8 TERMS OF THE TRIBUNE. TTTRVB OT STBSCBiPTZOK (PATAULI IN ADVANCE'). Daily, by mail S 12.00 I Synday. 52.50 Tri-Weekly 0.001 Weekly 2.00 Farts of a year at the came rate. To prevent delay and mis takes, be Bare and give Post Office address la fail, including State and County. Komitiancea may bo made cither by draft, express, .Post Office order, or in registered letters, at onr nak. TEHMS TO CIXT SCUSOBIUiatS. Daily, delivered, Sunday excepted. So cents per weex. Daily, delivered, Sunday included, 30 cents per week. Address THE TRIBUNE COMPANY. Corner Madison and Dearborn-sts.*, Chicago. 111. BUSINESS NOTICES. A F.URK CURE FOR CHOLERA. CHOLERA MOR- Dua, Oiorrbfpa, dysentery, and choleras infantum* Dr. Kendrick's Carminative Anodyne. All Dmcffirts tell It, and pay yonr money back 11 It does not cure you. ROYAL HAVANA LOTTERY—WB SOLD ,IN drawing of 22d April last tho SWO.OOO Trizc. Circnltra sent; information given. J. B. MARTINEZ A CO., Bankers. 10 Wall-st. P. O. Box 4g85. New York. Übt (SJjif&jpr Sunday Morning, June 22, 1873. THE PHYSIOLOGY OF THOUGHT, The famous definition of mind and matter which Punch once gave is likely to lose fits ap plication, if not its pungency, in tho advance of psychological science. “ What is mind ? No matter. What is matter? Never mind.** Hr. William B. Carpenter does not agree with this new of the relations between mind and matter, out tells us -plainly that all mental activity is de pendent on a chemical reaction between tho olood and the brain. He intimates that it £ time the metaphysicians should take eomo account of this, as it is now one of the established facts of physiology, and there is no doubt that it would give a new and curious basis for a superstructure of specula tive philosophy. Mental activity, he says, de pends upon.the physical changes in the circula tion of oxygenated blood through tne brain just electricity depends upon the changes between its metals and excited liquid. This is certainly important, if true, and teaches that it is neces sary to give greater attention to the physical condition than most men engrossed in brain work are in the habit of according. Dr. Carpenter, in a recent number of the Con temporary Eetieic, gives some interesting illus trations of the physiological influences on the cabite of thought, which may some day be re duced to a system that will aid materially in ihaping them, in acquiring information, and retaining it. The reproduction of past states of consciousness is described to be an automatic action. Some curious instances are cited, among them that of a lady -who was left an orphan in infancy, and had no recollection of her mother, but who, once entering a room in « .distant town whore, to her knowledge, ih. e had never been before, recalled her invalid mother leaning over her and weeping. The in cident, she subsequently ascertained, occurred |usfc as she bad recalled it. A similar case was rfi&t of an English clergyman who visited an old castle, as he thought, for the first time. When ne approached the gateway, a scene flashed upon oim in which he saw the castle, the gateway, donkeys under the arch, and people on top of it. He afterward found out from his mother that ae had been to the castle under just such circum stances when he was only 18 months old. The theory which such Instances would seem to f establish in connection with tho physiological > elations described, is that tho chemical action of blood in the brain is a sort of registering pro cess, which, if it is proparly pursued, leaves an indelible impression that can be always repro need under the proper influences. A case of forgetting and recovering a language is a pe culiar illustration of a sudden change in the ac- on of the blood. Dr. Abercrombie tells of a , *an •who had been put into a state of stupor by injury and, in this state, began to talk though he had been thirty years absent on and had apparently forgotten the language altogether. Upon tho re covery of his health, the man began to talk tho English language, and completely forget his Welsh again A curious fact within tho knowl edge of the writer, was the caco of a student in Germany who was exceedingly anxious to ac quire the German language as soon as possible He had some knowledge of it, but was unable to use it in conversation. Yet, in his sleep, hia mind evidently engrossed with the study, he could hold a conversation, understand perfectly, and talk .fluently. It is possible that the cou were more favorable for the reproduc tion and “''bcation of what he know, and hence the flue,**: ” Woh ha c<rala not com maud among the the more ol ■Bating hours. The exhilaration lion that many people receive from a clear and itimulating or from a close and morbid at mosphere is another instance of the same in fluence on the chemical action of the blood. So, too, tho impairment of the memory by disease Pr old age. This relation between mental expression and physical impression is of practical importance in influencing the formation of habits of thought. Dr. Carpenter Bays that the doctrine of hereditary transmission will hold with reference to this as well as other physio logicalphenomena, and, if so, the responsibility of parents defined in the Scriptures is founded upon a sound physical- basis. It also snggeets the necessity of system in the mechanism of association, thus defined, by which the traces and impressions may be carefully and properly fitowed away without the waste common to a tasty, inconsiderate, and unmethodical process. Cases are everywhere familiar in which the student who scqnircs readily loses the impres sions which - hare been thus . hastily regis ■ tered,. while he whose t process is more deliberate and methodical has a readier means of recovering what hag thus carefully been stowed away. This dependence of mental activity on physical condition, if folly understood, may also lead to a reform of wbat is popularly known as overtaxing the brain, and the number of cases of “ dying at the top ” will ho materially diminish ed. The value of association in the formation pf habits of thought; the influence of nutrition upon the me les of thought, and the maintenance of acquired habits of the mind may all find im portant auxiliaries in the application of this physical notion of registering ideas. ’What ever objections some persona may be inclined to urge against the doctrine on the score of mate rialistic tendencies may be more than balanced by the advantages which science will possess in controlling the physical condition, and thereby influencing the habit of thought. A rare instance of acquiescence in punishment recently occurred in New York. One William Willie was convicted, in 186 i, of having tilled a young woman. Although the customary plea of insanity was made in his behalf,.he was found guilty and sentenced to he hanged, which; sen tence was subfiMuentlr commuted to imprison meat for life.