Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune, May 6, 1876, Page 9

Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune dated May 6, 1876 Page 9
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LITERATURE. ling and CtCßomreaUbt Amatory •f Charles I. and ths Crest Rebellion. Science and Religion: 81ml-. larltlos of Physical and Roligioae Knowl edge. [he Religions Sentiment 1 Its Source and Aims—The Spiders of the United States. I lord Houghton’* Psems —Charles Dndley Warner is Egypt—Poetry forChil dren—Floating Coffins. Education in France: Tho University System Founded by the First Napoleon. the Flora Bound About Chicago :i. Tho Poppy, Fumitory, and Purslane Families- I Oiso aie-Proof Potatoes—Monnd'BnUd ors—Candy as a Cause of Im paired Sight. Fcffotablo Ivory—Freezing? Plant-Juices —Lalto-Dwollerfi—Native Wild Gooseberries- LITERATURE. KINO AND COMMONWEALTH. Into awo Commonwealth : A Histort or Cit Alton I. AND TUB QSKAT REBELLION. By B. UINTON OnoEV, ami J. Sebtxes Fhillipott*, Hetd-Usatar of Radford School, formerly Fellow of New Collage, Oxford. 13mo„ pp. JW9. Philadelphia : James H. Coates A Co. Tbo two writers who have united in producing this volume bavo given a lively and interesting account of one of the most Important epochs. In tbo history of England. With commendable impartiality tboy have dealt with the foots which illustrate the groat political events of the lime and reveal the spirit which aetna'/kt the contending bodies of Royalists and Roundheads. All the conditions and circumstances • which en tered into the strife between the King and the Commons, and led to the establish iment of a Commonwealth, are minutely de iuribod. Tbo growth and forms of the are sot forth, in order that the quostio na which arose from its violation by the King may be clearly undo stood ; and much space is given to a re view of the social aspect of ‘die various classes of the people, to insure a fu'd knowledge of the position of England in the i /cals of civilization during this period of turbi Rent warfare between diffoiont parties in Churc'a and State. The sketches of tbo sovcral contests in the field in which Charles Anight vainly to save his ' crown are carefully dr imeatod. and maps of the scone of each engage’ jicnt help out the graphic text. In depleting, tbo battle of Edgoblll, whoro tho King fjat tried tho strength of hts military forces r^a{ Dß t tbosoof tbo popular loaders, a deter .ption Is given of tbo equip ment of the soldiery, which ieof onriousin terest : To npprcclal' t the tactics of the time, it is necessary to remember me nature of the weapon*. The soldier* on eiibor *iu * were armed after the same fashion. The introductio * of Uro-arma had caused the defensive ar mor of tlu* ordinary hone and foot soldier* to bo re duced to a back and breast piece, and a broad Iron hat, cotiimo jly called a pot, calves' leather boots, reaching up to * imbrices, and a long buff coat, worn under the srinc e % completed tbclr equipment. Officers often wor 4 open helmets, arm and shoulder pieces, and Ua *c< s, or nUrti, to protect the thighs. Tb.i cavalry wero divided Into three classes: the 'jumauters, tue carabineers, end the dragoons. The coirvsticrs, being almost without exception gentlc- Biioii. arming (borntGlvos at their own expense, came fto tattle magnificently appointed, with ellver-blited rewords, plumes of feathers waring above open Jholmets, and buff coats gsy with gold and silver trim :mlnp*. Tbdr usual weapons wero the sword snd :plstoU Tho carabineers were so called from the name •of their carbine, a musket. The dragoons wero light • armed, havlug only the buff coat and iron hat, and • were like mounted riflemen, fighting as much on foot aeon horse, but with swords for cavalry-work. The infantry was divided into bodies of pikemen and musketeer*.—the uie of musket and bayonet not yot being combined lu the same weapon. The pike, made of ash, was 18 or IS feet long, and beaded with stool. Too musket, or the matchlock, m not advanced boyoud (he first aUge of Invention. The spark to fire tho gunpowder vu applied from the outside, Instead of being produced by the concussion of flint and sdocU The match consisted of little ropes of tow, iboilod in spirit; these, when lighted at •ono end, smoldered on until the whole was comma •ed. The musket was still such a heavy and cumber* (some weapon that it had to be fixed on a rest. This • rffct was made of ash-wood, headed at ono end with : irou to fix la the ground, and haring at the other a half-hoop of iron, before the end-of the war, the musketeer was relieved of this additional burden. Reids were disused, cwlng to the Introduction of lighter and mors portable muskets. To a belt fastened round the musketoert shoulder hung a ballet-bag, ■oioe twist* of spare match, a flask of touch-powder, and a bandoleer, wllb twetvo little case*, made of leather or tin, each of which contained a separate charge of powder. A* loading and firing were both long operations, only one rank flrod at a time, and the musket was by do means so great an advance In the art of destruction as wo might suppose from our ex* prrlcnce of* the modern rifle. Fidd-gun* were also cumbersome, and seem to have done little execution. It was when tho ranks bad come to push of pike, or when the victors mercllooaly cut down tho flying foe with the sword, that tho dead fell thickest, liter* were no regular uniforms. Different regiments •on either side often wore buff coats dyed the color be longing to the bouse of their Colonel. Thus llsap* ■don’s men wore green coats; Lord Grey's, blue; others, ; rod, purple, and gray. All the officers of tbs I’atila :nteut wore orange scarfs, tbs color of tbellouseof .Essex. But, lu the confusion of the battle, a twig of igreen, a sprig of broom, ora blto» colored ribbon, ■ fastened to the hat, with the kelp of the word of the •day, w«« the ehlsf guide by which to dletlngulsb friend from foe, Jt is not often that historians descend to those minor particulars, which, after alt, aro quite as accessary to a clear conception of any event or period in a nation’s life as aro tho more salient incidents on which its destiny may seem to turn. & distinguishing feature of the present work is tbo attention which is paid to details that afford valuable information, and yet aro generally at* iffloet, if not altogether, overlooked. In the time of Charles 1., and of the Com* (□onwoaltb, London was a city of 600,000 inhab itants, —Its limits extending but little boyoud tho Tovror on the east, and touching tho City of ’Westminster on the west, while on the north newly-opened streets connected it with tho ham lot of Bt. Qlies. But ono roadway united the banks of tho Thames, and that ran across Old London Bridge. The river itself was still s groat thoroughfare, along which passengers and merchandise wore transported by ferrymen. In tho<cily— The old homes wore all of timber, with blah-gabled toof«,«nd atortee Jutting out one above the other. Aa few could read, not only every tavern, but every lahop, poeueeed Ite signboard, and Uio etreeta pre nentea a euocoeeloa of Crwe-Keys, Three Pigeons, 'Qoldea lambs, tibips, and black tiwaot. The prluel- Sal street! alone were paved, end tboao merely with tile, round, Jotting stones. The dirt was frightful. Into the tunnel, or open, gutlor-Uke sewer, refuse was thrown out of houses and shops, and them rotted and reeked until it was carried away by the rain to Fleet bitch and tho Thames. lUlu, In fact, did yeoman's Service, though the pipes on tho houao-roofs brut con ducted their contents to the beads of passers-by. Kites and ravens were kept to act as scavengers, and (he Douflres lighted on every occasion of rejoicing served a good purpose la occasionally consuming the wnblnsh. The streets, before the great flro, were rather to be called alleys: in some, friends could «hake bends across from the projecting upper stories . . Before the breaking out of the Civil War, •fit. Paul’s Cathedral bad been uaed aa a daily lounging and meeting place by people of every rank and profession. Its uses vers perhaps