Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune, April 30, 1876, Page 4

Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune dated April 30, 1876 Page 4
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1 TERMS OF THE TRIBUNE. [OK (PAYABLE IK IDVASCE)S Foctnee Prepaid at this Office. Ptfly Edition, postpaid. 1 year 813*00 Parts of year at same rate. Mailed to any address roue weeks for I*oo Sunday Edition: Literary Koliffioaa Doable _ _ Sheet * 3.00 Txl-WeeUy, postpaid, lycar. o*so Parts of year at same rate. VEEKLT EDITION, POSTPAID. USB 07 One copy, per year ....SJ-60 Club of fire.per copy 1.30 Club of twenty, per copy 1.15 The postage is 15 cents » year, which we will prepay. Specimen copies sent free. To prevent delay and mistakes, be sure and give 7ost- Office address In fell. inclodins State and County. Remittances may bo made either by draft, express, Post-Office order, or in registered letters, at our risk. TERMS TO CITY SUBSCRIBERS. Dally, delivered, Sunday excepted, 35 cents per week. Dally, delivered, Sunday included. 30 cents per week. Address THK TRIBUNE COMPANY. Comer Madison and Dearborn-sta., Chicago HI. AMUSEMENTS. TO-DAY. McCORIUCK HALL—North Clark street, comer of Kinrie. Readings at 3p. m. by A. P. Burbank. NEW CHICAGO THEATRE—CIark street, between Randolph and Lake. Parlor and Bloater.” TO-MORROW. NEW CHICAGO THEATRE—CIark street, between WaTuinipit and l>ke, Hooley’s Minstrels. ADELPHI THEATRE—Monroe street, comer Dear born. Variety entertainment. HGOLEV’S THEATRE—Randolph street, between Clark and I-a Sail*- Engagement of Salabnry's Trou badours. 44 Patchwork.” McVICKER’S THEATRE—Madison street, between Dearborn and State. “ Merchant of Venice.” SOCIETY MEETINGS. ORIENTAL CONSISTORY, S.*. P.*. R.% S.*. 82 °, A. A A. A S. R,—Special Assembly on Thursday evening. May 4, at Confcistorial Hall 72 Monroe-st. Work on Grand Kt. Kadoeh, 80 ®. by Second Lieut.Comd’r John O’Neill, 32°. Resident members requested to appear in uniform promptly at 7:30 p. m. By order Bi! W. BumarJ, 23°. lIL Comd’r-in-Chlef. JAMES A. T. BIRD, 32 ®, Gr. Sec’y, CHICAGO LODGE, No. 437, A. F. and A. M.—Stated Uomin uni cation Monday, May 1,8 p. m., at Oriental g«n for business of importance. Members are re •nested to be present, NATHAN HEFTEB, Secretary. ATTENTION, SIB KNIGHTS1 —Stated Conclave of Chicago Ccmmandery, No. ly, K. T., Monday evening, for bniineu of importance- A fall attendance is de tired. By order of the E. C. CHAS. J. TROWBRIDGE, Recorder. APOLLO COMMANDER?, K. T.—Stated Assembly in conclave Tuesday evening, May 2, at 8 o’clock, for business and conferring the order of £. T. All Sir Knights are invited. LAFAYETTE CHAPTER, No. 2. R.A.M., Hall 73 Monroe-et.—Special Convocation Monday evening, May Lat 8 o’clock, for work. By order of the H. P. E. N. TUCKER, SecV. Sit Sritot. Sunday Morning, April 30, 1876. WITH SUPPLEMENT. At the New York Gold Exchange on Satur day greenbacks were steady at BS£. At the meeting of the Bepublican Cen tal Committee yesterday it was decided to hold the Convention for the purpose of electing delegates to the State Convention on the 20th of May. The primaries are to he held on the 18th. A Washington dispatch, referring to the re port of Examiner Watson on the condition of the suspended City National Bank of Chi cago, says it seems certain that the depositors will be paid in full, and that the assets are in such a condition that the only question is how much the stockholders lose. If the assets are properly managed it is believed that the stockholders will meet with very little if any loss. Those who have examined the state ment say that the assets ought to pay the depositors dollar for dollar. No arrangement has yet been made for the appointment of a Receiver. The London Saturday Review has started a project for a novel society to be organized for the purpose of stocking uninhabited islands with pigs and rabbits, so that ship wrecked sailors who happen to reach them may find an abundance of food awaiting them. It also suggests that huts should be built and bailers deposited on them, just as conveniences are placed in the high Alps. The suggestion is a very humane and practical one, considering the numerous exigencies which are constantly arising in cases of shipwreck, and the actual cases of starvation that have occurred during the past year. A dispatch in the New York Tribuns from Washington gives some well-authenticated details of a story which goes to show that “Wilkes Booth made an attempt to take the life of President Lincoln at the time of his second inauguration, and that a member of the Capitol Police, Mr. J. W. Westfall, of New York, saved his life. When Westfall stopped Booth on his way to the platform, be was not aware who he was, nor was it known until some time afterwards; but, when the facts came out, Westfall was promoted to be a Lieutenant of the Capitol Police force as a mark of appreciation of his ser vices. He held his position until the meeting of the present Congress, when, of course, he was removed, as every other man has been who has shown himself patriotic, honest, and efficient. The Centennial Commissioners, after hav ing considered the question in all its bear ings, and being unwilling to offend the re ligious sentiment of Philadelphia, have de cided to dose the Exposition grounds on Sundays. This is in accordance with the views of thousands of staid Quakers of the city and State ; ‘but the arrangement “ runs across the hawse,” so to speak, of the many foreign exhibitors, who had laid their plans to play tho part of spectators themselves cn that day of the week, and who are very indignant at the action of the Commission. Araother Committee, to whom was referred the question in regard to the sale of liquors on tho grounds, has reported'in favor of allowing the same; but the Commis sion Is not satisfied with the report, and has Instructed the Committee to give the subject further attention. The contest between the lovers of the cup that exhilarates and the anti-dram men is said to be a fierce one, and the result uncertain. The Chicago