Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune, June 15, 1873, Page 8

Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune dated June 15, 1873 Page 8
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8 TERMS OF THE TRIBUNE. TERMS OT BtTBBCBIPTIOIC (PAYABLE IN ADVANCE). Daily, by mail £12.00) Saadar. $2.50 Tri-Weokly 6.U01 Weekly £.OO Ports of » year at the same rate. To prevent delay and mistakes, be son and give Post Offco address in foil, including State and County. Remittances may be made either by draft, express, Post Ottce order, or in registered letters, at onrrisk. TERMS TO CITY SUBSCRIBERS, Daily, delivered. Sunday excepted, S5 cents per week. Daily, delivered, Sunday Included, 90 cents per week. Address THE TRIBUNE COMPANY, Corner Madison and Dearborn-st*., Chicago, RL BUSINESS NOTICES. TO HOTEL-KEEPERS—WANTED. A SITUATION ot a practical head-waiter, ta which position the under signed no superior. Vte highest testimonials given to that effect. Address U ST, Tnbaue oftc*. ROYAL HJ.Vi.xi LOTTERY—WK SOLD IX dmna* . (Bd Ai’rti Hss Ul« SSX'.CW) JK}?®: tsr.-rea.ai fiTvs. J , iC MAHTIXKZ AGO.. KuA*n. WWsILm. f.O. J».»Ynrt. filS XSW KCG CARRIER CALLED THB DEBT- Aao-f, lately invented by A- U. Bryant, beoretary of the Cooler Co-, of if* boaux Chalon-st., i* a moat uiiieojyue invention and nx,n*» destined to supersede the Cjkh>, sad ah ocher*, being the cheapest and best in ,0u morale. Its pctaciral advantage consists in the of being locked together so that they esnavt pttß or tall spare in lifting or handling. The trays hko a fan can be packed in small space, saving on bones and enabling shippers to use light boxes to ship long distances, returning iho trays folded, which rase inns be used many times. Large shippers are using them in preference to packing thorn in barrels as for merly. Uht (Kjx&tgx* Stebtme. Sunday Morning, June 15, 1873. . THE BALOOH-KEEPEEB OH THE EAMPAGE. The saloon-keepers, or that portion of them who insist on selling liquor without license and against law, have again exhibited their gross ig norance of their duty as citizens, and the intem perance of their zeal in the work of disorder. Two or three weeks ago they held a meeting and resolved to keep open their houses on Sunday, with the avowed purpose of defying the law, and of ’ bringing public authority into con tempt. This resolution was carried into effect. A few days of sober reflection, however, induced the majority to rescind this resolution. On Friday last they held another meeting, and, under the instigation of demagogues, again lost their reason, and hy their action voted them selves to bo disorderly characters, whoso notions of duty as citizens seem to be that the privilege of selling liquor is of divine origin, inherent in man, and above all laws. On the trial of one of these saloon-keepers for violation of law, the defendant demanded a Jury trial. The ofiicer appointed to summon the jury, instead of selecting his men from the neighboring saloons, entered Field, Leiter & Co.’s store and summoned a number of sales men—much to the dismay of the clerks and to the annoyance of the proprietors. The jury failed to acquit. Whereupon the Stools Zeilung denounced Field A Leiter in round terms with having instructed their clerks to convict the saloon-keepers, and appealed to the “ Ger man” population of Chicago to buy no more dry goods of Field & Letter. Dis gusted at - this indecent assault, the Freie Presse, another German paper, stated that Field 4. Leiter had never instructed their clerks how to act as jurors, and know nothing whatever concerning tbn case. Upon these facts the sa loon-keepers who met on Friday passed resolu tions denouncing Field & Leiter and the Freie Press, and extolling the Stoats Zeiiung, for their respective parts in the proceeding. This second exhibition of disgraceful conduct on the pari of these saloon-keepers—and of those participating in this meeting perhaps a large number had already bean convicted of violations of law— will probably excite no more disgust among any portion of the community than among the Germans who ore not saloon-keepers, and who have no sympathy with needless. violations of • law or wanton rufUanißiu towards decent and law-abiding citizens. . It may as well be understood at once., that, in / any contest at the polls in which saloon-keepers / as a party shall represent one side and demand ' that the municipal laws shall be repealed or modified to snit them, and to enable them to do bosiness aa they please, the entire body of the law-abiding people will unite against them, and, in so doing, will act for the very best in terests of society. There are thousands of citizens who have no sympathy with sumptuary laws; who have no desire to interpose legal restrictions npon the personal freedom and social customs of any portion of their fel low-citizens, and still less to impose religions ob servances upon them; who will cheerfully co operate to establish the largest liberty to all consistent with the maintenance of law, order, and public decency, but who will not act with nor vote with a saloon-keepers’ party. There aro but few who have any sympathy with saloon keeping as an occupation. If it were a ques tion affecting merely the keepers of saloons, the business of the latter wonid hardly re ceive any public countenance or respect.- It is the rights of the public at large—the per sonal liberty, tbe social freedom of the peaceful, law-abiding, and orderly citizens —which are re spected, end winch the general sentiment of the community desires to maintain. When the saloon-keepers—or the disorderly portion of them—hold public meetings, and proclaim a crusade against the community; when they undertake to threaten and bully respectable bnsincse-men who are attending peace fully to their - own concerns, they make war upon botii public and private rights, and .give warrant for the belief that they aro in fact enemies of social order. If onr advice could have any weight wjth these misguided persons, we would suggest that they hold one meeting more, disband their organiza tions, and adjonm sine die. J1 their rights and liberties are not safe in the bands of the sober, impartial, and liberty-loving people of Hus city generally, it is useless for them, by resolutions cud speeches of a disorderly and asinine character to seek to change public sentiment in their own favor. A few more such meetings and resolves as those of Friday last will produce such politi cal results as these blackguards never dreamed of before. the dead past. The most interesting investigations of the present age are those which relate to the an tiquity of man as an inhabitant