less worldly When It became tbe stable of the sectarian boras dur ing tne war. Tbe streets were always a Babel of sounds, blasters or their appreutlcua atoo.l at the ebotMoors, touting for customers wlibcrire of** What d’ye lack, sir T—nlMt d'yoplca** to lack?'' Fish wives, orange-women, bruom-men, chlmauy-swcopers. with the original cosUrd-applwaougcrs, passed up and down, crying their wares or services. Over this mot ley crowd bung the warning gallows, occupying a SiUWi o» uifc tfitoHtQ. Fetosi aatyetten tat kcs| thare trtry itnoif morning. It la not for any evneeial baaatlaa of narra tive, or for aojr**Qperlor ekitl ia rehearsing the mala evouta In the familiar itory, bat for its plsoteona descriptive pasaagos, Ilka tbe above, thattbia version of the “King and Oom tnonwadlUi "will be chiefly esteemed. SCIENCE AND RELIGION. SrjtVttAnims or Putsioal and BiLiototre Known- Vdo*. By James Thompson DtxsT. ISmo., pp, 336, Maw York t D. Appleton k Co. There la presented, la the work named abeve, a fresh argoment upon tbe great topio of the hour, tbe boatUe attitude of Religion and Science with regard to one other. Upon the abandon ment of thalr antagonism, and their harmo nious co-operation, Mr. Blxby believes tbe vsry existence of the first of tbe two opponents de pends. •* For 400 years, M be declares, "Boleoce has driven tbe Obnroh from post to post. The sphericity or tbe flatness of tbe globe, tbe six days* creation, tbe 6,000 yoara* age of the world and of mao, tbe universal deluge,—these all have been battle-fields whore the-scientist and eccle siastic have met in conflict ( and In every en gagement it has been tbe ecclesiastic that nas been wonted, and the scientist that his been victorious. Ths result is, that Bolenoe to-day holds such a position i that tbe belief of the next century may be said ta lie in Its hands. Tbe facts that ltd distinguished savsos establish to-day, In six months will be read In avery newspaper and magazine in tbe civilized world ; fa ten years will ba incorporated In our school-books, and planted in the forming minds ot» our children; In thirty years will bo tbe creod/of every educat ed man 5 and, before a century has passed, will be the universal belief of all olassoq.” But these facts, which, brought/forward in a spirit of opposition to tbe faith of Christendom, and disputed by It In a like traodof defiance, work infinite barm to Bronco as well as to Religion, should have tju entirely contrary effect, strengthening alike ttvo aspirations of the soul and tbe perceptions td tbo Intellect. There is no esrAotial Incompatibility, no necessary conflict, between those two deadly antagonists, aoeonJlag to Mr. Blxbv ; but be carefully distinguishes, lo hie propositions, the <Aifforenca between. Religion and Theology. By fho former term hrj means, in a general sense, to signify Ike ej,-presaion of man's spiritual nature atoakenir t g lo spiritual things. Of tbe beliefs reached in tbe unfolding of man’s spiritual nature, only throe does ho regard a t, iodisponsaole to religion t 1. Belief in a soul In man; 2. Belief In a sovereign Ovor-soul without 5 and 8. Be lief In actual or possible relations between them. And tbe practical preser vation of only those does bo contend for In tbe 'oontrovorsv between Fact and Faith. This will nr,t be considered a» much of a saving by tbo vJberentsof Theology; yet, to tbe mans who stand outside of the clmrcljes, and still har'oor religions yearnings In their souls, it is a great gain. I Tbe main cause of tbe antagonism of tbe scientific and religions worlds Mr. Blxby ascribes to ignorance of themselves and each other. The religious have studied Scriptures, end creeds, and forms of worship, and moral duties; but they have foiled to comprehend tbo fundamental doctrines of Religion. And they have boon still more deficient in an understanding of tbo prin ciples of Bcionce. “ Although theologians are continually declaring that the most dangerous enemy of Religion to-day Is Science,’they seem to havo gained no realizing eenso of the fact, and what it demands of them. They still Imagine that tbe battle of the Evidences is to bo fought on the field of ecclesiastical history, Scriptural exegesis, and metaphysical postulates. They still practice with dictionary and concordance, as if the ago of crucible and spectroscope bad not oomo in. The great need of ouritbeologlans to-day, is to recognize the mighty turn which modern thought boa taken, the now base of operations which it demands, and ths now weapons it re and impartial study of Science, and acquire a knowledge of Its relations with Religion. On the other hand, men of Science have seldom mastered the capabilities and methods of sci entific investigation, and less seldom havo they understood tbo essential tenets of tbo Christian faith; and thus ignorance has boon arrayed against ignorance, to tbo utter confusion of be liefs that never should have beon disturbed. Roth Religion and Science have instituted claims to tbo*possession of exclusive knowledge and rightful supremacy, which neither can law fully hold. lloligion.foohngtbostroßHoftbetratbs which Science is bringing up in opposition, is wisely dropping many of bur dogmas; and Mr. Blxby urges that she must continue to make con cessions, until sbo freoly acknowledges that not one of bor oracles is infallible, but that all are subject to thn limitations of humanity and tho conditions of earthly knowledge. So Science must leave off tho habit it has acquired of boast ing that oolv its truths ore capable of demon .filiation, and therefore tbo truest. In tbo lour chapters preceding the conclusion of bis argument, Mr. Dtxby endeavors to show, by abundant illustration, that Science pursues tno aaroo methods as lleligiou in the demonstra tion of its theories, “it uses intuition, au thority, evidence, and probable inference, and is often destitute of possible verification. Science, no moro than Religion, can withhold, nor does withhold, its belief from tho euper- Roasual, tho immaterial, or tho inconceivable. Inexactness, uncertainty, and variation in tho results of its labors, ato faults found m Science ss well as in Religion. On tho other hand, Re ligion, as well as Science, has an experimental basis. It grounds itself on observation; it pro ceeds by induction ; and it confirms its truths by verifications and provisions. In (his simi larity of Science and Religion, is there not some thing that should have practical iulluouce with that daily-increasing number who. while accept ing implicitly all tho established truths, and oven the wildest speculations, of Science, look upon Religion with suspicion, if not contempt ?” THE SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION. Tux Rklkuoub Sentiment « In Socuce and Aim. A CoNTtIIDUXIOM TO TUB SCIENCE AND I’niLOBOPIIT or Iti:Ltuioß. By Daniel a. Diiinton. A. M., M. D., Member of the American I'hlloeopbical Society, the American Philological Society, Author of " The Myths of the Now, World,” etc. 8 vo., po. 253. New York: Henry Holt li Co. Chicago: Jacion, Mo- Glurg & Co. Brice, J2.6J. Tills work is an elaborate attempt to reason God out of the world, although tho object is no where expressed lu so many words. The author starts with tho assmnptton that all religions are products of thought, commenced and continued In accordance with the laws of tho human mtud, and, therefore, comprehensible to the extent to which these laws are known. Having, in this summary manner, disposed of tbo super natural element in religion, Dr. Brin* ton proceeds to explain tbo laws of thought, and llnd a resting-place from which man can start,—a criterion by which ho can decide when be is right. This standpoint is found in universal truths, which, when discovered, are al ways linowo, but how to llud (hem we aro not in- - fanned. It is the old Flaionio doctrine of ideas revived in a somewhat refined form. Tho second chapter tho author devotee to Bbowiug that tho religious sentiment baa its origin in a wish ; that religion cannot exist without ignorance: that it follows tlnancial crises, and is chiefly found