Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune, December 6, 1866, Page 2

Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune dated December 6, 1866 Page 2
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- (El)tfago QuibimCc DAILY, TRI-TTEfKLV ASD WEEKLY. OFFICE. No. 31 CLAK&..T. There arc three edition* of the Tcibcse Issued. Ist. £vrry moraine. f>r circulation by carriers, newsmen *nc the rralis, 3d- The Tei-Wmxlt, Moadtys, Wed sts-inye and Fridays, fbr the malls cnly; and the WKLALT,oa'lhar»(liyt,foi the man* and sale at onr coi’.ttcr nedhv ccwt-incn. Terms of the Chloaao Tribune i Dally delivered m me aty (per woes) *9 » 1 “ •• - (per quarter).— 3.53 Daltv, to mall subscriber* (per annum, pay*- Mr In.advance) —• ... ....... l»,yu Til-tVpcth-. fper aimm. payable In advance) 0.00 Weekly, (per armors. pajaMe In advance) *4.00 Fractional parts of the year at the name rates. gTTenors rcmltttnc and ordering flro or more coplc* of either the Tri-Weekly or Weekly editions, EByretalntenrvccatorthßsnbecrlpuon price as a None* to sruECxnsna.—ln ordering toe address ot your papers chanced, to prevent delay, be tore and t-v<vifY what edition yon take—Weekly, Tri-Weekly, c:Dally. Also, givcyonrrßEsrsTandfatQreaddress. gT~ Money, by Draft. ExpTM. Money orders, or in Bolstered Letter*, maybceentaioar risk. Address, TRIBUNE CO., Chicago, 111. THURSDAY, DECEMBER C, ISCO. THE BIGHT ITIOVJK, The scheme of Andrew Johnson to estab lish Stale Governments in the recent Insur rectionary districts having proved an utter failure, and those so-called Governments having proved to be more rebel in spirit and in fact than their Confederate predecessors, it becomes the duty of Congress to provide Uoverumente for the people of those dis tricts. They are now without legal gov :rnnunt of any kind, aud subjected to a lomestie rule which is no more than bare- Iced usurpation. Fidelity to the American I nion is. bad fkith and treason in those sta*cs, oi.d hostility to the Union and service in its overthrow are the evidences of patri otism. The work of reconstruction should he commenced without delay, abd It should commence at the root. The old dynasty should be extirpated, and reconstruction should commence as if there never had been, any previous Government in these States. We arc rejoiced to see that the House of Representatives, by an overwhelming vote, have adopted the suggestion of the Tribune to tlie extent of ordering the Committee on Territories to report a bill or bills estab lishing Territorial Governments in those parts of the country hitherto known as Virginia, North Carolina, Sonth Carolina, Gcoigiu, Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, and Texas. This is right. Andrew Johnson never uttered a greater truth in hi* life than when he de clared that if there were only five thousand persons m a State who bad been and were loyal to the Union, the entire government Of that Slate should be in the hands of these live thousand, to the exclusion of all others. Congress owes it to the people of the coun try that they provide that all portions thorn f be ruled and governed by those who ate loyal, and have never been traitors to the Union. The resolution adopted bv the House, indicates that that body at leo>i, is alive to the duty, and has ho will to perform that duty. Let 7«Ji»gTe?s at once practically nut an end to he fiction that State Governments can be .•reared by Executive proclamation, or can :iirl without legislative sanction oi recogni tion. Lei them at once stamp out of exist ence the fraudulent Governments now upheld by the Pp-sident in the rebel Stxtcs, and if the President wants to test whether he or the law making power is entitled to rule in this O'Uidry, let him try the issue on the qtiestion whether his Governments or those established by law, shall prevail. It is the impression of the country that the supremacy of the law was an issue in the late war, and that those whorebclled against tlie law fared disastrously; but, if the Presi dent wants a pretext for another rebellion, lei Idm attempt to uphold hls organizations of traitors against the Governments created by authority of Congress. Congress should so legislate upon this sub ject that these Territorial Governments may be organized and put in operation without delay. The right of suffrage under the Ter ritorial Government should be established upon an impartial basis,—no one to be ex cluded. except for treason or other crime. Willi these Governments in operation a few years, ll is possible that the rebel popula tion of lire South will learn that the people of-he North have done with trifling, have no compromises to make, and propose that this Government shall henceforth bo free, ard shall be controlled by the majority. hen they have learned that lesson, they will probably be In that frame of mind that they may loam in addition that in ibis coun try treason cannot he made a virtue, and that to J/e once a traitor, is to be thenceforth a political outcast. The rebels lie vinglnsuUmgly repudiated tho kind and liberal terms upon which Congress proposed to recognize and accept their bo gus Btute organizations, let them now have the alternative of being ruled as territorial possessions by the United States, through officers Paving no taint of treason. Let Con gross go «.n with the work. They know the wishes ami feelings of the people, and there I* no longer any apology for wailing upon tbf sullen pride, or insulting contumacy of baified traitors. THE IUBON ASD ONTARIO SHIP CANAL. Our older citizens will remember the dis cu.-.-i-’i.s urd conventions In relation lo this enterprise ten years ago. The project was then called the Georgian Bav & Toronto Ship Canal. The company originally char tered to do the work has,been reorganized nmlv: the name given in the heading to this article. F. C. Cuprcol, Esq., of Toronto, Is the rre.-idert of the Company. A brief re ference to its history and Us present pros peels will be interesting to our commercial readers, aud, in fact all our farming com munities will be largely benefited bv the success of this great enterprise. What the We.-t most needs are Increased facilities and cheaper means of transit lor her vast pro dm*iF to the ocean. The agilatioa of tbc subject commenced in the winter of 1553-J, and resulted in Octo- ( her. 1855, in the holding of n convention in ; Ti renin, at which tho Board of Trade of j this city wore represented by the late George ! Circle, Esq., and Lieutenant Govcroop'Broaa. A mrvey was made under the direction o! r. oi mmittpo of this Convention by Kivas Tally. E-q., and Colonel R.B. M-iren, of this city, as consulting engineer. That survey demnnsiiatod the eutlre feasibility of the T »'"rk at a cost ofs22,odd,od3—a large sum, it is true, but the estimates were made for a ship canal of a thousand tons burthen. This, wiifi the- enlargement of tho Bt.'Lawrence caua’s to a similar size, would afford the npodfd facilities for the commerce of the aud it will never have the means of tran.-il eommemurate withiUncccssitics till this great international work is accom plished. With any good map of tbc United States, or of Canada West, let tho reader notice tho Noitawasaga River, that enters tbc Georgian Bay n«ar Colling wood. The route from the canal is up * hu river till within nine miles of Luke tiiucoc. This lake is reached by a cut. when there is twenty-two miles of lake navigation and ten miles mnre through the Holland marine* wh?rc common dnmroics or excara lor* wili dig the canal without the least trouble. Here the main difficulty of the wotk is lu a ridge through which a deep cut must he made for ten miles, and of that about a mile will be one bundrfed and ninety seven Oace through the ridge, the canal would follow down the valley of the number River to Lake Ontario. The eleva tion to be made from Lake Huron in reach ire Lake Sunecc Is aboa*i ouc hundred and evcniccn feet and the descent thence to .like Ontario about four hundred and eighty. CY‘ n f-ct. There would by this route be ess thm forty mile* of close canal naviga ion. tin. balance of tbs total distance of a nndrH miles between the Georgian Bay and Lake Ontario would be made through tbc valleys of tbc Noltawasaga and the Humber rivers end Lake Simcoe. By this ibort ro;-te the entire passage through the St. Clair River and the lake will; its flats, the Detroit River, Lake Erie the Welland Canal would be saved tnd a vep.-el would find herself In Lake Onta rio at Torontobcforcshecould reach Detroit. Tke first company failed, as everything che did, in 1557-3, and a new one with Mr. Caprcol as President was chartered by the Canadian Parliament. We learn tha* during the last summer the company have been hard at work examining the entire line, and have found the route a most favorable one. The two deep cuts show no Insurmountable ob stacles. In order to make both the difficul ties and the advantages of the work palpa ble to the senses, a cast has been made of It showing the proportions of the cuttings, the location and coarse of Lake Simcoe and tlievollcys of the NottawasagaandthcHum her rivers, and with the numerous borings made in the ridges to test the quality of the material to he removed, probably every fact that can have any important bearing upon the construction of the work, is now fully under stood., . From the Toronto of November 20th, we learn that the counsellors of the County of Simcoe have voted an approprla tlon to the work of five hundred thousand dollars. It is stated that the County of Kings will probably do the same; and if the city of Toronto properly understands her own interest, she will duplicate both amounts. With such a basis the company 'onld go forward with the assu »ncc that confidence would be inspired in U success, and that Is all that is wanted to any it through. In our judgment it can bo town beyond a question that it would so beapen the cost of the transportation of rearlstufis aud provisions bclwccu Great Britain ami Lake Michigan that England could well afford to build tbs ouliro canal every three years. Make this plain to John Bull, and it will be buiit as fast as men and money can do It. . The Board of Trade of thirdly have re ceived a,letter from the President of the ComnaK of which the following Is a copy: K3* SimoH Aim Ontario Snrr Camas. i;o., » Touojtto, .November Slat, IBS'*. f tm: I have the honor to transmit lu you tb* lollowmg copy of a resolution oasscJ recent meeting of onr Board of Provisional Directors: “Thai the Western Umled tiiatci being, at the. lea i, equallv Interested with Canada in too con struction of (he proposed Huron & Ontario Ship Canal, it is expedient that the aid nod co-oocra tionof lbo.