- After having served nine years, some of his friends sought to obtain a pardon for him. The prisoner, hearing of it, wrote a letter to * his counsel, refusing to be pardoned, contending that his punishment was just, and that, If he were pardoned, the interests of so ciety would suffer. If common sense were pnn ishabl© -with hanging, that man would bo hanged forthwith.. PBOP. MARSH’S EXPEDITION. Prof. O. 0. Marsh, of Yale College, passed through this city, a short time since,with a party of students to resume the scientific explora tions which he commenced two years ago in the Western Territories. A summary of the re sults of his previous investigations is published in another part of this paper, and it is not too much to say that they are not surpassed in point of. magnitude and' significance by those of any naturalist of the present age. He has found that the arid spaces and the alkali plains lying between the Bocky Mountains and the Wasatch Bange, where nothing now subsists but the sage-hen and a few stray antelopes, were once peopled by a strange community of extinct vertebrate animals, which have not as yet been found anywhere else on the earth’s surface. Over two hundred new varieties of vertebrates have been disentombed in this region, including seventeen varieties of the fossil horse, ranging from the size of the common fox to nearly that of the horse of the present day—some with three hoof*, to each foot, others with one hoof and two toes, and still others with the single hoof of the horse as we see him now. These were found in the Miocene and Pliocene epochs. It is shown that the ontiro space between these two mountain ranges was once covered by the sea during the cretaceous or chalk formation of geology. When tho sea sub sided there were left vast lakes in the hollows of the surrounding land, which have since boon fitted up with tho detritus washed down from the neighboring mountains. The beds of these ancient lakes are the tombs of vast numbers of turtles, crocodiles, lizards, serpents, and fishes, while near their margins are found the remains of four-footed animals of astonishing size and strength. One of these, first discovered by Prof. Marsh, was of the size of the elephant, and its skull was provided witn three pairs of horns. Lions, hyenas, foxes, and cats of extinct species were also found, together with several monkeys of a lower typo than any now existing. These latter bad mosquitoes, fleas, and bed-bugs, larger than the existing varieties, to torment them. No mosquito-bars, bed-bug exterminators, or other traces of man are found in the Eocene formation. Prof. Marsh’s second expedition, which ho has just undertaken, is provided with a Govern ment escort, and, being thus protected against the Indians, it is expected that tho results will be even more important than the former. A CASE OF PROFESSIONAL PHILANTHROPY. It has been popularly supposed that Hr. Jonathan Young Scammon is a representative of that class of citizens who believe that charity begins at home. His rule of conduct in the past has amply justified this belief It is announced, however, that, following the fashion of the day, he has determined upon a new departure. It is stated that hj is now engaged in distributing circulars advertising ** free excursions for the poor children of Chicago,” under the auspices of I himself and his newspaper organ, and asking | “ liberal responses,” by which ho presumably I means donations of money, to carry out his be -1 nevolent project. If it is true tnat Mr. Scam mon has resorted to . circulars as a means for advertising his .proposed philanthropy by proxy, the circumstance shows that he has a very fair appreciation of the value of hia newspaper as an advertising medium, and has concluded that no one would ever hear of his scheme if the an nouncements were confined to its columns. Can did recognition of this sort is deserving of some return, and The Tbibtce is unselfish enough ' to thus afford a gratuitous announcement of Hr. Scammon’s new charity, which will reach more people In one day than his combined circulars and newspapers would reach all summer. Be it known, therefore, that Hr. Scammon proposes free excursions for the benefit of the poor chil dren of Chicago, and that, in the fullness of his heart, he is not only willing that other people should contribute the necessary funds, but vol unteers to take charge of the money.' It is a wonder that Hr. Scammon does not go still farther and offer to pay interest on the con tributions, as he is now said to bo largely en gaged in that sort of business. Hr.j Scammon’s philanthropy does not stop l/here. It is also stated that the circular ssts forth to contribute SI,OOO to the good cause. This ouncem6nt naturally set curious people to inquiring oufcof what par ticular fond Mr. Scammond will take | which he so generously offers to contribute iu order to secure free rides, fresh air, and health ful recreations for the enfant* perdus of Chica go. Will ho take this sum from the school fund for which the city has sued Mr. Scammon ? .Or will ho take it from the money of the Mutual Security Insurance Company, which of right belongs to the poor people who were burned out in the great fire, and who are yet suffering for want of the pit tance coming to them—for which he has also been sued ? Or will ho take it from the Sweden borgian Belief Fund? If from none of these funds, or if they have already been distributed, from what fund will Mr. Scammon take his pro posed contribution? There is a grave ap prehension that, if the contribution is to come from the profits of Mr. Scammon’s newspaper, the free excursions fo the poor children of Chi cago will depend on outside contributions, or. bo indefinitely postponed. It is of importance to know whether Mr. Scammon’s most recent phi lanthropic inspiration is to be carried out as a banker, a journalist, an insurance Treasurer, an educational Maecenas, or the head of the Swe denborgian Church, whoso infallibility ia not'yet ar article of the faith ? The amount and the number of the contributions will depend largely upon the information ha is willing to give in this respect. If Mr. Scammon proposes to re ceive these funds in the capacity of a pro fessional Treasurer, there ought to he some guarantee that he will not require to be sued for them after the excursion takes place. Wouldn’t Mr. Scammon bo willing, for this occasion only, that somebody else should act as Treasurer, and to deposit his SI,OOO