among the female sex, the inhabitants of fovor-rlddou dis tricts, and tho weak and sick. But it may rightfully bo asked whether man Is ever . anything but Ignorant. Is not one of the results and one of tho objects of learning to teach him his own ignorance? Is he ever euy thing but weak ana helpless compared to the novor-cudlup, never-changing forces of Naiute ? Tho religions of Buddha, of Mo hammed, and of Christ are in this work placed on a par, and all equally condoinmod as having had no special good effect, eithor on tho morals or the religious souslhihtios of races. Tbo conception of number, according to tho author, must bo abolished in connection with tho idea of a Huprome Being, and supreme intelligence must bo thought of ouly under tire rules of pure thought. . , . Tho following is tho sad conclusion at which tho author arrives; Little by little we learn that the really true U norer true lu tact; that the really good la never good lu a ct. Oarrfully cherishing thla diaiiucllun taught by uiali io malic* and ethics, |lio religious intuit Icarus to ree eg ulze In that only reality darky sum through the guiss of material things, that which should Ux aud till its mcdhatlous. I'aaslug beyond the domain of physical law. It occupies itself Kith that which define) tho conditions of law. Itcoutom plates ao eternal activity, before which 11* own self couaclouaucss seems a flickering shadow; yet iu that contemplation la not loat, but galna au ever-grov.’lug Eeraonalily, Thla Is the goal of religious aiming, the iddso aim of the ware aud persecution*, the polem ics and martyrdom*, which have so hualed aud hVnxl led the world. Thla satisfies the rational postulate aof religion. This all that a Godless religion can giro. Aside from (he fact that these sentences aro glittering generalities, (hev contain nothing which cuu attract the heart of mau. Love it tar more powerful than cold reason. The Golden Ualo, if obeyed, will do more to bettor tbe race khan suy study‘of the "conditions of law." This \joxk aaemaes to be a wntnbuUga to the THE CHICAr/o TRIBUNE; SATURDAY. MAY «, IW-'rWELVE PAGES. ul.om .nil philosophy o'/ Itellnloo, .ad tbe in. tbor iho.i hlm«.l( lo tig . m.n ol eileu.lro loarolog. Bat lie pr eposes osw theories, ami ho mu« (tITO tbo pr> Tbl. Il ono fund.- manta! oafact In tfa work. Conclusions am drawn from to which they do not raUte, and universal deductions made from apodal propositions. Aisertloos an pat In pKjoa of proofs, and tba reader la aakad lo trust vrtiat tbo author says* Tba be* Having world., however small It mar bo In pro- Sortion to (as whole race, demands that. If the eltv ta to be reasoned tmt of existence, suffi cient tnnst be shown. And It Is for the skeptic to do tbla. He has tbe affirmative, be muat prove bla case. It baa not been done ta tbiLessay. BPIOERB. Ta* Bpjseei or ths United flrmn; A Collec tion or the Aeacbnolooical warrnroc or Kronen* Maeoello* Htwri, M, D, Edited by Edward Bueoem, with Motes and Descriptions by Jambs U. Ekeetov. Paper. 8vo„ pp, 171. Boa | too t Boston Society of Natural Ulatory. Price, |3. * Ths work which Dr. Hentz performed lo clas sifying the spiders of tbe United States nas similar to that which Audubon executed In de termining the spoolos of our native birds. Dr. H. was one of tbe pioneers In American ento mology, and waa-tbe very first to give extended and systematic study to tbe group of Araobmdes. He came to this country In 1616, and for thirty yean devoted all bis leisure to the study of these Insects. His papers containing descrip tions of tbe various species observed were, with tbe exception of a few of tbe first, published In the Journal of tba Boston Society of Natural History. The entire series, delineating upwards of 360 species, are now collected from the scattered volumes where they origi nally appeared, and presented In book-form. A preface, containing a biographical sketch of Hr. Hentz, is furnished by Mr. Edward Burgess, and a number of valuable notes are added by Mr. J. H. Emerton. These, with twenty-one plates, Illustrating aU the sped os described, constitute altogether a monograph of exceeding Interest and service to the student of Arachnol ogy. It may be said to bo unique, as no work approaching it in completeness and importance bos been published noon tbe spiders of North America. The work Is In great part technical, and adapt ed particularly to tbe uses of tbs specialist 5 yet, among the observations recorded of the habits of tbo spiders, there is much that would engage the attention of tbe general reader. For in stance, in treating of tbo genns Lycota , which contains tho largo burrowing spiders. Dr. Hentz relates that "It is in this genus also that one may witness astonishing instances of maternal tenderness and courage; and that, too, lo the most cruel rocs of animals,—a race in which ferocity renders oven tbe approach of the sexes a perilous not. and con demns every individual to perpetual solitude and apprehensions of its kind. When the mother ie found with tho cocoon containing Its progeny, if this bo forcibly torn from her, she turns round and grasps tt with her roaodibuUo. All her limbs, ono by one, may then bo torn from her body without forcing her to abandon her hold. But if, without mangling tho mother, tho cocoon be skillfully removed from hor, and suddenly thrown out of sight, she instantaneously loses all hor activity, seems paralyzed, and coils her tremulous limbs os if mortally wounded; if tbe bag bo returned, her ferocity and strength aro restored tbe moment she has any perception of its presence, and she rushes to her treasure, to defend it to tbo last.” Maternal affection is a prominent character istic of the entire family 01 spiders,—the female f)rotooting and defending the young with astoa siting vigilance and fidelity. A touching illus tration of this ia given In tbe observations upon tbo Dolomedcs albineus, a mouse-colored spider, frequently measuring nearly linches from tbe ex tremity of the first pair of lege to that of tho fourth pair. Tho species 1s a native of Ala bama, and generally Inhabits tbe trunks of trees. A fomnla, whoso captor had transfixed tho copbalolhorax with a pin, was brought to Dr. Heotz, who, finding she was fail of eggs, desired to see if she would survive tho wound. "I placed bor In a, glass Jar,” ho says, “and, according to my expectations, Nature made an effort, tnst she might live for tbo protection of bor progeny. Tho wound, which, in otbor oases, would havo proved immediately mortal, healed readily: and, after remaining inactive about three days, she made a cocoon of a lipbt-browu color, and orbicular, in which bor eggs were placed. She held it constantly grasped in her choUcores, and qoemod intent on watching it to tbo last; bat, tho effort being made, bor ntrengtb foiled, the wound opened again, and, the llulds running out, she very gradually lost all bor muscular power; but, faithful to her du ties, tbo lost thing which she hold was the ball containing bar futuro family. Can maternal tenderness ba more strikingly exhibited ?" LORD HOUGHTON'S POEMS. The Pokticax \Vonxa or (Rxcnuno Moncxton Milmzs) Loru» Hodouton. Collected Edition, lu Two Volume*. With a Portrait. lflmo n pp. 310— H2J. lioaton: Roberts Brothers, Chicago: Jan sen, McCluig & Go, Price, $3. Id 1834, ait tbo conclusion of ft tour in tbs East which supplemented tho studies of bis col* loglate couojo. Lord Ilouebtoo, then Air. Milnoe, published two volumes containing poetical records of his foreign travel. They bore tbo titles "Poems, Legendary and Historical,’* and ‘•Memorials of Many Scones." In 1840 tboy wore followed by a third volume, entitled ••rooms of Many Years;" and, in 1844, by a fourth, etylod "Palm-Leaves.” Tbeao, with additions, and some omissions suggested by tbo matured Unto of tbo writer, are now united in a complete odition, which ta pat forth in two neat volumes, accompanbjd with a portrait. The poetry of Loud Houghton is marked fay the grace and elogatico of a roflnod and culti vated mind, which.has tbo faculty of expressing itself in facile ami polished versos. It