Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune, May 12, 1876, Page 4

Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune dated May 12, 1876 Page 4
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4 TERMS OF THE TRIBUNE. KITES OP SUBSCRIPTION (PAYABLE IN ADVANCE). Postage Prepaid at tills Office. Dally Edition, postpaid. 1 year parts of year at same rate. Mailed to anv oddress four weeks for— ••••••*, - Jnnday Edition: Literary and Religious Double Sheet... •. * * __ W-Weekly, postpaid. 1 year. ** ao Parts of year at same rate. WEEKLY EDITION, POSTPAID. Ope eonr. per year »i*2j Dub of Are, f*« riub of twenty, per copy. w,L*d*—l'Ch Tbe postage I* l«» cents a year, wblcb we will prepay. Specimen copies sent free. To prevent delay and mistakes, be sure and give Post* Office address In fall. Including State and County. Remittances may be made either by draft, express, Post-Office order, or In registered letters, at our risk. TEEMS TO CITY SUBSCRIBERS. Dally, delivered. Sunday cxccptcd. 25 cents per week. Dally, delivered, Sunday included. 30 cents per week* Address THE TRIBUNE COMPANY. Comer Madison and Dearborn-sla., Chicago, HL AMUSEMENTS. New Chicago Theatre, Clark street, between Randolph and Lake. Booley’s Minstrels. IToolcy’a Theatre. Randolph street, between Clark and LaSalle. Engagement of Fifth Avenue Company. *‘Pique. McTicker** Theatre. Madleon street, between State and Dearborn. Engagement of the Maggie Mitchell Troupe. “Pearl of Savoy.” Adelphi Theatre* Dearborn street, corner Monroe. Variety enter* talnment “Mazcppa.” SOCIETY MEETINGS. WASHINGTON CHAPTER. No. 43, R. A. M.— Special Convocation this (Friday) evening at 7:30 o'clock. Work on Mark Master’s Degree. Visit ing Companions cordially invited. By order of ihe H. £. H. P. CHAS. B. WEIGHT, See. DEARBORN LODGE, NO. 310, A. F. & A, M. —Regular communication at their hall. No. 72 Wonroe-et., Friday, May 12. Work on the M. M. Degree. Members of the fraternity cordially In vited. By order of the W. M- ORIENTAL LODGE. NO. an. A. F. & A. M.— Special communication this (Friday) evening at 7*4 o'clock, prompt, for work on the M. M. Degree. The fraternity cordially invited to meet with us. By order of the Master. E. N. TUCKER, Secretary, COVENANT LODGE, NO. 52G, A. F. & A. M. —Special communication this (Friday) evening at 7:30 o'clock, at Corinthian Hall. No. 187 East Kiuzie;&t., for work on the Third Degree. Visiting brethren cordially invited. 13y order of the VT. M. WM. KSKK, Secretary. He FRIDAY, MAY 12, 187 G. Cool, deer, or Blearing weather is pre dicted for this region to-day. Greenbacks at the Kew York Gold Ex change yesterday dosed at S9t. c The Treasury Department is about to put in circulation $3,000,000 of silver coin which ft has accumulated outside of the regular mint production. This can be issued with out regard to the recent act of Congress, and will tend to relieve to some extent the great pressure for small change. Albebt £dwabz> yesterday reached the shores of his future Kingdom and landed in the bosom of his family, the Princess Alex andra and her children going out on the royal yacht to meet the Prince, who will be accorded a public reception at Ports mouth. • It is believed that the English Ambassador at Constantinople has warned his Govern ment of the extremely critical condition of affairs throughout Turkey, expressing the fear that a general massacre of Christians may occur at any moment. In view of this, warning, it is not unlikely that the British Mediterranean squadron will be ordered with ail speed to the mouth of the Hellespont, there to await developments. According to a statement which appears in the St. Loois Republican , the President acted wisely in refusing to interfere in behalf of Deacon McKee. Mrs. Lbatexwobth, the widow of John Leatenwo bth, the first pay master of the St. Louis 'Whisky King, has mode an affidavit to certain matters not brought out in the McKee trial, alleging that she was present on various occasions when “ crooked ” money passed between her hus band and McKee. Gen. Butler has told somebody confi dentially that his first love, Presidentially speaking, is Senator Morton, but the Gen eral looks to availability as the chief recom mendation, and therein sees in Mr. Conk zjno a candidate who would cany the State of New York as against Tilden. But, then, Butler’s prophetic vision has become some what dimmed in these latter years, and be sides, would-be candidates have cause to tremble when the ex-member from Essex opes his mouth in their behalf. In commenting yesterday upon the brick makers 1 strike wo wero misled somewhat by the statement of the evening newspapers relative to the price of brick and the com parative wages of this year and last. The wages of last year were from $1.50 to $2.25 a day, wo are told, while this year's wages range from $1.25 to $1.85 and $2 a day. The demand for brick is vciy small, and sales are mode even as low as $4.50 at a short delivery, while $5 is stated to bo on average price. At the present rate of wages there is said to be no profit whatever in the manufacture of brick. On the other hand, there is no difficulty in obtaining abundance of labor at the prices offered, if the mob will permit those willing to work to do so without intimidation. About the first pronounced indication of the leanings of Chicago Republicans in the matter of the Presidency and the Govcmor ship was given last evening at the meeting of the Eighteenth Ward Club, an organiza tion famous for the brains, respectability, and influential character of its membership. On the question of the Governorship the ton delegates to the State Convention put forward for the primary election are with out exception anti-BEVEBinoE, the ma jority being for Cdllom ; while the same ten delegates, who Trill also have b voice in choosing the representation of Illinois at the Cincinnati Convention, so far as their preferences were expressed on tMb point, the larger portion are for Bbzs row, though many of these would stand strong for Waskbubnb if ho should prove to be a prominent candidate; & goodly show ing of Blasts backing is made, with Bbis tow as second choice; and absolutely noth ing of CoNELStO, Moeton, or