-e butes no aougbt in order to in ac contpllshmeni. The President I> therefore here by authorised to invito a commlt'eeof the Chi cago and Milwaukee Boards of Trade to visit To route and comer with this Board ami our mer chant* as lo the beatmeana of seen tine the early undertakD w ° Bt m P oliant international -I** accordance with this rosolntion I beg resoccl mny to invite a committee, composed of tnca cenUemen aa your Board may think proper to an point, to visit Toronto, and give ns the bonedt of their advice and suggestions as to the best means of seeming the active co-operation of the Webern slates in this Important work. The lieutenant Governor or.our slat., Mr. Brest, It ac attainted with this project, and me .nperlnrltv or the route eta the Geergtan Bar and'Tontnto over all others. I rttonld f«I obll-cd by an early Intimation of thcdlspo.'llon of vonr Hoard In tills matter, and ll it be favorable, £ hope that an early day will be fixed for the visitor the committee. 1 have Jhe honor to be. Sir, Your most obedient servant, __ „ Fnxn. C. Capreot., W. Oatixt, President, Honorary Seen tary. The Pneidetil of toe Board of Trade, Chicago, Illinois. /*l'hc following are the committee appoint ed by the Board ofTradc in accordance with • lie invitation contained in the resolutions of the Canal Company: Hod. Wm. Bross, Chairman; Chas. Randolph, Wesley Munger, H. C. Ranney. J. S. Rumscy, Hugh McLennan, Jas. F. Bal* lantine, Esqrs., and Captain W. M. Egan. At a meeting of the committee held at the office of the Secretary of the Board of Trade on Monday it was decided that the commit tee leave this city for Toronto on Monday evening, December 17th, provided that time would meet the views of the Committee of the Milwaukee Board ofTradc and the Canal Company at Toronto. We hope the com mittees will go prepared to give the Can ediaus tbc facts and figures In reference to the rapidly increasing commerce of the West on which the directors of tho Canal Company can make the most convincing re poits in regard to the vast business that will pa s through and pay tribute to the canal for all time to come. The West has too many and too large drafts on her energies and capital as yet to do very much in the way of furnishing funds for public improvements, but if our Canadian and English friends will build the canal we can assure them all tbc business it can do at good paying rates for ell future time. This controllng and most important fact can be demonstrated beyond, any possible doubt. JOHNSON’S VIOLATION OF PLEDGE*. It was the constant boast of Andy Johnson, while swinging around the circle, that ho always yielded implicit obedience to tbe will of tbc people; the voice of the people he always obeyed, and it gave him pleasure to carry out their wishes. He challenged any man to point to an instance in bis long offi cial career, from tbe time he left the tailor’s bench until be was made President by assas sination, in which he had ever disregarded the will of the " sovereigns.” He always bowed, lie said, as an "humble individual,” In profound deference to their behests, and tlu-lr wishes were law to him. He fiercely denied that tbc present Congress represented the will of the people on the reconstruction issue, but were merely " hanging on to the verge of the Government.” He submitted his " policy ” to the people for endorsement or rejection, and pledged himself to abide by their verdict. The people have rendered their decision. They have repudiated Johnson’s scheme of reconstruct ion and have sustained the action of by a popular majority of nearly half a million of vote*. They have declared, In tones of thunder, from Maine to California, that Congress, alone, shall determine the conditions on which the rebels may be ad mitted to a participation in tbe Government ol the Union. They have ordered Andy Johnson to execute the decrees of Congress and cea?c his intermeddling with the consti tutional prerogatives of the law-making Department of the Government. They have notified him that he has no authority to organize State Governments for defunct rebel States, and they have decisively and unmistakably told him to confine himself t) his plain legitimate functions of enforcing the laws made by Congress, instead of violating and disregarding them or making laws to suit himself. Has he redeemed his pledges to abide by tbe popular verdict ? Hus he withdrawn "my policy,” so em phatically rejected by the sovereigns at the polls? Has he bowed to tho majesty of the people ? Read hls message for the answer. He therein impudently reaffirms and urges Congress the adoption of his odious project of foisting bis bonus Slate Govern ments into the company of the legitimate Slates, aud insists that without further preliminaries, guarantees, or reconstruction, that ten contumacious rebel communities si all he forthwith allowed to participate ou equal terms with the loyal and Constitu tional Slates, in the Government of tbc na tion! Johnson is a regular Bourbon who lea ms nothing and forgets .nothing, who treats tho popular will with utter contempt, who Impeaches bis own veracity, and disre gards hls most solemn and oft repeated promires. If he were not a rebel Southerner at heart, who hates tbc loyal masses of the groat North, as rebels hate them, he would m>t thus shamefully stultify himself and de grade the dignity ofhis high olllce. COLOUADI). Congress, at its former session, passed a bill for tbc admission of Colorado as a State of the Union, but it was vetoed by Mr. Johnson, and so tho matter ended for the time. Less was known then In regaid lo tbc affairs of that Territory than Is known now, and much that has since transpired tends to show that Congress should promptly act on tin; subject, and even veto the President’s veto If it should become necessary in order to admit Colorado. It would appear that the groat sin of tlie people of that territory, in the eye of tho President, is, that they do not support hls policy of reconstruction. Governor Cum mings Is the follower and tool of Mr. John son, and in order to perpetuate his own rule ami the ascendency of "My Policy ” in the Government, Is doing all In hls power to prevent the admission of the ten Rory. He g;.ve a certificate of election to Mr. Hunt, the Copperhead candidate for Congress, be fore the votes had been officially canvassed or the result declared by tic Board. The official count showed tlt-it Chilcott, hls Republican oppo nent. was elected over him by upwards * l a hundred majority, but Cummings never fh less refused to take other action in the imitler. At tlie lime the Board of Canvass ers met to proceed with the legal count. In the presence of tbe Governor, according to the provision of the statute, Cummings seized the returns from the table and at tempted to run off with them, but was pre vented from doing so by physical force. He til? n sat down in one corner of the room, and after glancing over the returns, said it didn’t make any difference what tho beard did—that Hunt was elected, and that he should give him the certificate. Thus wr.s achieved that celebrated victory for the Administration, which Doolittle announced to the assembled rebels and Copperheads of tbc Philadelphia wigwam with such a flour ij': of trumpets. It has been represented by Ibe Governor 1 hat the population of the Territory has de c- ased, and that the census only shows t enty-f-ix thousand. But this statement ap p- to he as baseless as Doolittle’s victory. \ he census on which be professes to found bis «.'-imate, was imperfect and incomplete at N st, and at the time the Governor published ifi • statement, six of the most wealthy and i- pulous counties had not been returned at all. The population is doubtless two or lh:cc times as large as represented by Gover i.or Cnmraings. The solid wealth of Colo rado, her great natural resources, tho un doubted prosperity of her increasing popu lation, a* d tbc sterling loyalty of her people, n.title her to immediate admission to tho Ui.ion. We have little doubt Congress will promptly accord her this justice. north « aiiolina. The Implacable spirit of rebellion that r. ijusto the people of North Carolina, has .)• c-elvcd a signal Illustration in the selection < f a United States Senator by the so-called Legislature of that State. The choice fell upon M. E. Manly, late a Judge of the Su preme Court- Judge Manly is one of the most vindictive secessionists in Nortli Caro lina, If he does not head the list of treason. During the rebellion, acting in bis official capacity, he strained every point to give the most unlimited authority to the rebel Execu tive and Congress, and construed the con script law, in eases of habcat corpw, with a zeal which won the warm approval of the chiefs at Richmond. For these and similar f-civiccs, he has secured his reward. The selection of so violent a rebel, so soon after the loyal men of the nation have ex 2>resscd their will at the ballot-box, U the best possible evidence that the ruling class in North Carolina arc still as hostile as ever to the Union; that they lack the means only, not the disposition, to renew the bloody struggle for Southern Independence, and that it is their settled and deliberate purpose to meet the conciliatory spirit of the North only with scorn and defiance. This Manly could not, of course, take the test oath required by law of all Senators, and- to send him to Washington is but to insult the body to which he is sent, and to proclaim determined and continued resis tance to the declared will of the majority. It has dearly become the duty of Congress to take hold of the question of reconstruct tlou in North Carolina in earnest. The so called government that sends such rebels as Manly to the Senate, should be snuffed out, extinguished, without u moment’s unncecs s.ry delay. It is time