of the earth. It is scarcely a quarter of a century since serious donbts were raised concerning the chronology based upon the Mosaic account of the creation, although relics of human anatomy and handi craft had been found, some fifty years ago, in places where they must have reposed many thou sands of years before the historic period. Dur ing the past twenty-five years, however, scientific investigation has been directed with increasing seal to the solution of this tremendous problem, and there are now hundreds of men working upon it in Europe, Asia, Africa, America, and Australia. These researches are of various kinds,— geological, ethnological, anatomical, and philological. They embrace a vast scope of in quiry, and involve not only the age of man as an inhabitant of this planet, but also, perhaps, his origin. The. development theory of Darwin is. embraced in it, and, according as future discover ies shall reveal to us.the facts of nature, we ahftil know whether the lower animals are alto gether distinct from us, or are only our poor relations. If it shall be • shown that we are simply “ developed ” from the long aimed ape, it will make very little difference whether Dr. Bastion has really created nnfmal life out of boiled turnips, or not. Our feelings will not be at all depressed by that trifling cir cumstance. Nor should we be humiliated if soma other chemist should produce vegetable life de novo out of pulverized granite. We should then not only know that we .were created out of the dust of the earth,* but we should be able to trace the process and prove our pedigree. Among the numerous treatises on the an tiquity of man which have issued from the press of late years, none is deserving of higher rank than that of CoL J. W. Foster, of this dty, en titled “Pre-Historio Races of the United States,” just published by S. 0. Griggs & Co. This is a Chicago production in every sense— text, printing, engraving, gilding, and binding. It consists, for the most part, of a careful com pilation of all the .discoveries made up to the present time, of the monuments, hones, imple ments, works of art, and mining operations of the ancient Mound-Builders of the American Continent, together with the conclusions reached by comparative anatomy and craniology thereon. Necessarily connected with this subject are the discoveries made in Europe and in the Val ley of the Nile relating to pre-historio races and extinct animals, and the climatic changes that have converted the polar regions, which once sustained a luxuriant vegetation, together with such animals as the hairy elephant, the masto don, the fossil horse, and the great Irish stag, into a frozen waste. This latter problem leads to astronomical computations to show at what remote period the earth could have been in such positions with reference to the sun as to allow . such changes, of temperature. We are told that this might have happened 210,000 years ago; also, that it might have hap pened 800,000 years ago, and that Sir Charles Lyell prefers the latter period, as the date of the Drift Epoch. These computations, wo may re mark, are not universally accepted by mathe maticians. Whatever may be the date of the Drift, it is now certain that man appeared upon the earth immediately after it, and it is a ques tion whether he did not appear before. Two human skulls, and a number of ornamental stopes, polished and drilled by human hands, have been found in the Post-Pliocene of Cali fornia —anterior to the Drift. Col. Foster does pot vouch for the authenticity of these discoyer- ies, but he gives an extract from a let ter from Prof. Whitney, the Cfoologist of that State, saying that the question to be investigated is, whether man existed prior to the Post-Pliocene. There are some signs of man even in the Miocene. These remote inquiries are introductory to the body of CoL Foster’s work, which mainly con cerns the Mound-Builders. That there was a race of men differing from the North American Indians in manners, customs, arts, and cranial development inhabiting this Continent some hun- dreds of years prior to its discovery by Colum bus, is now incontestibly proven. Trees, which started in the twelfth century, are found growing upon mounds which contain their bones and Implements. How many trees may have sprung up on the same sites, flourished their time, fallen, and mingled with the soil, we cannot know. Xi in only certain mat me nonets ana other things found in the soil are more ancient than the trees now growing over them.. The discoveries lhqs far made show ' that, during their occupancy of the Missis sippi Valley, the Mound-Builders (we quota) “developed traits in their domestic economy and their civil relations which distinguished them by a well-marked line’ of division from the Indian who was found in possession of the Con tinent at tbs time of its European discovery. Their monuments indicate that they had entered upon a career of civilization; they lived in sta tionary communities, cultivating the soil and relying on its generous yield as a means of sup port; they clothed themselves, in part at least, in garments regularly spun and woven; they modeled clay and carved stone, even of the most obdurate character, into images representing animate objects, including even the human face and form, with a close ad herence to nature; they mined and cast copper into a variety of useful forms; they quarried mica, steatite, chert, and the novacnlite dates, which they wrought into articles adapted to per sonal ornament, to domestic tieq, or to the chase: unlike the Indians, who were ignorant of the curative properties of salt, they collected the brine of the salines into earthen vessels molded in baskets, which they evaporated into a form which admitted of transportation: they erected an elaborate line of defense, stretching for many hundred miles, to guard against the sudden irruption of enemies', they had a national religion, in which the dements were the objects of supreme adora tion ; temples were erected upon the platform mounds, and watchfires lighted upon the high est summits : and jn the celebration of the mys teries of their faith, human sacrifices were probably offered up. The magnitude of their structures, involving an infinitude pf labor, such as could bo expohd ed only in a community where cheap food prevailed, and the great extent of their commer cial relations, reaching to widely-separated por tions of the Continent, imply lie existence of actable and efficient - Government, based <jn the subordination of the masses. As the civiliza tions of the Old tTprld, growing ont of the pe culiar conditions .of soil apd climate, developed certain forms of art which are original and unique, so: on this Continent we see the prude conception in the truncated pyra mid, ap first displayed in 'Wisconsin, Ohio, and Illinois, and the accomplished result in the Stone-faced foundations of the temples of Uxmal. andPalonquo. And, finally, tbs distinctive char acter. of the Mound-Buildere’ structures, end also the traditions which have been preserved, would indicate that this people were expelled from tbs Misaissippi Tolley by a fierce end barbarous race, and that they found refuge in the more genial fi.