Hatxs. Chi cago will develop more of this sterling sort sf sentiment before the State Convention meets. Tha [Chicago produce markets were irreg ular yesterday, though somewhat steadier, lad most of them were firm, with a good business doing. Mess pork closed 10@15c per brl higher, at $20.50@20.55 for June, and $20.75 for July. Hard closed steady,at $12.25 @12.27J for Job*, t12.87j@12.40 for July. Meats were steady, at 7fc for boxed shoulders, lOjo for do short ribs, and llso for do short clears. Lake freights were dull, at 3;'c for wheat to Buffalo. Bail freights were active and weak. Highwines were quiet, at sl.o7per gallon. Flour was in better demand and firm. Wheat closed s@sdower,at sl.ols for May and sl.Ol J for June. Cora closed easier, at 4Gi[c for May and 45jc for June. Oats closed easier, at for May and SQ}c for June. Bye was steady, at 63c. Barley was steady, closing at 71c for May and G2c for June. Hogs were active, at 5c decline, selling at $G.G5@7.15 for inferior to choice. Cattle were dull and weak. Sheep were in good demand and ruled firm. One hundred dollars in gold would buy $112.37$ in greenbacks at the close. .$13.00 The rumors of compromise on the ques tion of the Mayoralty which were current yesterday had no foundation in fact. There is to be no compromise, no concession on the part of Mayor Hoxne, but ex-Mayor Colvin, recognizing the weakness of his position, has agreed to take the initiative and bring a quo warranto case to the Circuit Court, the result of which will be to declare by what authority of law, if any, Mr. Hoyne exercises the functions of Mayor of Chicago, in which capacity he will continue to act during the pendency of the court proceedings. This plan throws the burden of proof and 'of argument upon ex-Mayor Colvin, who is obliged to show that Mayor Hoyne docs not hold the office lawfully. If there is any compromise or concession in the matter, it is not on the part of Mr. Hoyne, who is 'now and will doubtless remain Mayor until the expiration of his term of office. The striking brickmakcrs yesterday under took a riotous demonstration having for its object the intimidation of such of their craft as were quietly at work in the various yards in and about the city, and the compulsion of idleness on the-part of all who had. not struck. The prompt interposition at a body of police prevented the execution of this programme, and 2G of the turbulent mob were arrested and lodged in the station house, to be arraigned this morning on the charge of disorderly conduct The lightest penalty or the smallest fine that can be im posed will be heavy in the case of these misguided law-breakers, who have gone from bad to worse in first refusing to work for a rate of wages that hundreds are willing and glad to accept, and next in attempting to set the law at defiance by the intimidation of the non-strikers who are endeavoring to cam enough to keep starvation from their doors. It is to be hoped that no severer punishment will bo visited npon the dis turbers of the peace now in custody than will suffice to thoroughly impress them with a sense of the fact that the arm of the law is too strong to be resisted or set at naught. THE MAYORALTY. There was a temporary truce yesterday. The Common Council met, and neither Col vin nor Hoyne was present, the absence being the result of an understanding to that effect The Council elected Aid, Aldrich President pro tempore. After the adoption of some routine business, the Council ad journed until Monday. • Thfr'proposition made for an arrangement comes, it is said, from Mr. Hayes, the Comp troller. It was substantially that the new Treasurer, Mr. Bbiggs, shall, after his in duction on Tuesday nest, refuse to recognize a draft signed by Colvin as Mayor, and that an agreed case shall be submitted to the Cir cuit Judges of this county for their determi nation, Coltin in the meantime to continue as Mayor. A rumor was industriously circulated that Mr. Hoyne was willing to accept this proposition, it being acceptable to the Coun cil, but there is no truth in it. Nor would the Council listen to so unfair and one-sided a proposition. The Council can be no party to any bargain that recognizes Colvin as legally acting as Mayor, or casts doubt on the legality of Mr. Hoyne’s ten ure of that office, or in any way raises a presumption against him. The Council have in all they have done acted calmly and deliberately, and under the best legal advice, and supported by a powerful public senti ment ; they have declared that ID*. Colvin is no longer Mayor, and that Mr. Hoyne is Mayor, and have instructed all the heads of departments and subordinates that Hoyne is Mayor. It would be child’s play to expect them, in the absence of any judicial decis ion, to recall all this legal action, or to again recognize Coltin as Mayor, or to do any other act to undo what they have al ready done and placed officially on record. The public peace and the credit and the interests of the city ore of invaluable con sequence and importance, but the_ authority of the Common Council, os the exclusive legislature, must be maintained, unless we are prepared for anarchy. The exhibition of the police force to coerce and control, to threaten and to arrest the Common Coun cil, however in keeping with an usurpation, is an insult to public decency, besides a con tempt for lawful authority. It should bo borne in mind by Mr. Colvin and his ad visers that there is no question as to the legality of the election of the Common Council. That body is therefore entitled to the free exercise of all its powers, and is not to be menaced, nor insulted, nor controlled by the police. Mr. Colvin must remember that breaking the peace is an offense against the State of Illinois, and that, as against the State of Illinois, even a claimant for the office of Mayor of Chicago most ngure rather insignificantly. When the time comes for force to protect the lawful Mayor and the Common Council of Chicago, Mr. Coltin will not be commander-in-chief. The Common Council cannot in any way consent or agree to any form of legal pro ceeding which ignores their right to canvass the votes given at the late election for Mayor, nor to declare the