novor rises to tbo height of passion, nor moves ono with tbo strong sweep of Impetuous emotion ; bat occasional pieces, especially among tho poems of sentiment which worn produced in tho early life of tha writer, indicate depth and deli cacy of feeling. Closing the poem " Farted and Mot," which in pervaded with some considerable ardor, there is a stanza which anticipates tbo tone linos by Tennyson : Tis ixi.lcr to have loved and lost Thw j uover to have loved at all. Lord Houghton's version roads j Ho, v/ho for Love baa undergone Tbe worst than can befall, Z* 1> ippler thousand-fold than one W ho never loved at all; A grace within hia aoul has reigned, Tv'hlch nothing else can bring : TJiank God for all that I have gained ‘By that high suffering I and was published prior to the appearasoe of the couplet from " In Momoriam.” Tbe pleasing lyric, "The Brook-Side," which has beora snog in nearly every household in Amer ica, was written during a moonlight drive to visit Miles Edgeworth,when the author was a stu dent at Cambridge and a youth of 31. It was not regarded by him or his friends as worthy of publication, yot it has proved tbe most widely popular of all hia productions. Tbo oponiug stanza will recall to memory tbo entire poem: Z wandered by the broolulde, I wandered by tho mill; I could not hear the brook flow, The uolay wheel w«a atlU ; There wae uo burr of grasshopper, No chirp of any bird ; But tho beating of my own heart Was oil the eound 1 heard. “The Mod of Old/' “The Long Ago,** and “The Worth of Hours,” may ho noted as pos- Besaiog a quiet, meditative beauty that com* mends them to moods when ethical lossoub con voyed In melodious language are peculiarly ac ceptable. CHARLES DUDLEY WARNER IN EGYPT. MimuiE* and Moslem*. By Orablv* Duplet Was. NED. Fp, 4J7. Hartford, Conn.: American Publish ing Company. 1876. This is a book written for tho people. It will please them It in a record of a winter in Egypt, the land of Meronon and mystery, of tbe Pyramids and tbo lotus, of languid pleasure, of aand tbat bna drifted over history, and bo em balmed for this restless ago the story of the ages of rest. And, for a saunter through Egypt, what better guide could there be than the author of Bauntorings/’—that book of wan derings, without a rival and altogether lovely ? Mr. Warner, who has sketched for us before tbe “children of the sun” os bo found them at Sorrento, now paints with the samo dainty vigor their older brethren, the children of the sun along the Nile, We pass with him through the whirl of tbe Cairo bazaars { wo swing lazily up tbe Nile; wo stroll through temples: we oateb tbo atony, sweet amlle of tbo Bphlux; we shoot the foaming cataracts; we have stray glimpses of Egvpilan life iu the harem and the llotdj we mtei view the Kbodivo ; wu aru giadually and pleasantly saturated—not satiated—with facts worth knowing 5 ami we note tuo new Egypt which—as in every epoch boforo—is crowing in to life above ruins of tbe old. Ail through () tho book thus are touches of that quaint, do- llftbtfnl humor which bubbles from Mr. Warner's mind, and does not have to bo pumped us by hard work from the depths of a fagged-out In tellect. Quoting is like tearing gems from their setting, but we venture oh one or two ruthless divorces of text from context, lo tbe hope that be who reads may run to get the book, and so read more s X thought Z bad im black paopla In Bonita Caro lina, bat 1 iaw a boy Jn*t now, mooing in a doorway, who would bava been lavuibU but for hla whits ahlrt. Hat* we come to a land where all enr ataodards fall, end man are not aahamed of (heir religion f Zauppeaewebadfor once (ta (be interior of the greet Pyramid] abeoltrte night,—a room foil of the original Night,—night boitud up for four or five thousand yetra,—the very night in which old Oheope Jay to * frightful isolation. , , . Some aebolara think that Cheops never occupied thla aaroopbagua. X can ondmUnd hla feeling If he ever came in here alive. Z think be may hare gone eway and cat op "to let" on tbe door. A Cbloagoan feels a ping of Jealous pride when be reads that tbe ancient oitv of Fostab toox two months to bum down, although tbe conflagration raged ail tbe while. Chicago flu nked the lob lu two days. But then we are al ways In a burry,* and the Egyptians never wore. Besides, Postal baa waited 700 years to be re built, while we only spent two yean In that task. “ Mummies and Moslems" is sold only by subscription. Tbo publishers expect a sale of 100,000 copies. If that figure ie reached, a mill ion readers will thank Air. Warner for a keen, fresh pleasure. “My Bummer to a Garden ” finds a fitting counterpart in this record of * winter on tbe Nile. POETRY FOR CHILDREN. Poetet JOB Holt* and Scbool. B*3 ectad and Ar ranged by area O. Brackett and Ida if. Eliot, Square ISmo., pp. S3O. Mew York 1 O. P. Putnam’* Sons. Chicago j Janaao, MeCiurg k Co. Prlo*. 81.55, We do not know in whose bands wo should sooner repose tbe task ef compiling a volume from tbe vast collection of tbo poetry of the En glish language, than Inkhoae of Anna O. Brack ett—a woman who Is winning a national repute by her largo and philosophical mind,, enriched by many yean of atody and oC practical experience in educating other mloda. This book, which cornea with tbe guarantoe'of her signature, has been prepared for the usoaof children at home and in the ecbool-room. Tbe selections are such as appeal to the youthful intelligence, and aro calculated to inspire It with a sense of tbe high qualities that distinguish tbe master-pieces of metrical composition. With the many collec tions of a similar character already in existence, Alisa Brackett has felt tbo want of one exactly adapted to the requirements of the young stu dents of literature, and has therefore attomnted to supply tbo need. No exception can ho t&kou to suy.of the poems bound up m Hdw aolhologv, and, among tbe little loos than 200, a multitude of tha world’s favorites are embraced. HISTORICAL MAP. Adams* Uaf or Uistost. PubtWwd by BabterlpUcD. Chicago Agents: J. Atwater A Aon. This map presents a grand panoramic view of the world’s history, from tbe earliest ages down to tha present times. It gives, with appropriato illustration, a general oompend of the rise, progress, and decline of the nations of antiquity, following both tbe Biblical and profane histories; and, in like manner, brings the work down to tbe preeont time. The map is so arranged that It preuonts at a glaooe Uie leading event* In tho history of all nations ooo tomporaoeous with o*C:b otbor, la the order of time, tbue furnishing a comprehensive pictorial epitome of universal history in each century, bettor than could be done in many pages of printed matter. It is not designed to take tbe place of the standard histories, but rather to supply what has been tacking in those,—a com plete view of all history in each age. showing not tho progress of events in each country separately, and la datall, bub in all simul taneously, from tho earliest era of which thecr> is record. It will bo found of great value as a work of reference, and Is admirably adapted fur use m tbo schools. NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS. A Tseatoe on tub Law or Negotiable Zntihd mzkte. By Joan W, Daniel, a Vola M Bro.. dp. 1,503. New York: Baker, Voorbia k Co, 1870. This is tbe moat elaborate treatise that has yet appeared in this country upon tbo law of nogotlablo instruments, and bears internal evi dence that It is tbe result of elaborate research ovor the entire field of adjudicated oases, of which about 6,000 are cltedlntbonotes. Discarding the precedent set by Justice Story, of preserving & sbsrp line of demarkation between the law of promissory notes sod that of bills of exchange, tbe author, adopting a broader analysts, treats of all negotiablo instruments—bills, note o , cer tificates of deposit, coupons bonds, letters of credit, etc.,—together, thus grouping tbe entire body of tbe law npou tbe whole suojoot. The work is one that will commend itself to the practicing lawyer. DIGEST OF ILLINOIS REPORTS. A Digest of the Illinois Reposts, from the SSm to toe 68tb Volume, Inclusive. I3y Ohablxs U. Wood and Joseph D. Long. Sto., pp. *3O. Chi cago: K. B. Myera. 