-matji pf Central America, where they develop ed those germs of civilization, originally planted. in their northern homes, into a perfection which has elicited the admiration of every modem explorer.” The most important chapter in the volume, perhaps, is that which relates to the skulls of this departed race. While Phrenology has, for the most part, f aUeji Jpto disreppte, .OramplpEy THE CHICAGO DAILY TRIBUNE: SUNDAY, JUNE 15, 1873. has come into the foremost rank of the sciences. If anything is to link us to the chimpanzee, it is the past gradations of the human skulk The Neanderthal skull (found in Northern Prussia) ,is now taken as the lowest type of human cranial development. It is marked by an almost entire absence of forehead and by great thickness of the parietal walls. If the original possessor of this skull were now alive, he would be classed as the premium idiot of the world. The Mound-Builders* skulls which have been brought to light show a remarkable resem blance to the Neanderthal type. All the known specimens are examined by CoL Foster and compared, by illustrations, with the present European and Australian, the high est and lowest existing types. Three skulls found near Chicago are exhibited which stand about midway between the Chimpanzee and the present European typo. The foreheads are so flat that they can hardly, be said to exist. One skull found in a mound at Haas* Park, near this city, Is so devoid of forehead, and so anoma lous in other respects, that CoL Foster throws it out of classification altogether. Two skulls lately discovered in Wisconsin are described by Dr. Lapham in a foot-note on p. 200. They are marked by the same general characteristics as the Chicago specimens and those found at Merom, Ind. It is worthy of note that crani ology finds a marked difference between the early races of the Atlantic and those of the Pacific coast—as geology traces groat differences be tween these two sections in the Drift Period. The field of inquiry embraced in Cob Foster’*' book may be laid to be limitless* Man has only just begun to trace his lineage. He may trace it to a quarter which will not be flattering to his vani ty, but trace it he will, whithersoever it lead. Instead of allowing the Dead Past to bnry its dead, he is bound to unbnry and interrogate it. Those portions of the earth’s surface which were alone fitted to sustain human life during the Drift Period are now inhabited by indolent and semi-barbarous races, and have not yet been explored by Europeans with a view to finding jelics of the earliest types of mankind. In these places we may ex pect to find the richest materials for reconstructing the pre-historio world, as we have already found (in Egypt, Nineveh, Central America, and Peru) the oldest civilizations that have left their traces in a written language. POLITICAL EUTHANASIA. While certain gentlemen in England, called the Birmingham philosophers, are just beginning to advocate the doctrine of Euthanasia, which rec ognizes self-murder as a right and a duty in cases of hopeless physical infirmity, this doc trine has been applied for centuries in Japan and China as a radical cure for political corruption. In the recent announcement of.the Ministerial crisis in Japan, occasioned by the increase of the national debt and the excessive taxation of the people, it is stated in the most matter-of-fact Way that “ the Ministers may possibly receive an order to commit suicide.” It has not been intimated that the Japanese Ministry are guilty of any such political crimes as have been ex posed in the United States during the past year. We do not hear of any Credit Mobihers, salary grabs, defalcations among officials, selling out offices, taking bribes, or imposing greater des potism upon one section of the country than is exercised over the remainder. Bribery, in foot, seems to be so entirely novel that an inti mation of gift-taking having come to the ears of a Yokohama official, ho immediately published a pronnneiamento to the effect that the practice “is utterly opposed to civilized ideas.” The increase in the Japan debt appears to have been caused rather by Government schemes for improving the condition of the coun try than by any system of official thievery. But the Japanese folks are evidently opposed to a national debt per se, and the Ministers responsi ble for it are to be invited to put themselves be yond the roach of future temptation. Another instance of the universal acceptance of political Euthanasia among the Japanese is found in the case of Mr. Mori, the Japanese Minister to the United States. It is stated that Mr. Mori is suspected at home of having yielded to the contamination of Washington associations. Mr. Mori’s diplomatic career baa always been characterized by fervent patriotism and a desire to secure for his native country all the advan tages which he found in America. He has handled considerable money in his efforts to ob tain some elements of American progress, and it is possible that bo may have followed the Oakes Ames precept of placing this money “where it would do most good.” At all events, it is charged that Mr. Mori has failed to account satisfactorily for his expendi tures, and it is intimated that bo will find awaiting him on his return to Japan a cordial invitation to perform the national cer emony of Jiari-Idri. Without admitting in any case the justifica tion of self-murder, the Japanese application of the doctrine of Euthanasia mustcozmnend itself as more unselfish and exalted than that of the Birmingham philosophers. The theory of the latter is, that, whenever a consultation of phy sicians reveals the fact that a patient is a help desa yiotim to incropitudo or disease, and must henceforth bo a burden to his friends and a misery unto himself, it becomes his duty to avail himself of that mere bodkin that will put away life, and thus permit his friends to dispose of him. There is nothing very heroic in all this. It is simply the consumma tion of the strict utilitarian philosophy of life, which seeks to obtain tho mnyirnmn of happi ness and to escape tho pangs of physical disease or mental suffering. The principle which under lies the practice of political hari-kiri, however, is the direct opposite of this selfish philosophy. It has a moral element which cannot be. found in the Euthanasia doctrine pf the modern English sect. It is at once an acknowledgment of disgrace, an expiation of crime, a wholesome warning to mankind, and an effectual removal from temptation.’ It is sug gested by the eame healthful policy which has rendered capital punishment the proper treat ment of capital crime. It rids tho State of a dangerous enemy, and it foreshadows the fate of all men who take advantage of the public con fidence reposed in them to make depredations upon society. It is not difficult to conceive a'man, under tho conviction that there ienothlug wrong about it, shouldwillingly consent to take his own life when he is satisfied that bis physical infirmities will henceforth render that life unen durable. But it is a different thing to volunta rily leave the world in the enjoyment of good health, with plenty of money, and the prospect of wofdly gratification. In such a case the act has something of that primitive, barbaric no bleness which induces the Coolie to kill himself when his mastiff has had hhn whipped. As be tween tim English and Japanese systems of Euthanasia, the ethics, if there be any in -the question, are all on the side of the latter. It is not probable, nor is it desirable, that the practice of hari-kiri may bo introduced into tbs political circles of this country. Bet it is a model which may be imitated to advantage morally instead of physically. ' If the same sen timent which prompts the exposed official scamp in Japan to cut open his bowels were equally strong in this country to induce retirement from office without further ado, this country might obtain from Japan a compensation for all the at tributes of civilization which Japan has received from ns. It would be the same principle, and the act would be the same, minus the disemboweling process. Political hari-kiri is what wo want in America, —the voluntary retirement of public men whose official corruption has been exposed. The constitutional-monarchies of Europe are further advanced in this direction than we are. The Ministry, or Government, resigns whenever, it is in open conflict with the people and their representatives. Men who are convicted before the public of malfeasance in office orcormpt of ficial practice do not wait for trials, and have not the impertinence to hold on to places of trust for which they have become notably unfit. They get out of the way, and are as dead politically as if they had gone to tbs Jap anese extreme of depriving themselves of physi cal life. If the moral prototype of the principle which has made hari-kiri a national institution in Japan would be introduced into the United States, by which public sentiment could force corrupt public <n«n to abandon office end hide their heads in shame, it would work greater re form than the purest political party that ever had an existence. Confession, submission, and retirement would constitute a political Eutha nasia that would possess all the advantages and none of the moral objections of the somewhat admirable Japanese system. OCEANIC BALLOONING, Prof. Wise, the Philadelphia aeronaut, has made a proposition to cross the Atlantic Ooean in a balloon, in company with W, H. Donaldson, another experienced aeronaut. The announce ment has caused considerable excitement in the scientific world, and also among other high flyers, some of whom attack the proposition with more or less of ridicule. In a com munication to the Boston Globe, Prof. Wise bases his proposition upon the fol lowing facts: That the ' upper current of the atmosphere in the temperate zone moves from west to east, caused by the mingling of the southwest and the northwest winds in their cur rents, in accordance with the laws of tempera ture and the axial motion of the earth. These two currents slide over each other, and a balloon can be trained to either one of them; or, it may be trained to the eddy currents between the up per and lower ones, and go east. In support of his theory, Prof. Wise brings for ward Prof. Henry, of the Smithsonian Institute, who says that the existence of these currents is an established fact of science of every day’s experience, and thinks that the success of the proposition to cross the ocean is by no means improbable, although he does not express any desire to accompany Prof. Wise on his trip, notwithstanding the discoveries he might make in his favorite study of meteorology. Prof. Wise also points out the fact that, out of the first hundred ascensions he made, the balloon landed Mm east of the point of departure ninety-four times, the other six flights being made within an altitude of 6,000 feet and in drifts in the local currents. He also claims that in 1859 he made a voyage from St. Louis to Jefferson County, N. T., a distance of over 1,000 miles from west to east, and that he has sailed from west to east by appointment—once from Carlisle to Lancaster,' Penn., and once from Auburn to Syracuse, N. 1., —and in both esses met his engagements and reucended; and closes his communication with the statement that, a few years ago, he aid* his son made a Fourth of July ascension from.' Boston Common, rising with the eastward cur rent, going out to sea eight to twelve miles, dropping down again into the sea-breeze, and by it returning to land again. The above la the substance of Prof. Wlae's statement, and even the most skeptical will admit that it has an air of probability about it. But, admitting its probability, and allowing that Prof. Wise may accomplish his hazardous jour ney in safety, and land at Liverpool, after a two days* voyage, while the sluggish steamers below him occupy two weeks, of what use will it be ? What practical good will it accomplish ? What possible good can it subserve in the interest of commerce. or travel ? A * thousand successful trips would not persuade people to travel by balloon so long as they could travel by rail road or steamboat. The ratio of accidents to balloons, even in comparison with those to rail roads and steamboats, has been fearfully large, and in almost every case the fate of the aeronaut has been the fate which befell Icarus when he attempted his famous flight across theiEgean. Even in case of accident by rail or water, there is still a certain feeling of security. The traveler by rail U at least upon terra firms, and therefore stands a chance of his life. The traveler by water has at least some thing to cling to, and stands a. chance of being picked up. The traveler by balloon would not stand in much danger of collision, for the west current is a highway broad enough for all the balloons which will bo likely to traverse it; but accidents will happen, and then there wonldbe no hope for the luckless wights eight or ten thou sand feet above the water. With the impetus of a two-mile tumble through the air, they would go so far into the Atlantic that they would prob ably come up on the other side, and he found floating in the Pacific by the Chinese Coroners. It is a pretty fancy, this travehngin a balloon np among the little stars, all around the moon, but