prodace markets were less unsettled Saturday. Hess pork was quiet and 25@30c per brl lower, closing at $20.77$ for May and s2Lo*s for June. Lard was active and declined 17$@20c per 100 lbs, closing at $12.70 and $12.85 for June. Heats were quiet and firm, closing at 7|c for boxed shoulders, llsc for do short ribs, and lljc for do short clears. Highwines were quiet and unchanged, at $1.07 per gallon, jlour was quiet and steady. Wheat was act* ive and higher, closing at 98$c for Hay and sl.oos for June. Com was less active and closed $c lower, at 45|c for Hay and 4650 for July. Oats were active and lower, dosing at 30j@30$c for May and Soj®3lo for Jpne. Bye was slow and easier, at 63@C3Jc. Barley was in good demand and 1c higher, closing at 600 for May and 5GJ@57c for June. Hogs were in good de mand and were firm at Friday’s quotations, poor to prime selling at $7.25@7.90. Cattle were fairly active and steady, at $3.50(5)4.75 for common to prime. The sheep market was lifeless, the offerings being confined to a single car-load—quoted at §4.00@G.25. One hundred dollars in gold would buy $112.75 in greenbacks at the close. Lovely Woman has come to grief again at the hands of the Tyrant Man, this time in England. The motion which is introduced every year in the House of Commons in fat or of Woman-Suffrage has just been defeated by a vote of 239 to 152. It was supported by the advanced Liberals, under the lead of Jacob Bbight, Henby Fawcett, and others. John Bbight strenuously opposed it, show ing that the Liberals were not united in the matter. It is not impossible, however, that by constantly pegging away at it the suffragists may get the ballot in time to cast it once or twice before the millennium seisin, when it will no longer be needed. ABORT NEWSPAPER CIRCULATION. It is not our habit to make a parade of the business or circulation of The Tribune, or to nfreflil that of our contemporaries. The pub lishers are satisfied with the measure of pa tronage which The Tbibune enjoys. It has been the great advertising medium of this city for many years, because it is the business men's newspaper. It is taken and read by all classes of people who have any property or thing to sell, lease, or loon, or any money with which to make xmrehases or investments, or any useful services to hire or engage. It is patronized by all those who are in trade and commerce, banking, insurance, naviga tion, common-carrying, producing and dis tributing wealth, and consequently it has a very large circle of readers, belonging to the most intelligent, enterprising, and respectable classes of the community. < One of The Tbibune’s envious rivals pub lished yesterday a page of bosh, purporting to give the respective circulations of the two papers. It tikes its own Saturday issue, which is double that of any other day, on account of the Police Gazette and Pay's Poings character of that issue, and compares the same with a fragment of The Tribune’s circulation. In hundreds of the places named there are more copies of The Tribune mailed direct to subscribers than our envious contemporary reports as sold by newsmen. Thus 2 copies are set down as sent to New York City, whereas upwards of 80 are taken by merchants and dealers in that city; 1 copy is credited to Buffalo, but more than 20 are mailed there. Forty are sent to Boston, but none is credited on that bogus list. There are 25 more Tribunes sent to St. Louis and 22 more to Cincinnati’than stated by it. "Whatever may be the Saturday country circulation of that concern, it is very far in ferior to that of The Chicago Tribune in city and county; and among the busi ness rlftKgpg in the country the same thing is true, as a rule. The Business Manager of The Tribune has drawn off a statement of the circulation of The Tribune during the past week, which shows that the whole number of Daily Tbeb unes issued and sold for the week ending April 29,157 G, was 219,317, which is a daily average of 31,331 copies. The Sunday edi tion, of course, is the largest. The growth of The Tribune is steady, and its patronage permanent and first-class. OPENING OF NAVIGATION, AND BATES OF FREIGHT. The Struts of Mackinac are open, and the fact marks two events: the departure from Chicago of an immense fleet of vessels loaded* with grain, and the starting of a fleet of other vessels from the Lower Lakes with mer chandise for Chicago; and the no less im portant one of a decline in railroad freights to the ocean. The fleet began to leave Chicago on Friday, and will bo all under way in a few days. Many of the vessels have been loaded for several weeks. This fleet carries 550,000 bushels of wheat, 1,500,000 bushels of com, 300.000 bushels of oats, and 30,000 bushels of rye; or 2,380,000 bushels of grain. Within the last two or three days, over 1,200 cars have been engaged to move grain from Chicago, at the rate of 12 cents per bushel, or 20 cents per hundred pounds. The contracts include the transportation of 400.000 bushels of com, 150,000 bushels of wheat, and 100,000 bushels of oats. This is only for through freights, the grain to be de livered at Baltimore, Philadelphia, and Boston; if any js destined for New York, we have not heard of it The shipments by lake, though chartered before the opening of lake navigation, have been at very low rates, and now stand at 20 cents per 100 pounds by water to Buffalo and thence by rail to New York. This rate will not be reduced by canal rates, the rail roads of New York running in close compe tition with the canals. The all-rail rates to Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Boston are re garded as much cheaper than the charges to New York, because of the harbor charges and other extortions which are demanded at that place, and are not exacted elsewhere. But this is not the only danger which threatens the grain trade of New York. The Canadians are rapidly atwork on their canals, and, as early as 1878, promise to furnish the lake trade with continuous water navigation for vessels requiring 14 feet of water, from Lake Michigan to Montreal. This will give uninterrupted water travel to the largest vessels .