng lish jurist, and litterateur t “ Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity," by James Fitz jamos Stephen. This volume, planned in India, and resulting, as tho author states in his prefatory dedication, from tho rollootions of many yoars, found strong confirmation of its ar guments in an Indian experience. “ Tho com monplaces, ** ho writes, 11 and tho vein of senti ment, at which li is leveled, appeared peculiarly false and poor as I road tho European news papers of 1870-1, at tho headquarters of tho Government of India." Tho reflections oro tho offspring of a mind In tent upon watching tho actual process of incul cation la tho extension of political principles, and ardently interested In practical tests of questions upon which depend tho management and direction of human life. Tho motlvo of tho book, os expressed in tho oloso of tho chapter upon Fratornity, is “ to oxamlno tho doctrines hinted at rather than expressed by tho phraso Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity, and to assort wlthroopeot to them those two propositions: First, that, In tbo present day, ovoa thoso who uso thoso words most rationally—that is to say, os tho names of elements of social lifo which, llko others, havo their advantages and disadvantages according to time, place, and circumstances— havo a disposition to exaggerate their advan tages, and to deny tho existence, or at any rate to underrate tho importance, of thoir disadvan tages. Next, that, whatever significance bo at tached to them, thoso words are ill-adapted to bo tho creed of a religion ; that tho things which thoy denote are not ends in themselves; and that, when used collectively, tho words do not typify, howovor vaguely, any state of society which a reasonable man ought to regard with enthusiasm or solf-dovotiou." Tho order followed in this examination, which is conducted vigorously and with thorough ear nestness, is: Tho distinetion between tho Tem poral and Spiritual Power 5 tho doctrino of Lib erty In its application to Morals; Equality; Fraternity; and, in conclusion, a summary of tho doctrines contended for, thrown into a posi tive form, and conducted oouragoously to their ultimatum. A note on Utilitarianism closes tho volumo. Throughout tho wholo discussion liberal quo tations aro made from tho writings of Mr. Mill; and their vulnerability is essayed with unaffect ed directness. Few figures of speech are used : occasionally, however, a metaphor is employed in tho heat of attack ; as when Mr. Stephen de clares, in his chapter on Llboity in Eolation to Morals : Tho Brahmins, it is said, being impressed with tho Importance of cattle to agriculture, taught people to regard tho bull as a holy boast. Ho must never bo thwarted, even if ho put his noso Into a shop and ate the shop-keopcr’a grain. Ho must never bo killed, oven In mercy to himself. If ho slips over a cliff and breaks his bones, and the vultures nro picking out his eyes, ho must bo left to die. lu several Indian townn, (ho British Government has sent half the holy bulls to Mobammcdau butchers, and tho other half to draw commissariat wagons. Many matters go bettor in con sequence of this arrangement, and agriculture in par- Uoulnr goes no worse. Liberty Is Mr. Mill’s Brahml uoo bull. , In defining Humanity,—which, in Mr. Mill’s theory, will, with tho progress of civilization, acquire a dominant influence, —Mr. Stephen re marks, with a discrimination that will readily bo accepted as just, in viewing a sentimental phase of this moral development: “It frequently moans distaste for tho present. Ho that lovoth not his brother, whom ho hath soon, is peculiarly opt to auppoHo that ho loves his distant cousin, whom ho hath not soon, and novor will see. Mr. Mill, for instance, novor loses an opportunity of speaking with contempt of our present “wretch ed social arrangements.” tho low state of society, and tho general pettiness of bis contempora ries : but ho looks forward to an ago In wuich an all-embracing love of Humanity will regenerate tho human race.” Elsewhere Mr. Stephen remarks: “Tho groat defect of Mr. Mill’s lator writings seems to mo to be, that ho has formed too favorable an estimate of human nature.’’ Altogether, Mr. Stephen's book is tho toughest outgrowth of “old, hide-bound Toryism” that bos appeared since Hobbo’s Leviathan. Ho shows himself utterly unahlo to comprehend Mill's Essay on Liberty, and, as comprehension must precede refutation, ho comes as far short of answering that noble treatise as tho Church of Romo camo short of answering tho Copornican theory of tbo solar system. (Holt & Williams, Now York.) 41 monographs, Personal and Social,” by Lord Houghton* This volume comprises eight sketches, critical and biographical: Buioiraan Pacha; Alexander von Humboldt at tho Court of Berlin: Cardinal Wiseman 5 Walter Savago Laudor; the Berrys; Harriet, Lady Ashburton; tho Rev. Sydney Smith; tho last days of Heinrich Heine. Tho arrangement of thoso characters suggests something of the- subtle management of light and shade which gives artistic charm to Lord Houghton’s stylo. Tho strong lights and deep shadows belong to tho central figure. Walter Savago Landor. A shade of melancholy tinges with mezzotint tho daring and adventurous career of.tho chlvalrio and adventurous Sulei man Pacha, to whom, gonial as ho was to tho last, *• tho wealthy repose in his luxurious pal ace on tho bonks of the Nile, and tho general consideration acquired by bis skill, vigor, and honoflconco, woro a poor compensation for a project which would have changed tho foco of tho earth and the destiny of minions of men— the foundation of a groat Arab Empire, which should be within tho roach of all European civil ization, and not as mediator between tho East ern and Western world.” And tho darkest shadow curtains with its gloom tho lonely couch whoro, in ” tho lost days of Heinrich Heine,'' tho gay,’sensuous, poetic humorist “ lay on a pilo of mattresses, his body so wasted that it seemed no bigger than a child under tho sheet which covered lilm. tho eyes closed, and tho face altogether like the most painful and wasted ‘Ecco Homo' over painted by some old Gorman painter.” So marked in those essays is Lord Houghton’s masterly use of chiaroscuro, the Monographs arc, In effect, monochromes. They aro portraitures drawn in tho magical alto-rofiovo of that grand and simple embodiment which made Titian ex claim, ” Tho most beautiful colors are black and white." They have, too, tho grace of interpre tive isolation; tho background of historical sconory is subordinated to tho biography, and yot skillfully adjusted to soften tho outiino of tho character, or render it severe, as truth com pels tho emphasis of likeness. Wo havo called Walter Savago Landor tho con tra! figure of tho group. It is this portrait that tho author most carefully elaborates ; bore, in deed, is a character whoro tho contrasts of light and shade give both mystory and breadth. If space permitted, tho essay should bo copied on tiro ; for to quote lo to givo segments of a pic ture whoro unity is chief. Thus nowhere, in tho range of the English language, are tho glory ana happiness of moderation of mind more nobly preached and powerfully illustrated than In tho writings of this most Intemperate man; no where Is tho sucreduoss of tho placid life more hallowed and honored than In the utterances of this tossed and troubled spirit; nowhere uro heroism, and Bclf-sacrldco, aud forgiveness more eloquently adored thou by this Intense and fierce Individuality, which Boomed unable to forget for uu instant its own claims. Its pwu wrongs, Us own fancied superiority over all Its follow men. In tho matter of tho affections, there is leas discrep ancy between Ids writings and his life. If a woman could huvo foroborno and swayed herself according to tho vacillations of his temper, hlu whole character might havo been modified, aud bis happiness saved in his own despite. It was a kind of prldo with him that all children lovod him. In his demeanor to his own, hit) tenderness was excessive. That his boy of 13 had not craned to caress him. Is Broken olf us a delight ho could not forgot, by Bonding him to England under tho caro of tho scholar ho moai respected. Ho was always drawing analogies Itotwoon children aud fiowors; aud there was no mere fancy In tho well known hues: “ And *tls, and ever was. my wish aud way To lot all tlowera live freely* and all die Whene’er their genius bids their souls depart. Among their kindred, lu their n&tlvo place, I never pluck tho rose; tho violet’s head Hath shaken with my breath upon Its bank, And not reproached mo ; tbo over-sacred oup Of the pure lily hath been between my hands, ITolt safe, uusolled, nor lost one groin of gold.” In his garden ho would bend over tbo flowora with a sort of worship, but rarely touched one of them. Tbo form winch tbo notoriety of UUa nouUmout took In tbo Florentine Legend wan, tbnt bo hud ono day, after an imperfect dinner, thrown tbo cook nut of llifl window, and, while Urn man wan writhing with a bro* ken limb, ejaculated, “Good