result, cor their right to recognize the Mayor declared by them to have been elected. That is a matter of legal and official record which cannot be recalled nor reversed by police force or mobocracy. The Common Council and Mayor Hoine are not plaintiffs, and cannot become so. They are in office ; they ore the Mayor and Com mon Council da. facto and dejure , and any person who objects to or denies their author ity must apply to the courts. Colvin ceased to be Mayor the day and hour that Mr. Hotne filed his bond, took the oath of office, and was declared the Mayor-elect by the Council, and if Colvin has any claim to the office, or as & citizen objects to Mayor Hoins acting as Mayor, let him seek the courts for the remedy which the law provides. The City Council have nothing to do in the way of instituting suits to oust Mr. Colvin. He is already ousted. Their business is to attend to the legislation of the city, and, with Mayor Hoxne, address themselves to the complicated and embarrassed condition of the finances. If Mr. Colvzh has any griev THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE: FRIDAY, MAT 12, 1876. anco, lot him apply to the courts, and let him complain to his heart’s content. Wo again call public attention to the misera ble spectacle which this man Colvin exhibits in holding on to the office for its mere per quisites and the perquisites of his personal dependents. He is utterly reckless of public opinion. Outside of those who hold office at his pleasure there ore not five hundred reputable persons m Chicago who are not disgusted with his want of sensibility in clinging to an office long after his term has expired, and after his successor has been elected and qualified, and solemnly recog nized by the legislature of the city. It is a sod spectacle. THE PRIMARY SYSTEM. The lost Republican City Convention pass ed a resolution abolishing the system of primary elections as heretofore existing. It appears, however, that the Central Commit tee intend to authorize the holding of such primary elections for delegates to the ap proaching County Convention on the ground that no substitute for the primary system was brought forward to take its place. It would be difficult to conceive of a greater travesty of justice, decency, and fair ness than. the primary system of making nominations as it bos been practiced in this city for some years past Under the aus pices of this system as first organized, when the city was small, and when every man knew his neighbors, it was practicable to secure a fair expression of the wishes of the party on any given question. There were always enough persons at the voting-places to identify those who came to take part in the election, and the count of votes and the making of returns were always open and free from fraud. In the course of time the 'question of carrying a particular ward-primary became a question of getting a given number of men to a particular place at a particular time, without reference to their politics or place of residence. This, of course, was a mere question of money. Somewhat later it was found that a gong of professionals voting from place to place wore more .efficient and cheaper than any previous invention for carrying primaries, and these were tried with somewhat brilliant results. Instances might bo cited, however, where the utmost efforts of repeaters, Democratic ruffians, Republican ruffians, and honest cit izens all together, outside of the voting-room, have been frustrated by those who had the counting of the votes and the making of the returns. And so we have gone on from good to bad and from bad to worse, until there is absolutely no guarantee of a fair primary election, and respectable citizens have generally absented themselves from them under the conviction that they were sure to be cheated anyway. A few weeks ago a primary election was held in the First Ward which resulted in giving two or three times as many votes to a certain candidate for Alderman as he afterwords re ceived in the regular city election. All the votes given for him over and above the small number ho received at the city election were of course fraudulent. When the elec tion came to be held under the safe guards prescribed by law, he was found to bo in a ridiculous minority. It is safe to say that the villainous fraud practiced upon the voters of South Chicago in the recent election for Assessor, Collector, etc., was prompted and suggested by the facility with which the returns of primary elections have been re peatedly falsified. At all events the process employed was substantially the same. The last city election demonstrated pretty thoroughly that sham nominations will not be ratified by the people. A candidate for an important office, who was really the head of the ticket, ran more than ten thousand votes behind his associates, and was beaten notwithstanding oil that was done to save him from defeat What guarantee have the advocates of the primary sys tem that their next nominations will fare any better ? None whatever. The party have officially declared that they have no confidence in nominations made in that way. This they declared by resolution duly passed in convention. The people have de clared that they have no confidence in them by rejecting one of the products of the sys tem in tones of thunder. It will not bo well to tempt them farther. Of course some thing must be done to supplant the loose, corrupt old system with a better one. A bet ter one is obviously to be found in the Re publican ward clubs, where oveiy member’s residence is known and his position vouched for. A record of this kind being kept, the danger of repeating, and double voting, and voting out of the ward, may bo effectually guarded against; and the club organization is usually such, and may always bo made sneb, that fraudulent counting and returning of votes will be impossible. As the case stands now, primary elections of the old sort are irregular and unauthorized, und will continue so until the resolution passed by the last Convention is changed by equally high authority. It is competent for the Central Committee to adopt some other system in lieu of the one abolished. In the absence of specific