Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune, May 12, 1876, Page 7

Newspaper of Chicago Daily Tribune dated May 12, 1876 Page 7
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GERMANY. jte Political Outlook—New At tempt to Solve au Old Problem. The Different Views on the Relations of State and ‘ Society. nje school of Rousseau and the 1U jlancliester School to Be Su perseded by the Ger man Historical School. in Town and Country —Unprofessionalizing the Public Service. fnedal Correspondence of The Tribune. BBU-S Prussia, April 9.-To write thorough the political situation of Germany, is a most difficult task. The study of newspapers “ no t avail, nor will the personal observation nf Parlimestarv proceedings, both in Reichstag Lid Landtag, give much aid to the full compre hension of the real tendency of things,-of the real coal national life is driving at. It is only •Iter the perusal of innumerable pamphlets and books, after hearing numerous lectures by prominent Professors and other eminent men, that the seeming chaos dissolves itself into something like order, or, at least, or -4T of battle. For battle there is be htecn antagonistic sets of principles, the issue nf which i? Of grand import not to Germany done Ido not refer to the “ Culturkampt. ” Ibat forms a mere episode in the standing cam p„Vn between Science and those forms of ro llons beliefs which have outlived themselves. .4ly subject is, this time, the nr'n a-stacokism between- state axe societt, led Uip ccw and Tcmaiknblc attempt at its so lution "in Prussia-Germany. The theoretical foundations of the edifice now going quickly up ward were laid years ago, especially by Prof. Gneist in his works on Government and Ad-, ministration ("RechUstaat”), all based on mon laborious researches into the origin and Sevelopment of English institutions. But, before Sneist and his co-workers, we have the historical school of writers and statesmen, founded by SK-bubr and Sarigny, continued by Dahlmau iad Geninus, and at the present time in pos ition of most of the Chairs of German Uni rersitics: we find this school placing itself In opposition to the then general views on State md Society, their origin dating back to Rousseau iad the French Revolution of ’SO. The State is Jefined by Rousseau as the mere sum of individ uals living in it; Society and State cover each other, or. rather, the former is absorbed by the latter. ’All citizens are to have equal rights; the general will (lavolante generate)—in fact, the (possiblv tyrannical) will of the numerical uuuoritv—is tJ be the supreme law, not only in regard to State affairs proper, but (according to the definition of State) to ail affairs. The,State was to be ail, the individual- nothin". This theory was translated into practical Govern ment* by the men of the Convention. France became*centralized to the utmost, the life of the nation was c&inged from an organic to a mechanical one. .An all-powerful bureaucracy performed in reality all functions of political and administrative nature; it became, in fact, the Government. The absorption of all national forces into the hands of a professional caste of officials has been THE CURSE OP MOD SIX FRANCE, jnstastbc enrse of the Unitea States has been the practical absorption of all political action by the professional politicians of both the great parties. For both cases, the problem has been how to eman cipate the citizens from the oppressive yoke of the State-and-political-machine runners. The per nicious consequence of this omnipotent State-view has been Communism. The Slate being all and everything. the solution of all possible problems naturally devolves upon it: the (.overdone) Pater nal Government of Frederick the Gr*at of Prussia appears intensified under a democratic form. In opposition to this view, the Manchester school (and partly even John Stuart Mill) puts an excess ive accentdi Socictv. and negatives the State as much as possible. The State appears to the laissez illcr doctrine of modern Political Economy more thccessarv evil, to be abated as much as possible. Sian a positive good. Society is to be left free and inhampcred to perform its miracles by way of fra iseodations; voluntaryism ifl to take the place of con of the old State-action. The United States aay bo pointed at as a kind of model practice of this theorv, circumstances there favoring Is full ' enactment and development core than in older countries. A disirte rration of the State (and nation) will ultimately be Jhe consequence. The power of great interests (manufactures, railroads, etc.) will rule the Legis lature :partyism will prevail over the considerations 0/ general welfare, of which even the phrase will, Iwandbv, entirely vanish. The history of France furnishes the most efficient weapon for the argu ments against and the condemnation of the theory above mentioned, upon which its administration has been based under the Republican as well as under the Ca>saristic form of government. No where has the people done as much voting, made so taanv revolutions; nowhere has there been such endless talk of equal rights; and nowhere, too, has there been SO LITTLE FREEDOM AND SELF-GOVERNMENT. Liberty had but a negative meaning; its positive side never came into consciousness. \V« hear a great deal always about rights, but little of toe all-impor tant duties corresponding and correlative to them. The historical German school endeavors to con ciliate the centrifugal forces of modern society— threatening to dissolve the nations into antagonist ic the centripetal forces of the State, by means of political ana administrative institu tions, by which each citizen is called upon, yes, cojnptlUd, to perform his share in the exercise of public function?, by which each citizen becomes governing a* well as governed. This pub lic service finds its prototype In the ancient Ger man, “Landgemeinde” (Commnnei, the politi cal unit of the old tribal life of Germany. At the same time, when England, that, by the preserva tion of those old institutions, remained free and intact from the revolutions rf the Continent, shows some intimation of leaving its local self government, and of placing important branches of administration into the hands oia paid bureaucracy. Gcrinanv is occupied withtakiagup its former self government principles, and is trying to bring about a compromise by which the professional knowledge of bureaucracy and the inv»oablc initiative of the citizen arc blended into one- by whicha new cement is created to weld togethe* into a new and lasting union State and Society. The dangers and difficul ties of such an undertakhg arc numerous, nor arc they overlooked or underestimated. Fifty years have elapsed since the FIRST STONE OF SELF-GOVERNMENT (town or city) was laid by Stein in his Municipal Corporation act of ISOS. The country outside of titles was still left to the all-powerful and all- Watchful “Landrati,’’ the representative of the bureaucratic State in the “circle” (Iras) or county, and, as for the sliare of the ‘ ‘ subjects ” in law-making and administration of the general State, it remained, down to 1848, a mere advisory one, If any. IS4B made Germanv constitutional according to the French pattern; Parliamentarism was everywhere superposed on the old bureaucracy; but. the' self -governmental institutions interme diate between Commoner (township, city, and manor) and tht General Government being want lag. Parliamentarism was literally hanging In the air, and all attempts at giving it power, at making it tie real ruler, have as vet been in vain. Bureaucracvrctaineditshold, audits monopoly of furnishing the'Cabinet Mi rasters out of its ranks. Neither Prussia nor Germany can he called a Con stitutional Monarchy, in the acccpted EnglUh or French sense of the worth Prussian Ministers arc not the representatives (or afimts) of the party in * majority in the Lower House, nor are they politically responsilfic to it, mr do they go out of office on account of a vote of want of confidence. They are, on the contrary, the servants of and ap pointed solely by the Crown or King, who is not a mere figure-head, as in England but a very papable reality, embodying more of th« initiative in law making and administration that Parliament. The latter, composed of diUeUnti, of persons unversed in the details «f administrative, ten-ice, are not in the poeitioi of taking the lead ftf the ship of State at tee shortest notice, as par ties are in England; it is the bureaucracy (more highly educated than that of any other country) that enjoys as yet the monopoly of thorough ad ministrative knowledge and practice. All the Dills, therefore, originate from the bureaux of the departments, and froqi the Ministers in college as sembled,— in many respects an advantage, as. there