Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune, June 17, 1873, Page 4

Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune dated June 17, 1873 Page 4
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4 TERMS OF THE TRIBUNE. terms or aunscmPTioK (pavadus nr advance). DMly, by mall 512.001 Sunday 82.Q0 Trl-Wcokly U.OOlWookly E.UO Part* ol a year at llio aamo mto. To provont delay and mlilalics, bo auro and giro Post Ofl!co address In (nil, Including Htato and County. UotnlUnncca may bo rondo oltbor by draft, ospross, Post Office order, orlu registered lolloin, at our risk. terms to citt BDnnouim:na. Sally, dollvorod, Sunday oxooptoit. 26 contp per week. Sally, delivered, Sunday included, TW couto per week. Address THE TRIBUNE COMPANY, Comer Madison and Dearbotn-ati., Chicago, 111. TO-DAY'S AMUSEMENTS. AIKEN'S THEATRE—Wabash avonuo. corner of Don frou itroot. Spectacular opera, '' Zoloo.*' nOOLEY'S THEATRE—Randolph ttroet, between Clark and LaSalle. “Uatnoof Lovo." MoVIOKER'B THEATRIC—Madison alroot, between Dearborn and St&to. The Katie Putnam Troupe. **Blade O'Orais.” AOADEMY OF MUSIO (Tainted elreot, between Madison and Monroo. Thontro Ooiulguo Combination. MYERS' OPERA HOUSK-Monroo street, between State and Dearborn. Moran A Manning's Minstrels. AMPHITHEATRE—CIinton atroot, botwoon Washing, ten and Randolph. Cal Wagner's Minstrels. BUSINESS NOTICES. ROYAL HAVANA LOTTERY-WR SOLD IN Bankers. 10 Wall-sU P. O. Boi 4€BC. Now York. . BATCHELOR’S HAHt DYE. THIS SPLENDID bnlrdro la tho beat In tho world. Tho only true and per fect dye. Haniiloaa, reliable, and Inttontonoons 5 nodlaap nolntraont 5 no ridiculous tints or unpleasant odor. Romo dlca tho ill effects of bad dyes and washes. Produces im mediately a auporb black or natural brown, and loarw the halt clean, toll, and beautiful. The K?nulno, atoned W. A. Batchelor. Sold by all drugglala. CHARLES BATCHELOR, Proprietor. N. Y. Tuesday Morning, Juno 17, 1873. Senator Pomeroy’s trial for bribery and cor ruption was to havo begun at Topeka yesterday, but has boon postponed until noxt fall. The Common Council has indefinitely post poned consideration of tho ordinance allowing saloons to bo opened on Sunday aftor midday. Tho fruit region around St. Joseph, Mich., is suffering sadly for rain. Tbo strawberry fields aro blighted by tho drought, and will yield much loss than half a crop unless rain falls this week. Memphis has established a Board of Health to deal with tho cholera. Thoro wore fifteen deaths yesterday from cholera in that city, and in Nash ville thoro have boon tblrty-two since Saturday, almost all of them among tho negroes. Tbo price of a license to sell liquor was re cently raised by tho Common Council of Wauke gan to SGOO. Their action has boon votood by tho Mayor, who holds that if liquor-selling is a legitimate business it ought to bo accessible to poor mou as well as to tbo rich. President Grant's Louisiana proclamation has worked like a charm, according to Gov. Kel logg. Taxes, ho soys, aro now being paid more ropidly than over before, and will yield funds enough to pay all tho interest on the State bonds except those affected by tho injunction so opportunely issued not long ago. Vice-President Wilson is lying dangerously ill in Boston. His exhausting labors in tho canvass of last summer, and tho painful excitement of tho last session of Congress, followed by too hard work on his history of tho anti-slavery movement, havo broken him down. Ho is be lieved to have passed the crisis of his disease but is not yet out of danger. As if Philadelphia hod not already cause enough for complaint against New York, arrange ments aro now making by which a special train will deliver Now York newspapers in Philadel phia by o’clock in tbo morning. It Is said that 8,000 Now York newspapers ore sold dally in Philadelphia now, and it is estimated that, when tboy aro in the hands of tlrp newsboys almost as early as tho Philadelphia newspapers, at least 10,000 copies will bo demanded. Hnlulod street was the scone of a sanguinary fight early yesterday morning between throe bravo police officers and throe desperate Chi cago thieves, who woro intercepted on thoir re turn from Milwaukee with the proceeds of a 52,000 burglary. The desperadoes, who ore known to tho authorities as tbo very worst of our professional criminals, fought as for thoir lives, aud woro all severely wounded by pistol shots and clubbing. One escaped with an indi gestible bullet in his stomach, and tbo other two are in custody. Tho officers aro fortunately unhurt. Negotiations have bcou in progress some timo with Huntington & Hopkins, of Sacra* monto, who control tbo Central Pacific, for tho purchase of their interest in tho road. California newspapers take a deep interest in tho business, and assort that tho parties who aro thus trying to gain posses* cion of tiro Central Pacific aro acting on behalf of tho Vanderbilts, who—provided thoy got con trol of tho Northwestern—need only this link to complete their trunk lino across tho continent. Yesterday tho negotiation was said to havo failed; to-day it is reported successful. Tbo libel suit against tbo Janesville Gazette , of Wisconsin, Which has ended in a verdict for 81,100 damages, was tho occasion of on inter esting ruling on tho law of newspaper libels. Tho proprietors of tho Gazette attempted to prove, hi thoir defence, that thoy had offered as reparation to tho libeled party to print any statement ho wished to make, and to publicly re tract any charges which he would show had boon unjustly made. Presiding Judge David Davis, of tho Supremo Court, refused to admit any such testimony on the ground that such subsequent retraction in no way lessoned tho responsibility for tbo original libel. Somebody ban stolon from tbo War Depart ment uu Invaluable mass of private archives loft •there by Secretary Stanton. Thoy covered the whole period of tbo War, and wore of singular interest on account of tho light they throw on tho real history of many of tho patriots heroes of tho War, who figured in court-martials contracts, and army intrigues, in a way that would not, if known, add much to their civil reputa tion, although many of them, it Is intimated, bold very high positions to-day. If tho statement is truo that copies of many of those stolon papers woro kept by a gentleman who intends to use them in writing a history of tho war, tho loss Is not irreparable. Tho Chicago produce morkots wore lower yes terday, and grain won active. Mesa pork was