1876. This, the third volume of the Illinois Digest, fetches that work down to tbo latest published Report of the Supreme Court It is a carefully prepared index to, and analysie of, the decisions reported in tho last fifteen volumes of tho Illi nois Reports, and will bs found Invaluable* to tbo practicing lawyer. The arrangement is clear and logical, and tbe gist of tbe decision in each case is stated with admirable precision and brevity. Tho table of cases is complete and accurate; and the table of canoe overruled and cnticibod, while compressed into tho smallest practicable compass, is a valuable addition to tho work. “FLOATING COFFINS." Tne Odew or toe Dolphin. By Hess* Stbettom. lBrm„ pp. 333. New York : Dodd, Muddi Co. After reading " Heater Motley's Secret," one is sure to examine with interest every new book by Uesba Stretton. The one before us is of modest pretensions, yet it shows the power of tbo writer. Wltnont any apparent intent, it por trays in a vivid manner tbe awfol wrong from which English manners suffer in being sent to sea in unsafe vessels, which lu many cases prove, anil are meant by their owneis to prove, " float ing coffins " for tho crows which man them. Tlie story, ulight as it is, will serve as a useful ally to Mr. Pltmsoll, who has so bravely aud successful ly stood up in tbe British Parliament in defense of the seamen that have for years been murder ously sacrificed to tho avarice of ship-owners. WILLIAM BWINTOH AGAIN. T» (A* Bdtior ef Tne Chieaae TVtAuna t New Yonx, Uay a.—l desire to express my thanks to yoorAnn-Arborcorrespondent, ••In vestigator," for bis timely exposure of William Bwlnton's plagiarism. It is to be regretted that Prof. O. R. Adame, of the University of Michi gan, lent his indorsement to such a fraud. Nothing can be more reprehensible than that. Let Prof. Adame explain If he can. By tbe way, 1 wish "Investigator" would ex amine Bwlnton’s "Rambles Among Words." It is tn excellent field for exploration. 80 is that book, of nhich bo is the reputed author. "The History of the Seventh Regiment" (N. Y. S. M.). Its author is Pood, not Hwinton. Mr. Pond al so wrote six oat of tho "Twelve De cisive Battles," of which William Hwinton is the accepted author. I doubt whether William Hwinton ever produced anything alouo. His ••History of the Army of tbo Potomac" was made up from private accounts given to him by thn army officers. His "Progressive Grammar," as ho calls it. discards tho Article as m separate pait of speech, which was first done by Noah Webster in his " Philosophical Gram mar." William Swiotou. however, always soeora at Webster, whom he calls "aYankee lexicogra pher" (see "Rambles Among Words." Scribner's edition, 1859). Hwiuton’a "Word-Analysis" is made np from Chambers’. All of. William Hwin ton's productions are of "extraordinary proton sinus aud mediocre performance."— Keto York Tribune. It ls|a disgrace to tbe nation that such a roan is allowed to make hooka for children, tibow him up. Guanoes Kuan. OOOKS RECEIVED. Tbs Gospel and Epistles op John: Wits Notvs. CRITICAL. EXPLANATORY, AND PRACTICAL, DKSIf.N. PJ> POR BOTH PASTORS AND PEOPLE. By ths F,ev. HcNar Gowlks, 1). D. 13m0., pp 371. New York: D. Applotou A Go. Appleton*' Illustrated Hand-Book op Ahkb* 10AN Draw; OOMPBUINO TUX PRINCIPAL CITIES IN TUX UHITKD SIAIXS AND CANADA. WW.U OCT u»u op Tuaoauu Uoims, and Hailway-MAps. Pspor. New York: D. AppleUm k Co, Second Bbbiks op “Tattkbkd-Tom Books." Sam’s CiIANOS. AND How Ux lUPXOVBU It. lijt Houatio Aluxb, Jr.. Author of *' lUggcil-Dlck Bene*,’' etc. l«mo„ pp. 371. Boston: Loriug. Chic/.go; Jsusea. AlcClufg t Go. Price, |1.39. - Uimtobt or tui Unitbu States or Aiuuoa, pbom . tux inscoTxar op tux Continent. By Okorqk UANCiuirr. lo Six Volumes. Vol, UI. Thoroughly* HcvlfAil Edition. l-’ino., pn. Ibd. Poston: 1 JUle, Browu k Go. Chicago: Jsnseu, McOlurg k Go. Priro. $3.3) per volume. Tuui tt. By Samuel Smiles, Author of “ Ohsrscter,” “ EslMlclp," etc. pp, 307. Totoalo: Bel* ford Brothers. LueAET, Ho. 14 Tm UIIJWW ISLAND; TT.—Tin AJuwnojriiv Ay Jolts Venn. Cklo»|*i DeaoeDty, Loyd k 00. Pries, 10 csou. pcmooiOALß received. IhUmationat Retuxo for Mny-Juna (A. 8. Otrnes k Co., Naw York). Contents: "Reform la Richer Eduesllon.’' by «n Am«/.e«a Graduate; "Ijmii Swift,** by Georgs Barnett Smllb, Loudon; M Boms Cheeks and BaUnres in Government," by iTttdg* T. M. Cooley, Snjrrame Conn of Michigan; " The Cur* toney Question to Austria," by Herr Max Wlrlh. Vi. eima; " United States Land-Grant*." by H. T. Col burn, Kew Jersey; "Itoernatlonal Prtooo-naforrn." by D. E. 0, WlßM,,ffaw York; *• Localities of Burns i A Bonnet," by Charles Tennyson. England; "The Chaldean Cental*"Three Old and Three Kew Poets; " "Contemporary Literatnr*, Art, and Sot* eoee." Finn ifoiuh’u for May (/Vm UontMu Association, Philadelphia). Content*: "The Month;" "Inter national KihlUUons,” by Prof. T, 0. Archer; "Creative Forces.'* by W. W. Kinsley; "Tbs Next American Revolution," by J. B. W,; "Critical Ob. ifFTtUone on Theories of Uto Earth's Physical Evo lution." by Capt. 0. E. Ddltoo; "Laveleye and the Kathedersociauaitn," by Ilobert F-iita Thompson; " Nsw Books," Toi't of Masonry tot Uayi (John W. Brown, Chicago and New York). JltoubM for May (-flemieite Publishing Company, Washington, D. o.}. PhrenolOfirat Jowml foe Kay <B. XL Wills It Co„ New York). ' Am«n*an Anfuroftst for Kay (H. 0. Ecash ton k Co., Boston). 7 American Lot* R/gUUr for April (D. h. Canfield kOo„ Philadelphia), Oiobt for April (Buffalo). American lieohitiier tor Kay 1 (American News Coin pony, New York). ZAtteWt Apr—current numbers (UUell k Oar. Boston). Appleton** ,/su mol—current numbers (D. Appleton k Cs., V.w York). FAMILIAR TALK. EDUCATION IN FRANCE. The distinguished art-writer, Eamsrton, who has long been e resident of Franco, and who is not only an intelligent but a singularly candid Judge of tbs customs and Institutions of tbs eounlty of bis adoption, devotes some space, to bis recent work entitled " Round My Bouse,** to a defense of the system of education provided by the FrenchUnlveralty. The term University in France has quite toother signification from that which belongs to it elsewhere. During die Revolution which awept away the Throne and the Church, the existing universities wore broken up and wont down to destruction along with the rest. Tho colleges were preserved, to gether with some portion of their endowment* ; but for a time tbo condition of education in t he State was lamentably low. In 1808, Napole on founded the Imperial, afterwards called tbe Royal, University, which embraced under tl lat comprehensive title tbo entire school-system of France. All educational institutions, prims 17. secondary, and inferior, were combined in t hla one organization, whose governmental oont rol was centered in I’&ria. The scheme wb ich Napoleon established has, in its fundamental plan, prevailed ever since, although tbo machin ery by which it was managed has undergone I in variant alterations, and its provisions have boon variously improved and expanded. lu tbs ordinary sense of tho word, there is no I University in Franco. There are InstitutUm* ] corresponding to tbo Universities of Oxford laid I Cambridge, and of Borllo, Heidelberg, and t*o od. But, instead, there la a vast system. cd ecboole spread over the entire Hute, which be gins with tbo primary aoboole where children at e taught to read, and culminates In the acadeu y where degrees In leuera, eclonco. law, medkuuj, and theology, are accorded. This system of bclioolh, which is arbitrarily made syuouymof .a with too term University, is controlled by a “ Council of Public Instruction," who act nod >r tbo rule of tbo " Minuter of Public Instruction Subordinate to the Council ts a body of ?.