to-teach these Indo lent enemies of the Union, that they and not the loyal men were defeated in the late war, and that the will not permit secessionists and traitors to tnwart the will of the victors. We must have loyal Governments In every Southern State, and us long as the people arc too stubborn and rebellious to maintain such Govern ments, Congress must supply them. Senator Doolittle vi.sltcd Mobile last week, and a grand dinner was given him on the night before Thank>glving. Among the guests who extended the right hand of fel lowship was ex-rebel General Winston, ruccnt‘y elected to the United States Senate by the so-called Legislature of Alabama. Several other former dignitaries in the rebel army were present. Doolittle was toasted as tbc "champion of tbc restoration of the Union and the equal rights of all thn States lately at war.” To this he responded in a long speech, modestly accepting the title bestowed upen him by tbc host. It is evi dent that Doolittle is much more at home in Alabama than in Wisconsin. lie had better accept the invitation of his constituents to resign, und take up his abode among those who sympathize with hls opinions. NEW PU BICAT IONS. CHEAT IN GOODNESS: A Memoir op GeoroeN. Driocs, Governor of the Commonwealth of from 1544 to 1851, ByWntiAX C. Richards. With Illustrations. Cloth. Pages 452. Boston ; Gould and Lincoln. Church and Goodman, Chicago I£6G. Five years ago the faithfiiV George N. Briggs came to his death by the accident discharge of a gun; and a pure-minded man and tried public servant was lost to the Union aud to Massachusetts. But his exam ple lives, and the Republic will not willingly let it die. In a country like tbc United Statescthe memory of such men aa Mr. Griggs ought to be cherished, for it needs to be made certain to the tyros of statesman ship that merit will always be recognized. Mr. Griggs’ father was a poor blacksmith and never entered a school house till he was twenty-one years of age. When George was a little boy the family moved from Rhode Island io Vermont, and afterward to North ern New York. At the age of fourteen he became a member of the Baptist Church, and was early distinguished for hls earnestness in all matters of religion. Hard work took the pluceof schooling; and he was put to a trade. Many years from that time, when the humble hov had grown to manhood and held the highest honors lu the gift of hls State, a lady in a brilliant company asked him at what college ho graduated. With great gravity and courtesy of manner he instantly replied,,"At a hatter’s shop, madam.” He staid with "the excellent Quaker” hat-maker three years. In his eighteenth year he might have been seen by some burgher of the town of Adams, In Berkshire County, Massachusetts, Inidglngln from the country with an old trunk on hls hack and five dol lars in his pocket, determined to exchange the destinies of his hat business for those of the law. By the aid of a kind brother, lie studied two years, practiced economy and upon the death of hls patron brother, opened an office, married a wife and legan lo be discouraged about a living. The young lawyer, against the rules of the profession in such case made and provided, refused to 2-hnd the cause of xcrong, and of course, as the fashion is, he was written a " fool,” a “stupid fellow” and a failure. His father-in-law made the honest poverty no more beauti ful by telling hls wife that George could not live 1 y law. Better days came. The Cluji him a cause before the jury which gave him reputation. Ail else was easy, lie went to Congress In 1831 and served twelve years. In ISM he was elected Governor of Massachusetts, and again ami again till 1651. Hear hls worship ful biographer place him on the record; "He rote from the drudgery of the hatter’s shop to the dignity of the magisterial bench ; he advanced resolutely, step bp step, from a precarious pupilage in a village law office to the power of the jndicial ermine; he climbed out of the obscurity of humble birth and burdensome poverty to the shining eminence of the national council halls ; he translated a child hood almost unprivileged from tho meagre nets of Its opportunities, into a manhood of broad and beneficent Influence.” We wont this book and all of its kind to prove a success. Tbc more such heroes there arc for the biographer and tho more the memoirs are read, the greater will be the number of disciples and the more numerous the rewards of merit. A SUMMER CRUISE ON THE COAST OF NEW ENGLAND. By Robert Cautxu. Cloth. Pages 10'. Boston: Crosby & Nichols. Sold by Cobb, Pritchard A Co., Chicago. A chatty book about sea-llsblng sports, coast scenery and so forth, by the Washing ton correspondent of the New York Tribune. These sprightly chapters will bring up many pleasant remembrances to those who have coasted along the picturesque inlets of New England. We have only room for a brief sample of tbe manner in which Mr. Carter serves up hls entertainment. He thus presents the "fish story” of the poor flounder’s mouth : " St. Christopher, a mailyr of tbc third century, one tlar took it Into Ids bead lo bless tbe fishes and to preach to them. All the inhabitants of tbe deep came and listened with attention and respect exrcpt the flounder, who derided the holy man by making faces at him. The saint, In dignant at the insult, cursed the whole brood, and condemned them forever after to exhibit their mouths awry.” lADY'S ALMANAC FOR THE YEAR 16/J7. Green by Gtonox Coounnx; Published by Jot ami tbcpHid, Boslod. A pretty little vest pocket (lady’s pocket) volume. In blue and gold. The iutroduc tojy poem is ** deferentially submitted to ilic editorial brotherhood.” But tbc lead ing feature la the game of croquet according to ttie standard recently adopted by a select committee of experts In England. Tlie work is replete with Jems of the best literature. There is memorandum blank for every day in the year, beside the accompanying alma nac, and a well chosen frontispiece, with exquisite lines for each month. Tho pub lishers promise to mail the Lady’s Almanac, post paid, lor fifty cents. CHARUE CODMAN’S CRUISE. A slory for boys. By Horatio Atoim.Jn. It too. Cloth. Pp. £sl. I’iice, ?1.v5. Lorfug Publisher, Bos ton. Sold by Wm. B. Keen & Co., Chicago. An interesting sea story for boys. The talc is without morbid excitement; and the huo Is a noble little fellow. The Mount Ver min slreet merchant and hls pretty little daughter, with the sayings and doings of Charlie's kind mother, stir up the better feelings of youthful readers. The captain, tho n ate and the beggar are occasion for gbteous indignation. A New l.cad Nlldc. Siii-LLssuto, Wis., December 3,1566. Editors Tribune: There is considerable excitement here at present on the Lead question, and I thought, perhaps, U would not be un interesting to seme of your readers, to leam what is goiug on here, in this Land of Lead. There arc several mines in successful ope ration here end In this vicinity, that are pay ing big. But the one that is attracting the most attention at present among old miners, is the new mine just opened by the Silver thorn Lead Mining and Smelting' Company. They have got. undoubtedly, tbe best tints l>tcl> of any other mine In the worlds?). Tho Company own three hundred and twenty acres of mineral laud, that runs from cast to west, and taking in a ridge of over one mile in length, of the richest mincial deposits in the world. Alrcadv, though six months have scarcely elapsed since the formation of the company, they are bringing up to the light of day large quantities of lead superior In quality *to any other yet discovered. They have just struck an opening to-day that will surely make the lortuuate stockholders rejoice, avd put more money in their pockets than any other In vestment that they have made in a long time. This company is composed of some of the best basinets men of your city, and it shows a great deal of discernment on their part to lut their money Into such an enterprise. I am awaie that many of the comtmnies now days a c only got np to switdle the nnwarv, bui tbit. Is certainly not one of that kind. It h conducted upon an honorable plan, and by looking at its by-laws you will see that every stockholder Is well protected. It is safe I think, according to the devel opment already made, to place the dividends by the first of July at fifty per cent on the investment. Now this is not all guess work; l ut facts arc stubborn things, although many incredulous perrons mav not sec it as I see it from this standpoint. ' 1 have no Interest whatever in these mines, yet, os an old and expciienccd Cornish mi ner. 1 take an interest In everything that pertains to minerals and the good of man kind generally. I presume the stock of this company was taken up long ago. If not, I have not a doubt It will be before many days, us 1 am convinced that this SilverlUorn mine is destined to he the best paving lead mine In the world. Respectfully, Charles D. Faux. State Horticultural Society, Those interested sh.U;d bear in mind that this Society bolds Its annual meeting at Champaign the llih, I9ib, 18th and Uih insi. The citizens arc makiac extensive prepaiatlons to entertain all those who may aUend. Lectures are to be deliv ered each evening by practical men, and the busi ness will be of mote loan mail Interest. The incuased derated for all horticnllural pro ducts lo Mit-ply the rapidly extending dtt-*, nas II anew trapeze and fnruJsbed'Lcw topics of die»ui>tloo. Fruit-, vegetables,me adornment of country borne*, will fnmbb ample subject- for the wisdom of the member*. It is understood that most, if cot ell, the rail roads will return the members free, or at ouc-aftb fare. Every person attending should take sample? of fruit avo vegetables with them, and especially of valuable fruit that aro in wtat of the true name. New implements for the garden and Hie orchud tbcild »1»o In- subir tiled lor examination, and all ollieie that arc useful could oe exhibited to ad vantage. Pruning knives have given place to skeois, horse hoes to riding a snlkr cultivator, snd jet genius la devising new implements with which to cut down weeds, find tosur the soil. ItaelcviaiioD i; extended to all. and every per son ran become a member upon lac payment of the