with somebody else in advance? If Mr. Sc&mmon will turn over the proposed free excursions for the; poor children of Chicago into other hands, we think that we conld suggest a -fitting occupation for his philanthropic mind. The. work ; of ascertaining the address '- of Mutual Security policy-hold ers, and distributing among them equita bly the funds which he unjustly withholds THE CHICAGO DAILY TRIBUNE: SUNDAY, JUNE 22, 18T3. from them, would fill up his time, and. gladden the hearts of very many poor people who find it bard to hny food "for the poor children whom* Mr. Scammon wants to send out on excursions. This done, Mr. Scammon might next turn his at tention to the adjustment of the financial misun derstanding between himself and the City of Chicago, and, by paying over the money belong ing to the school-fond, ho would enlarge onr. educational facilities and do znoro for the poor children whom he has so sud denly and affectionately taken to his heart than any number of excursions could accomplish. Mr. Scammon might then devote iho Swedenborg:an Belief Fund to the relief of cases of suffering by the fire. In point of fact, there are so many obvious directions for the flow of benevolence with which Mr. Scammon is running over that he can well afford to release his patent on the organization of free excursions. There is all the more reason why ho should do so, because it is an infringement on an advertising patent taken out by the Now York Times , which is likewise an infringement on the Philadelphia Ledger's plan of getting up free excursions, and paying the whole expense out of the Ledger's treasury. Nobody baa bo plainly infringed upon Mr. Childs* original patent that he has deemed it worth while to sue his imi tators. A NEW USE FOE BONNETS. The absurdity of misdirected philanthropy was well illustrated in the zealous efforts of Mrs. Jellybyto provide the young natives of Borio boola Gha with flannel jackets and woolen trowsers, regardless of the fact that the ther mometer ranged through ibo nineties all the year round in that afflicted region. Tho efforts of our own philanthropists to ameliorate the condition and advance the civilization of the noble red men of the forest, who were tho original owners of Western real estate, are no loss ridiculous than those of Mrs. Jellyby, which did no good to Eorloboola Gha, and caused the worthy Mr. Jellyby so much pain, what time ho used to stand with his head against the wall and mourn over tho foolishness of his wife and the distress of Caddy. It is not long ago that a worthy Indian missionary, in tho sim plicity of his heart, thought that tho sqn&ws under his charge should have hats and parasols to protect their delicate complexions from the too ardent heat of the sun. Some benevolent ladies at tbo East accordingly con tributed an assorted collection of hats and divers .parasols of variegated color and condition. Upon their receipt at the mission, the worthy man was shortly astounded upon beholding the copper colored sisters, each arrayed in a hat and parasol, and nothing else, parading the street with an aboriginal degree of pride and self-satisfaction fully as pronounced as tho more civilized and elegant hantour with which Flora McFlimsey sails down the Avenue in her now redingote and skirts of many colors. Philan thropy has many times supplied the Indiana, with castile soap, though they had as littlo use for it as a hippopotamus has for a glass of water. They tried to smoko it, to eat it, to wear it as an ornament, and eventually exchanged it for a glass of whisky. Many and many a time h&s the untutored Indian mind been distracted with eight-day clocks, fluting irons, pop-guns, pocket combs, shoe-strings, pillow-cases, sugar-spoons, oyster-forks, quill-pens, and other such uten sils, which were of about as much use to him as so many tickets to a necktie sociable on Twenty-sixth street would bo, and all of which he would at any time ex change for a tin looking-glass in which ho might admire his ugly countenance, or a drink of whisky, which ho might put into hia ugly stomach. It was reserved for the Quakers, who have charge of the Otoe Indians dwelling on the Big Blue in South Nebraska, however, to cap tho climax. For years the Quakers have labored to civilize the Otocs, with what success the denoue ment shows. The Philadelphia Quakers recently received intelligence from the Otoe missionary that the squaws hod no bonnets. The Quaker esses were dumbfounded at this startling intelli gence, and, in the goodness of their hearts, they set themselves to work and obtained a hundred bonnets, which they forthwith despatched byjtho first express to tho Otoe missionary. 'When the bonnets arrived, the missionary’s wife summoned the squaws together, and fitted a bonnet on each fair head. The Indian belles, however, with that curiosity which belongs to tho female sex, whether black, copper-colored, or white, whipped them off to look at them, and, having got them off, couldn't get them on again. They had them on bottom side up, wrong side before, and every way but the right way. This was suf ficiently distressing, but the worst was to come. There is a custom among tho Otoes that no bravo can sit down between sunrise and sunset without disgrace. «Ho can lie down, ir e °l down, lean up against a tree, stand on 2? ia head, or turn hand-springs, but ho mustn’t sit down on any account what ever. From time to time, however, it appeared some of the Otoe braves had treacherous memo ries, and sat down before they thought, and thus fell into disgrace. To obviate this difficulty, each bravo is provided with what is termed a /‘crow cushion,” an affair so contrived and fastened to him that tho moment he commences to stoop ’in • the sitting process a pin runs into him - and reminds him of tho offense he is about tq com mit. Meanwhile, tho squaws went to their wig wams, carrying their bonnets in . their hands, as they couldn’t get them on their heads again.. The warriors, taking them for h crow-cushions,” at once confiscated.