- that can enter our lake harbors. When vessels leaving Chicago can proceed without delay direct to Montreal, and there discharge their cargoes into an ocean steamer, and at once receive a return cargo of mer chandise for this city, it is no improbable that grain will be delivered between these points at Bto 10 cents per 100 pounds. This will completely cut off the grain trade or New York daring the season of lake navi gation. But the winter 4rade is also in as great peril. The New York railroads last winter entered into a combination against Chi cago. They sought to punish ns by fixing such rates as they thought would break up the grain trade of this city. The rates were so arranged as to offer a large profit to ship pers outside of Chicago to send grain direct to the East without coming here. In this way a large amount of grain was kept ons, of Chicago, and, to accomplish this punish ment of this city, lucre was established the pooling of freight receipts with roads that were much shorter and could afford to do the business cheaper. The game was a bold one, but at the same time it was costly. The New York roads did not profit by the operation. They made no money, and drove the grain trade elsewhere. New York ought to under stand that it must depend for its grain trade upon Chicago and Milwaukee. Any diversion of grain from these points must be a diver sion to the shorter and more southern routes, THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE: SUNDAY, APRIL 30, 1876-SIXTEEN PAGES. with their termini at Philadelphia sr£ Balt - more. The late combination, while it divert ed grain from Chicago, diverted it also from New York, and, so far as the latter city is concerned, the diversion promises to be per manent. It will not do to hug the delusion that the low rates of all-rail transportation can only exist during the season of lake navigation. The Grand Trunk Railroad must, in the neces sity of things, have its terminus in Chicago. It is now as remote from the great volume of business of the West, as if it had no connec tion this side of Montreal. There are twenty live and more railroads entering Chicago from the west and southwest, bearing the products of the great States and Territories they traverse. The Grand Trunk Railway has no direct connection with this trade, and cannot have until it can run its trains from Chicago and Milwaukee, and thus furnish these cities with a winter route independent of combinations with the bankrupt roads of our Eastern States. When the Grand Trunk Road is thus completed to the west side of Lake Michigan, then the Great West will have the great water route from April to No vember, and the all-rail routes to Philadel phia, Baltimore, Boston, and all New En gland, without touching New York, or being subjected to the exactions and extortions heretofore so persistently practiced. The “punishment” indicted upon Chicago at such enormous loss to New York, and to its railroads, has hardly been felt here in a pecuniary sense, and its repetition is not likely to occur. The business at this point promises to be greater this year than ever before, and the very means employed to break up the grain trade of this city will have the effect of providing protection against the possibility of such a proceeding again. Unless New York can provide some new water route of enlarged capacity, with deep water, shortening the time of passage, if not the distance, from Buffalo or Oswego to the Hudson, and make that route free, it may consider the Western trade lost, and may place the responsibility therefor upon the insane policy of its railroads, and its own indifference to extortions and monopo lies. THE FIRST OF MAY. It is rather fortunate that this, a day of rest, comes just before the bustle and tur moil of the First of May, that men and women may repose their souls in quietness, —some to return thanks that their Lares and Penates are to remain where they have been domiciled for the year past, others to prepare themselves for pntting off the old and taking on the new quarters. There has always been a certain excitation about the First of May which, varying according to individual cir cumstances and cllmatio influences, stirs up the emotions. It is a moving time of year. It is hard for city-folk to enter enthusiastic ally into the rustic enjoyments of the season, which are for the most part tradi tional in a crowded community and a winter climate. The only suggestion of the May polo is the rod which the ruthless auctioneer plants at an angle of 43 degrees, with a soiled red streamer at the end of it. The only dance is that of the hilarious carman on the top of your piano or favorite sideboard, in anticipation of the shekels he expects to extract from you for the annual privilege of breaking yonr furniture. The only Queen of the May is she who traces her ancestry back to the days of Brian Bobu. With soap-suds ready mixed and a scrub-brush at the side of her bed, she will lie down to-night to sweet visions of Sapolio and broken window-panes, gently murmuring: Toumost wake and call mo early, call mo early, mother ' dear; To-morrow ’ll bo the happiest time of all the glad new year; Of all the glad new year, mother, the maddest, mer- rlcst d»y, for I’m to be Qoeen o’ the May, mother, I’m to be Queen o’ the Hay. In point of fact, May-day in the city has a good many advantages over May-day in the country. Though the clouds do not shed as many May flowers when Jupiter smiles on Juno, the city people have the best of it when there happens to be, as there usually is, a fall ofraininsteadof a shower of posies. Thereis something in a rain-storm entirely in keep ing with the humor of the moving masses, especially if it rains cats and dogs. In fact, most people bo confidently anticipate a rain storm that they are disappointed if it doesn’t come. They will probably not be disap pointed, but rather take a grim satisfaction as they watch the muddy boots of the ex pressmen Jeavo their, marks on the newly scoured floors, and as they contemplate their bedraggled carpets and limp