God, 1 forgot the vlo letfl I" (llolt ib Williams, Now York.) u Protection Against rirot and tho ItoNt JllemiN of Putting Out Fired In dittos, Towns, nntl Villages; with Practical Suggestions for tho Securi ty of Life and Property.” iiy Joseph llird. Nothing upon tho subject of tho devouring el ement, and Us attack and conquest, could be written with more righteous conviction of In stant importance, or more valiantly con amoro. Tho motto of tho book is, 11 An ounce of pre vention la worth a pound of euro.” “Wo know," says Mr. Bird, who has boon dilating upon tho alarming increase of (Ires, “ that fires archest managed if instantly attacked when small; yet wo so arrange our llro-flghting sys tems that they cannot bo thus attacked. Wo say, ‘ A stitch in tlmo saves nine.’ and then do not take the stitch. Wo say, ‘ Light blows kill the devil, but doh’t strike the light blows t that A short horse is soon curried, and wait until our fires are full-grown ; that ‘Delay makes tho danger, and then always delay.” The reform which Mr, Bird urges Is tho pre vention of fires, by building dwelling-houses nearly as possible without wood, and stores and warehouses loss high and really fire-proof: and by Idstltuting a system by which fires may bo instantly attacked. In explicitly describing tho reform needed In our modo of building, Mr. Bird points out tho especial dangers of tho Mansard-roofs as they are built In America, tho imperfect elevators ond reckless uso of wood-work. Ho contrasts with this imprudent stylo tho safety obtained in European cities by use of tiles and plating j and auotos a letter from Mr. Hiram Powers upon the re-proof orchitocturo of Floronco. Many causes of firo, In ignorant uso or dis posal of dangerous substances, are warningly enumerated { and rules are given for preserva tion of life from fire. as, for instance t “If per sons awako m tho night and find tho room filled with smoko, they should got out of bod and creep, with the face as near tho floor as possible, to a door or window. A room may bo so full of smoko os to suffocate any ono standing up, and bo perfectly safe to breathe in, a few inches from tho floor." Into an urgent appeal for the Institution by leg Blatlvo acta of a system by which Area ahall bo instantly attacked, and groat conflagrations prevented, Mr. Bird thrown all the energy and experience of a lifetime. Ho advocates zeal ously tho usoof extinguishers and small engines, or hand-pumps ; and suggests tho necessity of making their use a matter of education, and their possession a matter of law. Ho compares theuo small engines to small arms in tho bunds of infantry, while tho steam engines constituo tho artillery; # and insists upon tho greater ofilcacy of tho former, for the reason that they may bo made instantly available; and “It will soon bo found that tho best time to work at conflagrations will bo when they aro aboat throe loot in diameter.” Tho arguments for prevention aro very com prehensive; and aro admirably supported by chapters upon Firo-Brigadca; Systems. Old and New; Alarms; Telegraphic-Signals, etc. Illus trations aro copious, both of courage and neg lect ; oud examples aro given of tho value of prompt vigilance, as-tho action of Princo Albert in saving tho Palace of Coburg. “Historic Fires ” includes full accounts of tho groat fires of London, Chicago, Boston, and Constanti nople ; and an alarum is sounded in tho oars of New York, of her danger to-day of a “ conflagra tion to which those of Chicago and Boston would seem only as bonfires.” (Hurd & Houghton, Now York.) Public tawv of tlio United States* Little. Brown & 00. have published their an nual collection of tho public laws of the United States of America. Tho last issue contains those passed at tho third session of tho Forty-second Congress, 1872-3, together with copies of all official proclamations, and of all treaties and postal conventions, carefully collated with the originals at Washington. This edition of the laws has tho sanction of Congress, which has de clared it to bo competent evidence lu all the courts and ofllcos of tho United States, of its acts. « Lnwsof Illinois* Tho laws passed at tho first session of tho Twenty-eighth General Assembly of this State have boon published, in a volume of 200 pages, by the Illinois Journal Company, of Springfield. It embraces all tho enactments, including tho Appropriation acta, and is indexed. WISE AGAIN. Tho irrepressible Henry Again Kushos into Print—-Virginia Poll* ties in a Now Light. Richmond, Va, {June 6), Dispatch to the