* them. The next morning tho squaws were out bare-headed as usual, while each bold warrior had a bonnet fastened on, him, pahier fashion. It was not long, however, before the now “ crow cushions ” were wrecked. Tho warning pin was not on them, and, as the forgetful braves, one after the other, sat down, they wrecked the gentle Quakeresses 1 donations; and reduced them to a flat surface of straw and ribbon. There is com fort, however, for the philanthropists after all. They have only to insert a pin in their next ’ in voice of bonnets to tbo Otoes, and a use will be found at last for the hat of the female of the period; and a lucrative trade may yet spring up in old cast-off bonnets. Our own belles may also take a hint from the gentle savage, and utilize their bonnets when they commence to bo “ positively frightful,” by turn ing them into paniers, and thus subserve the purposes of economy, and also rescue the daily newspapers from the uses to which they are now subjected. The hill which was recently passed by the Italian Senate suppressing religious corporations, and which awaits the royal sanction to become a law, is not entirely sweeping in its character, as many suppose. It preserves the Oeneralates or oen- traL establishments In Borne of .the-religions, orders, and . accords to the Pope an an noal allowance of 400,000 franca for their support. The order of Jesuits is excluded from the benefits of the other houses, bat the motion for their expulsion from Italy did not pass. Similar legislation, although, more rigid in its enforcement, has recently been adopted in Mexico by the enforcement of an obsolete law prohibiting religions persons from living in com munities. The Jesuits escaped, but on the 20th of last month’ a large number of Panlists, Pas sionists, and other religious bodies wore ar rested and thrown into prison, and will shortly bo taken to tho coast, where they will he compelled to embark for some foreign coun try. Among those arrested are two claiming American protection—Thomas McCrealy, of Bal timore, Md., and Angelo hi. Tiilla l of Hoboken, N. J., the one a layman and the other a priest, but neither of them Jesuits. The American Minister, having.been informed of their arrest, demanded that they be allowed a trial, which the Mexican Government refused. The American Minister has, therefore, officially protested, and the question will now become one of diplomatic consideration between the two countries. CONFIDENCE GAMES. In all large cities there is & constant recur rence of frauds known as the “ confidence game,” “ bunko,” and other devices, by which one class of persons are fleeced, and another class get the fleece. There has been much written on this subject, and a vast amount of in dignation hurled at the winners in these devices; but there is another side to all these stories of robbery by confidence operations, which it would be os well to understand. Thus, for instance, we read occasionally, if not regularly, that Farmer This or That met, on the cars or elsewhere, an agreeable acquaintance; that after a while this acquaintance produced a chock, say for S3OO, stamped and endorsed, on some well-known bank; that the farmer is induced to lend his acquaintance $75, taking the check as security; that the fanner, on presentation of the check at the bank, dis covers that it is a fraud, whereupon be rashes to the police office, demanding the capture of tho confidence man and tho restoration of his money. The pocket-book trick is old, but, nevertheless, it still finds victims. A man picks np apocket-book on the sidewalk, which ho opens in the presence of the crowd, who are envious of hia good luck ,* he declares that he is a stran ger, has no time to hunt np tho owner, but, as there will unquestionably bo a largo reward, ha will hand the whole thing over to any per son who Trill give him S2O and take tho chances of never having tho book or money called for. Tho man who pays the money finds soon after that the book is stuffed with counterfeit notes. The latest device adopted in Chicago is to induce men to go to a bnnko-room, whore, by putting down a dollar, and throwing dice, the player may win anywhere from $2 to SSOO a throw. After playing a while the visitor finds himself stripped of his money and his winnings, and ho, too, rushes off to the police.' It is usual for tho papare, In recording those robberies, to refer to the verdancy and sim plicity of the victims, and to attribute to them a degree of credulity and innocence ■wholly unnatural in this ago. But this is not the truth. That those people are deceived and robbed is entirely true, but that they are vic timized because of their simplicity ia not so true as that in nine cases out of ten they are over reached in their efforts to play a sharp game for their own benefit. The countryman in the city with his SIOO in his pocket is by no means a credulous simpleton who lends money to the first man that asks it. He is not to be reached through his verdancy. But he ia keenly alive to any bargain by which he can add to his funds, and, when some person who has mado himself agreeable is mot on his way to the bank by an immediate demand for a com paratively small sum, and the'demand is so pressing that he offers to pay S2O or S3O for the use of SIOO until be can go a few blocks further to the bank, then the acute gentleman from the rural districts hearkens to the proposition. He takes the chock in his own hands, advances the SIOO, and proceeds with his obliged friend to the bank, anxious to clutch the 20 par cent profit on a ten-minute loan. Before reaching the bank, the borrower slips out of his sight; but, intent on his profit, the financial operator presents the check and discovers that he has been overreached. While the crime ia none the less, yet is the victim fairly entitled to the sympathy he receives ? He would not have loaned one dollar of his money to a human being for any other consideration than the expectation—certainty, in his'estima tion—of a large and immediate profit; a profit which would have been worthy of talking about, and which would have confirmed his own notion that ho was capable of conducting a large busi ness, if he had the opportunity. When he goes to the police, however, he never discloses his own side of the case; he never tolls that ho had loaned tho money upon the agreement that he was to got $lO, S2O, or even SSO for its nso until ,he could reach , tho bank and repay himself , from the proceeds of tho check. So with the man who advances tho money on tho found pocket-book; ho says nothing, of his pur pose to reimburse himself at a large profit from it? contents, prhis expectation of keeping the whole of it should no owner appear to claim it. So with the victims of bunko. Each one goes these games to win money. Avarice, tho gain, the desire to obtain sometb i ”e lor nothing, induce these men to go the bunko-rooms pud throw dice, to from the keeper. Tfiey do somekm" win, and, pocketing the proceeds, never go to the police; bnt when they lose in their attempt to win money from others; when, instead of victimizing the keepers, they are themselves the victims; they rush to the police, demanding, first and foremost, tho return of their money. Their mere! and religious views have received no shook ; their respect for law and their regard for