quiet and 5o lower, at $15.70 cash, and $15.76® 15.80 seller July. Lard was dull and Oo per 100 lbs lower, at $8.32K0 cash, and $8.40® 8.45 aollor July. Meats 'were inactive and unchanged, at for shoulders, BKo for short rihs, for short clear, and for sweet pickled hams. Highwlnos wore . quiet and steady at 00c per gallon. Lake freights wore active and lower, at for com to Buffalo. Flour was moro active, but easier. Wheat was active, and declined closing firmer at cash, and seller July. Corn was active, and de clined 2c, but closed firmer at 81%@8i%0 cash, and seller July. Gate were active, and de clined closing strong at cash, and 27pf»o seller July. Bye was dull and lo lower, at Go@o(%c. Barley was dull and So lower, at Co@ Cso for poor to good No. 2. Hogs wore quiet, and closed weak. Bales at The cattle trade was dull at a slight decline. Sheep wore unchanged. Mrs. Olom, tho alleged Indiana murderess, by a decision of tbo Supreme Court of that State, Is once moro to havo a now trial. Tho murder with which she stands charged was one of tho most terrible, as well as mysterious, on record. She was first tried in December, 18C8, and tbo Jury disagreed. In February, 1860, she was tried again, and convicted of murdor in tbo second degree. Tho caso was then appealed and re versed. These two trials wore for tho murder of Nancy Young. She was then brought to trial In the fall of 1871 for tho murder of Jacob Young, and . tbo Jury disagreed. In Juno, 1872, she was tried again, fonnd guilty of murder in tbo second degree, and sentenced to tbo Penitentia ry for lifo. Tho caso has boon again rovorsod, and tho Supremo Court has now romandod hor for hor fifth trial. Tho main points upon which tho Supremo Court romandod tho caso aro that tho indicimont contained a flaw, and that tho lowor Court orrod in sustaining a demurrer to tho special plea of former acquittal, made by tho defendant, and also that it improperly instruct ed tho jury. The decision of tho Supremo Court has mot with a general outburst of indignatiou from tho loading papers in Indiana. Tho Chicago Times thinks it has discovered an inconsistency in onr treatment of tho defeat of Judge Lawrence, because wo have spoken of tho largo influence which was exerted against him by tho argument that, if ho woro ro-olootod after tbo Princeton Convontion had nominated anothor man, tbo Farmers' Movement would come to an end. If, in addition to the fact that Judge Lawrence hod concurred with tho other Judges In rendering tho Alton Railway decision, it bad boon discovered that ho had a long noso (popular prejudice running in favor of medium noses), and that ho hod onco decided a libel suit in an unfooling manner, and that bo hod fined tho Stato Idiot for contempt of court, and that ho lived in tho wrong town for county-seat oi Knox County— and if all those facts bad more or loss Influence in turning votes against him—these foots should bo takou into account hi determining whether tbo aggregate voto of the District implies a Bot tled purpose to subordinate tbo decisions of courts to tbo decrees of town meetings, or whether it is only a temporary and local blun der, which may bo repaired at anothor election, and which is not likely to bo repeated in other districts. But they cannot alter tbo fact that tho public issue was tbo decision in tho Alton Railway coso, and that whatever reputation tbo people of the District may acquire abroad, whether good or bad, will bo ganged by that circumstance. It will make very little difference to investors of capital whether tho question of long and short noso.s, or any other extraneous issue, entered Into tbo contest, or whether they had much or little influ ence. What they want to • know is Just this: whether the law is to bo interpreted hereafter by independent Judges, after weighing tho facts and hearing tho arguments, or whether judicial decisions are to bo rendered at the ballot-box regardless of law, facts, arguments, or official oaths. THE SALARY-GRAB. The St. Paul Press comes to tho defense of the salary-grabbers in this fashion : Wo aro acquainted with the member of Congress whoso expenses at Washington do cot exceed $1,300 per year—not in propria persona, but in tho person of tbo well-known of this altogether unique and fearful species of tho genus homo, tfe Is a bachelor, because ho la too moan to marry, and wears & chronically dirty shirt because bo boa only ono, and is too stingy to got that washed. Ho lives alone, on mouldy crackers aud rotten codfish, with an occa sional dessert of cheese parings, in tbo attic of a tumblo-down rookery, which a decent slave holder would not havo subjected bis " niggersto tho humiliation of living in. This half-starved, unkempt, sordid wretch, whoso groveling nature la unlit by any ray of human friendship or kindliness—and whoso hungry avarice prompts him to oko out his parsimo nious sayings by whatever sordid stealings ho can rako in by tho huckstering of his one despicable voto In tho lobby market—may bo tho kind of Representative that boot suits The TnxnUNE’a conception of what a Repre sentative of the Illinois people in Congress ought to bo. Rut the pooplo of Minnesota don’t want any such garret rata os this to represent them in Congress. Tho difference between $1,200 and ss,ooo—tbo latter being tbo annual pay of a Congressman from ISGO to 1673, exclusive of mlloago, is con siderable-being something over 800 por cent. Honco tho startling picture of squalor and wretchedness which tho Press draws of tho $1,200 man Is hardly applicable to tho case of Qon. Averill. Tbo aggregate amount of mouldy crackors and rotten codfish and chooso parings that can be bought for $1,200, and tbo nutritivo properties of those articles, maybe interesting to tho “ social scientist," but does not servo to explain how Senators Fessenden, Collamor, Sumner, Wilson, Ramsay, and Representatives Blaine, Boutwoll, Stevens, Farnsworth, Wia dom and others, got along very comfortably on salaries of $3,000 up to tho year 1800, since which timo tho general coat of living has not in creased, although tho salary had boou increased CG por cent before the last increase. That tho style of living has advanced is undoubtedly true, and tho question is whothor tho people can bo rightfully taxed to support an advancing style, and, if so, up to what point. Between tho poor devil who okes out a miserable existence on $1,200 worth of mouldy crackers and chooßO-pariugfl and tho mlllionuiro who never sits down to dinner with loss thou