curtains de posited in a huge and ungainly mass. There will be a rare opportunity for practicing in forcible English, and those who have favorite oaths may prepare to swear them now. Some consolation may be found, nevertheless, in the reflection that even this celebration of the First of May is preferable to dawdling on the wet grass and taking cold in thin shoes and white muslins under the delusion that spring-time has come. The people who move may still find ad vantages over those who do not. To begin with,, they usually do not own houses, and have no taxes to pay. . They enjoy all the advantages which tenants have over land lords. They are not especially troubled when the children whittle at the stair-bannisters or display their early artistic talent on the white walls. They escape the trials of an account for repairs, and can bully the landlords to their hearts’ content. It is just possible, if they are experienced tenants, that they can avoid the payment of the last month’s rent in the house they have abandoned, and can get an allowance of the first month’s rent in the new house for.putting it in order. There is o certain pleasure in the exercise of that al most superhuman ingenuity which is required to make old carpets fit a new house of an en tirely different size, and to evolve order out of the chaotic condition which the ruthless smasher of furniture leaves when he de mands his money. There is also an admira ble opportunity for the exercise of the Christianly virtue of patience in dealing with the plumbers and gas-fitters. In addition to all this, an excellent excuse is furnished to the paterfamilias to stay down-town to din ner, in order that he may not inflict unneces sary work upon the materfamUias, and this in turn gives the materfamilias the welcome occasion for giving the pater-familias the usual curtain-lecture. The people who do not move generally en joy this meny month of May by cleaning bouse. Then they wish they had moved, and left the annual accumulation for their suc cessor to dispose of. If there is a more cheer ful way of celebrating than moving, it is by house-cleaning. That degree of discomfort is reached which makes it simply exquisite and ecstatic. A mental and moral condition is superinduced which renders all other sea sons of the year tame by comparison. Kot 6T«n the enlargement of the head consequent upon an industrious series of New Year’s calls, or resulting from the most assiduously patriotic celebration of a Centennial Fourth of July, affords quite so much excuse for the delirious indulgence of a domestic jar. The First of May is not awarded its full dignity among the days that date the beginning of new eras. Other days relate to arbitrary divisions of time, or cele brate historic events, or signalize the cheap virtue of patriotism ; but the First of May denotes the new domestic year, the fiscal year of the household. It is the time of year when gallant old bucks don their spring suits, blossom out in new kids, encase their throats in stunning collars, and exhibit them selves on the fashionable promenades. It is the date for burnishing up old things, getting rid of the rubbish, and discounting future incomes for the gratification of display. Confiding landlords and trusting tailors suffer more or less, but it is under the fond illusion that they are doing a spanking trade. The excitements of the season are essentially in vigorating, and the quiet and peacefulness of to-day will enable those who propose to par take of them to prepare themselves to accept the blessings of the First of May with be coming moderation. MR. STOREY’S GRAND JURY. The late Grand Jury, which gave up the ghost yesterday, seems to have been a family divided against itself. Mr. Wilbub F, Stobey led the majority faction, and signs his name as foreman to the majority report. In the course of that report he refers significant ly to the circumstance that the parties who were being investigated and thewitnesses ex pected to testify were informed from day to day of the proceedings of the Grand Jury. Per contra , two of the jurors, in a minority report, say to the Court that there was evi dence that their foreman (none other than Mr. Stobey) had been engaged in an attempt to bribe Aldermen in 1869, and, while the case is debarred from presentment by the statute of limitations, they regard it as highly reprehensible. It may be concluded from Mr. Stobet’s lengthy and learned report that, if he had not been embarrassed by a couple of recalci trant jurors, he would not have failed to in dict the County Board and the town bum mers who attempted to seize office by stuff ing ballots. But we may infer from the minority report that, if two of the Grand Jurors had not been embarrassed by Mr. Stobet’s presence and the statute of limita tions, they would have indicted their own foreman. But as Mr. Stobey, with twenty other “good men and true,” was arrayed against the small minority, and the minority of two were arrayed against Mr. Stobey, the public welfare falls between two stools, and no indictments are reported against the county rascals who take bribes, nor against the foreman who was said to offer them. There is little doubt that there is a great deal of truth concealed in the copious flow of elegant diction which distinguishes the ma jority report. The substance of it is that, while the Grand Jury have not been able to got sufficient evidence on which to found indictments, there is enough to create a moral certainty of systematic corruption. There ore three instances cited. One is the letting of the contract for the Court-House founda tions to a man, not an expert in this work, at a price exceeding another bid by $20,000. Another is a contract for additions to the County Hospital, which was let in bulk to a man named Sexton at a price many thousand dollars in advance of other responsible bids, who subsequently sub-let a portion of the work at a figure for which the sub-contractor had offered to do it for the county. A third was in the contract for light ning-rods on the County Hospital; the higher bid was accepted, though