social order have in no wise been aggrieved; their whole complaint ia that they are so much out of pocket, and they want thoir money bgck ! There Is not a case where tho police have bean able to catch tho successful operator in one of these jobs whore he has not secured the silence of hjs victim by refunding the money. It is questionable whether any of these go-called victims of confidence Qr bunk? are entitled to any particular sympathy, and whether, when a bunko establishment is raided, all tho players, winners and losers, ought not to be treated alike as gam blers seeking to fleecs each other. Tho proprie tors of the establishments ought in every case to be punished as vagrants ; but there can be no moral distinction drawn between the players ; tbs motive is precisely the same in every case, —tbe cheating of the others. GERMAN MATERIALISM. FORCE AND MATTER. By Dr. Lotus Buechkeb, ‘ President of tho Medical Association of Hcaso- Darmstadt. Translated by J. Frederick Colllng wood, F, R, S. L. London; Tmebner & Co. Chi cago : Jansen, McClurg A Co. 11 Whence do wo come, whither do we go?” From the earliest times that wo have any record Of, mankind has been asking this question. All religions and all philosophies have their beginning and their eliding in it. Go back never so far, you can find no place where it was not. Even tho Mound-Bnildors of North America, who loft ns no written language, have loft ns tho evidences of their worship and their com munion with an unseen Power, sido by side with their stone-hatcheta, their mastodon soup bones, and their fiat skulls. Carlyle belches it forth in Sartor Hesartua : Generation after generation takes to itself the Form of a Body; and forth-issuing from Cimmerian night, on Heaven’s mission appzluis. 'What force and fire 1s in each be expends; one grinding in the mill of Indus try ; one, hunter-like, climbing the giddy Alpine heights of Science; one madly dashed in pieces on the rocks of strife in war with his fellow,—and then the Heaven sent is recalled; his earthly vesture falls away, and even to Sense becomes a vanished Shadow. Thus, like some wild-flaming, wild-thundering .train of Heaven’s artillery, docs this mys terious Mivm-n thunder and flame in long-drawn, quick-ancceodlng grandeur, through the unknown deep. Thus, like a God-created, fire breathing Spirit-Host, we emerge from the Inane, haste stormfully across the astonished Earth, then plunge again into the Inane. Cut whence?—O Heaven, whither? Sense knows not; Faith knows not; only that it is through Mystery to Mystery, from God to God. The volume before us essays to answer this never-ending question. It tells us that we come out of the earth, and that we go nowhere. The first edition of Kraft und Staff (Force and Matter) was published at Darmstadt in the year 1855* It has passed through ten editions at home, and been translated into French, Italian, and, finally, into English. It has been kicked and cnlfed in Germany to a notable ex tent, both by believers and unbelievers in Reve lation, and its author has replied to his assailants in the prefaces to the successive editions of bis work. 80, upon the whole, ho has acquired a sort of reputation as the Boss Infidel of the world, and, as such, was invited last winter to lecture to tho German Materialists of tho United States for the round sum of SIO,OOO. We shall examine tho volume upon his own chosen ground. Notwithstanding tho seer-like grasp displayed in some portions of it. Dr. Baechner’a book is fundamentally bad, even from a nationalist point of view, for it seeks to expel God from the universe, and to disprove a future state of existence ; that is, to prove a negative, in a do main wholly beyond the reach of reason 1 In its moral tendency it fully justifies the objection of a German critic, who says that it teaches the sonl nothing but this : “ Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow wo dio.” The author attempts to answer this barbed criticism, but fails miserably. There must surely be a radical defect in any system of teaching which leads ua no highor than this ; and when it is confessedly exorcised upon a subject matter beyond our experience the presumptions must all be against it. And this, in brief, is the way he essays to prove his case. There is no matter without force —no force without matter. The two co-exist universally. Both matter and force are indestructible. Nothing can come out of nothing. Nothing can bo resolved into nothing. Therefore matter must have existed from all eternity, and must exist to all eternity. “ The notion denial is cer tainly one which, with our limited faculties, is difficult of conception,” (sic'). Nevertheless, it is so; for to suppose that a Creator existed before matter existed is to suppose that power once ex isted in & state of inertia, which is inconceiva ble. Matter is also infinite in space. If it were otherwise tho law of gravitation would cause the solar system and all tho other systems to rush to a common centre. The laws of matter are immutable, unalterable; therefore, the ex istence of any other governing power is unneces sary aud superfluous. “ Empirical philosophy, wherever it may search for it, is nowhere able to find a trace of a supernatural influence, either in time or space.” Geology teaches that many hundred millions of years must have been required to bring the earth from its original incandescent state to its present habitable condition. If ; there bo an all powerful Creator, why did he not immediately turn it out as a finished pro duct? (In order to make foolish boys ask ques tions, perhaps.) We see that as tho earth passed through successive geological epochs now forms of vegetable and animal life appeared in an as cending order, culminating in man. There are grounds for believing that all these forms of liSo, including man, wore “ evolved *» from the next preceding forms, and there is no way of proving that man himself is tho highest typo of existence which Nature is capable of “ evolving.” There axe at least three different groups of languages in the world, and probably more, which could not have originated from tho same stock. Therefore mankind could not have sprung from a single pair. Go much for the purely physical aspects of “ Force and Matter.” We now come to the meta physical, for although Dr. Buochner pours no • end of ridicule upon meta physics, ho deals lavishly in the article himself. There is no such thing as De sign in Nature. 