□- spsctors-Genersl, whoso business it in to ex amine annually every educational ioatf.tu tion m toe State, and report ui,»o Its condition to the Conned. By (bin method of government, the schools are sub ject to constant supervision, and are kept ap to the average standard of their evade. This course of study, sod their discipline and methods of instruction, being tbo same, boys can remove from one school to another, when need requires it, without suffering any break in tbolr education. The academies In 1870 numbered twenty seven, Tbe governing body of e&oh superin tends all tbo schools of inferior rank within Us district. Bach academy is intended to bare a full faculty, yet some of tbem are not furnished with a complete corps of teachers. The colleges are chiefly supported bv Government, yet some of tbo communal colleges depend largely upon tbs foes of students for tbeir maintenance. Each of tbo departments Into which the BUte ts divided Is compelled to sustain a normal school , for the training of teachers. Midway between the primary schools and the colleges stand the public schools, which afford opportunities for tbo bourgeoisie, who do not chose go through a classical course, to procure a respectable educa tion. The salaries of professors and teacher a m all the institutions are very small, b*. ing llxcd In the beginning at rates ing from S2OO to SBUO. Most of the hi/her schools of learning and science are located lu Paris, and the metropolitan faculties of Iv.w and medicine have a world-wide celebrity. Mr. Hamerton states that chore are 7Ca,O 00 un dergraduates in the French University, and con tends that an institution which is thus inform ing a multitude is a greater bonufit than one which polishes the miuds of a limited number. " Most of the useful work in tta world," he goes on to say, “ is done in places and by people who do not come up to tbo artistic or intellectual ideal. Nobody protends that the French Uni versity is an ornamental institution; it was es tablished for simple utility; and it is main tained, though not illiberally, at the lowest coat which is compatible with the work it has to do. There are no magnificent incomes, no princely residences for its raatfnatos. and the poorer workers in it labor tor little wages. Their incomes wore fixed at a tune when living was cheaper than it is now, and it would he simple Justice to increase thorn. With regard to the buildings, sumo of the older ones, though largo, are defective m their arrangements j the now ones ore much hotter, and some of the very newest are admirable models of clover construc tion for their especial pnrpooo. The French University makes no pretension to wealth,—its pride is to do the maximum of work at (bo min imum of coat; still, if tbe sums expended in all the colleges am) lyconma were added together thov would make a very formidable total, A new lyooum costs from £30,000 to £bo,ooo, which is a large sum to find for a small provincial town. There is plenty of space in thof.o buildings for tbo convenience of teaching. Every class hu its own room, generally lofty and well lighted, and its own study, in which work is prepared for tbo class-room. Every lyconm in France, and I believe also every college, has a room for iu atruotloo in tbo elomeoui of physical science, with tho necessary apparatus, which in many cases has been liberally added to of Jato years." As for tbo quality of tbo education imparted by the University system, Mr. Uamerlon declares that “It is incomparably superior to Er.gUoh middle-class education, unless the latter has been wonderfully amended during the fast few years. Its systematic charac ter. and tho steadiness of the train ing which it gives, with tho obligatory Bache lor s degree at the end for all who enter the lib eral professions, insure tbe advantages of a known method and a settled propose, a French provincial lawyer or surger u< having worked steadily up through all tho classes to his Bach elor's uegtee. and taken 'it, ft hotter trained man than the English provincial attorney or surgeon who has been f 3 a grammar-school, and passed thcoco to the ',fli C o or surgery with what ever the local grammar-school might give him." Tho University ’.rains its pupils carefully m the accurate uhf, of the French language, en deavoring aUo to mako them acquainted with tbo merits of dtio best French authors. It liao wiso toacho’j Latin and geometry in a most thorough manner 5 but, with those three branches of knowledge, its complete efficiency conclude 0 , *• Greek is imperfectly loomed, and modem, languages more imperfectly still, lu history, geography, and the physical sciences, all that can he tlouo is to givu abridgments, which aro accurate as far as they go." Thu defoct with tb 0 University system, as with most other Schemes of education, is, that it attempts too many subjects. Mature men would tlnd it ini- Cosaiblo to master them all; and boys can at ost merely gain a smattering of them. Children of all religious denominations are admitted to tho schools, and tho teachers aro exclusively lavmon. This latter fact renders tho Chinch of Home inimical to tho University. Although tho Catholics have a paramount iufiu ence in its religious teaching, itioro .being a chapel aud chaplain connected with every lyoo um and college, still they aro not satisllod. Nor will they bo so long as heretics aro not excluded, and the teachers are not members of tho clorgy. Tho University Is purely democratic m its principles, its doors being open to the son of the peasant as well as to tho heir of tho Fnuco. •' One of my young friends in a college at Faria," writes Mr. Hsmtllon, •• told me that in bis class them were boys of every rank, including even royalty., for two of his elana-follows bolongod to a princulv ret/mug family, others belonged to noble families, aud uthors to quite poor aud ob scure ones. . . . Tne form of democracy which the University produces is that of Jules. tiiiaoa.and Titivn. It - gives poor boys s /sir chance 1q Ilfs. aod pats (beat quite nt inelr ease. nevsr wa king them a*bamed of tholr povertv as If 11 were t crime; snd at the same time it tikes lUe con ceit out of rich ones, without ooodleeely wor lad ing their self-reaped. A French lyeenm is ft public echool to wbiob ft workingmen's son may go without the slightest apprehension that bis parents mil bo laughed ftt when they oomo to eee him, because they are not• swellssod. ret a rich *quiro’ii sou may go there and get all tbo benef.ti of emulation without sny sacrifice of caetn," Notwithstanding the advantages of tbo Uni versity system, end Its continuous efforts to die* seminste knowledge among tbs masses, educated Frenchmen are often amazingly ignorant of many subject* tbat are deemed of the first con sequence among other peoples. The oast and the ourrcut progress of events in the countries round about them are quite apt to be entirety unknown. This is largely tbs fault of tbo ex clusive study of the claselrtl In tbo University. Modern languages, ocleuce, aod art are greatly neglected, aod. so a consequence, •• A French gentleman knows about as much of those sub jects as an Etonian of the laat generation. . . . 