Nao Tork Herald, Henry A. Wise publishes a four column letter in a Virginia papor to-day defining his political Eouition. Ho arraigns both tho political parties, ut is very partial towards tho negro. Tho con servative party proscribes tho negro, while the radical party proscribes and enslaves tho white man. Ho favors a programme of peace and principle, and strongly opposes conflict of any kind botwocn whites and blacks. Ho insists that the United States Government, Laving destroyed tbo old Stato of Virginia and created two now States—East Virginia and West Virginia—is now responsible for tho debts of both; that tho Stato Government should assume tho'sovoroign right of insurance of life and property* to enable the Stato to moot tho interest on her debt and di minish taxation ; that tho James River and Ka nawha Canal should bo built by National aid 5 th&t railroad monopolies and rings shall bo pre vented by penalties ; that tho rate of interest shall not exceed C per cent; that tho system of public schools shall bo hotter regulated ; that assessments of property shall bo ad valorem ; tho Slate revenue to bo moro punctually collect ed 5 and that moro economy shall bo observed in tho public expenditures. Tho above principles, ho says, are those of a largo majority of tho poo- Elo of Virginia, who will combine to elect tho ost men to oltlco without respect to parties. If their caucuses carry those principles into effect, and if tho President of tho united States will aid In'promoting those measures, they will, without regard to tho past, give to his administration for tho future a just and generous support. He concludes os follows: “ I care not what intelligent man of integrity declares himself a candidate on thoso grounds, I will givo him my vote for tho office of Governor of tho Stato of Virginia. If I thought I could succeed in opposition to both of tho present or ganizations of tho State, I would declare myself a candidate for tho office of Governor immedi ately ; but lam without a purse and without a press to contend with tho two already Landed to mako nominations. I' will will not incur odium by running of electing tho one or tho other; but if either tho Conservative or Republican Convention will abstain from nominating a candidate of its own, I will, as an independent candidate, oppose the nominee of tho other. I care not which abstains or which nominates. If both conventions nominate, 1 will not bo a candidate at all.” ANOTHER ATTEMPTED PARRICIDE. Shocking: Depravity A Woman Prompts Her Sou to Poison His Father—Lucifer matches and Lead Filings tho materials Employed* From tho Xcw York Herald, June 0. A shocking instance of depravity was brought to tho knowledge of tho Brooklyn police yeator* day. Tho ease is ouo which involves ano lost heinous offonco than an attempt on tho part of a hoy of 11 years of ago to poison his father. Tho instigator of tho crimo is Louisa Baugort, a Gorman woman, 47 years of ago. It appears that tho complainant in tho oaso, ouo Ohristian Baugort, who Is a tailor by oc« oupation aud a resident of No. 101 Leonard street, E. D., has boon separated from his wifo for tho past few months. Tho parties have two children—a girl of 15 years, who resided with hor mother, and Charles Baugort, who lived with his father. Charles has, however, enjoyed tho privilege of visiting his mother at hor abode in Second street, between avenues A and B. Bomo weeks ago Ohristian folt that ho was not quite as well as usual, and, gottiug no hotter, ho began to suspect that he was being poisoned in some way or other. A day or two ago his sus picions became aroused concerning his son’s oniciousuoss in preparing lea and boor for him. On watching tho nffoctionato youth ho discovered him slyly dropping some thing into his coffoo oup. Tho vessel was then carefully placed in front of “ tho old man,” as *• Charlie dear ” was wont to call his paternal progenitor. Charlie walked out, oud Christian shortly after withdrew to a chemist’s and had tho contents of tho oup analyzed. On tho bot tom was found load tilings and tbo heads of Lucifer matches. Tho young scoundrel was ar rested upon complalut of Baugort senior. Ho was arraigned before Justice Bernier, oud con fessed that ho hod boon dosing his father’s bever ages with load flllugs and tho tops of matches for several weeks post, and that ho bad done so at tho instigation of his mother. Yesterday morning Mm. Baugort was arrested And com -1 milled to Jail to await o*amluatiou.

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