there was no choice as to the responsi bility of the bidders. The inference of the Grand Jury is entirely warranted that the Board is subject to corrupt influences, and it is a pity that dissension in the Jury itself de feated the purpose of indicting the corrup tionists. The report singles out one Joseph Hogan and C. F. Pebiolat as controlling the only doors that open to the County Board, and as forcing every man who passes them to pay a heavy admission. Of Pebiolat him self the report says that he is “a persistent blackmailer of a most persistent type,” and that the Board, if honest, would rid itself of his guardianship. We fear that he can only be put down in the one way which the Grand Jury have failed to provide, viz.: by his in dictment. "We shall hope for a salutary moral effect from thin report, which we print else where in full, and which sets forth some interesting and significant ex tracts from the testimony taken. These extracts fully warrant the conclusions which the Grand Jury have reached. Yet the Jury are at a loss to recommend any fur ther procedure than the continued investi gation of the official scoundrels by the next Grand Jury, which meets to-morrow. OUB HOUSEKEEPERS’ DEPARTMENT. The column or columns of The Tbibuke which we devote weekly to the science of housekeeping, with special reference to its culinary department, are attracting attention far and near, as is evidenced by the commu nications which pour in upon us from every part of the United States, laden with the ex perience of expert housekeepers, not only in the general management of households, but also in the manufacture of fabrics of orna ment and use and the preparation of dishes for the table. The bearing of these commu nications upon the culinary question—which, after all, is the most important subject in the domestic economy, since a badly-cooked dish produces a disarranged stomach, and a disar ranged stomach unfits a man for his duty— is very intimate. They are virtually the re sult of a conference among experts with re gard not only to the preparation of fancy but also of standard dishes, and they have already reformed the dinner-tables in numerous households. The advantages of such an intercourse among experts, and a friendly comparison of views and experiences, are too apparent to need specifying; but one result is of great importance, name ly, that these recipes from actual housekeep ers, skilled in home cookery, are infinitely better than the recipes of professional cooks in hotels and restaurants, because, however good they may be, they involve an expense which is beyond the possibilities of people of ordinary means, and they are not usually de vised in the interests of economy and the using over of materials. In this respect the American people are far behind even the French with their generally expensive cook ery. One of the highest triumphs of the art of the cuisine is to place the same material two or three times upon the table, always having it palatable, “suffering a sea change into something rich and strange,” and yet place it upon the table in such a manner thwf. the eat er shall never suspect having seen it before. In this art we, as a people, are sadly dofi- cient, The United States in this Centennial year, ■whatever progress it may have made in other directions, hpg no reason to he proud of the condition of its cookery. Our best efforts, as a whole peo ple, result rather in a wholesale waste of material, a deluge of grease, the promotion of indigestion, and the inability to make a little money go a great ways. In these re spects other nations, like England, France, and Germany, are our superiors. France has a world-wide reputation for its cookery. Its finer preparations of delicate and luxurious dishes are undoubtedly expensive, much more so than the average American house keeper would feel herself warranted in un dertaking, but in the standard dishes, such os soups, meats, fish, poultry, and game, the French are more economical than we, and not only produce cheaper but more palatable dishes. The late Pieeke Blot in his valuable lectures to American ladies, and Soyeb in his recipes,which he has left as his gastronomical monument, taught this secret, but it was wasted upon the desert air. A few enthusi asts may have profited thereby, but the great majority of American housekeepers go on in the old way of waste, and grease, and bad cookery. There is one great and important feature of cookery which these men and others eminent in the cuisine have taught us, and which the example of European nations is constantly teaching us, which we seem determined to neglect, name ly, the preparation of palatable and healthy soups. If it were possible, there ought to be a law passed compelling every American housekeeper to preface her dinner with soup, —first, because it is healthy, and, second, be cause it is economical. It does not add one cent to the expense of the dinner, because it can always be made from what is otherwise wasted. The importance of this subject can hardly bo estimated. The connection between physiology and morals, between the physical and the moral man, is a subtle one. What ever disturbs a man’s physical nature is bound to disturb his moral nature, and noth ing disturbs his physical nature more quickly or thoroughly than bad cookery. We have no doubt that a cunning analyzer might often trace a crime back to a certain bad dish. We have no doubt that vice larks between the covers of a mince pie ; that the seven deadly sins float in greasy frying-pans ; that roaring and devouring passions have been unloosed by coffee-pots ; that ignorant kitchen-maids have broken up the peace of households; that heavy biscuits, soggy bread, soaked with saleratus, and steaks burned to crisps have thwarted the pulpit’s work of grace. Cas sius* question, “ Upon what meat doth this our Cssab feed that he hath grown so gfeat?” is true in more ways than one. It is not al together a figure of speech. We have no doubt that most of our representative vices come from our representative cookery. We have, therefore, great