usual membership fee. Rural. EUROPE. Onr English ami Italian letters. The Evacuation of Romo—The Papal Future Stirring Times Abend Strengthening tbc Armies—Tbe ParU Exposition—Tbe Trade* Union liovo* l mcm— Amusements— Prosecution of £yrc-Tho meteoric Sliower. JCorrcsponderce of the Chicago Tribune.) Lo.sdox, November 17, ISoG. Tlic news, which came by the Atlautic ca ble yesterday, of the departure of Maxi milian for Vera Cruz, makes it doubtful whether be or the Pope of Rome will be the next discrowned monarch to be added to the long list of those who Lave already fallen from their high estate. There is no longer ony doubt'that tho-Conventlon of September will be executed in all Its integrity by tbc French Government. The orders, indeed, for the evacuation of Rome have been re ceived by the Imperial Generals, and will bo put lu execution on the 25th instant. There are some persons who hold that, with the Pope, the corner-stone of society will be moved out of Us place, and this is an idea which Is not confined merely to Catlnlics. It is to be fonnd cropping up In places where It might least of all be expected. For in stance, M. Mires, the Jewish financier, and proprietor of the Paris Presse, says that “ the Pope’s temporal power is the last ram part of modem society.” This is not a new idea. In the middle ages a book was pub lished under the title. “Dc Auxeribifitate Papo ” in which the author proved that if the Pope was removed European society would bo split into nationalities and sects, and that the disintegrating process would go on till ’lnfidelity, atheism, scepticism, and at last nihilism, became the creed of man. A vogne fear of the same kind possesses many minds now, as may be seen by the language of M. Mires. When a Jew bolds such an opinion, yon may imagine what the opinion of fervent Catholics Is. A very eloquent writer in France, M. Lauren tie, has just published a pamphlet in which he recommends a league of the existing sovereigns of Europe with the Pope at its bead, as the only means ot resisting the flood of revolution which is everywhere breaking down the old traditions and priucl- Sics. Near as we are to the tlmartvhen sumo ccUlon must be taken, no one appears to know what course the Pope will adopt— whether he will accept to remain as Bishop of Rome under Victor Emanuel, or wheth er be will leave, in order, as he says, to be In e to issue his pastoral decrees to the world. A very foolish story has been goiug the rounds of Ibe papers, that Mr. Gladstone, who was recently in the Eternal City, offered lie Pope an asylum in Malta, and It was so put as though the British Government would be anxious to have him under its protection. 1 have no doubt the real truth Is this, that U was Intimated to hls Holiness that If he found it inconsistent with hls dig nity to remain in Rome, and chose to select Malta ns his residence, our Government would omit nothing to make that island as agreeable :i retreat as possible. This was a mere act of courtesy, while at the same time h was one lhai would have a good effect on the Catholic subjects of the Queen, especi ally on the Irish Catholics, whom it is the earnest wish of the Government to keep at present in good humor. Whatever may be the effect of the Pope’s dtcheance. the indiff erence with which It is recarded by states men and people is oneoftbe most significant facts of the nge in which we live. That stormy times arc ahead—and I have no doubt that when they come it will be at tributed as a manifestation of tbc Divine wrath on gulPy and incredulous man—no one who watches the signs can for a mo ment doubt. At the present moment the most important subject for consideration with every Government of Europe, is how they can best Increase the effective strength of their armies. The report of the reel uilmg commission which onr Government appointed to consider the matter has appeared, and is anything but satisfactory. Amongst its recommenda tions arc an Increase of a quarter of a pound of meat per day fo; the soldier, an addition of two pence per day to the soldier’s pay after twelve years’ service, and other recom mendations of equal efficacy, But tho com mission does not touch the root of the evil— the aristocratic character of the army. The ai my, even more than the church, used to be one of tbe rich pasture grounds for the younger children of the upper class, but the Crimean war gave a severe shock to the sys tem, and tbc battle of Sadowa completely annihilated it. Battles arc no longer to bo won by a demoralized and degraded rank and file, officered by a rich and privileged caste. To win future battles, men must be men. They must be animated by a different spirit, and must have a heart in the cause in which they fight. Without resorting to con scription, or to the Prussian landwchr sys tem, I do not know where men are to be got. It is better to be a laborer than a soldier, as soldiers are now treated and regarded, and besides, as the Examiner says, " Scum is run ning short aud the price is rising.” Wo are so fallen short of the requirements that may be demanded in the struggle, that every one foresees that it Is proposed to re cruit the British army from the sikhs of the Punjaub, and though that proposition docs not at present And much favor, I should not be surprised to see a black regiment ouc day in the Hyde Park barracks. Frauce Is even more anxious to be armed eapa-pie than England, and her Emperor, Marshals and Gtnciais are in the throes of u great military Hrth. An army of 700,000 was nut enough. Austria and Russia arc following suit. The result of all this will be that instead of an armed peace maintained, as before the battle of Fadowa, by 4,00J,0000f armed men, we shall have an armed peace maintained by 7,000,000 or 8,010,000. This Is really what we are coming to. Perhaps It might be on dared if it secured peace. But will it have Ibis result ? The military system of Prussia, organized, it was said lor defence, overthrew a system organized in the most approved manner, as it was supposed, for offensive and defensive war, and when tbe Prussian system shall have made the tour of Enrobe, be assured, we shall not bo tho nearer to pence but to war. Indeed, It Is alreadv pro claimed In the officious ConsiUutiontl that "in a country situated as France la her dc /•nre must consist principally in offensive operations, for success seems to be reserved in the future for tlie Nation that can strike the first blow.” This reminds one of Louis Napoleon’s advice to tbc King of Italy when about to attack Austria, "hit quick and hard.” Europe Is tarthcr than ever from that, peace which she hopes and longs for. The llidc nations arc endeavoring to imitate the great ones. Belgium is thinking of in creasing her army and of erecting a quadri lateral for her dcieucc, but France Is jealous of such u step and regards the proposition as dictated by Prussia. Belgium, thus armed ami protected, would be "a sword,” say the French, "the hilt of which would be turned towards Prussia and the point towards Frauce.” I repeat what I said before that the Exhibition of ISffT must be opened and perhaps dosed before the full effects of the recent war and the new statcof things which it has created in Europe can be seen In their entire magnitude. That Exhibition will be a wonder and a curiosity In its way. But amongst the novel ties to be exhibited, I doubt U there will bo anything so novel aa tho idea “ of giving prizes to persons, localities,or establishments w hich, by a special organization or special institutions, have developed a spirit of har mony among all those co-operating in tbe same work, and have provided for tbe ma terial, moral, und intellectual well-being of the workman.” A suggestion of this kind was thrown out at the ‘lnternational Work ingmen’s Congress at Geneva, aud the Em perur Napoleon seems to have caught at it,for there are ten prizes ot £4OO and ouc of £1.005 to be distributed amongst those who have founded the best co-opcrallvc societies—for the proposal seems to amount to that. I think the jury which will have to decide on tbe various plans adopted lor this purpose, w 111 have a difficult duty to discharge; but it Is Important to note the recognition of the tendency to co-operation which I have allud ed to in previous communications aa one of tbe characteristics of the present time. I made the development and extension of Trade Unions in England a principal feature of a recent letter. I did not expect to And it made a matter of observation by our pres ent Attorney General, Sir John Roll, but at a recent meeting of bis constituents in Glou cestershire, he made tbc following remarks: lie drew a comparison between the theory of the present political agitators and the practical results that would follow the adop tion of their views, and contended that the ticde» unions were beginning to merge Into one the questions of the rights of labor and the rights of property. Political economists and theorists led those whom they addressed to believe that if they carried universal suf frage, and extended their number in the House of Commons, all they needed would be obtained, aud, the rights of labor being triumphant, they could attack the rights of capital and property. [Hear, bear.] It was tins partisanship between the theoretical politician and tbc trades unionist that be so much dreaded, and which he believed was making steady advances. But he believed hUo that all classes of tbe community, and of all politics except extreme politi cians, seeing tho danger in which they w ere placed, were endeavoring to oppose tho movement. Sir John Roll is an eouity bar lister ol considerable practice. He began life, I believe, i.ielde a draper’s shop, but finding that occupation dislas'cfat, he con reeled himself with the law, and bv great in dustry and perseverance raised himself to his present eminent position. As I anticipated, the Egyptian Hall was greatly crowded on Tuesday evening to hear *• ArU-mus Ward Among the Mormons.” I -think ho disappointed most of hls audience, not from any fault of his own so much as from the fact that they came to hcarau Artemus Ward who was very different from the real “ Artemus.” Ills simplicity took everybody by surprise. And his surprises were "made