'What we call Design is tho pro duct of reflecting reason. Wo find a certain state of things existing, aud we callit Infinite Design. If tho state of things had been dif ferent wo should still have called it Design. If it was Design that caused tho wheat to grow, was it also Design that caused the locusts and grasshoppers to eat it up, the rust to kill it, the mildew to rot it ? If it was Design that gave ns health, was ‘it also Design that ns countless diseases ? If it was Design that gave ns tho useful horse, was it also Design that gave us tho poisonous snake and the repulsive tape-worm ? Instead of there being any such thing as conscious Design in Nature, there is ** an immanent necessary in stinct.” Brain and mind, or soul, ace so insep arable that wo may call them two names for tho same thing. We have po rigriit to assume that tho one continues exist after the other has ceased to The brain of man and hia menfcjd activity differs from that of tho ]?<<& animals in degree but not in kind, just, .as that of the dog differs from that of tho oyster. If the one has an immortal soul, they all must be endowed in like manner. What is thought ? Our author gives us a chapter to tell what it is not. It does not stand in the same relation to the brain as bilo to the liver, or urine to the kidneys, for these are tangible, ponderable substances, while thought is intangible aud imponderable. Nevertheless, the brain is the locus of thought, and, therefore, the seat of tho soul. There are no innate ideas either mental or moral (tide Locke). On the contrary, all ideas are obtained from sensation, ex perience, comparison, association. Thero is no such thing as an absolute conscience. What wo call conscience allows the moat contradictory behavior in different countries and ages. Con science allows polygamy in some countries, and forbids it in others. It tolerates, even requires, offering up of unman sacrifices, in some ages of the world, wiiila in others it condemns such acts as shp extreme of cruelty, blasphemy, aud sacrilege. Among going barbarous and' be sotted races even of this day it is impossible to find any conception of the idea of duty, or any word in their languages signifying that this ought to be done, or that ought not to be done. If there were iuuate moral "ideas, or such a thing as conscience, they ouj&t to be universal and invariable among human beings. It is equally opposed to facts to suppose that the idea of a God is common to all mankind. Did not tho Egyptians worship the* bull and the crocodile ? Do not certain bar barous tribes to this day offer their prayers to rattlesnakes, or, what is worse, to stone and clay images? Therefore, the idea of % God is not innate. Among those -who heliere in & God what a variety of attributes are imputed to Him! Some picture him aa a ferocious tyrant, others aa the game-keeper of the happy hunting-grounds, others as a veiled and stolid spectator of the universe. Some say that Ho electa a* portion, evidently the largest portion, of mankind to endless torment. Others hold that He provides a half-way house between heaven and hell', from which the dead may bo rescued by the prayers of the living. Somo think that Ho suspends the laws of the natural world at human intercession. In short, we have as many different Gods as we have different sects, and this shoyra that we know nothing at all about Him. Consequently, the assumption' that there is any personal God is purely gratu itous. So also is the idea of personal continu ance after death. If the soul did not exist be fore birth, there is no reason or necessity for its continuing to exist after death. It is contended that the idea of annihilation is abhorrent to the , soul. So is the idea of death abhorrent quite aa universally as the idea of annihila tion. A reasonable man, however, must see that eternity would be inaupportably tedious. He ought to feel satisfied to know that he is a part of this grand Nature which has begotten him, and that, when ho dies, he will be as free from pain as though he were in the profound slumber of health. “The Idea of an eternal life—of not being able to die —is, on the contrary, the most horrid that hu man fancy can invent.'* The reader will perceive that Hr. Buechner, with all his abhorrence of speculative philosophy, has gone aa deeply into it as need be. He talks about a soul, but cannot tell what it is, though he thinks it resides in the brain. He talks about Thought, hut cannot tell whether it is distilled, woven, puddled, or cultivated with a hoe. And when Rudolph Wagner says that the moral upshot of his system is, “Let us eat and drink, for to morrow we die,” he replies that Science is not concerned with the moral tendency of facta. It is only concerned to ascertain the truth, and let the tendencies take care of themselves. As though he had given ns any facts whatever regarding the exist ence of a God, or personal continuance after death 1 He has given us merely his own specu lations upon certain facts, most of which were known, and all of which had been held by indi viduals before him. In his preface he disclaims being an original investigator, and in the text be makes several blunders in the statement of facts, only one of which, however, seems to be of real importance to his argument. This one relates to what is called instinct in animals. He assures ns roundly that instinct in animals is only experience acquired very soon after birth. The late Mr. Mill was a supporter of the Experience philosophy, hut he aid not venture upon so rash an assertion. He said that whether instinct in animals is experi ence acquired very rapidly after birth, or is an inherent attribute, is still undetermined, and can only bo ascertained by experiment. The recent experiments of Mr. Samuel Douglass with young chickens and turkeys hatched by artificial means prove that instinct is instinct and not experience. Whether the instinct of fear which young turkeys betray at the note of a hawk is hereditary, or whether it has been an “ innate idea ” in all turkeys from the begin ning, may bo a question. But it has been con clusively shown that it is not the result of ex perience in turkeys born now. It does not help us to expel God from the universe to say that instead of a conscious De- sign there is an “ immanent necessary instinct ” in Nature. To say this, or oven to prove it, merely ante-dates the query. Where did the “imma nent necessary instinct ” come from? Is it sup poeable that an immanent necessary instinct, capable of producing the countless changes which this globe has undergone, including the body and soul of man (Dr. Buechner admits that there is such a thing as a soul, though not an immortal one,) originated in the inert matter of the earth? The soul will surely inquire where the immanent necessary instinct came from. The soul is entitled to ask for a First Cause, will ask for it, will not stop short of it. The precise difference, therefore, between