by a greater thoroughness is secured; the function of Parliament la practically reduced to suggesting amendments to the Royal bills. To remedy that want cf knowledge, to introduce the future Parliamentarian behind me scenes of the Administration, to mate all citizcas interested in the working of the different sets of State machine ry, to bring about a grand system «f compulsory POLITICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE EDUCATION, has become the more recessary s the growing So cialistic tendencies th-ealen to give new impetus to centrifugal forces, eulangering the vitality of both Slate and nation. The great work of Stein has, therefore, been resimeu; the magnificent torso left by him to a gntefoi people has to be com pleted: tbe adminhtration of the State baa to be vnprofessionalizfd in town, city, county, regie ttmgsbeark(adUtrctcontaiQinc'several counties), tnd province, Bu'cancracy will lave to descend from its high pedctal, and, fro a more or less Autocratic ruler, lecomo a mere presiding officer over equals in ioards of A dnnnis (ration and Standing Com mi tees of laymen, selected by the Pohttcal units, first of .the comty. namely: vy of iaat>y tbe rep rescntatives (magistrates) of the cities; then by the higher units (County Parliament—A'rewcn/*); and finnlly by the recently-organized Provincial Parlia meuia. Decentralization Is thereby carried to the fullest extent, without breaking the cohesion with th« central authorities, or doing away with the—l may say— normatUe influence of the State upon its parts and subdivisions. Laymen arc elotbed with police power, right of taxation, —in short, with self-government in local, county, provincial affairs, the exercise of which must of necessity change moat powerfully the relation between Individual and State, between liberty and authority. Both will have to be dissolved, to use Hegelian phrase, into A inGHEE UKITT. The first great step in this direction has been the new County laws (Aretsordnuny) of 1872, a law explained now fully by R, B. S. Hosier in the Cobdcn Club Essays of 1875. The upper stories of the,uew structure—the Provincial Parliaments and the corresponding Administration Tribunals (Tcr iicaltungsgerichet)* a characteristic feature of Ger man and modern origin—are partly completed, or in the way of completion. The vivifying effect of these reforms, if properly taken hold of by the laymen* —i. e., citizens ingeneral,—upon local mat ters, upon police, poor, and school, and thereby upon the whole life of the nation, will soon make itself felt, and Germany lecomo again, as it has already been in the realms of theoretical knowl edge, tbo bold palhmiticrof a regenerated State and Society. Prussia, in carrying on these reforms, has its eyes un those parts of Germany as yet without the pale of Prussia proper. ThatSaxonv, Bavaria, Wur temberg, and Baden w.ll have finally to become l«irts of Prussia, is foicshadowed by the logic of events. By making its own provinces, the traditions of whom were always scrupulously re spected and cultivated, more independent in re gard to their own affairs, the transition of these stales above mentioned into Prussian provinces will be considerably facilitated, and certainly will lose much of its otherwise painful acerbity. TO LESUME What compulsory military service orgeneral mil itary duty is in regard t) the military education of all able-bodied citizens, the internal reforms above sketched will be for thi political education of the able-minded citizen. The Sew York Nation de clared, the other day, Germany thcbest-discipllncd nation in Europe; perhaps some other day it will point to it as the best (self) administered of all nations. The growth will be slow, as is everything in German latitudes, lut sure and lasting. ASTKONOaiICAIi. Deport of the Directors of the Chicago So ciety—Election of Officers. The regular annual meeting of the Chicago As tronomical Society vas held at the Academy of Sciences last evening the Don. J. Y. Scammon in the chair, and Prof. £lias Colbert Secretary. The first business in order was the presentation of the Directors’ report for the past year, which was as follows: DIRECTORS 1 REPORT. In accordance provisions of the Consti tution of the Chicago Astronomical Society, your Directors herewith present their first annual re port since the reorgrmzation of the Society. Since the last anmal meeting, the Directors have met four times, bit on two of those occasions— viz., the quarterly meetings falling due in Oc tober and January—only sis members were pres ent, being one less than the number necessary to a quorum. Onlyfoirof the Life Directors, Messrs. Stone, Wicker, Wells, and Holden, have at tended cither of tie quarterly meetings. Tour Di rectors submit, ii view of Ibis difficulty in secur ing a full attendance, that it is desirable to amend the rale, and they ask the Society to provide that five members of the Board of Directors shall be a quorum to tramact business at any regular meet ing which shall have been duly called under the rules, Providid, however, that in no case shall any action of tie Board be valid unless it receive the affirmativeyote of at least four mcmbers.of the Board. THE OBSERVATORY has been undir the immediate care of your Secre tary during the past year, and ‘he has £ivcn to it most of the time he could spare from hia journalis tic duties. The, new dome was theoretically fin ished, and :he equatorial telescope refitted iu June last. Sine; then the Observatory has been open every Tuesday and Thursday evening, in fine weather, jor the purpose of enabling subscribers to the fund to use the. telescope. They have not availed toemsclves of the opportunity so much as was expected and desired. A few parties have at tended eften, but the great majority of the mem bers hare not once visited the Observatory during the yea*. Your Directors would have preferred to know tiat all the new members had seen for them selves the work accomplished by the expenditure of the rtoney they contributed, and that all the old memlers had been equally satisfied that the vexa tiouflimpediment to the use of the instrument which were encountered In former years do not now ex ist. They hope that the members will visit the Ob servatory more numerously in future, with such moubers of their families as arc old enough to ajpreciate the privilege of looking through the instrument. Your Directors have not encouraged tic exhibition of the telescope to parties who do rot take a pecuniary interest in the work of the Society. The Observatory is now in ranch better condition than when it was'first built, and the telescooe is better fitted for work than then. The new dome is a trrand success, and several improvements in the telescope apparatus were suggested a year ago br one of toe makers of the instrument. Those improvements have been made by the Secretary, and some others dictated by his own judgment, much of the work being done by him. with little cost to the Society, except for the material used, lie has also, with'considerable personal labor, put into good working order the smaller or transit tel escope, which had been neglected so much that it could not be used except in the day-time or twi light. In recognition of the value of hia services, in this and other respects, it was resolved by your Directors, at the regular quarterly meeting in Jan narv last, to recommend that Mr. Colbert be de clared a Life Director of the Chicago Astronom ical Society. The scientific work done with the equatorial tel escope during the past year includes observations of the appulse of Mars to the Star No. 3 In Sagit tarius on the :20th of June, and the occnltation of the Pleiades by the Moon the 3rd of February. The weather was too cloudy to permit an observa tion of the solar eclipse, Marengo; but prepara tions had been made for doing so. TIME SXGXAL9. Ever since the let of November, 1575, an auto matic report of trnc time has been furnished by telegraph, every minute in the twenty-four hours, to the Chicago Board of Trade, the Michigan Cen tral Railroad, Giles Bros. «fcCo., N. Matson & Co. , Hamilton. Rowe & Co., B. B. P. Shurly & Co., and the Western Union Telegraph Company. The telegraphic sendee is performed by the Western Electric Manufacturing Company under a contract with this Society, which is m force for five years from November Ist, 1875. For this time service the Socletv receives compensation sufficient to pay the current expenses of the Observatory, including insurance. Your Directors hope to see the number of subscribers for time-signals increased. They also call attention to the fact that the Society was furnishing time to the city at the date of the great fire, and that such service may bo resumed when the Court-House Is rebuilt. ENDOWMENT. The income