faith that the commu nications of our housekeepers, which we are printing from week to week, will work great good if the American people will give heed to them. In this Centennial year there is no more beneficial reform that we can commence upon than the reform of our cookery. Let the American eagle from his mountain eyrie look down upon steaks, coffee, biscuits, and bread that are like Cesab’s wife, or what Mrs. Cesab was expected to be, and there will be hope for the future. FIRES AND FIRE INSURANCE. One of the notable features in the historj of American cities for the past decade is the marked advance toward providing safeguards against loss bj fire commensurate to the enormous value of the property liable to de struction. In 18G6, as shown by the data collated in the address of President Oakley, of the National Board of Underwriters, de livered at the opening of their session in New York on 'Wednesday last, steam fire-engines had been introduced into only about a dozen cities, while in the remainder the inefficient volunteer companies, with hand-engines, con stituted what were styled the Fire Depart ments. Now 275 cities and towns are pro vided with steamers ; 78 maintain paid tde partments ; and 90 have organized fire-pa trols. Much probably yet remains to be done in the way of providing ample water-supply for any emergency in the lesser cities, but, in all, there are now sixty-five towns and cities having public water-works (pump ing), and eighty-seven besides in which a good supply is obtained by gravitation. In Chicago within that time, with the extension of the water-service, enlargement of the mains, and increased capacity of the works, the water-supply has been many times mul tiplied, and, on completion of the new tun nel-works, will be doubled; and in view of these facts it is gratifying to note the President of the National Board is con strained to admit that “No city shows a more marked improvement in the organiza tion of its Fire Department and increased water facilities than Chicago.” Within the same period, too, there has beem a marked falling off in the construc tion of fire-trap buildings; and in many of the larger cities—notably. in Chicago—the building ordinances now in force diminish greatly the hazard of loss by fire. So far as this city is concerned, the contrast as to the substantial character of the leading struct ures with those of European cities is less marked than ever. Solid brick partitions, metal and slate roofing, and floors laid in cement, with, in many buildings, iron joists and arched metal ceilings, are now here rather the rule than the exception. InLondon, Mr. Oakley reports he found many of the faults of the architecture of our cities obtained. But in Germany, Belgium, Holland, and France, he found that pine was discarded for oak and hard-woods for inside finish; that both floors and roofs were generally laid in concrete; that wooden partitions were un known, and that lath and plaster were not used; while seldom buildings are erected to a height of more than 65 feet above the pave ment, and flimsy ornamental comice work of combustible material is not used. In conse quence of this it is that he attributes the small outlay of European cities for Fire Departments as compared with ours. London, with nearly 4,000,000 population, and upward of 440,000 houses, covering about 120 square miles, has but 26 steam fire-engines, 4 floating engines, and 85 hand-engines, and the total force of the Fire Department is but 400 men. In Paris he states he did not find a single steam fire engine, the old hand-machines being relied upon, and successfully too, as has been dem onstrated, for the extinguishment of the worst conflagrations to which, with their nearly fire-proof buildings, they are liable. The growth of the insurance business in this country, in the same period, is even more marked. The aggregate capital of the Ameri can companies, which in 1866 was $44,410,000, notwithstanding the immense losses entailed by the Chicago and Boston fires, has in creased to $55,883,000. Notwithstanding, it is ft notable fact that the annual premium re- ceipts are actually greater by about nine millions than the aggregate capital of the companies. From $29,529,000 in 1865, they increased to $64,900,000 in 1875; and the risks taken for the last year amounted to §6,273,000,000, covering property to the amount of three times the national debt. The fact that the extension of risks has in no wise lessened the precautions of property owners against fire is evidenced not only by the improvement everywhere of the Fire Departments, but by the fact that the losses for the last year averaged less than 50 per cent of the pre mium receipts, being for the New York com. panics but 43 per cent; companies of other States 524 per cent; foreign companies 41J per cent, lie premium receipts of the for eign companies were less than one-sixth the aggregate premiums paid, showing that there is a firm confidence among business classes in the solidity of our home companies. The whole exhibit is gratifying as showing that there is yearly less ground for apprehen sion of any such disastrous conflagration as the great fire in this city. Enlarged water supply, improved fire department, and im provement in building, well nigh preclude it. And it is no less gratifying in the exhibit as to the result of the business for the year of the underwriters, for it shows that in event of heavy losses they would be able to meet them. THE LAST GRAB, The present Common Council is not dis posed to give up its powers and retire from office. The sum at which common rumor estimates the divides of the last year is SIOO,- 000. Hence, perhaps, the unwillingness to accept the dismissal voted by the people. It is significant, too, that the jobbers have no faith in the newly-elected Common Coun cil ; their only hope is to make the last days of the old Council as long as possible, and to crowd into those days as much corrupt legis lation as possible. At the meeting on Friday night the declaration of the canvass of the vote of the election was again