those hare-brained individuals are very /scarce who care to go.any nearer the moon tii*n they are at present. Again; Prof, Wise can hardly expect to do anything in a com mercial way by carrying freight. Insurance com panies would not take the risk, and thus there is a golden opportunity lost of solving the trans portation problem. We are disposed to regard this impossibility with considerable regret, for a fast-freight line by balloon to Europe might ef fectually break up the railroad monopoly and do away with- the political chaos' which is fast approaching, growing out of the action of the Patrons of Husbandry and other ferocious followers of Pomona and Ceres. There is one class of business which the Professor might undertake —the carrying of the If he succeeds in crossing the ocean, the matter will bo brought to a practical test, as hn unbe lieving individual in Kew York, who' is on the eve of departure for Europe, has' offered Prof. Wise $5,000 if ‘he mtf deliver a letter to him at a certain address in Paris three days after he (Wise) starts, which gives the Professor a full day more than the time in which he clainls he can make the trip. The latest re ports throw some doubt upon the proposed voy age. The Professor originally intended to start from Boston, but has changed his starting-place to New York, upon the ground that the Boston people won’t take any stock in it. The financial outlook 1s not much brighter in New York, The Professor may yet, wise as he is, conclude that ha will be wiser to stay at home and leave balloon trips across oceans to such fanciful and imaginative persons as Poe and others who have delighted to construct weird stories based upon balloon-voyages and moon-hoaxes. FREE TRADE LEARNED THROUGH THE BELLY, The London Daily A T eios, in an article on the subject of protection and free trade, expresses some astonishment that the American people have borne with the protective policy so long. It is surprised that the people of the United States, possessing so much natural shrewdness and proverbial commercial insight, should fail so long to perceive the imposition practiced upon them. The explanation given for this seeming inconsistency by the Jfetca is partially true, but the implied reproach upon American intelligence is hardly appropriate, coming from England. It was once the boast in England that the country was able to produce enough food to meet the wants of Englishmen, and that it was a humiliation to permit foreign com to be sold in British markets. How long that idea con trolled the commercial policy of England, let the Daily Nans answer. It had been the ruling principle of Great Britain for centuries; and forty years ago the men who proposed to abandon it was held to be as dangerous to society as are the Communists of to-day. In point at fact Great Britain did not repeal her protective laws, even on the article of food, until starvation etslked through the Kingdom, and until the choice lay between famine and free trade. ' John Bull did not learn free trade through bis heart, hot through his belly. After generations of stolid ignorance and bigotry on the subject, when her industries, “ protected” at every point, had robbed and plundered each other of the last penny, and crime, stagnation of business, bankruptcy, and stark famine stared her in the face, —then, and not till then, did England, with all her “proverbial commercial foresight and nat tural shrewdness,” perceive the imposition that she had practiced upon herself. The Minister who dared to avert a famine by the repeal of the com laws was deserted by his party, and was thrust from office. He lived, however, to see that brave act become the foundation of the wider and more comprehensive policy which the Daily Seas now wonders that the American peo ple do not adopt, in a period of tolerable pros perity, without the stimulus of intense Buffering, which alone enabled Great Britain to loam its advantages. In point of fact, the last thing that a nation learns, in its advance in civilization, is that two pounds of iron are better than one pound, two yards of cloth better than one yard, at the same cost, or, as Bastiat puts It, that “ two and two make four in political economy the same as m arithmetic.” The only nation that has learned this obvious and simple truth through the head is Germany, and even here the truth was ac quired through a necessary experimental process, rather than through the exer cise of pure reason. Formerly protection was the fundamental principle of every State, large and small, in Germany. Each tupenny kingdom and principality had its territory buidorcd wii.li cußfruiu-Xiuuses autl revenue police. It was pretty much as it would have been in the United States, if every county in every State had been a separate nation, and bad collected customs duties on all goods brought into or passing through its territory. Each of these States had its protective code to preserve its home market and shut out foreign competition. But this eventually worked its own cure. With the growth of commerce and the needs of modem society, thin cumbersome system could not be executed. 