the Atheist, as represented by Dr. Buechner, and the Theist, is that the former deems it more credible that matter created mind than that mind created matter, while to the latter it is more con ceivable that mind created matter than that mat ter created mind. The controversy can safely be left here, so far as it depends npon the suf frages of sentient beings. It avails nothing to tell ns that man was “ developed" from the low er animals in inconceivably long geologic peri ods. Theology, which is perfectly con tent that man should havo been cre ated directly from the dust of the earth, Is startled at the thought that he should have been created indirectly from the same source. To the eye of reason there is no difference be tween the two inodes. This much may be said without conceding anything to the Darwinian theory. It remains to notice our author's objection to the doctrine of innate ideas. This is the oldest controversy on record, and i| would bo idle to renew it in these columns. The latest and best discussion of it undoubtedly is the first chapter of Becky’s History of Euro pean Morals, to which wo would refer those who may desire to go more deeply into it. It is con. ceded by Coleridge that belief in God and a fu ture state is bottomed at last upon the ex istence of a conscience. It matters not that the conscience of primeval man allowed him to offer np human sacrifices or to have four wives, for conscience deals not with* acts but with motives. If there are acts which wo instinctively know to bo wrong, although to commit them causes no unhappiness to our selves or others, except the unhappiness of a violated conscience, os there are , then do wo know that we are instructed from on High. The Experience philosophy leads directly to Atheism. Locke and Hartley, its two greatest exponents, avoided that horrible pit and miry clay by accepting Revelation. Everything be tween the two lids of the Bible was *to them “ Thns saith the iiord.” Anybody unprovided with the Bible, or unable to accept it as a divine ly-inspired work, must, if ho follows the school of Locke, logically deny the existence of God and a future state, as X)r. Buochner does. "VTo said that there is a seer-like grasp dis played in certain portions of the work. Con sidering that it was ■ first - given to the world in 1855, it must be admitted that the author anticipated a great deal of the scientific drift of the present day, and that the “immanent necessary instinct” of Nature that ho speaks of has much to be said in its favor. He was not the first tq declare a belief in the theory of evolution. Lamarck imd Geoffrey St. Hilaire preceded him. Hat he espoused it, added to it, and wove it into a body of doctrine before it was taken np by the English school of Dar v,ln, Hurley, Spencer, et al.,who have sinbemade it peculiarly their own. So also* he antici pated in a straggling and confused way the revelations of the spectroscope and the “ eon serration and correlation of force,” since dem onstrated by Grove, Carpenter, and Tyndall. This is high praise, indeed; but when the author leaves the domain of physical science and gets upon the footing of Kant and Hegel, which he affects so mnch to despise, his heels straight way fly upward and his head strikes the ground without gaining any of that recuperative’virtue which wsh so profitable to Anteus. His book is, perhaps, thp p)oet finished product of German Materialism, which is a more danger ous, because less flippant, article than the French Materialism which preceded it. How dwarfed do they both appear by the light of one gleam from Bhakspeare’s genius: Sit. Jessica. Loot how tha floor of heaven I* thick inlaid patinas of bright gold: There’s not the smalloat orb'which than beholdtt But in his motion like an angd aiags •>•*- '• Still q airing to the young-eyed cherubim*; Bach harmony is in immortal eotds; . • • Bat whilst thi* mnddy vest are of decay Both growly doM in, wa cannot hear t|. GERMAR IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. To the Editor of The Chicago Tribune: Sib: In yoor iasuo of last Thursday you Hava an editorial article, headed “ Gorman in the Ihiblic Schools,” in which the Committee on Ger man, of the Board of Education, are reported aa proposing to mako the study of German com pulsory. Based upon these premises, you arrive In your deductions, at conclusions which entirely misrepresent the intentions of said Commi'tee Astonishing aa it is to mo that a paper so fully managed aa The Tribune should so gravely misapprehend the intentions of said Committee while the report of tho Board of Education is before the eyes of tho editor, yet I trust suffi ciently m ito fairness to believe that it will correct an erroneous statement, or allow me to correct it. Let me say, then, that the whole foundation of that article is a fiction. Tho Commit tee did never, nor any member of it, try to make the Gorman study compulsory to all pupils of the public schools. AH that they were endeavoring to do was to make it more effective to those who bad once voluntarily em braced it. It is a rule of tho Board, strictly ad hered to, that pupils most be regular in their attendance to the several studies ; they are not allowed to drop one or another at pleasure, and commence it again if they please. If that was permitted, no instruction would amount to much, no general progress of the class could be expected. Pupils, by the rules of the Board, are compelled to continue their studies or have to leave the school The study of German always has been, and always ought to remain, optional with the parents or guardians of pupils. But, if onoe voluntarily commenced, it ought to be, at least for the current year, made compulsory for pupils to continue it. 