agreeable by their simplicity. For instance, his joke that “ the panorama used to Illus trate Mr. Ward's narrative is rather worse than panoramas usually are,'' coaid not fail to be relished for its candid and truthful ad mission. Speaking of bis love ofmnslc he said : “ I am saddest when I sing, and to are those who listen to me." Of Brigham Young he spoke os a "dreadfully married man.” Ills characteristic evidently is that of giving a droll turn to forms of speech which arc usually regarded with seriousness. We are to have another strange performance next week ’ the chief actor or rather ac tress in which Is also from your side of tbc Atlantic. Dr. Mary Wilton is to give an account of her ex perience as a medical student and a practis ing physician. The audience fees are rather ’ heavy, seven shillings and five shillings, bat 1 have uo doubt she can find large audiences even at these operatic prices <f she her experiences in a natural wav. Tm* time for the proeccotlon’of Mr. Eyre, of Jamaica notoriety, is approaching, and as it approaches, the feeling between his oppo nents and his friends becomes more strongly marked. The ignoring of the bills against Pmvost Marshal Ramsay—the principal in strument in the Infliction of the wire whippings and murder of the unfortunate hlacKt—by the grand jury of Jamaica plan ters, has only encouraged the prosecuting raity to renewed energy, whilst Übas stimu lated the Eyre defence people to greater re sistance. Mr. C-Jeridge, one of the most eminent members ol the bar, and member of Parliament for Exeter,.' was retained for the prosecution, bat by n«,most paltry proceed ing he baa been prevented from taking part on the side that hla ci'Qaelencc as well as hla retainer would lead bln. to adopt. It Is against the etiquette of the bar it seems for abanlstcr to take a fee from prosecutors that ate mere volunteers In the cause, and of course Mr. Coleridge could not go against th« etiquette of his profession as laid down by its head, the Attorney General. We have had a meteoric shower hero a few nights ago. I mention It merely for the tmr poio of extracting from the Morning Teh graph a few sentenced of Us description of this event: ludeen, we know not whether any simile was more enggretco by their silence, their flight chief ly In one direction, au<i their steady sweep, than that of winced erratnres. They looked life* no earthly fireworks, but rather resembled silver birds wending tnelr way one after another to some mysterious star-berocry in the firmament—or If not birds then the ton-head planets o’ angels and archangel?, summoned In sp’endld cohorts and regiments ovas 1 service ol God. and hastenin'* uitbihe lamp of their world lighted to the Divine rendezvous. “There is cosmlcsl (is this a misprint II grandeur in this Idea; a baby star, cold to the heart with the silenc and frost of the empyrean, suddenly beaten in frenzy of fire by the coarse air of earth. HU tho chilly heart and the plowing skin split asunder, ami the baby star perishes ia dost and glory—perishes of hie teething.” One would scarcely credit it,but It] is never theless the fact, that the joomal which prints this trash has the largest circulation of any of the London papers. OTTH ITALIAN LETTER, Tlse Great Sncccess of Italy—Who Ac complished It—An Examination of Claims—Tbe Italian People£AchleTtd Freedom—Blsmark’s Influence. [From Oar Special Correspondent.} Lokdok. November 17,1566. I am not quite content to close my Italian correspondence in the midst of the current festivities of Venice wiihont some general reflections on the success of the Italian cause and the influences which have contributed to It; especially as I find the London press pluming itself ia feathers that I humbly dis played in the Tribune six months ago. Italy has succeeded. Who is entitled to tho glory of the victory ? press outside of Italy, especially that of France, claims the credit of the.victory, and is fairly entitled to great praise. However, It is to be noted, that tbe zealous partisan is often an obstacle rather than a help to sdcccss, and the Imperial Governments of Europe and the Imperialists m faith, have not been any more complacent towards Italy for the arguments of her friends. It has not required light ar guments—lacts displayed In type—to secure this triumph. It has been simply a question of putting out of the way a mass of putrid prejudices, aud it may fairly be doubted whether tbe press Is the best means to this particular end. The French Empcrordoubileis deems him self the father of the Italy of to-day, and he certainly did contribute, for a consideration, no ordinary impulse to the Italian move ment. But, as I have frequently pointed out, be ceased to conspire in Italy, when he had secured his pay lor the first successes, aud the subsequent steps iu Italian progress hsve been taken In spite of his known wishes. The Liberal party In Europe—which re guroa Ilalv as a pet child, aud looks with dis uu&t on Blemark’s Germany—ls not Indis posed to take long credit for the redemption of the Peninsula. It ha* done much, and pcihaps we cannot justlyestlmatelts influence ou public opinion. But, on the other baud, what I say of the press may be said of the party called Liberal—their enthusiasm and zeal have rather repelled lhau attracted friends. The partisan? of royaly, termed democrat ic, find the secret of Italian success in the generous nobility of Victor Emanuel. Ac cording to them, Italy is “mode” solely be cause u King bad the wit to patronize it. In a negative sense perhaps tills is true; Victor Emanuel, bad be wished it, could bare ruined tbe cause of bis countrymen, or at least long deferred its triumph. But all persons who have lived in Italy know that the King bos contributed nothing positively to the cause of Knlv. He has not been a very bad King; that is all. Perhaps as Kings go he has been a good King; but that Is not saying much, for Kings are good only as they have the grace to be nobodies. One who has ideas and meddles is straightway a bad ruler,becaueetlies3 , stom of modern King hood cannot tolerate an intermeddling King. Victor Emanuel baa hunted, and caroused, and taken care to have no will of his own, or fur the most part none. Italian success sprung from something more positive than this. In Italy parties are more or less disposed to take the glory ot the triumph. The mod erates are more grasping. They would have us believe that we have arrived at the end of our journey, because they pulled, for the whole length of the road, at the tail of the cart. According to them, it is the brake and not the steam that drives the train. Brakes are very useful and so arc moderate parties ; Italian conservatives arc entitled to some credit for acting as brakesmen ; though they have injudiciously kept the brake constantly down. The Italian Liberals par cxctHmce y that Is the Republicans, Mazzini & Company, are very sure that the gospel they preached has triumphed, and that if they had been listen ed to Italy would have Rome for capital, a flourishing treasmy—and every good thing which she lacks. With every disposition to be generous towards this party, X must cs press the opinion that their obstinacy and want of policy have been an obstacle about c<,nal to the force of tbeir enthusiasm. Then there aro partisans of particlar men who clamor in our cars that this or that— Mazzini or Falnier-ton—for the range is as wide as this—lias fought the battle alone and won it by individual valor and steadfast ness. Cavour may be set down as the chief claimant—by posthumous prory—for the honor. He did much—more than any other nan, excepting alwaj-a the greatest of Italians—but he was himself a product of anoldcr power. The studeut of his life and writings will be struck with the fact that he seems to have seldom or never touched the great height of the Italian argument. He was incarnate plausibility, MacckiavclU risen again with u certain sledge-hammer force, siiperadded craft, practical politician. In short, as Mac chlavelli was the theoretical type of him ; but such a man is never a creator, a con structor. Cavour knocked down a corner of the old Austrian wall, because be was strong and had a wit about striking; but ho would just as soon have beaten down Waldenshm churches us certain of his predecessors had done If that had been the fashion. A most inre man to be born lu Italy, this Cavour ; because craft is very rare outside of the Monasteries— and of a very simple order there—and Cavonr was crafty enough to hoodwink Louis Napoleon when the Era peror had yet some shrewdness of his own ; but tbe spiritual force that mode Italy did not reside In Cavonr; he was rather dis gusted at Might of it, nud never professed to love It. Such a triumph as that of Italv must be the result of many forces conspiring to the one end; but what makes them so conspire? At any time in the last five years, the airhole tvork must nave gone adrift but for some great force holding it together. Perhaps within the year, I have myself expressed the fear that it was all abroad never to be gath ered again—certainly I have felt such a fear, and, at all events, few men of the world havo believed in Italy until this last moon. Now, on the contrary, cvcrv man of the world believes in Italy. Nobody has any doubt about it; nobody doubts that he al ways thought so; and the stupidest Philis tine of them all would pommel yousound'y, if you expressed a doubt that Italy deserves to be united. True, he generally argues that if is right, because the devil wanted it so, (it is so much more potent an argument to as sert that a thing is right because It is wrong, the Philistine logic running In a peculiar groove), and the worse an argument is, the more complacently he chews"it; but »or all that the result Is the same. London Tower is no more a fixed fact to the world’s eye than Italy Is. The forcecreativo of all this must besought In the much-abused Italian people. At Ven ice, the other day, the whole city was sing ing a little song sent there by one of her Il lustrious exiles— Dall ’Onoaro. This song, after setting forth that neither soldier nor cannon have accomplished the the desire of the Venetians, exclaims; “Vant Ann! dl Spennza, “Tcm Ann! dl Ccstanza.” (Twenty years of Hope ! Twenty years of Constancy.) And Ddtl'Oiujaro is right. It is the steadfast will of the Italians; it Is the potent influence of their civilization— the highest extant—; it is the spiritual life of the nation, which have won this great triumph. TMs victory has, perhaps, been hastened by Bismark; bnt the millions steadfastly wishing and asking, and deserving, were sure of success at last. PrccihcJy the same phenomenon—for it m a phenomena to the Phillstinic British mind—ls pi cscntcd on your side of theAtlautlc. London cannot comprehend why yon are paying the National debt, and your steadiness on the subject of the Southern siavc-powcr-burying business Is in the nature of a miracle. You too hare almost conqueicd the Philistines, and presently the shout of approval will ring out so loud that yon shall hear across the Atlantic. As for Italy, one appreciates her vic tory in London more than in Ven ice. Even the clericals—and there Brit hh vanity is usually most rampant—can not retrain from affected praise; and all the orpins of the average men of the world. Whig or Tory, clamor almost as loudly os the gondoliers who have just found their long husked voices In the Lagoons. 