postponed, and the Coun cil decided that it had authority to go on with legislative business. Upon the heels of this decision there was promptly reported an ordinance granting to the Garden City Rail way the permission to lay down horse-railway tracks upon Dearborn, LaSalle, Jackson, Twenty-second, Fourteenth, Twenty-third, Thirty-first, East Adams, West Adams, East Twelfth, and West Twelfth streets, and on Third and Fourth avenues, Went worth avenue, and Wabash avenue. Who compose the Garden City Company is a mystery ; bnt it is under stood that Hji.dp.eth, and perhaps other Al dermen, and some of the other appendages of the City Government, are the “company.” The ordinance is of course a blackmailing operation. If it were entitled an ordinance requiring the horse-railway companies to pay to a majorityof the outgoing Common Coun cil $50,000 or SIOO,OOO, its object would not be more apparent than it is now. It has not been over two months since the gas compa nies were subjected to the same rack ; and these scoundrels do not propose to get out of the offices they disgrace without obtaining even a greater bribe from the horse-railway companies. That the jobbers did not believe that the people would so emphatically reform the Common Council is evidenced by the late day at which this ordinance is reported. Had they believed that the people would have so largely vacated the seats of Aldermen, thiß ordinance would have been passed long ago. As it is, it is a notice to the horse-rail way companies to “come down” instanter, or somebody will have a franchise for 25 miles of city railway to sell during the next summer. The ordinance, however, if passed, will be so inoperative legally that it is not likely that any person will pay a dollar to prevent its passage or to secure the franchise. There is a contract made by the city with certain of the horse-railway companies—which con tract has been affirmed and made a law by the Legislature—that on certain of the streets named there shall be no horse-railway tracks laid or cars run. There is a law of the State which went into force July 1,1874, which provides that no company organized for the purpose of constructing a horse-railway in a city shall do so without the consent of the corporate authorities of such city, and then only on the petition of such company : “ Provided, no such consent shall be granted unless at least ten days* public notice of the time and place of presenting such petition shall have been first given by publication in some newspaper published in the city or county where such road is to be constructed. ’’ It is possible that this Company may have given this notice of a purpose to present such a petition ; but we venture to say that the first knowledge that the public have had of any such scheme is the fact that an ordi nance granting the franchise has been agreed upon in the Council, and is to be passed on Monday next, if the requisite number of votes can be obtained to crown the infamy of this historical Council. EMPRESS VICTORIA, ""When a woman will, she will, you may depend on’t, and when she won’t, she won’t, and there’s an end on’t.” The old saw is very clearly Illustrated by Yictohia’s victory over the English Parliament, press, and people. By virtue of her indomitable perse verance and determination, aided and abetted by her numerous and equally persistent olive-branches, she is now allowed to add to her old title of honor, "Yictobia, by tbe Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Queen, Defender of the Faith,” the words, "Empress of India.” Kow, owing to her womanly grit, end by the Grace of God, she is defender of numerous faiths, —not only the Episcopal of England, the Presbyterian of Scotland, and the Roman Catholic of Ireland, but also of tbe Hindu, Mohammedan, Buddhist, Sikh, Parsee, and Christian of India. There never was a permission more reluctant* ly granted to Her Most Gracious Maj esty before. The bill was passed by Par liament in a sullen sort of way, which very nearly amounted to throwing the title at her rather than courteously presenting it to her. It was opposed by some of tbe strongest men in both Houses. It was denounced with passion by some and ridiculed by others. There was not a publication in England, daily, weekly, or quarterly, but 'vigorously opposed it. Even the Tories voted for it with reluctance, but it was carried through, simply because the Queen notified her Premier that she was determined to have it. It is an empty honor, and reminds one of the squabbles of actresses and prima donnas over the size of the types announcing their names on the posters; but she was bound to have it because she was overshadowed by her own daughter and daughter-in-law, who some day, if they live long enough, may be Empresses. The Prince of Woles Is only the son of ft Queen, but his brother married the Grand of an Emperor. The crowned heads of two branches therefore overtopped her, and Ea press she would be, and is, so far as India concerned. The English will stand a great deal of flummery, gold stick, and titulary nonsense, but they would not stand an Empress, so Victoria hitched her title upon her Indian subjects, who are so fat away that it won’t hurt them, and who ars not troubled probably with the appreciatioa of the fact that, as subjects of an Empress they will be bound to a more exacting alia giance than they were as subjects of a Qneea It was a little ungracious to put this addi tional badge of servitude upon them after the handsome manner in which they have treated the Prince of Wales during his visit, bnt i| was necessary that Victoria should be Eq, press over something, even it it were onlj Hindus. It will puzzle the latter some to use the title, as they have no word for Empress in their language. This little dim. culty, however, can be overcome by an edid from the Queen ordering Prof. Mai Mcnua to invent one. The whole affair is a veiy trifling one. It will not probably disturb tie relations of England to other countries, or interfere with the revolutions of the earth on its axis, but it is a very significant