thirteen wine-glasses to each plato, there is a very wide margin for guesswork as towliut par ticular stylo of living the people should maintain for their Congressmen. If tho decision of this question is loft to the Congressmen solely, thoy will very soon find that $7,500 per year is too Ut ile, and thoy will prove it hi tho same way that Qon. Averill proves that $5,000 is too little. It is tho duty of ovory snob to imitate tho oxtravag&uoo of his superiors in wealth, and, if ho finds Senator Chaudlor or Roprosou tativo Hooper living In costly houses and giving splendid entertainments, of course it will ho considered moan for him to llvo in apartments and give no entertainments whatever, although Daniel Webster, and Rufus Ohoato, and Pitt Fessenden lived in that way, and Henry Wilson THE CHICAGO DAILY TRIBUNE; TUESDAY, JUNE 17, 1873. docs still. Wo do not make thoso remarks as personal to Gen. Avorill, for wo do not know how ho lives, or what his moans aro; but there is not a snob in Washington who cannot defend tho noxt salary bill, no matter how high It may bo, by the same arguments that Gen. Avorill uses to defend tho last one. ' THE FARMERS' FOURTH OF JULY. Tho tidal wave of tho Fanners’ Movement, which Is just now sweeping over tho West, has at last submerged tho Fourth of July, American eagle, flro-crackoro, stump orators, sky-rockets, and all. Tho address of tho Executive Commit tee, sotting apart tho Fourth of July for a free discussion of tho farmers* grievances, tho aboli tion of tho stereotyped oration, and tho reading of tho Formero* Declaration of Independence Instead of Mr. Jefferson's, has already boon printed In our columns. Tho truly loyal and highly patriotic citizen will bo disposed to regard this innovation as little loss than sacrilege. Tho stump orators will mourn their lost opportunity to wrap them selves in tho American flag and fight tho coun try’s battles over again. Tho proud bird of free dom will wonder why bo is not allowed hlo cus tomary shriek. Tho village elocutionist will pino In secret that ho cannot hurl tho Declaration of Independence into tho faces and eyes of tho tyrants of the Old World. There will bo moro, however, who will rojoloo at tho prospect of suppressing what baa grown to bo a public boro. Wo aro not yet aware of tho details of tho Farmora* Fourth of July, hut wo presume “ tho day wo colobrato ** will bo of a bucolic, rather than patriotic, character. Chanticleer. Is Just as good a bird as tbo bald-headed eagle, can scream Just as loud, and, in fact, make moro noise, because there is moro of him. In stead of tho interminable and bombastic oration we shall bavo tho farmers' talks, and these will bo enjoyable, because tbo farmers never talk long. They aro men of fow and plain words. Instead of tho American Hag, tbo com will wavo its green loaves ail over tho prairies and on a thousand hills. Tho farmora* hoys will not have to go to tho largo cities and got sick on colored lemonade and greasy leo-oroam. Having a Fourth of July of their own, they will provide tho grateful older, sweet apples, doughnuts, and other pastoral luxuries, which do no harm. They can bring up tboir mowers and their threshers, their buskors and their ooru-shollors, and have ail tho noiso they want. The Goddess of Liberty always was a fright, and tho village hollo will take much moro comfort ns Cores with her shoavoo and sickle than she has boon accustomed to bavo as tho Goddess with a star-spangled petticoat and an ugly cap, not adapted to tho present stylo of hair. There will bo something Inspiriting in tho processions of bronzed and brawny-armed formers coming to gether to consult upon their grievances, and to hurl defiance at locomotives and freight tariffs. They will return at night to their broad acres moro refreshed for their work and moro hopeful of their future harvests than if they had gone to tho county-seat to sot off flro-orackors and listen to patriotic twaddle which has been dished out to thorn every year of their lives. Tho formers havo done well to abolish tho various nuisances which cling to tho celebration of Fourth of July. wo congratulate them, wo commiserate tho dwellers in cities. We havo no farmers, no granges, no Patrons of Husbandry. Pomona dwells afar, ami woios could not abide tbo metropolitan smoko and smolls. In tho cities, therefore, tho eagle will still scream. Tho orator, deprived of his rural opportunity, will improve tho civic opportunity to his very utmost. Tho llro-crackor will blazo and tbo sky-rocket will sputter. Houses will bum up and horses will run away. Small children will got their fingers blown off, and young men will got drunk. Tho Goddess of Liberty, fresh and smiling in tbo morning, will go to bod at night with disheveled hair, dirty robes, and uncertain gait, used up, fagged out, and disgusted. People will seek . thoir couches dispirited, and disgusted with tho effort to tocognizo tho fact that this is a groat and glorious country, and thankful that they aro not obliged to bo truly loyal for another year. All this misery tho farmers, happy beings, will escape. They will colohrato their own day in their own good way, and they will not bo expected to provo their pat riotism by touching off tho allotted number of blacksmith's anvils, or setting - thoir neighbors’ premises afire with Roman candles, or getting drunk on benzine whisky. Wo fancy tho farmers will bo just about as patriotic as if they had dono all tbo absurd things wo havo mentioned, and bad stood in tho sun two or throo hours, listening to Thompson as ho descants upon tho advantages of being an American citizen, and tho corresponding dis advantages of thoso unfortunate beings who had tho bad luck to bo born under tho galling yoke of effete monarchies. HOT CORN. It is understood that a portion of tho corn In two of tho grain oiovators of this city has boon declared by tho warehousemen to bo “hot," and, ns a consequence, corn, yesterday, sold in this city as low os SO cents por bushel, a decline of 8 cents during the week ending yesterday. Tho amount of com In store yesterday noon was about 1,076,000 bushels, and tho amount de clared to be “hot" was only 55,000 bushels. Tho proportion thus affected Is small; but tho fact that any is affected has a tendency to lower tho market. It is, however, to bo remembered that nearly if not all tbo com declared to bo hot was received by canal. And it will bo also re membered that, iu tbo olodiug weeks of April and first weeks of May, tbo Inspectors wore