1 count the battle won; although the Ital ian cdlticc is not yet crowned. The nation has no htea of stopping outside the walls of Home. They are shouting in Venctla ••Rome rcu Capita!*,'* and they know just what they n.can, and so docs Victor Emanuel; though thc\ count tho last struggle a long one and perhaps a hard one. But outride of Italy the whole work Is done. When the Timet leads off In ridicule of the Pope, and the 2/orr.iug Pcti and Morning Herald recognize the Papal cause for lost, public opinion has wheeled completely round. The world henceforward fights on the side of Italy. But I must not oass over what seems to me to be the most potent agency in this change of public sentiment. Blsioark bas icmodeled European thought. The battle of Sadowa has accomplished what Mazzini could not do with a life of preaching and conspiring, what Cavour could not accomplish by the most masterly state craft of modern times—it has made a new world ot Europe. I find this Influence all the more wonderful that Its effect on the Italian question is but an Incident, that Bismark scarcely willed this result, and that the movement he has set going In Germany »«m* beyond his will and nobler than his hope. The Time* bewails that there is no longer a police ln*Tinrope, and finds sad me-it Tor reflection in the fact that this old contlncpt seems to he becoming a vast manufactory oi breech-loaders. But its joy and the Tory complacence over Italian Independence is a proof that public sentiment Is at last sufll i icntly right 10 be a more potent police than tho old balance of power. Accomlngly the Pofi sees no danger of a Prusslaa-Russlan alliance, “ because'Prussia has nothing to do hut just to perfect Germany. Let her play out liex obvious rc*Jr, and nobody will dare interfere.” The methods by which Italy has accom plishcd her work give a lustre' to her triumph when contrasted with the rougher forms of Blsmark’a art; and men praise the modest Peninsula, patiently eudnrlu"- twenty years for recognition of the justice o? her cause, aM the more enthusiastically that Germany force* their approval with a certain rudeness of emphasis. But, speculation about why aside, the fact stands out clearly—Blsmark has bludgeoned Ultramoutanism and reaction into a silence that Inspires a certain awe,and the songs they sing on ibc Grand Canal, and the tri-colored lights that flame on the Rialto and In the Place St. Mark come full on the eye and ear of the world. The music is enchantfnl and the lights bewitching—so much so that grave journals like the Herald lament that England can neitherslngnor shine after such a bewildering fashion. But of all the won derers at this magnificent sncctacle,which we all witness—so brightly flame the lights at Vtnict—Blsmark may fairly. If he find time, bo the most surprised. H: aimed neither at Ultremontanes nor reactionists, and he but , half dreamed of co-operating with Garibaldi, while he must see that he and hi* work have* so changed the heart of the world that Ital ian tunes please It as If there were somewhat unearthly aod angelic in the melody. No human work is ever beyond the reach of failure ; both Italy and Germany may fail ure latter has many an evil spirit to cai»t out, especially the foolish King’s spirit, but to day both seem practically perfected. As for the making of guns, and all that. It looks as if a crowd of children, having wit nessed with admiration tho fighting and vic tory of a mailed warrior, had all set them selves to hammering away at coats-of-mall. Speko. , The New fork Press Cans. To tbe Editor of tbe New York Tribune: Sir: Statements are made in an editorial article printed In the Tribune this morning, that do ns injustice; and wo would be glad to correct them In your columns, if you could allow ns the space to do so. Tou say the Western Associated Press “ sent ns” (the New York Associated Press) a committee, whoso policy *• seemed to be to serve the leading papers of Chicago, Cin cinnati and St. LouU,” and that accordingly the propositions of this committee were not considered, and wc were dismissed from the Associated Press. The Executive Committee of the Western Associated Press were not sent expressly to see the New York Associated Press. That was only a part of their duty, aud not the most important part. Wc did not attempt to serve the principal cities of the West at the expense of the smallerpapcis.but declined to make arrange ments that would have been advantageous to tbe journals that we had proprietary Inter c.-ts Id. and to the other journals of the larger Western cities, because we were act ing for an Association that numbered among its members proprietors of papers in small towns. If we had entertained designs of aggrand izing Cincinnati, Chicago, and St. Louis, at the expense of the other Western cities, we saw nothin" In the example ofthc New York Association to rebuke us, and heard nothing in the conversation of its members to dis courage ns from making the attempts The New York Associated Press were will ing to give us all the news we wanted, coupled with restrictions that did not regard quantity. If we bad proposed to order ten or twenty thousand words per day for the three principal cities ot the West, we arc convinced there would have been no diffi culty in procuring that quantity ofthc Asso ciated Press; and then wo could have re fused to take the smaller regular report, leaving the small towns to pav for their own despatches, a thing which they never have done in the West, and wblcfi to attempt would probably be the death of them. The statement that the Western Press make Indianapolis nay as much for news as Chicago, is qualified by you as the mere ex pression of an opinion, and, permit us to say, It is so thorough a misunderstanding of the truth, ns to betray a want of Information that abundantly accounts for all the inaccu

racies ofthc article. Nine-tenths of the ex pensc of telegraphing news In the West is fuild by papers of four or live towns, and yet I costs the telegraph company as much* to send a despatch to Dayton as to Cincinnati. There is a special arrangement for getting West l,fioo words per day of news, in addi tion to the regular report, and the telegraph company charges for this according to the number of towns that take it. Therefore, if the Indianapolis papers choose to take it they Lave to pay for It, as others do. There is no more injustice to the Indian apolis paper in this than there Is in charging the New York Express or Sun as much per woid for u special telegram from Washington a.*- the Tribune pays. The sudden assumption of virtue by the New York Associated Press, in behalf of the interests of the papers of the smaller towns, is no less entertaining than instructive, and merits the most delicate appreciation. Concerning the alleged ceremony of our dismissal from the Associated Press, all we know about it is that wc notified the associa tion the Western press did not want their despatches any longer. 'What formalities of expulsion may have occmrcd after our re tirement we have no means of knowing, and do not care to inquire ; but It Is a singular fact in such a connection, that the agent of the New York Associated Press has mani fested, during the last forty-eight hours, In tense sobcitudc to force bis reports upon the press that wc authoritatively represent. M. Halstead, Cincinnati Commercial, Horace White, Chicago Tribune. Executive Committee Western Associated Press. New York, November SO, 1860. [From lie National Intelligencer.) The several journals published in the city of Washington have organized a Washington Associated Press for their mutual benefit, and have agreed to publish hereafter the news despatches of the United States and European News Association. They are con vinced that the terms of this association allow to publishers greater freedom from re strictions than the New York Associated Press, and that through this medium they will be enabled to give to their readers more varied and more reliable news from all parts of this country and abroad than have hitherto been received. It will be seen that onr despatches this rooming arc those of the United states and Europcau News Associa tion. [From the BnlTilo Commercial Advertiser.] * * * At length a quarrel ensued be tween the New York press and their general agent. Mr. D. 11. Craig, who had conceived tue Idea or forming an association, in con nection with the telegraphic Interest, which should do away the odious features of the old arrangement, and put the whole matter upon a basis of legitimate business enter prise. He had perfected an organiza tion under the name of the United States end European Telegraphic News Agency,” which proposed to collect and transmit in telligence to all parts of the country without partiality or favor, and at stipulated and reasonable rates. Of course the New York papers took quick alarm at this for two reasons: first, bec«»uso it would destroy their long-existing monoply of news; and, second, because it would deprive them of the forced contributions from the .so-called country