in. stance of the influence of Victoria and her children upon Jons Bull when they want that very unreasonable animal to go in a cer tain direction in which he does not want t° go. __________ PERSONAL. Barney Williams’ fortune is estimated to be worth 5500,000. Mr. H. J. Byron’s new play. “Wrinkles,’' U severely criticised by the London papers. Mrs. Oliphant has written a novel which the calls “Phoebe Junion, a Last Chronicle of Cu> lingford.” Sir John Rose, now visiting this country fur a few weeks, is the head of the English home corresponding to the house of Morton, Bliss 4 Co. in New York. Dr. O. B. Frothingham’s “ Transcendentallm in Now England” will bring to the public (n the first time, it is said, the Constitution of the Brook Farm Community. Hr. James T. Fields has joined the Boston Bristow Club, because bo behoves the Eepnblia to be in danger, and believes moreover that it have got the right man to save it. Carieton & Co. will soon publish a book front the pen of “ John Paul.” the racy and flippul correspondent of the New York Tribune, unite the title of ** Seaweed and What We Seed." Those “literary fellers” seem to be more poo* alarm Massachusetts Republican Conventual than they are at Washington. Whittier and Lowell were cheered when they crossed the plu* form Wednesday to deposit their ballots. The fomth volume of the edition of the woria of Sbakspeare, pot into French by tbelati Francois Victor Hugo,—the elder of thetvo sous of Victor Hugo.—has been printed. Ibi volume contains ‘‘Henry V.” and “Henry Tl* Mr. Moody began his revival services in Augusta, Ga., last Monday. Nearly 5.000 wen present the first night. All the exercises tali place in the open air. there being no building la the city large enough to accommodate the au diences. Max Muller wants Queen Victoria to call her self Adhirajui of India, which ha translate: “ Over King, Supreme King, and Ruler of In dia.” This proposition to adopt Oriental titles end forms of greatness seems to be full of ter rible possibilities. Mr. D. T. T. Moore, the founder and for more than a quarter of a century the conductor ct Moore's Rural Aeto Yorker . has vacated his pr rition, and Mr. Andrew D. S. Fuller, for many years associate editor, has taken tbe editorial chair. The paper is distinguished for ability, dignity, purity, and liberality of maoagemmt. . The New York Herald says: Since the pub lication in the Herald some days ago of Jobs Swivton’s appeal in behalf of fhe paralyzed poet, Walt Whitman, a large number of subscriptions to the new $lO edition of bis collected works, published by himself, have been forwards! to him. The action of his admirers in thadty and London has cheered the old ‘ Good Gny Poet.* who, we are told, will welcome further subscriptions to his new edition at his Camden, N. J.” A wealthy shoemaker of Bremen has hacex* ented life-size statues of the three moated* brated shoemakers in German history. Hu first of these was the holy St. Crisps, tbi patron of the shoemaker’s craft; the ecocd was the bravo Hans von Sagan, who, irlS7% turned the tide of the great battle of tie Go man orders against the heathen Lichaaoaos by bearing the Imperial standard into the sidsto! the enemy, and the third was Hans Sabs, thl shoemaker bard. The narrative of Don Carlos’ voyage froa Liverpool to Halifax is related with noa cir cumstantiality by & Mr. Terrill, one of thenw* gangers on the steamer which it is alegti brought Carlos over. Many persocfl blieri that Carlos is now in this country, ani he hdso many good reasons for leaving Eiglan and coming here, and for coming privately, Ut it is easy to credit the reports. A gentiems who once knew him in Spam claims tohavaMh him at church in this city last Suaiay. The Hon. Charles Hale says that therare no pictures In the palaces of Egypt. ** Yes, Wd a young bridegroom to me, on his weddinjjoo> ney, who. with bis bride, had found eveithiog couleur de rose, from the Pyramids to ti don* keys; "yes, I will tell you the heat thiueboot Egypt; there are no confounded pictnrelbara. Now, when Mary and I go about in the Eopean towns we have to stretch our necks bacsJU oar heads nearly fall off, looking at the pictna; wl must see them, every one of them, yoiioot; but in all Egypt there isn’t a single pictal” A. H. Guden, of the firm of Peltier Ajaflen, Brooklyn, whose mysterious disappeared some weeks ago occasioned much comment, haaroed up again ** right as a trivet.” He had §|so oa bis person at the time of his disapprove®* which was to bo used for the paymejof hi* workingmen. Stepping into a saloon fa glaa* of beer, he invited two strangers to dm Im mediately be lost consciousness, and lea he came to himself be was on board a stear out ward bound for California, and was inform that ho bad shipped as a fireman. It is belijdthat his beer was drugged. Col. Bristow paid his respects to indent Lincoln in Washington daring the r, sod was cordially received. Mr,Lincolns: “I know you very well. Colonel—Benjai Helm Bristow. Your undo, Benjamin Helm erk of the Hardin County Court, was one of e best friends I had when I was a boy. He led to take a good deal of trouble to explain again the office to me, and show me how baa m was done, and was very kind otherwise. Oi when I came to town barefooted, be took me a store and gave me a pair of shoes, and brae of good friend always in those days.” The forthcoming second volume of !cCan* lay’s Life and Letters ” will contain as re markable allusions to Harriet Beecl Stows He wrote of “ Uncle Tom’s Cabin” it otnn complimentary strain, bet of her “ Su Keß ories in Foreign Lands ” he said : “ nightf foolish, impertinent book this of M Stowe. She puts in my mouth a great deal of ff that I never uttered, particularly about cathe drals. What blunders she makes! R t Wal pole lor Horace Walpole. Shaftes \ the author of the habeas corpus act, she found* with Shaftesbury, the author of 1 C oteris tica.’ She cannot even see. Palmer* whose eyes are sky blue, she calls dark-ey I glad that I met her so seldom* *nd K tb** * met bar at aIL“

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