above referred to as sufficient to pay tbe current expenses of the Observatory is not equal to more than that; and those present current expenses do hot Include the salary of ah astrono mer as Director. It is highly Important that a Di rector be obtained speedily, so that the Observatory may be used for purposes of original investigation, in common with the other Observatories of the world. Onr telescope was the largest and bait re fractor in existence when brought here, ten years and two months ago. It now ranks as fourth, still leading the great majority of the telescopes with which so many important astronomical discoveries have been made. It should not be suffered to lie idle much longer, and must remain idle til* enough money Is secured to pay the salary of a Director. Neither should it be experimented, with by parties not pcrfcctlv competent to handle it. The Endowment Committee, appointed a year ago, has not accomplished ranch as yet. It has, however, partially made arrangements for a thor ough canvass of the city, and your Directors re spectfully request that each member of the Society will lend a helping hand. There is scarcely one butconld induce some other person to become a member, and the object is certainly worthy of the effort. During the past year the following gentlemen have become life members: Dr. J. D. M. Carr, A. B. Hitchcock, Mark Skinner, J. 1L Seymour, H. W Fuller, Horace White, Charles Counselman. G. W. Colehonr, J. P. Bonfield, J- M. Van Osdcl, Jr., Marshall Field, L. L. Bond, andJAdam Kilian. The two last namedhave become members by sign ing endowment notes, which securp the payment of $25 per year each. H. a Hew, already a mem ber, has signed a note securing the payment of $25 annually, and 1L N. Hibbard has become a sub scriber of $32 per year, which, with his former payment of SIOO, constitutes him a Life Director of the Society. DIRECTORS, ETC. The t«»TT nw of three of the Directors have expired, and their places should be filled by the Society at this meeting. The gentlemen who retire are John Forsythe, Robert Warren, and a M. Henderson. Mr. Forsythe has attended all of the meeting! of the Board of Directors daring the term of office. Mr. Warren attended all the meetings that were held daring the time he was in the city. During the year the Society baa lost three mem bers by death—Prof. Lapham, of Milwaukee, and George W. Gage, and Col. Samncl Stone, of Chi cago. CoL Stone was a Life Director. There are now about 165 life members of the Society, indudlng the Ufo Directors. The "Library of the Society contains about 454 bound volumes, 170 volumes bound in paper, 540 Samphilcta, arid SO manuscripts.- Total, 1,280 ocuments and,books. The report of the Treas urer shows a balance on hand of $976.78, of which $350 is invested and bearing interest. Your Directors have secured insurance from loss by fire on the property of the Astronomical So ciety. at a cost of 5X60.31, for the twelve months ending Jan. 22, 1877. The report and ua recommendations were unani mously adopted. miscellaneous business. Tbe election of three Directors for a term of three rears,'to take.the place of retiring members, resulted as .follows: John Forsythe, Robert War ren, and IL C. Ranney. • A committee was appointed to prepare appro priate resolutions in regard to the deceased mem bers mentioned in the report of the Directors. The Secretary was instructed to prepare a pam plet setting forth the history, aims, and objects of the Society for ceneral distribution. Alter some' discussion in reference to Issuing certificates of membership, the Society adjourned, • x THE DIRECTORS for the election of officers of the. Society for tto ensuing year was then held, and resulted as fol lows: president —J % Y. Scamroon. Vice-President— W. 11. Wells, Secretary— Prof. E. Colbert. Treasurer—R. c. llanney. ter ,- hc traction of some farther ftatfctenb the meeting adjourned. THE BEACH HIEES. Private !Lcttcr from a Chicago an, Cdsteb Cnr, Black Dills, April 23.-I have reached this place after a hard struggle with the heat and the cold, the rain and the snow, the winds and the dust. 1 got here this morning. Vaughn is here also, and this afternoon went up French Creek,—the creek this town Is located on,—to see if it wouldn’t pay to work some claims which arc open for, us to take, as wo have to wait for the ox tcama bringing our provisions, and the delay will be unavoidable, as wc must have more provisions before we move farther north Into the Dills. This town stands badly In need of provisions of ail kinds, —food for man and boast. You can imagine how bad the roads, and how se vere the weather must have been, when it has taken us twcntv-elght days to move over these 2GO miles between here and Cheyenne,—a distance that has been traveled time and again in fourteen days by wagons no heavier loaded than ours. Of course, what has delaycdus travelers has kept back freight ers, and now prices of groceries are: $lB to's2o per hundred for flour; bacon, 40 to 45 cents per pound, etc. The truth of the matter la, bad weather and Indiana are the cause of all the trouble. Bad weather kills the horses; and the Indians scare, and sometimes kill, the people on the road here. Vaughn’s experience and mine will testify to the bad weather; and let me give you an account of a massacre that happened last Sunday (Easter-Snnday): Charles iletz, a baker, who came hero to do busi ness from Laramie City, was in a wagon with his wife and negro sen-ant, passingthroughßed Canon, a place in the Dills where the road, for 12 miles almost, is between walls of solid rock hundreds of feet high, and where, when wo were on the road, wo were told to be very cautious, or some of us would catch it from the Indians. Eight ahead of Metz, about a mile, were three other men—two in the body of a wagon, and one driving—the only one that was a mark for the Indian shots. lie was llred at and shot through the hack, lie jumped out, still whipping up his horses, running in a stooping position, keeping hie head below the bed of the wagon, when another shohstruck him in the calf of the leg. “When he came to the road where there is a cut-off, he tried to take the short cut, but his mules could not draw the wagon out of. the ditch, and be unloosened H and made his escape; but the men who were with him could not do so, and were killed. The man now lies in a rancho at Chevonno River, where I conversed with him, and is not like ly to recover very soon, if he recovers at all. Alter they shot him, they went hack and attacked the bakcrand his wife and servant, and killed the three. It was a clear massacre. They have been in the habit of attacking: small parties, and several per sons have lost their lives or been wounded on the same route, at different points, only a few days apart. There was almost a stampede from Custer when the news came, last Thursday, of the Sunday massacre. Business was at a stand-still, at any rale. P. j. O’C. E. SciILAEGEH, P. S.—The effect of the Indian fights have pass ed away by this lime, and, although this is Sunday, house-building is going on; one place is weighing out gold dust; another place is putting up scales to weigh the same, and, altogether, the little town (for it is only a collection of log houses,) has a busy look, very un-Sunday-like. Dubuque, la., May I.—Will you permit an En glishman to ridicule au American disease which, for want of a better name, I will call Anglomania, There is in your country an aristocratic element, which, curiously enough, calls itself the Democ racy. In sentiment and feeling, it is in sympathy with the Toryism of England. In this element this disease originated, and lam sorry to see that it is spreading even among a better class of Americans. It broke out seriously on the 9th of March, in the United States Senate, Gen. Gordon showing the most violent symptoms of it. His speech that day would probably have fallen unnoticed upon the country hod not Tits Chicago Temura called at tention to it in words commendatory of its tone and temper. This gives it importance. Gen. Gor don’s statements are loose, his plans impracticable, his methods, unstatcsmanlikc. He fails to distin guish the differences in the character, institutions, and circumstances of England and America. It seems incredible that au.American Senator would Mato approvingly that “So fully docs Great Britain appreciate the necessity of removing her revenue ofiicers from the temptations and corrup tions of party, that they are forbidden to belong to auv political organization, and a vote by one of them'for a member of Parliament would send him in disgrace from the service,” I think Senator Gordon is in error here; hat, if the statement were true, it would reflect hut little credit on the En glish Government or its office-holders. It