roundly and fiercely abused for rating a largo percentage of canal com aa " rejected.” Tbo groat noise tbon made bad tbo effect of relaxing tbo inspection, and tbo offoot Is, that corn which ought to bavo boon inspected as “rejected,” was passed into tbo elevators at a higher grado, and Is now "hot com." This result is a natural one, for which warehousemen aro not responsible. It Is another evidence that inspection of grain should bo rigid, and that any departure from tho truth iu making it is a weakness which lu euro to prove costly iu tho end. Though tho amount of corn known to ho hot is comparatively small, it has a serious offoot upon tho market. Tho presence of hot com in on elevator exposes tho com in other bins; tho condition is contagious, and thus tho lutroduo tiou of a small quantity of tho inferior article may do uu immense damage to com of undoubted quality. Tho danger of such occurrences ought certainly to stimulato tho trade to make Homo regulations to protect tho public. It is known that such an ovout as tho healing of corn can ho prevented. This process involves an expense which the warehousemen refuse to incur. They receive tho grain on store, but do not assume responsibility beyond ordinary ooro and dill- gonco. Here, however, wo have 65,000 bushels of damaged corn affecting tho value of over four millions of bushels that is not yet dam aged. Tho amount of present loss is very groat, and, should tho Injury spread, tho loss will ho still greater. It occurs to ua that thoro ought to ho an authority soraowhoro, upon tho appear ance of hot corn In an elevator, lo toko posscs oion of U by summary action, not only for tho purpose of remedying its condition as far as la practicable, but to prevent its infecting olhor com In tho same elevator. This prevention of hot corn, as wo havo said, Involves an expense and a loss of weight, which tho warehousemen refuse to boar. Certainly, in a community whore the corn trafllo is so extensive, thoro ought to bo eomo moans taken for so distributing this cost of prevention that it should fall equitably on all con cerned. Tho loss consequent upon tho declara tion of “hot corn " in a number of elevators Is tenfold, probably, tho annual cost of preventive regulations which would render hot corn on im possibility. _ FRO BATA. Thoro is just now considerable agitation among the fanners of lowa and other Western States, including oven Kansas, in favor of adopt ing ibo Illinois pro rata law, which demands an increase of tariff according to distance. If tho farmers' movement wore in favor of high, In stead of low, freights, it would bo difficult to suggest a more direct process for arriving at that end. To fully satisfy the spiltt of tho de mand, that there shall bo absolutely no discrim ination in tho transportation of grain from tho Northwest to tho Atlantic seaboard, wo must prosumo that not only Illinois, but lowa, Wis consin, Minnesota, Kansas, and Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Now York, and Now Jersey, will adopt tho pro rata system. When this condi tion of tilings shall bo established, how will tho lowa, Wisconsin, or Minnesota farmer got hie grain to market at all ? • The pro rata problem is by no moans now to tho railroad managers. Probably tho largest experience and best talent in tho country have been engaged in making up tariffs best adapted to the interests of all their patrons. Thoy have figured out rates oven to the hundredth port of a cent, and have applied every known principle of mathematics to strike tho mean that would apply host to the business along tho Jlno of their roads. If, now, tho States are to stop in and compel them by law to charge an additional rate for ovory station, thoy can hardly bo ex pected to overcome tho geographical boundaries of tho country and conform to such a law at one and tho samo time. Tho practice of railroads heretofore has boon to ascer tain, as nearly os possible, the average cost of freight per ton per mile, estimating tboir through and local business together* In pursuance of this policy, thoro has boon a ma terial redaction of rates daring the past five years on all tho principal railroads in tbo coun try. The last report of - tho Directors of tho Michigan Southern shows that tho average rate per ton per mile for local and through business for 1868 was 2.43 cents; for 1869, 2.81; for 1870, 1.50; for 1871, 1.89; for 1872, 1.87. Tho local rates on tho Michigan Control Railroad for tbo past two or throe years have boon from 3,80 to 2.76 cents per ton per mile, while tbo through rates have boon in tbo neighborhood of 1.19 cents per ton per mile. If tho pro rata rule ■'oumuoDd applied from tno Northwestern grain districts to Now York, tho most favorable plan that could possibly be adopted would be an increase in the basis of tho average local rates. Tho best average local ratsS would bo 8.25 per ton per mile. At this rate tho freight on wheat from Winona to Now York would bo $1.20 per bushel instead of 70 cents, the average under the present tariff, or 50 cents per bushel higher than it is now. This would bo on a basis of average local freights, however, on a single road and under one control. Bat as each State law would con trol the road-bed lying within its boundaries, it would bo impossible to comply with tho law by making up a pro rata tariff on on average local rate. No railroad could bo asked to carry freight at a loss over any portion of its road, and as ovory road would bo obliged to contemplate tho of through business, It would be noqpssary to start tho tariff at tho actual cost of carrying freight from ono terminus to tho nearest station, and thou build up on this basis. This process would have to bo renewed in every State, in order to comply with the various laws. In effect, then, a pro rata law in every State similar to tho Illinois law would make the freight from Winona to Now York a sum equal to tho addition of all tho intermediate local freights on the several roads and in tho several States traversed. Just what this sum would bo wo havo no moans of ascertaining, hut it would certainly amount to sovorol dollars per bushel. If tho grain could bo sold in New York at this rate, tho railroads would certainly havo no objection to tho adopt tiou of a pro rata law in oil the States, as they would derive all tbo benefit from it. But, as tho effect would inevitably be to shut off from mar ket all those districts so far from the Eastern markets as to mako tho aggregate of local rates in excess of tho ruling prico of groin, the for mers would ceoso to ship anything, tho trans portation business would come to a stand-still, and farmers and railroads would go to pot to