80, finally, it was agreed that, instead of levying duties at every cross-road, there should be but one duty col lected, and that at the border of Ger many. The prosperity which followed from the removal of artificial obstacles taught the people that an import duty is nothing bnt a lax, and that there is no mors sense in expect ing to attain prosperity by imposing heavy taxes upOn themselves than in first loading their boots with metal weights and then trying to lilt them selves by the straps. Now, all Germany receives imports under one tax, which docs not average over 7% per cent ad valorem. It took the Ger man States several generations, and cost many long and expensive wars, to learn that the Chinese system of exclusiveness was wholly in consistent with commercial prosperity; and that it was better to get six loaves of bread fora shilling than three. The present “pinch” in the Western States has enabled a good many people to see the folly of paying $45 per ton extra for steel rails to haul com to market, who would never have been able to see it otherwise; and we have consider able hope that before the pinch is over a direc tion may be given to pnblie sentiment which will result in tearing down the whole vicious system of taxing one man for the benefit of another. Another Arctic Expedition* On Saturday, May 10, an expedition toward the North Pole left Dundee, Scotland, of which we hope to hear good accounts in the future. It la not a cumbrous affair ** under Government pat ion age,”—i. 0., strangled with official red-tape,— bnt an expedition organized by » private gen tleman in the interest of science, and as ii is tb ns entirely under the command of one man, it is likely to accomplish its object. Mr. Leigh Smith, the amateur explorer, is an English gen tleman of wealth and culture, and the way he has gone about his work shows' that he is fully competent to cany it out. The vessel in which he has sailed is a large and powerful steam yacht, the Diana, manned by a crow of twenty men. and although be takes a sailing-master wuh him. that functionary will bo merely an as sistant; for Mr. Leigh is himself a practical sail or, and will have absolute control of the vessel’s movements. Por fellow-voyagers he will have the Bev. Mr. Eaton, Mr. Chemside, B. E., and Mr. Potter, a gentleman of scientific proclivi ties, and by the four a careful log will he kept, m which; besides the vessel’s' movements, a record of : tbs tides and currents encountered will be entered, and it is also- intended to collect specimens of the flora and fauns of all coun tries visited. The expedition will first touch at Cobbe’s Bay, Spitsbergen, and here it will be met by Mr. Smith’s sailing yacht Sampson, dispatch ed on May 1 from Hull with additional stores. Leaving Spitzbergen, the Diana will be headed for the pole, and it is intended to. push as far northward-as possible, groat hope being enter tained that the open seas will be reached by mid summer. . The expedition is provisioned for a year, and it-ia-believed that within tins time its object will be accomplished. . NEW YORKT” Homicide as an Attraction —Imaginative Reporting of an Audacioas Kind. A Noted Adventurer—Califor nia Excitability. Action of Metropolitan Cltibs- Henry C. Bowen to Excul pate Himself. jyma Our Own Cmrapanimt, New -Teas, Juno 13, 1873. THE FABCINATIOS OF BLOOD. An experienced landlord told me, recently, that no public house in the Metropolis ever achieved prosperity until one or two murders had been committed under its roof. Most of the hotels in town have been, some time or other, the Beene of homicides. One would suppose that desperate rencounters or assassinations wonid injure an inn, though those who ought to know aver that the effect ia directly opposite. There is certainly, fascination about bloodshed to the average mind, and the spot where murder has been done con tinues to be attractive for many yearn. The Grand Central Hotel haa particularly thrived since James Fisk, Jr., was. shot in its private entrance; and the Stnrtevant House, I understand, haa been fall to overflowing since young Walworth in vited his father to his bed-chamber, and per forated his body with bnllets. I presume, after a while, that landlords will advertise their houses by publishing that, on their premises, this man was stabbed to the heart, or that woman smothered in her bed. Of course, there is something agreeable in such as sociations. It has bean said that the pleasure derived from tragedy arises from the sense of security we feel in contrast with what is repre sented on the stage. By a parity of feeling, the patron of a hotel wonid enjoy his sleep all the more from the reflection that, in the next cham ber, a man's brains had been knocked out by a burglar a few nights previous, or that on the same floor a jealous husband had out his wife’s throat from ear to ear. THE PACTS OF PASCT. The report, printed m the Herald, the other day, detailing the precise nature of the inter view between young Walworth and his father before the latter was killed, has, I observe, been widely copied. This is strange, because every body must have known there was not a single witness to the murdeij and that the murderer has made no revelations. There is a remarka- ble hardihood, therefore, in the Heralds pre tending to give, not only the language, but the intonations and the inward feeling, of what passed between the two, when the crime was . committed alone. That paper does not stick at any such trifles as facts. * A single fact is quite enough to rear any superstructure of bad rhetoric and worse taste upon. It is said that one ’of the elder Bennett’s instructions to reporters and cor respondents was, “Be sure the thing has hap pened, and then write it up with all the sensa tion you can master.’* This role seems still to be faithfully carried out, and the man who makes the most out of nothing is the best man In the eyes of that establishment. A VERACIOUS REPORTER. When Stephen A. Douglas died in Chicago, in 1861, the Herald contained five or six columns minutely describing the closing scenes of his life. They were so very microscopic that they induced journalists to believe them the product of the imagination; bnt the outside world, hav ing perfect faith m their accuracy and trust worthiness, read them with avidity. The correspondent who had written the letter to the Herald had his home in Chicago; bat, being in Cairo about a year later, ho boasted of his exploit to several of his brethren of the gnfll. He told them how ingeniously ho had contrived to get into the sick chamber of the Senator, after hearing that his hours were num bered ; bow he secretly took notes in bis hat of everything that occurred; how he wrote them out immediately after Douglas had expired, and sent them by the first mail to New York- Some skepticism was expressed of the verity of his tale, but he protested that it was true in every particular, and referred to several prominent gentleznon.in your city for corroboration. One of those gentlemen, being afterward questioned on the subject, declared that he knew the Herald xaim, and Itneir, at 4Eo ry time he prAtAnHad to be at the bedside of Douglas, that he was not even in the State of Illinois.. I am not aware what has become of the imaginative reporter of the Little Giant’s clos ing hours ; but I should think he might have reappeared for the sake of writing up the 'Wal worth tragedy in detail, for the simple reason that he baa no knowledge of the facts. It is rumored, by the by, that OHEVAUEB WTKOVP is to come over from London, where he has been residing for some time, and be the