is very easy to test the statesmanship of this principle as applied to this country. Let a bill be introduced into Congress to the effect that hereafter the civil officers of the Government shall he exempt from the duties of citizenship, and be prohibited from voting. Would even Senator Gordon support such a kill? I think not. It is very doubtful whether the English system of appointment for life, which Gen. Gordon praises so highly, would be congenial to the tem per and genius of the American people- An ex clusive body of office-holders, without votes, and relieved from political duties, would have no sympathy with the people, and would soon fall under their contempt. Gen. Gordon, still laboring under his attack of Anglomania, - proudly boasting of England, 'tells the Senate that, * ‘Before one of her citizens is con sidered competent to hold the very lowest position in her Revenue service, he must be nominated by the Treasury, examined by Boards of officers, put out to tuition, and re-examined as to qualifica tions,” and so on. Yes; in England we hold that a man should serve seven years' apprenticeship to a trade, and work at it seventy; that each man should he competent to one employment, and no more. In this country you have a theory that each man is competent to anything; you all work up to that, and have very nearly proved it- 1 remember how my countrymen looked with astonishment and awe upon Lord John Russell when Sydney Smyth de scribed him as so plucky and self-reliant that he would take command of the Channel fleet to morrow. "Well, what American is there who wouldn’t take command of the navy to-morrow, if he could get it, unless he happened to have posses sion of a hotter thing?—not because of a conceited belief in hia ability to command the navy, but be cause of his confidence in his ability to learn to do so in a short time. Your late war proved how rapidly shop-keepers became Captains, Colonels, and Generals. I do not say that your Civil Ser vice may not be reformed, and perhaps you might with advantage take some hints from the English; but this examination by a “Board” con tains many elements of humbug. It does very well as a test of clerical ability, but'will always fail as a test of administrative, talent. During flib War you had these “Boards” in the different military departments, before’which officers used to be sent for examination. I know of a Captain who, in the thirdycar of the War, was sent before the “Board.” Ifc had fought at Belmont, Donel eon, andßhlloh; could handle a company well in camp, on the march, and in battle; but he was riistv in the classics, his grammar was the old fashioned, flint-.lock variety, and he had forgotten a heap of history. The very first question “mus tered him out.” They asked him: “Captain, In what vear did William the Norman invade En gland?*’ Ec answered: “I do not know, nor do I care ad—n- I regard that as a dead issue.” Fortunately, only officers of inferior grade were sent before these Boards. Yon will admit, Mr. Editor, that hard questions like this would have sent Gen. Logan highcr'n a kite. 4 There is a great deal of corruption and Inefficien cy in the English Civil Service that never comes to light. Bribery at elections Is'common, almost universal, in spite of the statutory penalties amunstlt. My recipe for the euro of Anglomania is'a simple one: A careful, candid comparison of die social and political life of England with that of this country. Balance fairly the ’ merits and de fects, the advantages and disadvantages, of both; and. when that is done, the American who decides in favor of England is, in ray opinion, a snob. There is one point of comparison, however, In which yon will miserably fall; that is in the fair and just administration of the law. England Is a land of law. Onr Judges arc neither time-serving nor corrupt; our juries are not packed; a crime like the stuffing of ballot-boxes could scarcely oc cur in England, because of the certainty of pun ishment that would folidVv the perpetrators; and this certainty of punishment for crime has a great deal more to do with the honesty of Revenue offi cials in England than the system of appointments, or the tenure for life of the office-holder. Re spectfully yoccs, Ax Englishman. Funerals touched weddings at the point of feast ing, and were often expensive, showy, and pomp ons occasions. In some parts of the country, cs ?cciolly among tbe Dntch of Long Island and New brk, it was the custom for a young man to lay by hia earninss after coming of age until a sufficient sum had accumulated to provide for him a “ re-' spectable” funeral when he should come to die. Oftentimes the young burgher would reserve half of the portion of wine which he had liberally laid, in for his marriage, to be need at the faneral of himself or bis wife. Special Invitations' were sent ontfor funerals as for parties. The clergymen, pall-bearers, ‘ and physicians attending, were pro vided with scarfs and gloves, and sometimes.each with a mourning ring; while the feast which fol lowed the interment, at the house of the relatives of the deceased, elaborate with cold roast meats, wines, liquors, and pipes, was not unfrequently an occasion of coarse excesses, sometimes de scending into hilarious and noisy demonstrations. A 4 4 respectable ” funeral of this dcscripion might cost perhaps SI,OOO, while the funeral of the first wife of the Hon. Stephen Van Rensselaer Is said to have cost hot less than $20,000. —Edward MibotV* Xevoluilonarv Times." A murder-ease awaiting trial at the Cuddapah Sessions in India last month was, according to the India papers, expected to give rise to much legal discussion as to whether the circumstances justified the charee. A juggler who alleged that he pos sessed some power which rendered him “buliet Eroof” invited the prisoner in the caso to aim at 5m with a loaded musket, assuring Mm that he Tnifffrf. do ep without the slightest fear of producing any painful- seEolt& Ths prisoner peopled (ho THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE: FRIDAY, MAY 12, 1876 "ANGLOMANIA.” 3b t?te Editor 0/ The Tribune, Funerals in 1776. Singular Murder-Case. kind invitation, and with a loaded musket pre sented to him by the juggler Immediately sent a bullet through his head. - •It Is urged that as there was no intention on the part of the prisoner to kill the deceased, the ’ charge of murder cannot be maintained. The juggler was thoroughly confi dent of his own Invulnerability, and several of his relations who were to be called as'witnesses for the defense were prepared to prove that, although sev eral times shot at before, no was never hurt. Some few years ago in England a * * wizard ” at one of the theatrcs'beggcd one of the audience as a favor to lire a gun at him. The spectator thus invited loaded the gun with a charge of shot he had brought with him for the express purpose of testing cru cially the alleged invulnerability of the wizard. The result was painful in the extreme,—the wiz ard’s face was peppered with the shot, and the spectator who fired the gun was given into the custody of the police. Both narrowly escaped death,—one by the gun, the other by the gallows. BANK OF CALIFORNIA* The True Story About the Suspension- Testimony of. Directors and Stockholders —Ralston’s Actual Indebtedness Fully Stated. SaxFbascxsco, May 9. —The civil suit in which the proprietors of. the Bulletin newspaper sought damages against the publisher of the AUa Cali fornia for libel, growing out of publications in ref erence to the failure of the Bank of California, has been commenced by the lairing of tho depositions of several witnesses. D- 0. Mills, Jong a Director and now President of the bank, testified that its capital was 53, 000,000 at the date of the suspension, in August last, and its surplus, as reported on tho books, was 51,000.000 additional; by the books the liabilities of the bank at the time of the sus pension were about 514,000,000, and the nominal assets, good, bad, and indifferent, were some thing over $20,000,000; tho failure was considered to have been caused by the management of tho then President, Mr. Ralston; from the reports of the Committee and Board of Directors Mr. Ralston was a large debtor to the bank; the reports made it not far from $4,000,000; the indebtedness was reported to arise from various sources; there was one largo deficiency in the refinery account; it amounted to from 32,000,000 to $2,230,000, be ing overdrafts by Mr. Ralston’s checks; this de ficiency stood on the books of the bank as a debit against the refinery; the refinery was supposed to owe that much money, and the Committee reported that tho money was not owing by the re finery, but had been used by Mr. Ralston; the bank owned the most of the refinery, and it