gether. Tho farmers of Minnesota, lowa, and Kansas, who ore now demanding a pro rata law like that of Illinois, do not know what they ore-talk ing about. They are misled because they find in their immediate neighborhood that a shipper some twenty miles further from market thou they are has groin transported for the some prico, oud because they think that their small advantage and his small disadvantage of loca tion should enable them to do tbo business first and leave him to toko his chances afterwards. They do not stop to think that a law which would apparently secure some of them such on advantage would, on tho cctatrary, discriminate against all' alike, sluco it would shut out all of them from market. If a law similar to tho Illi nois law existed and wore enforced m Indiana and Ohio (it was once passed « by ono branch of tho Now York Legislature), & is exceedingly doubtful whether tho surplus (grain of Illinois could bo shipped to Eastern markets by railway, or to Europe via tho Eastern States. Cor : lalnly, Wisconsin, lowa, and Minnesota, would bo fenced out completely. These States would no longer be troubled with tho transpor tation question, it is true; but it would bo be cause they could not transport their products at all. That they should deliberately oak .for tho adoption of a law that would Inevitably load to the result wo havo described, is very much as if a man should climb a tree with a rope of un known length, tie ono end around Ids nook, tbs other to a high limb, and then jump off lu order to tout the length of tho ropo. If tho ropo should prove to bo short, tho Individual of an oxporlraontal turn of mind would probably hang himself. Tho farmers of Missouri, lowa, Minnesota, and Kansas,will do tvoll to wait until Illinois has thoroughly tested tho pro rata law before . thoy make any attempt at tho exten sion of Us imaginary benefits, aud tho pooplo of Illinois will do woll not to urgo tho adoption of tho law upon Ohio and Indiana. It must first bo demonstrated that tho territory of Illinois is not too largo for tho application of tho policy without extending it further. Tho samo policy was tried in England, which is not larger than Illinois, and failed thoro because it had tho effect of shutting out certain districts from mar hot altogether. If England was too largo to admit of tho pro rata principle as defined in tho Illinois statute, it would bo worse than folly to attempt Co apply it to tho territory of several States equal to six or eight times tho area of England. HOW WE PROTECT LABOR. For what purpose ore wo taxed $06,000,000 every year, in the cost of our woolen and worsted goods alone ? Tho proceeded ob ject is to 14 protect American labor.” Wo ore told to rejoice in the patriotic sacrifice because tho money goes into Um pockets of American workmen, and if any churl wants bis money to go whore it will bring him tho most clothing, ho is called a disloyal oroaturo who must have British gold to spend. If this tariff claims to bo a well-managed eleemosynary Institution,wo may at least bo per mitted to Inquiry why it would not bo better to give the $68,000,000 directly to the 93,073 bands employed in tho woolen and worsted mills. It would bo some S7BO for each man, woman, and child, now thus employed, aud that is more than their whelp average yearly earnings ; and then, while thoy could afford to do nothing, wo could afford to buy clothes at tho prices of 1860, and save money by tho operation. As a benevo lent enterprise this tariff does not seem to bo quite well conducted. But if it is merely a scheme to got money into tho pockets of a fow monopolists, and if it roally gives to oar work men loos demand for their labor, and loss pay, measured by tho quantity of necessaries and comforts which wages will purchase, then it is an outrageous swindle. We 14 protect” tho manufacture of cloth. This affects throe dosses of American laborers ; first, those who mako the doth ; second, those who work it up into clothing ; and, third, those who wear tho olotbos. Tho first class includes 185,809 persons in cotton mills, 02,973 in woolen and worsted, and 0,619 in silk, 211,710 in all— for the 706 employed in 44 linen works ” are not making doth. Tho second class includes 101,820 tailors and seamstresses, 92,034 dressmakers and milliners, 1,080 shirt and collar-makers, and OG2 hoop-skirt aud corset-makers, 258,910 in all. The third class includes both of those, aud all others who wear clothes of tho forty millions of pooplo. Facts have been presented from the consns reports which show that wo pay at least 61 per cent more for tho same quantity of oloth of do* mostla make than wo did iu 1860. Duties on for* oign cloth, which, being levied In gold with im porters* charges necessarily thereby enlarged, raise tho cost of imported goods much more than 60 per coni, still do not prevent tho importation of about 237,000,000 yards of oloth, and it is easy to see that, if there woro only rovonuo duties of, say, 20 per cent, wo could obtain all our oloth at prices as low in gold as those of 1860, if not oven lower. Tho whole body of laborers who oonsnmo clothing cannot bo very benefited by this increase in the cost of all tho cloth they wear. Tho peculiar blessings of “ Protection to American labor,” therefore, must bo sought for in some benefit greater than their share of tho general loss by increased cost of cloth conferred upon the two classes which make cloth and make clothing. Bat tho proof must bo pretty clear if it is to convince anybody that it is well to mako forty millions of pooplo wear ono-fourth less cloth, and pay GO per cent more for it, in order to help half a million of persons who make cloth and clothes. But how cun those who mako clothing be helped by a system which diminishes tho quanti ty of cloth consumed ? Census reports and offi cial records of imports prove that tho entire quantity of cloth consumed in 1870 was 1,647,- 638,000 yards, but in 1860 it was 1,694,368,000 yards; in 1870 onlydO yards per capUa, and In 1860 about 54 yards. Suppose tho entire de mand for farm products, or iron, or horses, or lawyers’ services, should thus decrease in propor- tiou to population fully ono-quartor, how could formers, iron-makers, carpenters, and masons, or lawyers, escape injury ? Wo uso a yard znoro of woolen cloth to each