managing editor of the Herald. I question the truth of this report; for I fancy Wykoff can serve the paper better where be is than in the capacity mentioned. A very mysterious person is the Chevalier,—this is the title the Herald gave him long ago,—very little more being known of him than that he has been for years m the service of th&t journal. English by birth, he crossed the Atlantic thirty-odd years since, with a view to seeking his fortune as best he might. Not long after his arrival, he determined to set np a newspaper, hoping to be able in due sea* son to extinguish the Herald. Instead of this, he extinguished not far from SIOO,OOO ; bnt, as the money was not his, the loss did not hurt Mm. Subsequently, ho grew very intimate with the lato James Gordon Bennett, and was made one of the appendages of his journal. It is sup posed that the Chevalier is a species of confi dential agent, and that ho keeps the Herald advised of what it is anxious to know. He is a very amiable, pleasant, and genial man, and, though beyond 60, he does not look over 40. You remember what a sensation he created years ago, in Ms matrimonial pursuit of Miss Gamble, an English heiress, all over the Conti nent. Nobody ever understood the relation be tween them, or the object he hod in run ning after her. The Herald was the principal advertiser of the singular romance; and it has been asserted that its sole object was to render 'Wykoff notorious. If such were the purpose, it was accomplished. Bocently the Chevalier has not been prominent, bnt he always seems occu pied with important business of the Herald. Sometimes be is in Washington; sometimes fie ia in London ; and then again in Paria, Berlin, or Bt. Petersburg. No one can tell exactly what he ia doing, thoogh ho is remarkably active, en orgetic, pushing, and appears to understand Ms OTrn affairs. He may be safely set down as an adventurer, and a prosperous one. Ho seems to have the entree of good society,- hob-nobbing with prominent hankers, railway-magnates, poli ticians, and statesmen. Doth at homo and abroad. He used to be an intimate friend of the elder Bennett, and is how of young Bennett. A JTEW ACT TO “OimUO.” Senator Hye, of Nevada, speaking, the other day, of the intense Southern feeling during the Bobellion, mentioned an* example of* it in 1863. He was in Ban Juan, and, visiting the theatre, one night,found “Othello" was to be repre sented. line house was full of miners, many of them Southerners, and they enjoyed the tragedy immensely, though it was evident they looked with marked disfavor on the Moor, who, as usual at rustic theatres, was made to resemble a negro. In the last act, when Othello moves toward the bed to smother Sesdemona, a gaunt and sallow Arkansan jumped upon the Stage, and, drawing a revolver upon the actor, pronounced him, with much profanity, an infernal “nigger,” whom ho would blow through if he hurt a hair of that white woman’s head. Othello, alarmed at the wild appearance and murderous threat of' the Arkansan, retired precipitately, and Sesdemona rose suddenly from her conch, and retreated after her husband, and themanagef dawned upon the scene, backed by half-a-dozen supernumeraries, and exhausted his eloquence to induce the excited Southerner to withdraw. A general hubbub ensued; the theatre was filled with shouts and cries, and the remainder of the tragedy indefinitely post poned. LAUDABLE ACTIOS OT TEE CLUBS. Pits or six of the dabs in town recently de termined, not only to be more careful hereafter in regard to the quality of the men they admit, bnt also of the members themselves. They have decided that any conduct of a member which can bo construed, by a rigid interpretation, aa incon sistent with the character of a gentleman, shall be deemed sufficient cause for expulsion. This rule is not new; but it has been very lax, and not a few persona have been taken into the clubs who had no right .to bo there,. Within a few months, a number of such fellows have been “allowed to resign.” for the reason that they-did not™-, their debts; that they were dishonorable ia theS relations to women, and that they were guilty <rf eocial misdemeanors. 6 * Ol Thia is a step in the right direction. If chibs conid bo made conducive to refinement of man ners, jrarity of speech, and honorable dealing with one s follows,, they wonid Boon become sources of power and influence in the land, and go far toward dotation of mind and immoTe. ment of morals. v aiuiiarsni. m.? 1 * latest story touching the Bowen-Boecher- Tilton scandal is, that Bowen will print phlet, designed to exculpate him from all the charges that have been brought against him! His friends say ho has been represented as a base yilifler, and that it is his duty to proTOhe is nothing of the kind. 80 it seeii tCS i! not yet. * Thomas Hast, it is asserted, has had a very liberal offer, from the publishers of the Graphic to connect himself with that paper as soon as ha returns homo. The Harpers - are yery unwilling to lose him, and they will, therefore, in all prob ability, advance his sahuv. Then the Graphic will increase its terms, and the Harpers will add something thereto. Thus, between the two Hast may he enabled to secure the very handl salary to which his ability entitles him. ' A number of fashionable women hare entered Into a league against men who part their hair ia the middle, —solemnly asseverating that they will not have any each in their train of admirers, or in their Ust of friends. Parting the hair m the middle is a silly fashion; but if men wish to be silly, they should have the same privilege to be that women have. The men, I suppose, will now meet in conclave* and declare that they wilt not countenance the women who wear chignons. It is estimated that 200,000 to 250,000 persons will be out of town this summer. They do not seem inclined to go the noted watering-places so' much as to quiet nooks on the beach and among the mountains, or in rustic haunts. It is said that Alexander T. Stewart, having been warned by his recent illness, will not devote mors than half as many hours as he has been in the habit of doing to the transaction of his busi ness. Over 9100,000,000, it is calculated, will be re quired to erect suitable stone-docks around this island. Even this enormous sum would be a §ood investment, for the present shabby wooden ocks are a disgrace to the great commercial cut of the Union. There are at present in this city, ills said, more than 100 persona who are centenarians, and A>ne-third of. them are of the African race. Butter. Prom the yew Tort Sun A company has been organized in this city with a capital of $500,000 for the manufacture of butter. It