was considered to bo under Mr. Ralston's control as President of the bank; other deficien cies arose through certificates of or. what were reported to be certificates of deposit, where the money had not been paid Into the bank; this amounted to $580,000; it was reported by the Committee that the moneys had been used by Mr. Ralston for his own private account; ho had signed the certificates, but they had not been registered nor passed through the books; the bal ance of the. Indebtedness was reported as having been mainly carried in the hank on cosh-tags of Mr. Ralston, and, before the suspension, accounted for other hills discounted; bills unavailable and indorsed by Mr. Ralston were considered part of his indebtedness; the money was supposed to have pone to Mr. Ralston for his private purposes; these acts were concealed from tho Directors and other officials, and they did notanpcarinihescrai-aanual examinations in Jnnc and Julv. Being asked if money was not sent into the hank in advance of these examinations for the purpose of being counted and showing alargeamountaud thcnaenlout again, being on loan, Mr. Mills, without denying the 'inti mation of the question, replied:—“l cannot speak from ray own knowledge. In reply to further ques tions the witness estimated that there was left of tho SG. 000,000 capital and reserve fund from SI,OOO, - 000 to $1,500,000 of available assets; the capital was impaired to the amount of at least 53,500, - 000; the reserve fund proved to be nominal; the bank sold to Mr.'Sharon, the United States Sena tor, and since the suspension, upward of $4,000,- 000 of Indebtedness for $1,500,000 in money and $500,000 contingent; they approximated the in debtedness (of Ralston) at somethingover $4,000,- 000, and, with the concurrence of the Board, this indebtedness was sold to. Mr. Sliaron on the terms already indicated; the contingent $500,000 is re garded by the bank as only a nominal asset; the in debtedness sold to Sharon was Ralston’s Indebted ness to the bank; dividends at the rate of 1 percent n month had been regularly paid by tho bank dur ing the last three years—out of the general depos its. tbc witness presumed. George H. Howard sworn: Was a Director of the Bank of California in August last, and is such still; one cause of the failure of the hank was the large amount of money withdrawn by Mr. Ralston; the Committee stated this amount to be somewhere in the neighborhood of $4,500,000; it was under stood that he took this for his own private pur poses, without the knowledge of the Directorswit ness was elected only tho last meeting of the Board prior to the failure; he knew nothing of the over issue of stock or the destruction of stock for the purpose of making the stock which was not genuine stock stand as good stock; as other mismanage ment on the part of Mr. Ralston accounting for the failure he cited unsecured loans of large sums of money toll. F. Williams and the Hon. W. M. Stewart; there was also a small loss to McCrcllish, of the AUa; these unse cured loans be supposed were legitimate; they all stood on the books of the bank. The witness con firmed Mr. Mills 1 statement that there were mon eys withdrawn from the refinery by Mr. Ralston, which the bank had to mako good. Michael Reeves sworn: Had been a stockholder in the Bank of California for two years past; bold 2,000 shares: he1d2,400 shares also as collateral for loans of $30.000 to Moses Ellis and $150,000 to Burling Bros.: ho supposed when ho made the loans that the stock belonged to the par ties pledging it, but after the hank failed Burling said that what he pledged belonged to Mr. Rals ton; witness said he knew the cause of the bank failure; be hod occasion to examine and found the money all gone; he believed Mr. Ralston had used it for his own uses. A Use for Locusts. London Times. A means of utilizing these insects, the dcstrnc tlve effects of which were described in the Times of Wednesday, has been devised by a French physl cian t Dr. alorvan, of Douamez, Finisterre, and consists in preparing them in different ways as bait for fish. In America, where swarms of grasshop pers often do serious mischief, devastating large tracts of country, traps have been devised for catching, these insects; but, except in.a few in stances, where they have been used for manure, they have not been made to serve any useful pur pose. Dr. Morvan dries the locusts in the sun, presses them into barrels, and subsequently smashes them info a paste, which is made into small balls and thrown into the sea during fishing operations. Another method is to boil the locusts before making them into a paste. This bait is of an oily nature, and is said to bo eagerly devoured by the sardine or pilchard. Large quantities of cod’s roe are used bn the coasts of Brittany in the prosecution of this fishery, but the increasing high price of this bait has lately been a serious addition to the expenses of the fishermen, who have eagerly availed them selves of the novel substitute. Bait is not gener ally used in the English pilchard or sardine fishery, different modes of fishing being adopted by those employed in France, bat in those instances where cod’s roe has been tried it has been found to at tract large numbers of fish. The increased de mand for pilchards which the operations of the Comish Sardine Company of Falmouth arc likely to create, for the purpose of preserving fish in oil, in the manner which' has found so much favor, will probably lead to the more extended use of bait, and loensts or grasshoppers will no doubt come into requisition in Cornwall, as well as in France. The experiments of Dr. Jlorvan were considered so important by the French Govern ment that 100 barrels of locusts were supplied by the Governor-General of Algeria, and transported to Brittany to be tried on a larger scale at the cost of the State. The results were so satisfactory that during the ensuing fishing-season the locust bait is expected to bo largely used. An Historical Tree In Constantinople* Correspondence London Daily Telegraph. Let it not be thought, however, that the Turks ore quite incapable of valuing an historical monu ment, They have one which they appreciate, and which they are trying hard to preserve. It is a plane tree which stands in the Hipprodromc, at Constantinople, opposite to the Mosque of Saltan Achmct, and which serves to commemorate the Sower and the fall of those audacious solders the anissariea, who for so many centuries were alter nately. the glory and tho disgrace of the Turkish Empire. On tills tree, in the yearl6s6, and in the , course of a revolt against Sultan Mohammed the Fourth, the Janissaries bung np eight of the chief officers of State whom the terrified Sultan had giv en over to their fury. On this tree, one hundred and seventy years later, Sultan Mahmoud hung up seven of the leaders of tho Janissaries, who nod been dragged out of tho blazing barracks in tho Etmeidan, at the close of the massacre; and under neath the tree were piled the bodies or more than two hundred others who were shot down. as they tried to escape. At sight of this hideous spectacle a Turkish poet (for in 1826 Turkey still had poets) improvised some grim verses, of which the follow ing is a translation: On thee, 0 tree I in the old time, impious men hong the innocent servants of Allah. To-day, around thee, the criminals lie stretched in death. Verily, 0 tree 1 thy fruits were ripe and they have fallen! T e Turks arc taking considerable pains to pre serve this tree. Large plates of metal conceal the wounds which time has made in its trunk, and pro tect the interior from the rain. But as a rule they are not given to the preservation of monuments, and their neglect of tho great plane trees at Bn yukderc, under which Godfrey of Bouillon is said to have rested, and which are rapidly perishing, makes it clear that their care of the plane tree in the Hippodrome does not arise from any senti mental reverence for ancient trees, but merely from a desire, perhaps a wise and politic desire, to perpetuate the memory of the bloody tragedy which was last enacted under it. A Natural Wonder— With ft TradltSoD, Catcher City {Eos. ) Scha. The Great Spirit’s Spring; situated Jost east of this city, on a mound some 33 feet in height. the which will cover, an,acre of ground, has hern Jin; subject of more letters and cOitorials than any eral curiosity In the State of Kansas. In years gone by the Indians of the plains assembled here periodically, to make sacriuccs and partake of the waters of the spring, which than, as now, contain ed wonderful medicinal properties. An old Indian tradition has it that on the summit of mound, and on the very edee of the spring (which is 20 feet in diameter and twice ns deep), once occurred the bloodiest hand-to-hand encounter between two In dian Lovers, that the aavege or‘enlightened eye ever . behoZiX ‘.The_htos of . chs hfifikltful Indian Princess Wabcondah was sought by two Indian braves, and while the lovely dark-eyed maiden permitted her affections to go oat toward the younger, her stern parent de sired her to wed the elder and wealthier of the two. One beautiful spring morning, as the sun peered over the far-eastern bluffs, it beheld the gentle Kansas zephyrs toying with the lovclr maid en’s hair, while she, all unconscious of her beauty, was listening in virgin bashfulncss to the vows of her favorite. The elder lover approached the spring to bring his morning ‘‘sacrifice. when this scene met his gaze. The eyes of the braves met. and they resolved at once to kill each other, well knowing that neither father nor daughter would consent to a wedding with the dead one.' With true Indian stoicism, RTahcondah. silently embroid ered a new breechclout while the lovers disperately fought for her band.