inhabitant, but does this supply, work to compensate for tho uso of loss silk by half a yard, and less cotton by fourteen and a half yards to each inhabitant ? Not only has tho work of making clothing neces sarily decreased in proportion to population so that, if tho proportion of tailors, seamstresses, and dressmakers has remained tho same, ono quartor must bo coustantly unemployed, bat wo actually uso loss cloth by nearly 150,000,000 yards than wo did thirteen years ago. If tho number of tailors, seamstresses, and other ;makors of clothing has not increased at all ainco 1860, still 8% P OE cent of tboso then employed must now bo out of work, simply because wo have reduced our consumption of cloth. Bombproof of tho off cots of this etato of things upon cdothos-making may ho found in tbo cen sus statistics of tho manufactures of mou’s and women’s clothing. Tho number of bands em ployed in men's clothing establishments in 1860 . was 114,000, and in 1870 it bod decreased to 100,000. Notwithstanding on increase of 22% per cent in population, tho number of hands employed in all clothing establishments, for men’s, women’s, and children's clothing, had decreased from 120,539 in 1860 to 119,824 in 1870. Yet these establishments have very groat advantages over tho scattered tailors, seam stresses, and dressmakers who form tho re mainder of tho 258,046 persons employed in making olothos. They uso machinery, eon buy and sell at wholesale, and, la the ter rible competition which a reduced consump tion of clothing must cause, would natur ally ho able to crowd tbo scattered workmen and poor sewing-girls to death. If in those strong establishments thonumbonof bauds has diminished, what must have boon tho loss of labor and tbo suffering among thoso other work ers who havo at all times a life hard enough at boat? Even in those strong establishments, tho cost of materials has so increased that corre sponding prices for tho finished clothing, could not ho obtained. lu men’s .clothing establish ments, the material cost 54 8-6 per cent of tbo value of products in 1800, and 58 0-10 per cent in 1870; in women’s clothing establishments tho material cost 40 per cent of tho value of pro ducts lu 1800, and 63 per coat in 1670. As tho Inevitable result of shell a competition, ibo wages paid relatively decreased; in men’s cloth ing the sum paid as wages wps 24J£ per cent of tho value of tbo product in 1800, and only per cent in 1670, while in women’s clothing tho average per hand in 1800 was's2o7.Bß in gold, and in 1870 only $210.00 In currency. Thus in each branch tho wages paid to laborers increased loss than tho oost of the material used by them, and less than tho prioo of tho product created by their labor, and far loss than tho average inoroaso In general prices and in tbo cost of living. But if those have boon tho effects upou labor in tho strong establish ments whore machinery is nsod, what must have boon the olfoot upon tho employmout and aver age earnings of tho 140,000 tailors and seam stresses not omployed'in such establishments ? To them, tho doorcase in tho consumption of clothing is fatal. It has forced four persons to battle with each other for tho work that suffices for only throe. If this is protecting American labor, thou tbo loss wo havo of it tho bettor for tho poor seam stresses, who work for loss wages in gold than they rocoivod in 1860, and yot number more than all ibo persons employed in woolen and worsted manufacture; and tbo less of It the bet tor for tho olothing establishments, which em ploy fewer hands then they did thirteen years' ago, and yot employ moro than all tbo woolen and worsted mills together. Out of forty millions of consumers injured by tho increased cost of cloth, it already appears that only those who make cloth—leas flan a quarter of a million—can havo boon helped. To bless a country by taxing one hundred and sixty persons for tbo bonoflt of ono is tho theory of Protection; lot us look at tho practice- Tbo average of wages per hand In tho cotton manufacture, as shown by tho census of 1878, was S2BB, but In 1860 it was 106.63, so that tho inoroaso has boon 47 per cent. But tho price of cotton cloth has increased over 60 por cent, and in 1860 tho cost of tho matori&l was 49 por cent of tho value of tho product, and in 1870 63 4-5 por cont, so that wages havo increased far loss than tho cost of tho material or tbo prico of tho goods mado. Tho average of wages por hand in tho woolen manufacture in 1860 was $236.87, and in 1870 it was $342.21, tho increase being 44 por cont. But tho prico of woolon goods has increased 64 por cent, and tbo coot of all mate rials in 1800 was 58 7*lo por cont of tho voluo of all products, and in 1870 it was 617-10 per cent Whilo tho number of yards znado (of woolens only) increased 63 per cent, and the wages of bauds 44 por cont, ibo valao of products in creased 163 por cent. Tho average of wages paid in the silk manufacture in 1860 was $105.07, and In 1870 it was $292.11; increase, 89 7-10 por cont. But tho prico of goods increased 60 por cont, and tho cost of materials in 1860 was 69, and in 1870 it was 64 por cont of tho product. * Thus, in ovory branch, tho wages increased loss than tbo cost of articles used by tho labor on tho ono hand, or tbo prico of articles mado by tho labor on tho other. Tho avorago increase of wages-was 43 por cent, and it is not necessary to toll anybody that $l4O in currency would not go as far in pay ing expenses of a family in 1870 as SIOO In gold in 1660. But it is a Uttlo hard that tho vory people who moke cloth should bo ablo to buy loss of it with their wages than thoy could be fore thoy woro protected I Tho workman who oarnod SIOO hi 1860 in woolon mills, and now earns $l4O by the same labor, could then buy with bis wages 100 yards of tho very cloth ho produces whoro tho wages for tho eamo labor will now buy him only eighty-five yards of tho same cloth. Tho highly benevolent manufacturer has not only “ protected ”us out of sixty-eight millions in tho cost of woolen and worsted goods, but has also “protected” his own workmen out of about ono-slxth of tho wages ho used to pay, measured in tho vory cloth which thoeo workmen mako. Verily, this is “protecting” American labor with a ven geance 1 To rob forty millions of pooplo, and deprive a quarter of a million of tailors and seamstresses of ono-fourth of thoir employment, under pretence of protecting 242,846 persons engaged in cloth-making, and thou to pay thorn so Uttlo that thoy oauuot livo as woU as thoy did before, nor # ovon buy as much cloth of their own make—lf this is not a swindle, and a very moan one, what is It ? NOTES AND OPINION. The Dubuque Times, edited by Jacob Rich, Chairman of the Republican State Central Com mittee in lowa, says: Tho farmers are no more oppressed by railroads tbau other people The condition of affairs which now brings them to the now policy of restraint has brought nearly every ouo else to accept that policy. What need, then, of new parlies 7 Does this foreshadow the platform of the Re publican State Convention at DeaMoines, Juno 25? • —The DoßMolnoo Register (organ), brags that bo far ovory delegate to tho Republican Conven tion is "instructed to voto loud and unani mously for tho ronomination of Mr. Carpenter.’