'What is considered right, oven indispensable, in one instance, cannot fairly be considered wrong in another. To allow children to follow a mo mentary notion, perhaps the result of laziness, and to let them decide as to what they will learn and what not, is hardly what any Board of Edu cation should do; it is trifling with matters of importance. The city is expending about §B,OOO per annum in salary of German teachers; it ia the duty of tho Board to see that a proportionate harvest is reaped. In your article alluded to you say: “It is confessed that the result of the present system is a failure, and that the coat ia pretty nearly so much money thrown away.” Mr. King, the President of the Board, says to the contrary (I quote from memory): “ The in struction in German has, during the last year tivon more satisfaction than ever before ; it has one very well, and I think it is better to let well enough alone.” The Superintendent of Schools Hr. Pickard, has expressed considerable satis faction with the German teachers now employed. These are views directly in opposition to «*/>h other. What, then, is the truth ? The truth, as usually, lies in the middle. The fact is, there are three parties in the Board of Education as to the study of German: It has its few open friends, its few open foes; but the majority, while they cannot close their eyes to tho fact that nearly every larger city in the United States, especially in the West, is intro ducing the German instruction, would gladly throw it out, if they were men who obeyed their notions rather than their consciences; there ' fore, as it is, they simply tolerate the study of German, but oppose every improvement in the instruction, hot that they would ever advance any reasons why the improvements proposed by the Committee on German should not bo adopted. If the speeches and remarks of the members in the sessions of tbo Board were published, the public would know that they confine themselves to ever complaining of “that vexatious ques tion,” and voting down every proposition. The merits are never argued. “No,” or “Ton can not do it,” is the only answer. And yet, what the Committee on German propose to do is easily obtainable, a reasonable demand, and to tho best interest of tho pupils aa well as the city at large. They want to make the present mode of instruction more effective, —a perfect success. They want to see tho money of the taxpayers judiciously and wisely expended. They want to da away with “ that vexatious question ” in tbs only manner that the civilization of the age will . approve of. This can be done, they claim, first, by offering to all pupils the benefit of tha study of German, leaving it optional with tha parents to say, in the beginning of the year, whether or not their children shall engage In it, but treating it, if once voluntarily begun, in tha same manner as all other studios; that is, pro- ■ hibiting tho dropping of it daring the year; secondly, by having a Superintendent of German - instruction, who would prescribe the most ap proved mode of instruction for all his teachers, and watch their labors. Then the course would be more regular; the scholars could pass ex amination in German as well as in other branches; their ambition would be enlivened, and the general result would be satisfactory to all. The small sum of, say, §1,200 or $1,500, which the city would pay such a Superintendent, would greatly help to make the pupils reap a full harvest in knowledge for which the city now pays SB,OOO, part of which is claimed to bs wasted. Why, then, if we ask no more than what is to the purpose, are we denied oven tha smallest progress ? The expression of Mr. King, “to let well enough alone,” properly interpreted, to me seems to mean, “let bad enough alone; the German study has been no perfect success; it is a sour :e of bother and complaint; that's what . we want to keep it; that's well enough until we shall succeed in convincing the whole public that it ia a failure ; meanwhile, prevent eyeiy improvement, and we will coma to the point.'* I have Hr. King's own word of mouth for it, that ho and tho majority of the Board will simply tol erate the* instruction in German, and allow no improvements; he would not even vote for tat appointment of a Superintendent of German, ii the expense was paid out of a private purse, which I offered to collect. I have no doubt but that Hr. King is honestly governed by his best convictions, but so are wa and others, his opponents in this ques tion. You have, in your article, accused us erroneously, that w© deoired “to compel oil the pupils to learn German, or go without instruction in English.” You in dignantly exclaim : “ Shall they be taught Eng lish I” You think it “ a great violation of duty to cotnnel any child to leave ike public schools, or study, against the will of his parents, any language save his own I” Well, sir, it is just for this reason, so forcibly by you advanced, that wo want the German language well taught in our schools to those whose own language it is, and who largely pay for tho support ol the public if there existed, on this continent, an American language, as, after many centuries, the case may | be, this question would not como up. ±Jut thfl i English language ia not more universal than tha German or any other, although it is the pretext ing language, and therefore takes the firat rank in educational branches. Nevertheless, that I state of affairs is subject to changes; in I some localities the German population 1 exceeds the English; in others, the French ara prevailing; in others, the Scandinavians. What, then, should he our rule? It seems to me an easy matter to decide, if we will adhere to your views as above expressed, and not do injustice to others. All parents will be satisfied that thei? children acquire a good knowledge of tha English, because that ia generally the prevailing language; and that they, besides, learn thetf <nen language. Where the next large portion of the population be French, that language ought to be taught in the public schools; where it H . German, as in all Moslem cities, the German language should be taught. Common prudent advises this; justice will not denyit Orwnl you say, that the German emigrant and his ly must break off all connections with his tions in the old country as eoon as they W" come citizens of the United States; thj* ; his children, bom here, are not entity \ to loam in our . schools the language that i* • spoken by their uncles, grand-parents, cousins ; but that tho Englishman alone h*3j» right to ask such consideration ? The Ameru3“ people, if they will call themselves a nah<A cannot claim, like other nations, tho quality « using a uniform language; we are English, nor German, nor French; but weemT® to become an enlightened people, cO3ID in its character and views, not harrowed dov? to one nationality or language. Let us UT reap a harvest of the choicest fruits sown hf Ij J the other nations, and not be exffiomve. . f only will the principles upon which this Ecpm" j Is founded be transferred into actual hiV- | the Bhsqklea Qf prejudice, religious b&P® l ? « and national hatred bo broken, , ■ threaten to fetter tha life of our u* | Respectfully, Ernst t Chairman Committee On Q&& , j Tha Now York Tima says: !! We have ra* son to believe that the project of a English opera, with Miss Kellogg as thepi®f donna, is almost certain of execution. has been long under discussion. Tfi® appears to have such strong chances, that wo wonder it was not determined some time since.” To which we m»I is not impossible Mrs. Moulton end ni our Bing in tha b&xqo ***“ • troup*wiUxaakoitaiebatiß Chicago- .