press, so long enjoyed. Their first stop has been to seek"to enforce a pretended rule that any paper taking news from any other source shall be debarred from the old Associated Press reports. The nest was to turn the State Associated Press reporters out of their office. The Western Associated Press was the first to appreciate the advantages offered by the new concern, and they have promptly gone into an arrangement with it. Mean while the New York Stale Press Is in a fear ful muddle of uncertainty. Very many of them are timid and fearful of Injuring their status in the old monopoly ; others arc too obtuse to see their true policy or to appre ciate their past disadvantages. A’l sorts of orders and explanations arc Hying over the wires in regard to the emoroglib, and we arc not half served with news. A meeting of the Executive Committee of the State Press is called for next Tuesday, at which all the members of the Asooclatlon arc in vited to he present, when it is hoped that some way out of the trouble maybe found. There seems to be no doubt that toe arrange ment hitherto existing has been a oue-siatd and nnfalr one toward the country press. The revelations made by Mr. Crafg prove this. The New York Press now charge Mr. Craig with originating all the arbitrary and unjust conditions which were forced upon the Slate Press. Mr. Craig admits the arbi trary and unjust conditions, but insists that what he did was in the interests of the New York Pres?, whose servant he was. The progress of journalism, and the devel opment ot the country, havo outgrown the monopoly which has so long existed. The time has come when every leading newspaper in the West must assert itself, and by ration al enterprise proenre and give all the current news without regard to' the source from whence it comes. News must hereafter be regarded as a marketable commodity, and the Slate Associated Press will be false to Its best Interests if It does not annul all such entangling alliances 9b are sought to be farced upon its members for tbc benefit of our cosmopolitan contem poraries. We propose to conform to the new demands of the time, and to get all the news we can, and wherever we can pel it the best and the cheapest. We tru«t that our associ ates in the State will -see their true interests in the same light that we do, and so act that the common good of all may continue to be served by associated effort as heretofore. So far as the Buffalo Commercial Adeertiwr Is concerned,we desire to continue our relations with the State Associated Press, and have not the slightest objection that its arrange ment for obtaining news of the New York press shall he continued. Bnt we desire, also, to purchase the news which Mr, Craig’s association has to sell, and we pro test against the policy, which the New York press attempts to enforce, of debarring os from cxcrclsiogthat privilege. To ray that if we purchase their news we must hay no other, as the New York papers do say. Is to take a position which they cannot justify in the light of fair dealing or business enterprise. It is to con fess that they cannot stand the test of opposition. We desire to publish the reoorts furnished by both the rival associations" and let the public judge which are the best. A spirit of competition would thus be kept up which would tend to make both concerns more efficient and our readers would be the gainers by such a consummation. TEBBIBLE SHIPWBECK. Loss of tlie Schooner SI. Ballard) with All on Board. [From the Detroit Post, December 4.] The season now jnst at Us close has been one of remarkable exemption from aiflictlng disasters on the Western lakes, bnt we are now compelled to record one of a fearful character, which will carry grief and agony to many a fireside. A despatch was received from Oswego yes terday, by Captain Hugh Coyne, announcing the loss of the schooner M. Ballard, with all on board. The shipwreck occurred at the Galloe Islands, ncarthefoot ofLakcOntarlo. The Ballard w&s owned by Captain Coyne, and was in command of bis brother. Captain John Coyne. The crew Is supposed to nave consisted of cine persons in all, but we have been able to obtain the names of only two In addition to the captain. , These are Joseph Payment, the mate, a young man from 23 to 28 yearsoid, whose residence Is unknown, and E.W» Guynon, the cook, aged 33, whoso home was in Chelsea, Washtenaw County, where his parents, brothers and sisters all reside. Mr. G. has been In the employ of the owner of the Ballard tor* a number of years, and was much respected for his cor rect deportment. Captain John Coyne, although a young man, scarcely twenty-five, was a skilful nav igator, and leaves many warm friend* to mourn hla untimely fate. He leave* no family. The vessel was bound from Toledo to Og dcnsbnrgb, with a cargo of 13,800 bushel* of corn. She left the canal on Wednesday, the 28tb, with the wind down the lake. The date of the occurrence of the disaster is not glven r hut a letter from the captain of the schooner Cum. Foote states that a gale of almost un exampled severity swept over Lake Ontario pi* Friday, the 30th, and it was, no doubt, in this gale that the callant bark went down beneath theangry waters with all Its precious freight of human lives. The Ballard was a craft of medium size. She was built In 1853. and thoroughly rebuilt in 1864, about SIO,OOO being expended on her. She was valued at *12,500, aid insured for SIU.UUU. Captain Coyne left last evening for Oswe go. Three of the bodies have arrived at that place. A SETT PHASE OF liIMsSTECC TIOIf. The Soatb Carolina Warders— I The As sasMins Convicted and Sentenced to Dcatb-Tbe President Commutes the Sentence, and tho Prisoners urc Be leased on aWrlt.of Habeas Corpus. WasiuKorox, Decembers, 1366. Tho recent release of the parties who wantonly murdered three Union soldiers In South Carolina, about a year ago. Is creating a good deal of comment In official circles here, especially as one of the counsel for the defence was Mr. Secretary Browning, then a lawyer and claim agent. The recordsand papers in the case were all produced before the Court in the late trial before Judge Hall, and the facts are thus laid open to the pah* H c * The names of the parties are Joseph Crawford Keys, Robert Keys, his son, Elisha "Y*tn fibd F. G. Stowers. The crime of which they were convicted was murder, committed on the night of Sunday. October 8. 1805. The victims were Corporal W. C. Corbett, Emory Smith and Mason Browing, all of the First Maine Veteran \ olunteers.jvho were killed while on guard over cotton. The arrest was by the military authorities, and the trial took place before a-Military Commission. The lacts proved conclusively were these: Some dayr before October 6, 1565. the officers of the Treasury Department had taken pos session of fifteen bales of cotton, lying at Brown’s Ferry on the Savannah River,* and bad put It in tbe custody of W, P. Brown, owner of the Ferry, who lived a few rods distant. The cotton was claimed by Craw ford Keys as hla pronerty, and this Keys had engaged Stowers, one of the men set free by Judge Hall, to carry it by boat to Savannah. On Friday, tbe 6th instant. Slower- Informed Brown that the cotton was about to betaken away secretly, but that he himself was not to do it, and advised Brown to get himself relieved of its custody by the military an thoritle?; and of all responsibility In the mat ter. Brown, therefore, gave notice to the military of the intended removal, and the gourd of three men whose names are given above were sent to the ferry the same even ing. The trip to Savannah was at once put oil, Stowers giving as a reason that liis steersman was sick. On the succeeding Sun day night, about 11 o’clock, five men, four of whom were recognized by Brown and his as sistant, a man named Howell, to be those named above, and Peter Keys, a second son of tbe elder prisoner, passed the ferry gale In the direction of the river. They w ere seen to go to the ferry, where at once an altercation begau between them and the guard. A voice was heard and identified as Stowers ordcringtheguard to lay‘down their arms. On the soldiers replying that they were acting under orders which they must obey, the answer was made, “ G—d d—n you, wc have come to throw you iuto the river.” Shots were then fired, and not long after the same party of five men returned past the ferry-house, three of them riding the soldiers’ horses. As they passed Howell’s house Peter Keys ordered Howell to go back to bed. Both Brown and Howell were old resi dents of tbe district, and perfectly lamlliur with the voices and faces of their neighbors. At the trial Howell swore that he recog nized Crawford Keys, his two sons, Robert and Peter, Elisha Byron and F. G. Stowers. Brown swore that the moon was two hours up, and that he recognized Crawford Keys and F. G. Stowers. The nest morning the bodies of the three victims were found ia the river, a rod or two from the shore, by a detail of soldiers- Each had been shot through the head; two with wounds v hlch mu&lhavc earned immediate death; the third evidently having been drowned af ter having received bis wouud. The hair of each was scorched, showing tho pistols had been discharged close to their heads. The defence made no attempt to deny the guilt of Peter Keys, who was never arrested, and whose whereabouts at the time of the trial were unknown. He was shown, how ever, to have been at tia father’s house sev eral times since the murder. In behalf of the other four, the defence was an alibi, uhich the court rejected as an utter failure. The morning after the murder Stowen was proved to have told his negro servants that the soldiers had been killed, that they would probably all be attested, and thatlf questioned about him they must say that they bad seen him at home at eleven o’clock the night before, and had got some brandy f.