* Of course; all tho official sins that Carpenter is accused of wore douo “ for tho sake of tho party.” —Siuco tho farmers in all tho West are to pro claim and celebrate their Independence on tho Fourth of July, the Alton Telegraph (organ) says : Wo object to converting this day of rejoicing and de voted to tbo cultivation of kind and fraturnat fooling among all classes of citizens, into one complaining of and arraying one portion of our citizens against an other. —Kentucky electa a Legislature in August, and the Louisville Courier' Journal urges that tbo people instruct for a Constitutional Conven tion. —Tbo Pennsylvania Legislature, if' tbo pro posed now Constitution bo adopted, will have a membership increased to fifty in tbo Senate and 162 In tbo House, all to be elected in single dis tricts. —Ex-Senator Gcorgo W. Jones, of Dubuquo, who is distantly related to a member of the President's household, and has recently joined tho Grant party, indignantly denies the ru mor that he was about to start another Republi can paper in that city. —Tho Michigan Senators have removed tho ban of socrosy. ZaoU Chandler's back pay was $3,M0.80, 'and Thomas W. Ferry’s was $3,020, and it was ail nut where it would do tbo Treas ury most good, March 28, with this request: Not willing to gala what we voted against, wo re quest that ilia tmiuo bo applied toward the cancellation of tbo 0 nor cent interest-bearing obligations of tbo nation. Lest sucb return bo distorted into possible reflection upon tbo propriety of dissimilar disposition by otbora. you will obllgo us much by giving no pub licity to tuo mutter. —Wo cannot help feeling that the action of the Michigan Senators, neither of whom had any real need of tho money is yery creditable to thorn. They made a serious mistake, however, in tholr over-modest desire to conceal their good deeds. Had it boon generally known at an ear ly day that tho groat war Senator and his asso ciate bad refused to become receivers of stolon property, it oau hardly bo doubted that their example would havo had a beneficial effect upon some of the lessor lights in tho Congressional firmament. That they should shrink from tho open censure of tho President, which the an nouncement of their intention would havo car ried with it, was perhaps natural; but tho good which tho announcement would havo effected ought to havo steeled them against Presidential displeasure.— Detroit Free Press. —Tho Hor. Henry Waldron, Member of Con- gross from this District, did not draw.tho back pay voted him by tho salary grabbers, but had covered it into Ibo Treasury, whore it belongs. This action Is consistent with Mr. Waldrons record. Ho voted against tho hack pay, and very properly refused to stultify himself by ac cepting money to which ho did not consider himself entitled.— Hillsdale {Mich.) Democrat. . —Senator Edmunds says no salary steal for him. In conversation with a representative from Vermont, ho declared against touching it, and has acted In accordance with that declara tion. Anti, In a private letter to Ids friend, A. J. Crane, Collector of Internal Revenue for tho Third District, ho npoko in tho most decided terms of condemnation of thowholo tiling. Ilia course In this matter presents a most honorable contrast to that of the Hon. Luke P. Poland, who said ho had his back-nay In his brooches pocket.— Montpelier { Vi.) Argus and Patriot, —Tlio Board of Supervisors of Wapello County, lowa, havo directed Auditor Caldwell to return to tho lion. M. M. Walden tho $839.60 which ho recently sent to that county out of his back-pay. —Ollumwa (Iowa) Democrat. —Congressman Packard, of Indiana, has doubtless discovered by this time that tho peo ple of Laporto County are not in a joking mood about tho salary swindle.— Detroit Tribune. —Farmers of Franklin County, on and after July 1, von will please havo 0 cents ready to pay tho postage on your ouuty paper, in order to assist in making good tho $2,600, more or loss, which tho lion. D, P. Lowe, your M. 0., fobbed from tho Treasury of tho‘Hulled Btatos.—Otta wa {Kan.) Jicpublican. —A man must fall trooa enough to mako twonty-flvo cords of hard wood, work it up into / cord-wood length, then load it upon his wagon, / mako his team draw it from ton to twenty miles, i then unload it—with all this work having earned' money enough to pay a Congressman for one' day’s work.— Watseka {111.) Times, 1 —A distinguished member of tho bar of thii city suggests to us that members who havo taken back pay and kept it, could bo made to refund tho same ln.au action at law.— Mihcaulccc Ncm. —Had tho moribund Congress that votod itaoll rich upon book pay foreseen tho results upon the public mind of tho country thoy would iave hesitated over so naked a robbery, and tho Resi dent who shared, and who sanctioned it for that reason, might havo boon persuaded not u sign that infamous law.— OmaTui {Neb.) Herald —•* My vote did not make it a law. His sig nature did.”— Qarjicld on Grant's contcctios xoith tho salary steal bill. —Not only tho Canton Farmers’ Club, but the people generally, of all clauses, should say to Congressmen, yon roust repeal tho law giving yourselves increased pay, or bo doomed to tho eamo ignominious fate which has befallen every man who votod for or received tho back pay.— Canton (III.) Ledger. —lt is pretty certain that tho repeal of tho in crease of salary bill will bo made a question in the noxt Congress, and tho members elect may os well mako up their minds to it. Thoro is a surprising amount of vitality In tho matter, and it seems destined to givo a good deal moro trouble than its authors over apprehended.