--At - last; as the end was drawing near and the battle seemed likely to ter minate m the triumph of Wahcondah’s favorite, by. an unlucky misstep both were plunged into the spring, and, being too weak from loss of blood and continued exertion, sank to rise no more this side of the happy hunting-ground." Wahcondah gazed for a moment into the limpid water, fast being dis colored by the blood of the only being she could ever love, and then with one long, wild,- piercing shriek, pinnged in to meet him, from whom to be separated was more to bo dreaded than death itself. The scream attracted the attention of her matter of-fact old parent, who came'up to the summit of the mound and fished out the romantic princess to trade her off to a neighboring chief for two dozen ponies. All romance in her life ceased here, but additional interest (and medicinal qualities) since attach to this wonderful spring. An Extraordinary Fire-Proof Suit Invented by a Swedo. Kolnische ZfUuttff. A few days since an exhibitioner thenewOest berg firo-extinguishing apparatus took place on the Linden strassc, in Berlin, in the presence of the Emperor,.the Empress, the Crown Prince, the Grand Duke of Baucn, the Swedish Minister, the Ministers of War and the Interior, and other dis tinguished persons. The inventor, who is "a Swede, named Ocstbcrg, and Messrs. Brandt and Nawrockf, who had charge of the exhibition, were presented to the Empress before the experiments took place. rttopt, Ahlstrom appeared in a peculiar-looking ’costume, made of the Ocstbcrg invention, and walked into an immense fire made of wood satu rated with petroleum. The heat of the fire was so intense that no one else could approach within SO paces without being burnt or scorched- The Captain, however, walked around in the glowing pile perfectly undisturbed, leaning on the burning wood, and finally quietly seating himself on the coals. Ho remained in the fire for fifteen minutes, and, on his coming out, every one pressed around to sec how much he had been Injured. Ho was un , harmed, and, in spile of tho Emperor's assevera tion that ho had seen enough of so dangerous an experiment, Capt. Ahlstrom went again Into tho fiery oven. On finally emerging, he took off the suit, and ap peared clothed in red flannel. The Emperor said, ♦ * One must sec this to form any just conception of it.”' He then asked Messrs. Brandt and Xawrocki about the patent in Prussia, and, when informed that the application for a patent had been refused, expressed great surprise. Sale of Art-Treasures. On April 3 began tho dispersion, at the Salle Drouet, in Paris, of the art-treasures of the Chat eau de Vanx Praslin, so full of historical associa tions os the princely residence of Fotmnet In the first day’s sale was the Sevres ’ porcelain, among which a soup tureen, pate tendro, 2,290 francs; two tall Japan jars (potfehes) 2,100 francs, and another pair, 2,810 francs; a third, 2,200 francs; a vase (potichc) of Chinese porcelain, richly enam eled, of the rose family, 2,510 francs; two faience eagles, blue jasper enamel, after Bernard Palissr, 3,losfrancs; flat pilgrim’s bottle in gray stone ware, enameled blue and gray, 3,650 francs; ebony clock, period Louis XVI., of bronze, richly chased and gilt, 26,500 francs; fire-screen of wood, carved and gilt, and decorated with Gobe lins tapestry, 7.400 francs; commode, period Louis XVI., 3.100 francs; drawing-room suit, period Louis XYI, covered.wlth Gobelins tapestry, with pastoral subjects after Boucher, 25,100 francs; series of three Beauvais tapestries, sub jects after Boucher, surmounted with the arms of France and Xavarre: Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne, 24,000 francs; Triumph of Vulcan. 9,380 francs; Venus and Apollo, 7,900 francs; hangings of a bed, in ancibnt Beanvals tapestry, 8.200 francs. These, with various fine specimens of bronzes and furniture, of the Louis XIV., XV., and XVI. periods, formed the first day’s sale, which realized 315, Sl4 francs (£l2, G 32), Chinese History of a European "War, A Chinese history, in eight volumes, of the French-German War, has recently been presented to the Library of the British Museum. The Lon don Athcnamm, mentioning this work, says: “The authors, Wang Taon and Chang Taung-Cang, as stated in the preface, collected the materials for their work from foreign newspapers, and the ac count they have compiled is highly creditable to their critical and editorial abilities. In the present state of Europe the authors find a parallel to the condition of China about 300 years before Christ, and as that was one of the most disturbed periods in Chinese history, they evidently* consider that peace is not likely long to continue among na. In fact, the only prospect they see of avoiding hostili ties is in a firm alliance between England, Franco, Russia, and Prussia I The history begins with a general sketch of Europe, and then proceeds to the immediate causes of the war. The celebrated in terview between Benedetto, who is called ‘Peen ni-tch-ti, 1 and the King of Prussia, at Ems, which appears os ‘lm-sze, 1 the various battles, with tho crowning disaster at ‘Sze-tan 1 (Sedan), and the siege of Paris, all are fnlly described, and the book closes with the election of ‘3lak-ma-han as Presi dent of the French Republic.” An Indian Interment* Reese Riser (Xrr.) Rezeillt. A couple of days ago, a squaw died ont at Yan kee Blade, and the Indians buried her and her in fant together, without taking the trouble to make a corpse of the latter. It is a custom with the Plates and Shoshones to bury the dead mother and living child together, when the latter is too young to keep itself- In this instance they dag a hole, threw the woman into ft, and laid the infant on her breast, covering them over with brush. In ex planation of their conduct, one of them said, “Baby no good; no got milk; bimeby heap cry; die pooty soon anyhow.” It would be an impossibility to convince an In dian that he is doing wrong by thus abandoning a helpless infant as a prey to the coyotes and carrion birds; it was the enstom of his fathers, and be can see no wrong In it. A white mrn does not like to interfere in such a case; for'to try and'rear the child would be a hopeless task, and no white man would feel justified In dashing Its brains out with a stone. Besides, the Indians would feel greatly aggrieved at any intorfexenco with this pleasant usage of thefts. Protection of Children* Tbs law-passed In New York for the prevention of cruelty to children prohibits the employment of cruelty to children under 16 years of age m beg ging. peddling, or in any public entertainment, singing, 'dancing, or acrobatic; and any one so using a child can be arrested for the misdemeanor. Persons exhibiting the child will .be considered guilty, as well as those apprenticing or giving it into their control. Formerly the- Society could only interfere when there was evident brutality or great danger to life' and limb, as In the case of “Prince Leo,” but hereafter it will bo able to compel all exhibitions of children to be stopped, and, If necessary, the young performers may bo sent to some institution. The Superintendent of the Society intends to enforce this law in prevent ing the nso of the little girls as bouquet-sellers at night, such employment exposing the children often to immoral associatianss; and all persons em ploying children in this way will be prosecuted. The law will also cover the Italian fc * musical com binations, living on the results of the labor of the little street-musicians. A Cst’Slsh on Top of the Bine ZUdgo* ReteffhWdySens. We would os Boon think of walking ont into the woods ofWakc Comity to see an elephant as going up on the top of the Blue Ridge to catch a fish. And yet Major Wilson told Frank Waddell, of Hillsboro, that