instructions it is their duty to do so. But it is not competent for them to adopt the one which has been abol ished, and which has legally ceased to exist. THE OTHER GRAND CREDIT MOBILISE. A memorial has been presented by the minority of the stockholders of the Central Pacific Railroad Company to Congress in which it is alleged that Leland Stanfobd, Mask Hopkins, C. P. Huntington, and Chables Cbockee were the original incorpo rators of the Central Pacific Railway Com pany, and the charter authorized the construc tion of 115 miles of road from Sacramento to the eastern boundary of California. Sub sequently, by act of Congress, the Company were ordered to construct a road east to a junction of the Union Pacific Hailway Com pany, 690 miles. The original capital au thorized was $8,500,000. That the said Com pany received from the United States, Cali fornia, Nevada, and municipal corporations, gifts and subsidies eiceedingsl2s,ooo,ooo, and have issued bonds for $27,000,000. That the four persons named formed a company .under the name of Chables Cbock eb & Co., and the railroad managers contracted with themselves os Cbockzb & Co. for building said road at prices in ad vance of the work done, and the profits were divided among themselves. Subsequently, the managers organized another company, known as the “ Contract and Finance Com ply*” and contracted with themselves for building and equipping the railroad at ex cessive prices, and the funds of the Railroad Company were handed over to the Contract and Finance Company in fraud of the other stockholders. Since its completion in May, 1869, the net comings of the road have been forty millions of dollars. The memorial represents that the road has been built in the most indifferent manner nrid at the least possible cost, and that the road and its bridges, trestle work, etc., ore now in & wretched and J[unsafo condition, and that it was all built and completed at a cost not exceeding $35,000 a mile. The memorial asserts that from the moneys acquired by them in their fraudu lent contracts with themselves in building said road, and from the earnings thereof, the managers have built the California & Oregon Bailroad, the San Joaquin Valley Bail road, a large part of the Western Pacif ic Bailroad, and the San Francisco Bay Boilroud, all within California, and also a large part of the Chesapeake & Ohio Bail road in Virginia and West Virginia. That from the same funds thus fraudulently ob tained they have purchased the California Pacific Bailroad, the San Francisco & Oak land Bailroad the San Francisco & Alameda Bailroad, the Los Angeles & San Pedro Bail road, the San Francisco & San Jose Bailroad, and a number* of steamboats. That the managers have issued bonds npon the said railroads to the amount of $18,500,000, and have divided the proceeds among these four managers. That nearly all these railroads have been consolidated with the Central Pacific Rail road, and these, four persons have named themselves os managers. That the capital stock of the new corporation is $100,000,000, and the managers have issued to themselves $54,000,000, for which the memorial avers they have not paid a cent “ except the same was paid for from money fraudulently and dishonestly abstracted by them from the funds of the corporation.” It is represented further that these four managers, out of the dishonestly-acquired moneys obtained by them, aio now building the Southern Pacific Bailroad, and claim to own said rood; that they also claim to own personally all depot grounds and town sites along the lino of the Central Bailroad. The memorial mokes many other charges and accusations against the managers, all containing the averment that these men have continually robbed and plundered the Gov ernment for .their own personal aggrandize ment, and that they have used their wealth and power to suppress anil prevent all exam ination and investigations into their conduct in the management of the property and af fairs of the Central Pacific Bailroad Com pany. The memorialists pray that Congress will intervene; that it will appoint a com mittee to investigate the whole affairs of the Company, and thus protect the rights and interests of the stockholders and of the United States, which are now threatened with destruction. This some Company is now before Con gress with a memorial that the United States buy bock from the Company the land that was granted to it as a subsidy, and that the United States pay the Company therefor at the rate of $32,000 per mile of the length of the road. 'While the infamous Credlt-'Mobilier opera tions have been pretty thoroughly ventilated and exposed, nothing hns over been made public concerning the operations on the other half of the line. The memorialists, who represent themselves as stockholders, aver that the Credit-Mobilier outrage was even more enormous on the Central Pacific part of the road than on tho western end, and there is probably some truth in the mat ter. The chiefs in the management seem to have piled up personal foi tnnes of a magni tude rarely obtained even in California. , COLVIN AND HIS ORGANS. In his lament before tho Council tho other evening, ex-Mayor Colvin stated that all his troubles were owing to the newspapers, and singled out The Tbjbunb and tho Times as hav ing incited the opposition to him. Mr. Colvin has not been a cLoso observer of events or he would know that, when newspapers run counter to tho popa’rar sentiment and public interests, they fail in. tho accomplishment of their purposes. Had Mr. Colvin encoun tered a unanimous exposition from the Chi cago press, his discomfiture would have been avoided if he had l>een backed by tho sen timent of the pcopl e ; and, on the contrary, if ho had received tJhe combined support of the newspapers, his usurpation would not have succeeded without the acquiescence of the people. The fact is, however, that Colvin has had his newspaper or gans, which have clung to him as ser vilely as if he owned them. From the very beginning of his administration up to the present time he has enjoyed the good will and active support of the sheet familiarly known, as the Bummer and Thieves' Organ . All the time and space which that journal