1 know one who reads Latin nearly everv day, and never opens a newspaper. Kronen Ambas sadors know Latin. but do not know the lan guages of tbs ooijntrles to which they are ac credited.” Supplementing, ths University system, there la a eeries of aoboola of special metrnciioo which do not come within Its jurisdiction. Of these may be chad tbo I’olyteohmo School, the Military School of Bt. Cyo, the School of Loads and Htldgee. tbo School of Mines, the Agricul tural and Naval Schools, sod the Conservato ries of Arte and Manufactures, aod of Music. Thoso are placed under the supervision of sopa ate departments of the Government, and aro ’ ,y. tended to compete the course of studies Ik iRUn in tbo collegia and academics. It Is as io , lcc » that Franco is Ijctter supplied with echo jj, t j o _ eigoed to prep »ro pupil* for tbo pursuit tQ f j,j e and wltli aoofatloe for the promotion 0 ( j( ler& l ture, ecictioe, and the arts, than any «ther coun try In Lurop a. _ SPARKS OP SCIE/CE. THE FLC.RA ROUND ABO'Jr CHICAGO—THE POPPV. FUMITORY, ASC FAMh One of the prettiest, u wall is the earliest, of the wild dowers tgju adorn our woodlands is tht Bloodroot (fla*juinarca Canadensis), It Is the only representative of its family—which Is small—that grows in onr vicinity, Jn the ravines at Gloncdc, and on the east bank of the Des plainoa at Riverside, it may bo found in the first mild dayH of spring, opening its petals at the warm touch of the ironsbiqe. It is a lovolr flower, with a oifclo of narrow, snowy petals In* closing a inavs of golden stamens. The two green sepals drop as soon as tho blossom ex pands, snd 'tho petals themselves have a trying habit of frlllng at an early stage, often cruelly disappointing the collector who rejoices in tho beauty of hie prize. Tho pure, at&ioicss blos som iTi for nicer to have than to hold, however, for the orange-rod Julco of the broken etem pears a free tide over tho fingers. It is from Ibis sanguinary discharge that the plant derives Us popular and sciontifio names. The Blood root has a round, lobed leaf, which, like the flower, springs directly from tho loot. There is a resemblance to the Poppy In vari ous features of the Bloodroot, which betrays in alliances. The Eschoscholtzias, and the differ ent epecies of Popplea cultivated in our gardens, are its own cousins. There are about 130 spe cie# in tbe whole family of the Dapaicracea, and tho greater part of those are natives of Europe. Eight species are enumerated by Gray In hie Flora, and alx out of tho eight have boon intro duced from foreign lands. . The moat important species in the order la the Opium Poppy, or White Poppy (i*. tomm/erum), whose original home le uow unknown. It is largely cultivated in Europe for tho sake of the ou yielded by its seeds, which is as sweet and wholesome as olive-oil. Indeed, it Is extensively used to adulterate ohvo-otS. and in France is employed quite as much as an article of .food. The uarootic properties belonging to tho miluy juices of tbe plant are not present in tho seeds, and houoo do not effect tho oil expressed from them. A variety of the White Poppy whicu has dull-red flowers is chiefly cultivated for oil, but not ta Uio exclusion of tho original species. Different varieties of tho D. somm/crum are cultivated for the opium they yield. The Bod Poppy ia generally grown in the mountainous parts-of India, aud the White Poppy in tho plftl’is of Bengal, where tbe great fields, when in blossom, resemble, according to Dr. Hooker, ‘'/roon lakes studded with while water-lilies." Tim Oiienial Poppy (/*. Orientate), whoso .urge, rod hlosooms blaze like splashes of flame in our flowor-beas, grows wild In Armooia and the Caucasus. In England, the common Bod Poppy (P. rhaas) infests the com-flelde and cultivated grounds, and is a troublesome weed. Everybody who knows anything of our gar dou-flowers is acquainted with tbe beautiful Diclylra Speetabxlis, whoso long, drooping ra cemes of pink, heart-shaped, hag-like flowers form so pleasing an accompaniment to the spring bouquets of Flour-do-Lts, Peony, and tiuow- Ball. Vet very few know tbit in the woods we have two species of wild flowers very closely re lated to this handsome exotic, and, though more diminutive aud unpretending, quite as exquisite. Already they may bo gathered in full bloom. At Calumet, and along the Dosplainos Bivor, the Dicentra CucuUana, or Dutchman's Brooches as it is commonly called, is ahuudaut; and, in similar localities at Luckport aud Joliet, tho D. Can adensis mav bo found. Tho foliage of tho two plants is about the same, being finely divided, and very graceful and leathery ; and tno flowers do not differ greatly. In tho llrsi-namod, tho spurs of the corolla diverge widely, and the crest is tinged with yellow; in the last-named, the flowers are simply heart-shaped, are of a pearly hue, and have a delicious fragrance.' Another kindred epecies, the Climbing Fumi tory (Adlumia cirrhusa) grows near Lincoln Park; but (his is probably nut native to tho soil, only a stranger that has been brought from oilier parts, aud has taken kindly to its new surroundings. It is a delicate, elegant climber, with lino-cut foliage, aid panicles of small white or purplo-tingod flowers. The Fumitory family (/'timan'aeea), is not large, embracing ouly 11U species. Nor does it display any remarkable characteristics. Eight species occur within tho States included in Gray's Flora. In the groves and woods round about, the Spring Beauty (Clautonia Virginua) is now at its beet. Its name happily describes tuo dower, for It is ouo of the fairest that drop from the hand of Spring as she scatters her bounties over the earth. It may readily ho recognized, with its two long, succulent, narrow leaves, between which the smooth, shining stem of pink-veined dowers unnaes. It is a peculiarly daiuty plant, well loved by overy botanist with a heart open to the toduenoes of raro and perfect grace. The V. Carolmiana , a species with broader leaves, is sometimes observed m our vicinity. Among the eauds at Miller’s Station, along from June to August, tbs Taltnum hTdi/bfinm grows quite abuudautly. It is a tiny plant, with fleshy, uecdlu-hke loaves, and a cyme of pink blossoms, held up only from 3 to U inches above the ground. In waste places in midsummer, the J’ortulacca oleracca will bo seen quite commonly. Its popular tamo, Purslane, has been perverted into Parsley, and thus the weed Is known to many persons. It is almost the only plant in tbo order that serves any use, and that Is the bumble one of a pot herb. In Siberia, the tuberous roots of thu claylonia tuberoaa aro employed as an article of food.' The showy dowers of thu J'ortuloctd grandtjlora are among the gayest ornaments of our borders, yet their beauties are too dueling to give pure satisfaction. The genus CaU-iulu-iui furmeties us with some highly-esteemed an nuals. The species of the Purslane family, or J’nrtu lacaccie, of which there are about 184, are moat* ly found tu hot and dry places, where they aro able to endure the drought hy reason of thoir lluahy leaves, that aro reservoirs of moisture from which (he plants cau draw suslotmnoe for a long time. Only live species aro named lu dray’s Flora, four of which, described above, aro inhabitants of our vicimty. OISEASE PnOOP POTATOES. Wo gave an account at tho limo of the experi ments which woro Instituted last year by the Royal Agricultural Society for tho purpose of acquiring information with regard to the potato disease. At twenty different stations iu Bug land, Scotland, and Ireland, varieties of tho tuber were planted under diverse conditions, and tho results carefully noted. Tho report of the experiment has now been published, and the London Agricultural (Jaiette presents the following comments: The primary idta, ludeed, namely, that of discover leg a ‘•ilUcJum-rrool" potato, waa not realised: al though the eapvriuieuls shewed cluarly I hut loma varieties are freer from the attaciM of the disease thim others. The l'each-I3lo«»oin, fur example, a ItUi potato raised by ilarou Mtudteteu, of Bonds!*, York shire, from tuners received lu l&fiJ from New York, was peculiarly free from disease. Among the twenty •liUusjiil.whithtbla prjUto wu \osi» «a)y «ul *»*t to any great eat# ... caia did the percentage of dlMtuid |m) l>a **d In no •n«i Hu UigW than ia or 13 per cent *° baelth/ Improved n«t-Bktu IToar-DalU r * 01 ?* ot the cue* free, or almost free, fror ' #? 3. ,a o»oy were affected to a greater dlaaaia, and of "’t™, ta ID. the tubers were dtetaeed. The P*r .cent of tranfavorahlfwUhaotaaofiherw JZ, Wetnwse con* mental eerie*, while olhera state* 1, *° the expsri. hood. Whether, Indeed, * <ilw el tbemlnbardp. which we mean a potato proof o aF '■Proof potato,,by caMUm and under all cfrcnmi tin r 41 dlieaee it dll I*, doubtful; and It la perhaps er m, f*>, fs -very any *uch potato wllfembe p "T douhtttf whether a potato rsalata the disease in jr urtMsd that antee that it will maintain Its I **' haT * ♦e Soy guar ■eaeoa, or two aeasona hence * (be. (oltowiag Ucai point, well worthy of co • Another prao the twenty eapertmental at is, that, from Collected in favor of large /v good erldencewaa from the Instances broug **affor we are told that, Boclely, “Thepotato wh A* under the notice of thi of food in the tuber, a- AT"* 1 *!!