in pumping water from the bottom of a shaft ISO feet deep and immediately on tho top of the Blue Ridge, a cat-fish was fished np from the bottom about 8 inches long. There is no water on the Blue Bidgo except what collects there from the mountain springs, and where this cat-fish come from is a mystery. A Iloojg Tunnel Through the S&oir* yirginta City C2S»> 'Cbrqniae. The-work of ending wood through the X5-m2Ze flume of Mackey & Fair isn’t fun by. any means. The mow is sUQ from 15 to 30 feet deep in the high Sierras where the men are now at work. In. order to supply the rolßs of the Pacific 3EII and Mining Company, Mr. Hereford has been obliged to tunnel over AmQcs through tho snow, the tunnel being used as a roadway for the wood to bo floated down the flume.' At every 200 yards of this immense a cross-cut, so to speak, lias been made, for the purpose of throwing np the snow cat away in Ute tunneling. Book-Binding, Among the specimens of hook-maktec prepared by D. Appleton & Co.» for the Centennial Exhibi tion, there are two volumes of “Picturesque America,” bound in crushed brown levant mo rocco, in a style intended to illustrate tho binders’ art without the extrinsic aid of the ieweler, the goldsmith, or the engraver. Every line and dot has been worked by band. • The designs are ex quisitely done in outline, and inlaid with red and bine morocco, presenting a rich mosaic effect. A similar style of binding was shown in the exhibi tion of 1853, and there obtained the highest award. • A TOAST. Two Important Discoveries! The discovery of America by Columbus, and Dr. Pierce’s Golden iledical Discovery; the one opening up to mankind a new continent, the other a foun tain of health, which is indispensable to the lull enjoyment of life and its blessings. la re. >rto the above sentiment come the un solicited attestations of tens of thousands of grateful patients, who have been relieved of chronic ailments through its instrumentality. Those voices are limited to no one locality, but from every city, village, and hamlet, in our broad domain, as well as from other climes, and in the strange utterances of foreign tongues, like thf ' myrnirif.. hi" many ~waterg, come unfeigned and hearty commendations. It is, In combination with the Pleasant Purgative Pellets, the great depurator of the age. Under its benign action eruptions disappear, excessive waste is checked, the nerves are strengthened, and health, long banished from the system, re sumes her reign and re-establishes her roseate throne upon the check. All who have thorough ly tested its virtues in the diseases for which it is recommended unite In pronouncing it the great Medical Discovery of the age. AITICSEMEIVTS* HOOLEY'S THEATEE. MAGUIRE & lIAVERLT .....Lessees WILL E.‘ CHAPMAN Manager SUNDAY EVENING, MAT 14, PAPPENHEIM. GRAD OPERA GALA SIGHT. Manager Gran has the honor to announce an en gagement with MME. EUGENIE FAPPENHEDI, assisted by Miss Clara Zciglcr, Miss Alberti, Messrs. Betz, Prcussc, and Franosch, of the Wacfatcl Grand Opera. The performance will consist of the Fourth Act of 1L TROVATORE, Third Act of FAUST, and Fourth Act of LES HUGUENOTS, with Complete Orchestra, Scenic Effects, and Cos tuming. Trices, $1.50, sl, and 50c. The sale of reserved seats will commence at oa. m. Friday, at Lyon & Healy’s Music Store and at the Box Office of the Theatre, ■ ADELPHI THEATEE. COUTH!(JED SUCCESS. MAZEPPA; OB THE WILD HOUSE OP TABTABT. The thoroughbred Horse FALCON. Miss KATE RAYMOND as Mazeppa, strapped on the hack oS the WILD HORSE, will ascend from the footlights to the extreme height of the stage. LEV ANION BROS., accomplishing their won derful feats in mid air: never before attempted. JOLLY NASH, the Great London Comique. DeWltt Cook, Emerson & Clark, and Great Adel phi Company. Matinees Wednesday and Saturday. Evening performances at 8 o’clock. Prices, 15, 25, 35, 50, and 75c. THE COLISEUM. This Monday Evening, May 8, and during the week MURPHY AND MACK, The inimitable Irish Comedians. mss BELLE CELESTE MB FRASK 3105E0E, The Aerial Gymnasts. Fields and Hoey, tlie Musical Coons. BLANCHE SELWYN and BEN GILFOIL. J. H. LARKIN and CARRIE ARMSTRONG in their Batch Characters; and all the favorites of last week, AMonsterCorapany. Crowdediiooses Nightly. Admission as usual. SEW CHICAGO THEATEE. B. 3L j&OOLET_ UNPARALELLED SUCCESS. HOOLEY’S MIKSTBELS. A PERPECTOVATION ACCORDED NIGHTLY, AN ENTIRE CHANGE THIS WEEK. PIQUE, by John Hart. Bernardo, and Brockwav. TROUBLES OF A NlGHT—Little Mac. Billy Rice, and Lament. BANJO SOLOS—E. 3L Hall. Double Jig—Murphy and Morton. Specialties— Joe Mack. The great BERNARDO. To conclude with Newcomb’s Original Sketch, WHO WROTE SHAK§PEARE. Characters by the Entire Com pany. Matinees Wednesday and Saturday. Mati nee Prices, 23 and 50 cents. McCOBMIOK HALL. 6UXDAT AFTEESOOS, May 14, MR. A. P. BURBANK Will give a new and choice programme of Humor* one, Dramatic, and Dialect Doors open at 2p. m. Reading begins at 3. Admission, 10 cents. McTIGKEE’S THEATRE THIS EVENING, . MAGGIE MITCHELL in toe charming domestic drama, 3?E-AJRXi OF SAVOY. M ARIE, the Pearl of Savoy, MAGGIE MITCHELL, supported by Mr. WM. HARRIS and her own Com pany. Saturday—Maggie Mitchell Matinee. Next week—Maggie Mitchell as Lorlc and Jane Eyre. EOOEEJ’S THEATRE. MAGUIRE & IIAVEELT lessees. WILL E.~ CHAPMAN..... .........Manager. First appearance MONDAY EVENING, May 8, and each evening thereafter. M HM-AV. THEATRE CdPMT, in the hit of the season, PIQUE! Box Sheet open six days in advance. . Matinee Wednesday ana Saturday, commencing at 2 p. m. Snnday -Evening, FAPKENHEDI in OPERA. COL. WOOD'S MUSEUM. RETURN of the inimitable Irish Comedian, T_ G-jR-A-TT-AOST E.IGG-S, for Thursday, Friday, and Saturday Nights, and Saturday Matinee, May 11, 12, and 13, inthegreat local drama entitled the IRISH DETECTIVE, Mr. Riggs assuming seven distinct characters. OCEAN STEAttSHU»S. OEI DIRECT LIE TO FRMCE. The General Transatlantic Company’s Mail Steamers between New York and Havre, calling at Plymouth (G. 13.) for the landing of passengers. The splendid vessels on this favorite route for the Continent (being more somberly than any other), win sail from PlerNo. 43, North River, as follows: CANADA, Frangcull ...., May 13 LABRADOR, SacKlier Saturday, May 20 AMERIQCE, Pouxolx Saturday, May 27 PRICE OF PASSAGE IN GOLD (including wine) : First cabin, Slio and Si2o, according to accommoda tion: second cabin, 1572; third, S4O. Return tickets at reduced rates. 'Steerage, $26. with superior accommo dations, Including wine, bedding, and otno fills without extra charge. Steamers marked thus * do not carry “‘“TBjffSSßus: Agent, 55 Broadway, N. T. JW. F. ■'WRITE. No. 67 ClarJc-Sfc, corner Randolph, Agent for Chicago. STATE LIME. NEW YORK TO GLASGOW, LIVERPOOL. DUBLIN, BELFAST. AND LONDONDERRY. These fim-classfafl-poKTredsteamere vlll saQ from Pier No. 42. North Elver, loot oi New York: STATE OF TNp.LA^V--. ~ ——Jj May 18 STATE OP PENNSYLVANIA,——...Thursday, June I STATE OF VIRGINIA Thursday. Jane 15 .And every alternate Thursday thereafter. First cabin, scr> and S3O, according to.accommodation. Return tickets. $125. ' Second cabin. SSO; ret am tickets. SOO. Steerage at lowest rates. Apply to JOHN E. F.ARLB, No. €0 dark-fit., Chicago. STAR BALL LINE. UNITED STATES & 6BAZIL SLA.IL STEAMSHIPS, Sailing monthly from "Watson’s Wharf, Brooklyn, K. Y. For Para. Pernambuco, Dahta, and Bio Janeiro, calling at St. Jobn's. Porto Rico. JOHN BRAMALL, 2.500t0ua.~.—.... ■ ..Monday May. 15 .T. B. WALKER. 2, *OO tons .—..Tltursday. Jane 15 NELLIE MARTIN, 3,000 tons. Saturday, July 15 Passcnecr accommodations first-class. For Ireiebt and passage. at reduced rates, apply to J. S. TUCKER & CO., Accnw, . 54 Pine-sU. New VonC- Mb German Lloyd. The steamers of this Company win sail every Sstur day from Bremen Pier, foot of Thlrd-st., Hoboken, lutes- of poasa^G—From New Tori; to Southampton, London. Havre, and Brcnusu first cabin, $100; second cabin. SCO, sold; steerage, S3O currency. For freight or passage apply to OELRICHS & CO.. gpowllngtireea. Now York. Anchor lias United States mail Steamers. New Tort and Glasgow: ETHTOPA. May 20, 2 p. m. I BOLIVIA. Jane 3, 2 p. tn. VICTORIA, May 27,3 a- ro- I AL3ATXA, Jane 10,3 p.m. New York to London: UTOPIA, May27.o a. m, 1 AUbTRALIA-Jc.10,2T).m New York to Glasgow, Liverpool, London, Belfast, or Londonderry: Cabins, SOS to S9O, ctrrreney, accord ing .to accommodations. Excursion tickets at. se duced rates. intermediate,. $33; steerage, $23. Drafts lasaed for any amount at current rates. HENDERSON BROTHERS. Agents, 9G Washlngtoa-it, AMERICAN LINE. KBX3XJOEJD RATES To and from LIVERPOOL, QUEENSTOWN, and all ports in Great Britain and the Continent, '.' J. H. iULNE, .Western Agent, CUNAE.D MAIL LINE, Sailing three times a week to and from HriWh Porta. Lowest Prices. # 'Apply at: Company's Office, northwest mm« Clark and Randolph-sh?., Chicago. P. H. DP VEKNET, General Western Agent. WMte Star Mail Line. To and from Europe* and America.