could spare from the de fense of the 'Whi sky Ring have been given to Colvin’s cause, including tho horde of city bummers at his back, the county bummers, and tho town bummers. Everything ho has done, everything the old Council did in his behalf, everything that has been done by the Town Board thi eves, and by any of the local officeholders in sympathy with tho usurpa tion, has been sustained by tbe newspaper which has lived upon the city and county printing, with all the force and ability it can command. Coltut has also had on evening organ, managod by ono of Acting-Governor Beveridge’s Penitentiary employes, prima rily in Beveridge’s interest, but generally in tho interest of office-holders, including the city, county, and. town barnacles. Thus Col vin has had a morning and on evening news paper presents g every pretext that he, his fricndi;, and his legal ad visers (paid by the city) could sug gest in favor oh his continued tenure of office after his time was out. If these news papers havo not * reached os many people os have tho newspapers which have opposed his usurpation it is partly because there oro not so many people in favor of official usur pation, public p lander, and professional bmn merism which these papers represent. In addition to Colvin’s confessed newspa per organs, he has part of tho time had the support of the Staats-Zeitung, which even now does not oppose him. He had the Times with, him when the charter of 1872 was carried by fraud. The Journal has never done more than give a mild and care ful expression of public opinion. So tho only active, consistent, and persistent oppo sition which Mr. Colvin has encountered has been in the columns of The Tribune, which nevertheless has always printed his defenses of himself and all tho apologies and legal ar guments ha lias been able to purchase. -In acrediting Iris downfall to the influence of The Tribune, Mr. Colvin has done ns more honor than wo would arrogate to ourselves. The Tribune, with all its circulation, with all its credit for fairness, with its constitu ency, and with all its energy in this matter, could not havo excited the popular re sentment which Colvin has met, and could not have brought out 35,000 votes for a now Mayor at a time when there had been no formal, official call for such election, if it had not reflected tho popular feeling. The naked fact is, that The Tribune has simply embodied tho real popular sentiment which is opposed to every usurpation, no matter how little nor how great, and has only contributed to re- moving the usurpation by giving a proper encouragement and indicating a legitimate direction to this sentiment. Had The Tribune been foolish enough or corrupt enough to array its influence on the side of usurpation, extravagance, and bummerism, it would only have succeeded in lowering itself without in the least benefiting his bad cause. It would then have been in the same despicable atti tude as the official organ and its small evening tender. It would have depreciated its own character, hut it could not have stemmed the current that had set in against bummerism or usurpation. Mr.. Colvin need not look be yond his own circle and his own conduct for his troubles. Ho has brought upon himself the popular distrust and aversion felt for Kim, and it is at once fallacious and childish to try to put it on either The Tribune or the newspaper press as a whole. THE DOOM OF THE TUBES. The toils are slowly but surely gathering about Turkey. The telegraph has already brought the intelligence of two now compli cations which cannot help but precipitate her final doom. The first of these is the Salonica massacre which occurred a few days since. Salonica, the ancient Thessalonica, is a thriving city of 70,000 people, nearly one-half of whom are Jews and Christians, situated ou the gulf of the same name, on the Southern or Grecian part of Turkey in Europe. Later news gives a different aspect to the origin of the massacre. The first accounts, which were of Turkish origin, rep resented that the young Greek girl was a willing convert to Mohammedanism, and that the Christians were seeking to tear her away from her Turkish friends. The reverse of this now seems to bo the case, the latest statements showing that she was rescued by the chivalry of the American Consul from an attempted Mohammedan abduction. As the result of this rescue, the infuriated Turks not only commenced a massacre of Christians, but also murdered the French and German Consuls, and offered indignities to others. For the first time in many years, the French and Germans are acting together, and their war-vessels are steaming towards Salonica with a common purpose in view. The war vessels of Italy, Austria, Russia, and En gland are also on their way thither. It is a movement of six of the European Powers in the interests of the Christians, and the pres ence of these Powers, through their naval representatives, at Salonica is a notice to Turkey that these outrages upon Christians will not be tolerated any longer. The effect of this massacre will not only bo to compli cate Turkey still further with the Great Powers, but it will also in all probability de velop insurrection against Turkish tyranny and Mohammedan cruelty in a new quarter. Hitherto, the people south of the Balkan Mountains have been quiet and shown no signs of restlessness, but. this out rage upon the Christian girl and massacre of her friends and co-religionists will raise a storm of excitement among the Greek Christians of Albania, Macedonia, and Kumilia, and must undoubtedly precipitate a war of the Christian against the Moslem tyrants, thus consolidating the whole Greek- Christian interests of Turkey against the Turks. In such a struggle there is no doubt where the sympathies of the Great Powers will be found. The second of these complications, and a very startling one, is the revolt of Bulgaria, which, coming so closely npon the revolt of Servia, now extends the insurrection from the Adriatic to the Black Sea. It has hither to been difficult to ascertain the real strength of Servia as a war power, but a recent letter in the London Times , from its Belgrada cor respondent, throws some light npon the sub