* T 1 * 111 Urge supply hold on the aoil, and a J”J *7 Its help a good produces the moat rst 2“* folUge la the ti AUneratlve crop." D? N E, y r impaibed aiortr. Id the Boiton . *■> «M«1. pnnloA cooaumptlon jt‘ urn f o/ tb.t.froD tb. Imu.lr ' c,nd '’ m ‘y b 0 * P»«tl.l of V" l|,l,t " hlob Broroll. to an oreaent* ** lßo . k among the children of tbo Dp Q • He cites the statement of dor tl Agnew * that > OQ t of 1,000 children ua v-ft_ f* 18 attending & certain school Id *. t York City, 703 wore found, on examination >b the ophthalmoscope, to have defective of* rftuis of vision. This large percentage was as sumed to represent the common average of de fective ovoe among voung people. As it is a continued fact that a teaepoonful of a saturated solution of sugar, in jected beneath the skin uf a frog or a Qmuoa-ptg, will produce blioduoss In half an hour, Dr. Cutler proffers the query if it bo not reasonable to biidpobo that sugar taken Into too human Byatom in undue quantities mavinju rioQsly affect tho eyeelght. Sugar is wanting in nutritive qualities. In tests applied to dogs, it has been found that death resulted in forty days from an exclusive diet of sugar, whtlo tho eyes of tulmala subjected to tho experiment nlcorated and dropped out. The starch which forms ao largo an element of white flour is Identical in its chemical formula with auger ; and, as this con stitutca a chief article of food in most house holds, Dr. Cutler urges that, in addition, candy or augar cau hardly bo regarded as su innocent substance. MOUND-BUILDERS, tiovoral papers, detailing explorations in tho mounds in and around New Madrid, havo been read at late meetings of the Academy of Sciences at BU Louis. Prof. Conant, who has recently made a visit to a locality some miles from Now Madrid, and there examined several mounds, related that in one instance, In addi tion to tho skulls of tho true mound-buildon which wero found ia tho centra of the structure, two crania wore discovered . i tho odgo of tha mound which belonged to a widelv-difforcnl race. “The oxcocdmgly-low, retreating fore head Indicated a much lower grade of organ ism ; yet the remains had been buried after the mound-builder fashion, with a jug on each side of tho head.’’ Tno Professor also gave an account of an examination of a burial mound at Hew Madrid, whioh was situated in a space of about acioe. Inclosed with earthen walls. Something like 1,000 skeletons havo already boon oxtmrood in this mclosme; and. in moat casco, tliin pieces of pottery havo boon found burioa with each skeleton. Among the articles of pottery recovered wore vessels a foot m diameter, and with walls so tbio that they could not be safely moved when filled with water, bo great a difference was observed in tbe preservation of the skeletons that Prof. Conant was induced to behove the mound bad been in use for a long period os a burial-place. VEGETABLE IVORY, The demand for the ivory-nut has so increased In tho Gorman market that Us price has nearly doubled within a short time. The nut ie the fruit of one of tho most beautiful of all tbe pslme. The tree {Dhylelephai Macrocarpa ) Is a native of South America, particularly of the Andean plains of Peru, and of tho shorce of the River Magdalena. Tho stem of tho tree is short, and lies prostrate on tho ground ; hut from its crown arises a tuft of lighi-grccu, pinnateA loaves, of magnificent size aud beauty. They aro described os resembling immense ostncli plumes, rising to the stately height of 83 or 40 feet. Tho fiuit, which ia as largo as a cocoa nut, consists of an aggregation of loatheiy drupes, each containing four triangular nuts, mtailv as largo as a hou’a egg. Tho kernels of these nuts, when ripe, so completely simulate ivory In color and consistoncv that they havo been adapted to many uses formerly monop olized by the animal product. 3lauy articles manufactured from the ivory-nut so resemble those made of true ivory as to deceive the best Judges. FREEZING'PLANT-JUICES. The apparent phenomenon of plants sarvi* ing after their juices have been frozen has ox cited much research for an explanation among botanists. Tho problem has not yot been satis factorily solved, but some interesting testimony in tho case has been elicited through tho experi ments of Mr. Tiffard, which are published in on English exchange. Some juice of a cabbage leaf, mingled with water, was placed in a bottle and subjected to a low temperature, along with a second bottle containing pure water. Tbo lat ter fluid froze, but tho mixture of cahbago-Juice aud water resisted congelation. This result gooa to allow that tho juices of plants do not freeze in temperature! which congeal water, thoii chemical constituents giving them a power to resist the ordinary effects of cold. Whore tha frost docs dostrov vegetable hfo, tho process is tu accordance with tho common law by which frozen liquids expand and disrupt tbe surround ing tissues, causing disintegration aud death. LAKE-DWELLERS. In the coutbo of houae-bulldlug excavations made in tbo vicinity of t<vo lake-dwellings bo* tween Anvormlor and Colombian, Switzerland, there was opened to view a chamber whoso con tentn proved it to bo a burial-place of tbo lake* dwellers, Within tbo chamber, which was sup ported by upright stones, there wero found ton or liftoeu human skeletons,— tbo skulls collcoted in ouo corner, and tbo other remains in tbo centre. With them there wero entombed a boar’s tooth, a wolf's tooth, a small, smooth bone dish, two hatchets of serpentine stone, a hrouzo needle, a small copper ring, and four small bronze bracelets. Thu disouve-ry of this grave—which is supposed to be a family tomb of a date between the Stone and the Bronze Ages— is particularly Interesting as affording needed light upon the question of how tbo lake-Uwoll cru disposed of their dead. NATIVE WILD GOOSEBERRIES. In the last number of the Jiaturalitt,— which, by the way, has become, under its new adminis tration, so enterprising and useful a publication that every student of Natural Science should se cure it,— Ur. Asa dray appeals to the botanists of thn United States for specimens of our na tive wild gooseberries, with information regard ing (heir distinctive habits. The genus contain ing those plants has. not been properly worked up, and Dr. Urav asks for assistance from those having opportunities of observation of living species in putting It into a right condition. He gives a licaoiiptiun of thu various species, so far us this has yet been completed, m order that tbs reader may judge for himself what remains to be done. BRIEF NOTES. It is said that one-ihirtloth of all tba land un der cultivation in Spain la devoted to the growth of olives. Baron You Nolksn, of niga, Russia, has rod* on a second expedition to Bogota, for the pur pose of making entomological collections In that region. . The new metal, gallium, has been obtained la a pure state by 31. Locoq, and is found to have a brilliancy between that of platinum and that of silver. The number of visitors to-the British Muse* am, during 1874, averaged 11,574 weekly. The number of visitors to the American Museum of Natural History, iu Now York City, averages wculily 13.677. The Now Yuri; LegUlaturo has appropriated $203,000 for furnishing the now Museum-building on Manhattan square. Tho Legislature of Wisconsin has appropriat ed $26,000 for printing tho geological reports made by tho lato Dr. Lapbara aod others, and which wilt he completed by Frof. Chamberlain. It has also appropriated SIO,OOO for tho purchase of Dr. Laptiam's library and scientific colleo* lions, for the Wisconsin University. The Royal Astronomical Society of London hu conferred the gold modal upon Lo Verrier, iu con sideration of his discusstou of the the theories of tho tour major planets, with tables. It is not tbs first time the same honor has been bestowed upon this astronomer,—his work upon Mare and tbs inferior planet* bAYlog ftcetyed A tua- Hoc {(WI'UUw. 9

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