* Rates as low as by any other .{hit-doss .Line.- 'Office. 130 East Bonaoiph-st., Chicago. ALFRED LAGEKGREN, General Western Agent. Draft* on Great, Britain and Ireland. * Great Western Steamship Line. From New York to Bristol (England) direct. CORNWALL. Stamper...*. .Saturday, May 30. SOMERSET, Western Wednesday, June 7. Cabin passage, S7O; Intermediate. $43; Btocwre,s3o. Excmslon ticket*. $120; Prepaid Steerage certificates, *2©.- Apply to wax. F.. WHITE, «7 Oark-*t. .Michigan Hie Cheapest Gilllißl Cat Loaf Sugar.. fB lb , ji ( Powdered Sugar, $ 2> n t Granulated Sugar, tb lOtfi A Standard Sugar, a 10 c A Sugar, 9 ® B Sugar, 9!b g s New Orleans Sugar, $ ®.... 8 c 5-gallon kegs Tabic Syrup .V...V53. 00 German Mottled Soap, 60 bars, per b0x...53.75 Kirk’s Plain German Soap, 60 bats, perboxS3.so Klngsford’s Starch, G-pound box.. GO c Kingaford's Oswego Com Starch, a n o 15 pounds best Carolina Rice SR 00 ' New York Cheese, 9 T , r . 13vtg Mackerel, 15-pound -T. Jsi.2s * Wliitcfish, 15-ponodkits I. SI.OO Soda Crackers, best, 3 pounds f0r......... «o 1 Pitted Cherries, !b. 26 0 Pared Peaches, lb 00 e Chow-Chow. Crosse & Blackwell's, Qis.— 60 o Corn, 2-® cans, per dozen $1.50 Tomatoes, best,3-D cans, per d0zen...,..51.50 Pic Peaches, 3-lb cans, per dozen .Si. 75 Raspberries, per dozen cans . ....*..51,75 jE’XiOTJS.r Minnesota Spring Wheat, best, perbrl.,„SaOO WbiteJWinter Wheat- best, pcrorl $7.00 Minnesota Patent, per bri——— .S7-75&8.50 TEAS = Japan, s£>, 25c, 50c, 60c,.....standard, 70c. Gunpowder. 9 lb, 35c. 50c, 60c standard. 00c Young Hyson, 3?®, 50c, GOq, 7oc,..standard,9oc Oolong, ®. 35c. 50c, 60c, standard, 70c English Breakfast, #®, 50c, 60,73, ..standard,7sc Full weight Standard Quality, Satisfaction Guaranteed. Delivered free in all parts of the city. J-. isicjsiso 113 East Madison-st, Just east of Clark-st. RAILROAD TIME TABLE. MM AND DEPARTURE OF TRMBS Explanation of Reference J/itrt*.—t Saturday cx» cepted. • Sunday excepted. t Monday ezceptea. I Ar rive Sunday at 8:00 a. nu § Dally. CHICAGO & NORTHWESTERN RAILWAY. Ticket Offices, 02 Olark-su (Sbennan'Bohse) and 75 Canal-street., corner Madlson-su. and at the depots. } Leave. / Arrive. ' aPaclQcFast Line pio:3oa. nu •i: 40 p.m. aDubuqueDayEi.vlaCllntoa;*lo:3oa. nu • 3:40 p. m. aDubuque NJjfhtEs.vlaCl*toa,tll:oop. m. t ftjsOa. m. aOmaha Night. Express !til:oop.uL t r>:3o a. m. nPrecport & Dubuque Express • 9:15 a. nu • 3:30 p. m. oPreeport & Dabunne Express • 9:30 n. m. *• fl:is a. nu Past Mall (dally)s 7:30 a. nutf 4:00 p. nu Express piO:UO a. nu • 7;SO n. nu Passenger p s:no p. m. *10:35 a. m. Passenger (dally) {11:00 p.m. $ 5:00 a. ro. 6Green Bar Express f* 9:30 a. nu • 7:00 p. m. bs t. Paul*Minneapolis Es.^. , lo:ooa.m. • 4:«)p. m. t>sz. Paul * Winona Express.. + 9:45 p, m. 1 7:00a, m. bMarqnetic Express —.piOtoop.nu,* 6:30 a. m, ctCcncva Lake Express... ..p 4:00 p. nuplO:4Sa. m, frOcnevaLake Express... !* 4:45 p. m.i* 7:00 p.gfc a—Depot comer of 'Wells and Klnzle-sta. b—Depot comer of Canal ami Kinde-aia. MICHIGAN CENTRAL BAILEOAD. Depot, foot of Lake-st., aadfooC.of licket-otlice, 67 Clark-st., southeast comer of dolpb, ami at Palmer Boose. 1 Leave, Arrive. JraßCrti Main and Air Line) • 5.00 a. m. * 7:30 p, m. Day Express ; •9.00a.m. •8:00p.m. Kalamazoo Accommodation... * 4. C0n.r0. MOglOa, nu Atlantic Express (da11y)..—... ft 5.15 p. m. 5 8:00a. nu Eight Expre55............ t*9.oop. m. r«:3oa. nu Grand Rapid* and JfusAyjenu Morning Express. • 9.00 a. m. • 7:30p- nu Eight Express .. 19.00 p. nu * 6:30a. m. t Saturday Ex. * Sunday Ex. ♦ Monday Ex. 5 Dally^ CHICAGO, ALTON & BT. LOOIB and CHICSBQ ' KANSAS OUT & DENVER SHORT DINES. Union Depot. West Side, near Madlson-st. bzidca * Ticket Odices; At Depot, and 122 Raadolpb-st. I Leave. I Arrive. Kansas City ADenver Fast Ex. !*12:30 p.m.U 2:40 p. nx St. Louis & Springfield Ex r* »;oo a. m. j ♦ 7:50 p, nu St. Louis, Springfield & Tcxa*. $ 9:00 p. m. $ 7:40a. nu Peoria Day Express t* 9:00a. to. I* 7:50p. nu Peoria. Keokuk & Burlington.p 9:00 p. m.p 7:40a. nu Chicago«b Paducahß. R. Ex.. • 9:00a. m.p 7:sop.nu Streator, Lacon, WaalTton Ex. pu.-aop. in. • 3:40p. nu Joliet d: Dwight Accommdnfn * s:i«p. mJ. 9:20 a. nu LAKE BEORE & MICHIGAN SOUTHERN. | Leave. Arrlvo. MalL via Main Line 6:40a.m. 8:00 p. sa Special X. Y. Express. 1 9:00 a. nu moo p. ex Atlantic Express, dally 1 5:15 p. m. 8:00 a. ns C'olehoarAccommodation....l 3:40 p.m. 11.-ioa.ro, Eight Express {tlQtdOp. m. { 5:40a. m. CHICAGO, M l l,w An k kE fa QT« PAUL mTT.U)AT^ Union Depot, corner Madison and Caual-sts. Ticket Office, 63 South Clark-st., opposite Sherman Hotwu and at Depot. Leave. Arrive. Milwaukee Express.—6 -J2S am.* p. nu ■Wisconsin & itlancsota Thro* Day Express *10:00a. m. • nu Wisconsin, lowa, and Minne sota Express • sAsp.su *UhX>a. su Wisconsin & Minnesota Thro’l Night Express it 0:45 p. nu ft 7:00 a. ny All trains run via Milwaukee. Tickets for EU Paul sad M 1 oneapolls are good either via Madison and Prairie da Chita, or via Watertown, La Crosse, and Wlaoaa. ILLINOIS nrrwTRAT. bahsoad. Depot, foot of Lakc-st. and foot of Ticket Office, 121 Itaadolpb-st.. near Clark. I Leave. | Arrive."* St. Louis Express • 8:40 a. m. '• 8:45 p. nu St. Louis Fast Line } 8:35 p. m, 7:30 ju m. Cairo & New Orleans Ex..—.. • 8:40 a. nu • 8:45 p. nu Cairo Night Ex...... § 8:35p. nu:§ 7:30 a. m. Springfield, Peoria A Keokuk • 8,40 a. nu ,• 5:30 p. m. Springfield Night Express..— 3 8:35 p. nu;s 7:30 a. m, Peoria and Keokuk Express. • 8:35p. nu ;• 7.30 a. m, Dubuque&Slonx City Ex..— • 9:30a. m.?* 4:30p. m, Dubuque ti Sioux City Ex..... • 0:25 p. cup 7:00 a. nu Gilman Passenger. * S:i6p. nui* Dutr»a. nu CHICAGO, BURLINGTON & QDINOT RAHROAU Depots, foot of Lake-st.. Indlana-ar*. and Slxteentb ac.. and Canal and Sixtccntb-sta. Ticket Offices, 56 Clark-at., and at depots. « Leave. \ -Arrive. Man sad Expren— a. nu *7:4op. nu Ottawa and streator Poaaeog’t * 7:30 a. su * 7:40 p. nu Eockford, Dubuque 4 Sioux City ; • 9:30a. nu • 3:40p. nu Pacific Fast Line, for Omaha. *10:00 a. nu * 4:00 p. Kansas City, Leavenworth, Atchison A St. Joseph Exp. *10:00 a. nu * 4.-00 p. nu Aurora Passenger * 3:15 p. nu • 7is a. Mendota, Ottawa 4 Streator Passenger. . * 4^op. m. * 9ri*Sa. tzu AuroraPaaecnger.. • Stsop, nu *9:008. m. Aurora Paascuger (Sunday)— lKX>p.-cu. 10:10a. uu Dubuque & Sioux City Exp—. * 9:25 p. m. * 7:00 a. bu l*adfie Night Exp, for Omaha to. 1 7:10 a. ZQb Kansas City, Leavenworth, Atchison <x St. Joseph Exp.. fKhOOp. nu f 7:10a. xtu Downer’s Grovo AccommoiTa *HKX)a. nu * 2:03 p. m. Downert Grove Acconrouxfti • 1:45 p, m. • 5:25 p. nx. Downer’s Grovo Accommod'xi * p. nu * 6:45 a. nu Texas Express.—riQaPO p. m. 1 7?40 p. • Ex. Sunday. Saturday. LSx. Monday ttrte AND CHICAGO USK Ticket Offices- 83 CZsrk-et., Palmer Bocso, Orxef Pacific, and at depot, 122 Michigan -«rr., earner MadM son. Trains leave from Exposition Bofldlag. Leave. Arrive. Day Expzce—PnUnan Draw ing-Jfoom Sleeping Cats, to New Yorfcwtthoat change.. fcSOa. QU B:lft*. bw Atlantic Express PuDman pmaceDmwlng-Roota Sleep- IngCara and Hotel Car 5...... 9?OTp.m. 8:10p>^ Only line man log the hotel cars to New York. PiCTHBIJm FT. WATtSfe 05IGAG0BAlL’W’ATi } Leave.~ Arrive. DorExpreffl * 0:00a. m. • 7:00 p.m. Pacific Express. 5 5:13 p, m. 10:30 a. nu Bocal Ptaacagur—Fast Mall $ 3:00 p. nu } 9:00 a. nu Fast Line tUhODp. ro. v 8:00 a. nw Mall • srtCa. nu * 5:05p. nu * Sunday excepted- {Daily, f Saturday cxc»buL t Monday excepted. EALTIHOKE & OHO RAILED AD. Trains leave from rear of Exposition'Building and foe* of Twenty-iocond-su Depot comer ModUoa-tU sad Mlchigan-av. . City office, 83 Clack-it., coaasr at Washington. [Leave. J Arrive. * 7:40a. nup S:lOp. nu * 8:52 a. zzu $ 8:10 a. nu Fast Express 1) s:ddp. nui* 8:10 p.m. IDaQy. 'Dally, Sundays excepted. CHICAGO, BOOK ISLAND & PAOEFIO BAHSOA2X Depot, comer of Van Boren and Sherman-sta. Ticket ofilce. Grand Pacific liotcL | Leave. Arrive. Omsbs,Learenw!Gi A Atch Exl*Io;OOa. nu -4:oops. nu Peru Accommodation P 5:00 p. m. * 0:30 a. nu Night Express. frlOiOOp. nu t 5:55 a. nu BCSiNESS CARPS* PTTTT. T BOOKSELLER, II I : U\ 'STATHM3, - f I #1 g a i i 5L .1 JU I Irf IfKKttadlaon-at^' _ ■ * "r'iavstoro W.of Dearborn, IsSuiiAXt, ■ -■ : * Ojjlce of Comptroller of the Currency, ? ‘ Washington, Fob. 3.1876. > An peraons having claims agsliut the Fourth Nation* al Bank of Chicago, lIL. arfThcrehTnotiaed to presenl the same, and 10 make legal proof thereof within three - months, to Charles D. Sherman. BqcclYcr, a^>h® - pasi 9 t KWbMtJainput,of • Manager, r GROCERIES.

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