ject. Servia has 18 brigades of in fantry, 41 squadrons of cavalry, and 23 batteries of artillery, in all about 80,000 men,who are well provided with arma ments, accoutrements, and stores, and the organization is based upon the effective Austrian method. Now, in addition to Ser via, Bulgaria has broken out into revolt. This province has a population of 2,500,000, of which the Mohammedan element amounts to only 170,000. Tho people are warlike mountaineers, and have more than once de manded and obtained concessions from Tur key which the latter was disposed to concede, owing to the well-known sympathy of Russia with the Bulgarians. It will bo difficult to prevent tho Bulgarian disaffection from spreading into Bournania —the old Wallachia and Moldavia—which is inhabitedby the same race of people, having the same customs, sympathies, and religion, and separated from them only by the River Danube. Should such an event occur, os is not at all improb able, for a * revolt in Boumania would be encouraged by Russia, the whole of Turkey north of the Balkan Mountains would bo under arms. It would involve a war which could not be settled except upon one condition, —the extermination of the Turks, or at least the blotting out of Turkey from tho map of Europe. Such a result would bo in the immediate interest of religion, civilization, and progress', and that result must come in the not distant future. WORLD’S FAIRS IN GENERAL. Excluding tho ■wretched failure and par tial swindle in New York in 1853, which does not deserve to he classed in the some category, there have been five "World’s Fairs worthy of the name, and the Philadelphia Exposition is the sixth. The first was in London in 1851, for which the Crystal Palace at Sydenham was erected, which was per mitted to remain, and has ever since been a popular resort and the favorite location for monster concerts and great public celebra tions. Paris followed with its Exposition in 1857. Then tho London people in 18G1 erected grander palaces in Hyde Park and South Kensington gardens to eclipse their French rivals. But Paris was not to be out done, and the fourth attempt was the Expo sition XJniverselle of 18G7. The fifth World’s Fair was located in Vienna in 1873, —a city that had long aspired to rival Paris in the gay attractions of a Continental capital, and expected by means of its exhibition to fix upon itself tho eyes of the civilized world, and render itself famous for its beauty and pleasures. Ofj all these exhibi tions, though none of them was profita ble as a financial enterprise, the only one which can be characterized as a disap pointment and a failure was the Vienna Ex hibition, which was loaded down with bad management, corrupt practices, and the in ordinate greed of the people. The French exhibitions have been tho most successful of all, inasmuch as the natural attractions of Paris ore thus renewed to the world, and the French people enjoy the benefit of the ex tended patronage. The best evidence of this is found in the proposed erection of larger buildings than ever for another exhi bition in 1878, and an intimation that there shall henceforth be a similar exhibition once every ten years. All these exhibitions have been liberally subsidized by the Govern ments under whose patronage they were hold, and the sentiment of the people of En gland and Francs seems to have approved of this investment of public moneys, on the theory that the people derive sufficient ad vantages from the additional trade to war rant it. It is peculiarly gratifying that all accounts of the opening of the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia agree that in the grandeur of its design, the details of its arrangements, the completeness of its preparations for the opening, the extent of its buildings, the va riety of its departments, and the judicious ness of its management, it surpasses all the previous exhibitions of the some character. There is no reaswi to doubt the correctness of this judgment, for it has been rendered after a long period of doubting, misgivings, and cavilling. New York, with an undig nified jealousy and a singular short-sighted ness as to the benefits it is sure to receive from the location of the Centennial celebra tion so near to it, long refused to prophesy anything but failure, and has for the most part been chary of its public attestation of what the Philadelphians actually accom plished. Throughout the rest of the country there was for a long time an apprehension that there would bo a serious raid upon the United States Treasury and a general distrust of the ability to man age such an enterprise honestly in the loose condition of the public morals indicated in other public trusts. But the Philadelphia peo ple went on confidently and placidly in spite of unkind criticism and ungenerous treatment, without any assistance from the Government until after their enterprise had become an assured success, and almost without the moral support of the Government. Thus they may bo said to have conquered an ac knowledgment of their own industry, liber ality, and judgment, and to have given the most sinking example the world has ever had of the vigor, determination, and character of American private enterprise. The idea of holding a World’s Fair in Philadelphia as a becoming celebration of the American Centennial was first suggested, it is said, by an Indiana gentleman to Mr. Morton Mo ’MrryrA'pT.j some ten years ago, when the latter was Mayor of Philadelphia. The seed once planted, it grew steadily, in spite of many unfavorable circumstances, including the dissensions incident to reconstructing the South and the trials growing out of the great panic of 1573. Probably no celebration coold have been suggested that would have so successfully represented a century’s prog ress from a colonial dependence and a pio neering condition to a great nation and the highest degree of civilization. The experience of the previous World’s Fairs does not warrant the expectation that there will be any profit in the Philadelphia Exhibition itself. If the managers shall be able to pay off the entire cost, without re funding any part of the $1,500,000 appro priated by Congress, such a result will