is claimed that the butter is gen uine, the means of producing it being alone ar tificial; in other words, the discoverer affirms that the article Is not merely butjrous, but in every respect the complete and perfect thing, as agreeable, nutritious, and usable as the beat Orange County butter. A gentleman of recog nized ability; as a chemist is the fortunate intro ducer of this now wonder. Several persons of wealth have bought stock, and in a week or two the manufacture will be conducted on a very large scale. The temporary offices of the Oleo- Margarine Manufacturing Company, as the corporation is callecL are at No. 40 Broadway, and their manufactory in Forty-fifth street Ar-. rangements have been made for securing better accommodations in Fiftieth street, and very soon the market will be fully supplied with the new product At present the demand for the article is so great that it is beyond the capacity of the company to supply it. the profits are expected to bo over 100 per cent. As this city-made Orange County butter is. used in many of the most fashionable hotels and restaurants, both for cooking and for the table, it may be interesting to the readers of the Sun to learn something of the method in which It is made. In the first place, agents are employedto visit the slaughter-houses and to buy up all the beef fat usually styled suet. This suet is carted to the i'Ufterfactory and cleansed. Then it is put into ordinary meat-choppers and minced fine. It is afterward placed in a boiler with as much water in bulk as itself. A steam pipe is introduced among the particles of suet, and they are melted. The refuse or membrane goes to the bottom of the oily substance floats and is re moved. This latter consists of butter-matter and stearine. A temperature of eighty degrees melts the former aud leaves the stearine at the bottom. The butter-matter, or cream, is drawn off: then about 13 per centoffreshmilkisadded and the necessary salt, and the whole is churned for ten or fifteen minutes. The result is Orange County butter at about one-half the usual cost. The stearins is sold at 12 cents par pound to the candle-maker, and the refuse at 7 cents a pound to the manufacturer of food for cattle. All the leading steamship lines between here and Europe are to be supplied this summer with the newly-invented butter. In taste aud appear ance it is precisely similar to the finest country butter, made from the milk of live cows. Sev eral of the leading men in the butter trade have purchased stock, as nave also many of the Pres idenUofthe steamship lines, and the proprie tors of the leading city hotels. Prof. Ogden Dorexnus has testified to the success of the new method of butter manufacture, and prophesies great prosperity for the new corpora tion. Prof. Paraff, the discoverer, expects that the new product will drive live-cow butter out of the market altogether. The few unscien tific outsiders who are acquainted with the facts now first made public regard the whole thing with amazement. It seems extremely odd to them that the same carcass which furnishes fresh steak for breakfast should supply tho Orange Comity butter which they spread upon their accompanying hot rolls. Idle In the South African Diamond Fields. The Detroit Tribune publishes the following extracts from a private letter received in that city from the Diamond Fields in South Africa, and dated March 29: “There is so much sameness with life on the fields that it ia almost impossible for one to content himself. lam still, engaged in digging for the little charmers, and have moderate suc cess. If the diamonds 1 find were perfect in shape and color.! could return from the fields in a short time. The proportion of bad stuff and off color ia about ninety-nine in one hundred. I have found a great many • stones within the last four months, bat not one in tbe lot wa?pcrfect. On Monday last, I found one of thirty carats, good water, out it was shattered all through, so in reality it is not of much value. Small mixed chips up to ten carats bring 7s per carat. I sold, last evening, for a friend, a stone of twenty-three carats, deep off color, at 45a. 6d. per carat. Good octohedroc white, from four to ten carats, bring good prices, say from £6 to £lO sterling, gold, per carat. Few of these, however, are found. A few months ago I found a beauty, octohedron in shape, ol eight carats. It had a alight, smoky tinge. 1 had it out of the ground only two days when it flow all to hits. The chips I sold for six shil lings per carat. Tbe loss for me, of course, was great. Still, we have to take our chances. - The cost of working a claim ia so much that there is no more money in it. Perhaps thero are not ton claims in 1,806 on this field that are much more than paying working expenses. Men stick to the work with the hope of finding a good-sized diamond which would give thorn a lift out of this region ; bnt these perfect big stones don’t lie about loose. The work is getting to be veiy tedious. I am taking our ground at the depth of eighty feet. It all has to be bro ken with sticks in the hands of Kaffirs. With sixteen boys I can take bnt and sort eight cart loads a day.' I have many times sorted IW loads and not found a chip. At other times 1 have found ten in a wheel-barrow full of ground. One, to make it pay, wants to find one or two diamonds to each cart-load of ground, that is, taking them as they como, chips and stones, large and small. The rush, instead of coming to the fields, ia turning from them. X can see great changes in the camp everyday.’ The majority of the diggers are from Cap* Colony or that of NataL They come with tbeir oxen, and, of course, can leave any day, while with Europeans or Americans the case is differ ent. They don’t come to leave till they haw replenished their empty pockets. Very few do it, however. The longer the majority stay tw poorer they get. Iflerchant-Navlcs. A report, presented to the German EeicheUft gives statistics of the development of the mex chant-navies of the most considerable mamma States. The following tabular statement." taken from this official document: JanV Tannage ** ®C,f Stonier of in font </>/ &*>“ £ result. 1,000 Wot) V<*H England 20,387 6,030,789 Sj German? 5,110 1,361,770 ■ ri France -15,778 1,571,056 5 j itaiy,;;;”;;.'.'.";;;; a s'sda £6ii;wj Norway 6,833 631,663 u» Netherlands.; 1,985 C 23,578 - jjs Anatro-Hocgary...... 9,114 961,233 irf 'Sweden 3,357 342,6®* a • Greece 6,512 W Spain..... 1,414 272,299. ' « Basel. 2,543 ' « ; Denmirk 2,853 ; 81 - • Turkey. 2.20T *£r22 IM Portngei; 817 83,252 . , y. United SUt* 28.39S V®>°* ; COLSTOUH.

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