— Davenport (loira) Democrat. —Tho two appointments by President Grant, of Shollabargor and Bingham, both used-up Crodit-Moblliers, to responsible positions, when thoy woro totally laid on tho shelf by their con stituents, rather takes his friends by surprise. In tho wholo investigation, not a whisper was hoard against the President in any way. Why should bo so soon indorse tho rascally matter by mak ing such appointments ?— Carroll County {HI.) Gazette. —'ihla appointment of Bingham, and oiboi incidents of tho same sort, show very conclu sively that tho President regards public thiovory as no disqualification for his coufldonco, or fox promotion to high places. Lot tho people re* member those things against tho day of reckon* ing.— Nebraska City Rexes. —From nine to eleven sots of tho Medical and Surgical History of tho War wore printed for each of onr high-toned Senators and Con gressmen. Tho theory was, of course, that they would place this valuable work where ife would do moat good •, that is, in tho libraries of practising physicians or medical societies in thoif several States and districts. Tho fact was, that a largo number of those sots turned up on tho shelves of tho second-hand book-sellers of Washington, who have boon hawking them at 89 and $lO a sot. “ There is no doubt/’ writes tho Washington correspondent of tho Now York Times , “ that several members sold their seta outright, or allowed persons connected with or dependent upon thorn to make tho sales and pocket tho price.” Thoy do soomtohavo boon a good deal on tbo make—those statesmen of tho Forty-second Congress. Tho little busy bea seems a more shiftless idler compared with them.— Springfield Republican. —lt is distinctively characteristic' of Republi cans to bo angry with their party loaders when ever they violate their trust and prove recreant to tbo principles of tho party 5 and it is the habit of Republicans to forthwith cast overboard all those who are 110 longer worthy of confidence. —Milwaukee Sentinel. —Hobby riding is played out. Good, practi cal, common sense, producing favorable results, are ingredients desirable in tho present issue, and at (bis lime. Tho result of Credit Mobilior, of salary steals, of Munoti-Soogor defalcations, prove to us that tho “ gilded sopulohro ” ore noi In our interest. There naa boon too much using of the people for a personal benefit, and our opinion is that tbo farmer thinks so seriously about this 1873.— Winnebago City {Minn.') Press. —A few loading politicians got their heads to gether and nominate a man for Governor, and two or throe political papers adopt him, and brag or blow him into office, while tho largo ma jority of tho people, who go to tho polls and voto for the man, don't know who ho is. Now, lam a Republican, dyed iu tho wool; but for ouo, £ am opposed to this way of doing business.— A Minnesota Farmer. —Will tho farmers and laboring men organize for their own protection and vindication, or will they quietly lot their bands remain in tho.. shackles that have boon binding them so long ? Wo again repeat, that immediate action will bo tboir salvation, and procrastination their de struction.—Paxton (III.) Journal. —Politicians may sneer, but tho movement in lowa means a cleaning out of corruption and thieving all over tho State. — Rock Island (111.) Argus. —lt would be extremely hazardous for us to say that the movement in lowa promises suc cess, and silly to say that it will amount to noth ing. Wo really consider it a formidable move ment, and one that will call for careful manage ment and a sound discretion to overcome. Itfl forces will not bo lessoned iu numbers by either ridicule or abuse, nor any man deterred from ad herence to its policy by tho cry of traitor or do sortor.—Jaspei' County (Iowa) Free Press. —Prejudice is now molting away, and tho de pleted pocket-book of tho farmer is causing him to look into tho causes of his lack of mouoy. First ho boob tho infamous robbery of tho rail roads ; next ho gets a view of tho hanking and tariff system,—tho last of which robs him to en rich men who buy up Congressmen to pass law® to oppress tho people of tho West.— Carllntilli (lll.SEnquircr. — l The whole American people, excepting somo few rich manufacturers, and coal and iron deal ers, are robbed and plundered every day to fill the pockotn and coffers of monopolists. .Every thing we eat, drink, and wear is covered over with tariffs iu some shape.— Akdo (III.) Jianner. Tho masses oven now demand that tho protec tive swindle shall bo rooted up from tho bottom. When they investigate further they will bo a unit on that subject, if this infamy is perpetuated by purchased seats in tbo United Stales Senate, .Western agriculturists will bo compelled to seek the open markets of Canada, oven if forced to do it with tbo bayonet.— St. Paul (Minn.) Pio neer, —Tbo moneyed and sectional elements which are relied on to prevent action In relief of tho people, and choap transportation for all, wo do not count worthy of notice. The sections inter ested are strong enough to tako what they want, and bribery is far lose powerful in such an issue than it is generally credited with being. —La Crosse (IV’is.) Jicjmblican. —Politicians toll us that all groat moral ques tions must be fought out through ono or tho other of tho political parties. True, to a certain extent; but are wo to agree that if political portion will not consent, they must notho fought out at all, but a great moral wrong sintered to go on uurobukod and unchecked ? — LafaycUo find) Journal. —There is more real life and spirit in tho movement erf the Western “ Granges ” than in all tho other politics of tho Union added to gether. It is now certain that tho farmoro* movement there has passed beyond tho control of tho party yet oollou Republican ,—lluffalo (A r . Y.) Courier. —Tho people of tho West are evidently very tired of tho pretense, humbug, and rascality of the Republican party, and this people’s move ment is an outcropping of that sentiment in a practical working form.— Philadi-lphia Age. —Tho defeat of Oharlos Wheaton in tho Judi cial contest should bo attributed to a few pollji clans rather than to that gentleman himself. Tho Republican party “ring~’ wus defeated, not Mr. Wheaton. The pins all set up for next fall wore knocked down, and Mr. Wheaton foil with them. Mr. Wheaton is an able lawyer, has made an honorable reputation as a constitutional leg islator, and Is worthy tho confidence of the peo ple. Had he boon tho farmers’ cniul'djito, bis election would bavo boon certain.— JLlgin C*«.J Advocate.

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