be a satisfactory conclusion of their labors; it will bo a better showing, so far as Govern ment subsidy goes, than London, Paris, or Vienna has shown. There is one change which of itself would do much to bring about this outcome, and that is to throw open the Ex hibition on Sunday at a popular admission fee, say 25 cents. The increase of expense would be comparatively small; the enlarge ment of the receipts is beyond estimate. Not only the people and regular visitors in Philadelphia would fiock there in great crowds, but there would be special excursions from New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Ohio, and the New England States that would take thousands upon thousands of people who would not otherwise go there. The railroads could afford to run Sunday trains at a less cost, and the facili ties afforded by such an arrangement would extend the educational advan tages of the Exhibition, os well as increase its income. No sectarian prejudice ought to he permitted to prevent this obvious im provement in the arrangements. The most serious disappointment of the whole affair is likely to come to those who have paid or agreed to pay exorbitant prices for special privileges on the Centennial grounds, and those who have laid out more money in pro viding temporary accommodations and out sidc amusements than they can possibly get back. There will be serious individual losses on this account, and perhaps a large loss to the Exhibition Company in the failure to col lect some of the licenses they have counted on. But, in spite of all this, the artistic and industrial success of the Exhibition is so far assured already as to be a matter of national satisfaction and pride. The Emperors of Russia, Austria, and Germany will shortly be in session in Berlin to lay out a definite plan of action relative to the settlement of the Herzegovinian in surrection, which has now spread through the whole of Turkey in Europe north of the Balkans, and threatens to involve the Grecian provinces south of those moun tains. What decision they will reach remains to he seen, but there aro two propositions that will be considered, with a probability that one or the other of them will be adopt ed. One of these is the submission to Tur key of the final conditions of the insurgents, in a very firm and emphatic manner, and to extend those conditions to all the Turco- Christian provinces. If Turkey accepts, then Austria and Russia will pledge themselves to the insurgents to see that the conditions are scrupulously fulfilled. The second, and more probable proposition, is to allow Austria to enter the Turco-Chris tian provinces and occupy Herzegovina, Bukowina, and Bosnia, and to make inde pendent States of Montenegro, Herzegovina, Bukowina, Bosnia, and Servla, thus inter posing a belt of autonomous Christian prov inces between Turkey in Europe and Europe itself. This belt would undoubtedly be increased by the independence of Bul garia and Roumama, which would be assured • by Russia. This proposition, if carried out, would force the Mohammedans into Moham medan provinces, and isolate them in such a manner that it would put an end to the perpetual wars and massacres growing out of Turkish tyranny. The plea of the Now York whisky-dealers who have been indicted and placed under ar rest, to the effect that all the whisky they bought from the "West came to them properly stamped, and that they were ignorant of its being “ crooked,” is altogether un worthy of serious consideration. The fact is that they not only bought, but in some cases actually sold, whisky for less tbnn the tax, leaving no margin whatever for the material and cost of manufacture. It is sim ply ridiculous to suggest that they engaged in transactions of this nature without know ing that the Government had been defraud ed. These New York whisky-dealers are in every sense as guilty as the distillers who did the actual swindling by the duplication of stamps, bribing of Gaugers, etc.; for, if the dealers had not provided a market for the illicit stuff, there would have been no temptation and no gain in its manufacture* It is probable, indeed, that the principal pressure for swindling the Government cami from the dealers who handled the “ crooked* whisky, and also probable that they more money out of the frauds than the dis, tillers themselves. There is every reason to hope, therefore, that the prosecution against the New York “Whisky Ring will be in all re spects as vigorous and impartial as in Evans ville, St. Louis, and Chicago. It is a matter of considerable interest to the great musical public of this country that tha musical features of the Centennial inaugura tion were not only creditable but more than or dinarily successful. They comprised, first, thi great inarch written by “Wagner, at thcordei of the Women’s Centennial Commission. The piano score of this classical production hae already appeared, under the arrangement ol Mr. Thomas, and is now the despair of pianists. Although it will have an immense circulation It this form, it is but fair to say that the plane score comes about as near the real effect of the orchestral as stage thunder docs the real artl clc. The performance of it at Philadelphia seemt to have been a most remarkable success. The Buck cantata, notwithstanding Lanier preposterous words, was also given with finj effect, and Mr. Whitnet obtained a tumultuoui encore from the largest audience ever assembled in America for his singing of the bass solo in it, —a number to which we have already called at tention in The Tribune.- The dignity and majesty of Mr. Paine’s setting of the WnrmEt Hymn also seem to have made a deep im. pression upon the multitude, notwithstanding the fact that the music, like the h£mn, Is utten Iy destitute of the popular Star-Spangled Ban ner elements, and might have been written foi the classical locality of a Rhenish festival 01 Gewandhaus concert. Mr. Thomas has added another leaf to his laurels. If not a whole crown, in having musically inaugurated this great show without a single trick of the showman or anj letting down from his high musical standards. We nowadays hear a great deal about English justice, its promptness, swiftness, and equality, but what Elizabeth Tract, a young English girl of 10, thinks of it, may be inferred from tha following facts; Elizabeth Tract was ser vant of a farmer in her native village. One morning she was sent out to the shed for wood. While there she dropped her brooch and lit a match that she might sec to find it. Shortly afterwards the shed was on fire, and, although it was speedily extinguished, she was arrested for arson. She protested her innocence, explained how the fire occurred, and even said that she had been to the clergyman and told him all about it. Her prosecutor failed to show any motive why she should commit the crime, and her good character was established, neverthe less the Squire committed her for trial at the next assizes. It is the law of England that no winter assize is held on a circuit .unless there arc six persons to be tried. As Elizabeth’s neighborhood was a very quiet one and there were no other cases, no winter assize was held. As no one could or would furnish hail, this young girlj guilty of no crime, lay in the jaU seven long, weary months, and was then tried and acquitted by the jury, which did not leava its scats. It is evident from the facts of this story of English injustice that English justice needs reform, and that exact justice would award this young girl some reparation which would be equivalent for the crime which the law committed upon her. Our atttention has been called to an errone ous statement concerning the operations of the sinking fund of the United States, contained in the following paragraph, which appeared In Tub Tribune some days ago : Under the existing law, there is set apart every year not merely 1 per cent of the actual amount of the debt at the time the law was passed, but also on the amount of the sinking fund, which increases from year to year. To continue this system trill be to constantly increase taxation until the debt should be entirely discharged; and as the debt grows small er, instead of taxation decreasing in proportion as It ought to. the burden on the people icill grow larger, yo party will undertake to sustain this growing tax for the liquidation of a decreasing debt. Under the law there is paid into the sinking fond annually a sum equal to 1 per cent of the then outstanding principal of the public debt. This sum is used to purchase outstand ing bonds, which are added to the previous ac cumulations in the sinking fund, and thereafter bears C per cent interest. The annual payments into the sinking fund therefore are: 1. A sum equal to 1 per cent on the amount of the principal of the public debt on the Ist of July annually. 2. Interest at 0 per cent on tbs amount of the public debt purchased for the fund. The operation is that the amount of the 1 per cent grows less every year with the decline in the amount of the debt, while the amount of interest added to the fund grows larger. No additional taxation is required, and as the pop ulation is increased the proportionate taxation becomes less. The testimony in the libel suit of the San Francisco j ßulletin against the Alta California has made dear why the Bank of California failed, though it has scarce justified the cruel assault the Bulletin made upon Ralston’B memory on the very day of his funeral. Mills, now the President of the bank, and from its foundation a Director, testified that the examina tion of the bank affairs after the failure showed that Ralston had used up about four millions of its funds in bis private speculations, and that the monthly dividends of 1 per cent paid to stockholders for the three years previous had, in fact, been paid out of the deposits. Of the four millions of the bank’s funds lost by Ralston in his stock-gambling operations, about two and a quarter millions had been charged to the account of £he sugar refinery owned by the bonk. The only mystery about the bank failure in view of the testimony is, how the Directors were so easily kept in ignorance of its affairs while Ralston was squandering their millions. The late brigozoo in Hayti was brought about, it seems, by the despotism of the Vice-President Rameau and the counter projects of the revolu tionary leader, Gen. Larquet. The President, a feeble old man, delegated the practical admin istration to Rameau, who used his power to a> bitrarily imprison and' execute his opponents until he had brought matters to such pitch that the populace revolted. Meanwhile Gen. Lab- QUEt, who had planned overturning the Govern ment and seizing the administration, was march ing at the head of eight thousand troops upon Port-au-Prince. He halted his forces at request of the British Consul, and himself, accompanied by a couple of aids, rode on to Port-au-Prince. He arrived just os the Vice-President, who had attempted flight with the Government treasure, had been murdered by the mob, which set upon Larquet, who met the like fate. Having thus ridded themselves of the Vice-President and tha revolutionary leader, as well as having fright ened off the President, the mob dispersed and affairs became as nearly quiet as ever they art in that model Republic. Nation of brigands though they he, there ft sufficient moral power somewhere In Greece ta moke itself felt in the conviction of bribe-give** and bribe-takers. The ex-Minlsters of Justice and of Ecclesiastical Affairs have each bees sentenced at Athens to imprisonment for tea months and one year respectively for bribe-tak ing, and the three Bishops who paid the bribes have also been convicted and sentenced to pay fines of double the amount of the bribe-money* The New York Herald has once more discoT* ered the great fugitive “Boss” Tweed. Only recently the Herald told how the Boss had been living in retirement up’ town in New York City- Now it discovers that he wintered on the Mus kota River, only 6 miles above the point where it empties into Georgian Bay. There he was snowed in during the winter with a brace of chosen companions, .and disguised ’neath * scratch wig and the assumed name of Btaw, wait ing for spring to start up the saw-mill he had leased. Unfortunately, however, the Boss waf thwarted In his endeavors to enter anon a car**

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