-om him. This was proved to bd*false, and further, he made no attempt to show how he could have legiti mately obtained his Information. On the Tuesday following the murder he went by boat to Savannah, paying no attention to the call of a guard standing on the bank, who shouted to him that he was wanted. There has never existed the slightest doubt of this man’spaiticlpatlon in the murder, uor has there been any ground for doubt that tho other men named above were equal sharers in this atiocious homicide. Every circum stance in their actions daring the day, their meeting and consulting together, their absence from home at tho time—this, with other facts proven on the trial show that, for the sake of fifteen bale* of cot ton, and to gratify rebel hate, they ruthlessly murdered three men who were doing their duty as best they knew how, under the or ders of their superior officers, and who, of course, had no personal interest in the mat ter. The prisoners, as ia now known, were all found gnllty by the Commission, aud sen tenced to be banged. It is also known that General Sickles commuted the sentence in the case of Robert Keys and Elisha Byron In accordance with the recommendation of the Commission, made on account of their youth, to imprisonment for life, and ordered tbe two older prisoners, J. C. Keys and F. G. Stowers, to be executed on the 2TtU of April, ISOC. In a subsequent order, dated April 24, he suspended the execu tion of the sentence till the pleasure of Presi dent Johnson should be made known. This was in consequence of a telegraphic order from Mr. Johnson, given at the solicitation of the prisoners. Ultimately the President commuted all the sentences to imprisonment for life, and the four prisoners were con veyed to Castle Pinckney, South Carolina, and there confined. Here comes in the his tory of tho efforts which secured the final release, and also the grounds upon which the President based his first reprieval of the guilty parties. There are two principal actors in the matter One was - the Hon. H. Trcscott, of South Carolina, who was here some months ago os counsel In defence. The other 'was O. H. Brown ing, now Secretary of the Interior. Through the Influence of these men, the prisoners had tbeir place of confinement changed to Fort Delaware, and hence they were taken on a writ of habea* eorpu» before Judge Holt of the United State* District Court for the State of Delaware,and by him set free on some technical point as to the right of a Military Commission to try a citizen of a fclale where the civil courts are in operation. The delendants are very rich, and it is stated one of their counsel alone received SIO,OOO for his Influence with the President in the matter. The whole thing Is outra geous, and should bring down shame upon all the participators. The above Is ebe whole history oi the matter, aud people can judge for themselves. DISASTER AT SEA. Collision of the snip Kate Dyer with the Steamer Scotland—The Former Sank and the Latter Badly Injured— Thirteen Lives Lost* [From the New York Herald. December 3.1 The sad news of the loss of the Evening Star has scarcely faded from the memory be fore information arrives of another disaster at sea, attended by serious loss of life. But while there were many excuses to offer for the loss of the steamship before named, scarcely anything can be said in extenuation of the present loss, for, no matter which of the pilots Is to blame, it is quite certain that the collision would never have taken place hud the proper care been taken. THE COLLISION. On the seventh day of September last the ship Kate Dyer (Leavitt, Captain), of Port land, Maine, left Callao, bonnd for this port, with a cargo of guano on board. She bad a prosperous voyage until the evening of the Ist lest-, when, according to the statement of her Captain, she was run into by the steamship Scotland, of the National steam Navigation Company’s line. The Kate Dyer was about ten miles from Fire Island when the disaster took place, and was standing to the: westward, with the wind north-north west, when her crow saw the steamer at some distance off on her starboard how. Had she kept her course she would have cleared the ship a long distance; bat. In stead of so doing, as she approached her helm was put to port, and, bearing down upon the ship, struck her on the starboard bow with tremendons force, almost cutting that part of her in two. SINKING OF THE SHIP. According to the pilot who was on the Kate Dyer, when those on board saw the Scotland approaching the impression pre vailed that she desired to speak with the ship, but this assertion is contradicted by responsible parties on board the steamer, who aver that be confessed, after being res cued, to having mistaken the steamer for a steaming. Be that os it may, however, tho moment the two vessels came in contact with each other the bow of the shio was car ried entirely away, and at the same moment her masts came down with a terrific crash. Pilling rapidly she drifted past the steamer, her crew naming over the deck in the ut most consternation. One boat was quickly lowered, and Into this the captain, pilot and five men went and pulled for the Scotland, where they were received. The boat had hardly cleared the wreck before she gave a lurch and sunk, stern upward, carrying with her twenty cf the crew, who were endeavor ing to lower the other boats. rescue or a portion or the crew. In the meantime the boats of the Scotland were lowered, and they polled for the Kate Dyer, with the intention of removing the balance of her crew. Before they could reach tie ill-fated ship, however, she bad cone down, and in the darkness they man aged to pick up seven men who were butfet log the waves for dear life. For some minutes they cruised in the vicinity of where the vessel sank, with the hope of being able to rescue others of the crew ; bnt the signal for re rail was given, and they were at length compelled to return to tho steamer. CONDITION OF THE SCOTLAND. Thanks to her immense strength, tho Scotland was not sunk, but It was not many minutes after the collision had taken place beft-re it was discovered that she bad sus tained very serious injuries. Her bow was stove In, admitting the water into the fore compartment. ‘ from whence It was gradually forcing Us way Into the others. Finding'that he could not remain afloat many hours, Captain Hall, of the Scotland, ordcicd her to be run ashoie at Sandy Hook, and, under a full head of steam, her bow was . tnrned for the shore. From eight o’clock on Saturday night until balf-past one o’clock yesterday hei crew and passengers worked manfully at the paqjpa for the purpose of keeping afloat. The boats were cleared and ready ftp launching, and every preparation made fora resort to their use. Gradumlv the water gamed In the hold, until the men attending to the engines were submerged to their waists. Just as the steamer passed the lightship and her keel touched the shore, the water had reached to the bars of the furnace. Had the collision occurred fifteen or twenty miles further from the shore the steamer would have sunk, and the loss of life, heavy os It was, might have been fearfully in* creased. DESCRIPTION OF THE VESSEL. The Kate Dyer was a ship of 1,173 tons burthen, and was built at Cape Elizabeth, in 1855, by J. Dyer. She was owned by J. tV. Dyer & Co., of Portland, Me., and was sur veyed at Boston, lu March. 18*15, when she was rated A No. at Lloyd’s. The steamship Scotland is an iron vessel : of 3,005 tons burthen, and was built at New , Castle last year. She stands A No. 1 at •Lloyd’s, belongs to the National Steam Nav igation Company, and Is one of the finest steamers plying between this port and Liv erpool. PIRACY 05 A 5 AMERICAN VESSEL, murder of tlie Captain and Five of tUo crew. The Hong Kong Daily Press of Septem ber 25th, gives the lollowing account of an attack on the American brig Lubra. com manded by Captain lien). Howes, of Dennis. Mass., in the China seas, by pirates, and the murder of Captain Howes and several of the crew. Brief mention of the tragic affair has beep made In onr despatches; The American brigantine Lubra, which lelt this port ou Saturday last, loaded chief ly with arms and ammunition, bound for Yokohama, returned at 0 o'clock last eve ning, having been attacked by pirates, and the captain and five of the crew killed or missing The account is that, about 6# o’clock on Sunday, when about forty miles outside of Pedro Branco, a junk was observed to wind* ward on the same track <as the Lubra, edg ins down toward her. She came close to, asking where the vessel was from, and where bound to, and upon being told by the chief mate “Japan,” an inquiry was then made as to whether they did not want an inlaud sea pilot. A negative answer was returned and the Junk told to sheer off, instead of which she put her helm up and run alongside the brigantine, a stink pot was thrown on her decks, a number of men jumped on board, and the vessel was at once in the hands of the pirates. It appears that the Lubra car ried no cannon on deck, and had but few small arms on board. None un board appear to have had any suspicions as to the charac ter of the junk until she ran them aboard, and then of course resistance was useless. The captain had his wife aud two children on board, and he went down below to pro tect them; the mate followed und told the captain that If he liked they would resist all entry to the «.abin, and fight side by side un til overpowered. The captain kuew that this would be useless, and told the mate to look out for himself, and not to lift bis hand against any of the pirates. The crew had by tills time taken refuge aloft and were or dered down but refused to come. One, how ever, on his way down the rigging was shot and fell overboard. They keel popping at the men in the foretop, and when asked why they did so, os they had the vessel and could lake what they liked, one of them who sroke English replied, “ You kill Chinaman we makce kill you.” When the pirates first went into the cabin they were told by the captain to take what thev liked and go. They did not interfere with" him at first but proceeded to plunder the cargo and over haul the cabin, literally turning everything upside down. At 11 a. m. yesterday morning they were apparently satisfied with what they had taken (having well loaded their junk) and proceeded to cast off; before going, however, they filled up the measure of tbeir crimes by a deliberate murder. The captain was in the cabin on a sofa, with one arm round his wife’s waist, holding one of his children in tbe other. One of the scoundrels camo below, presented a pistol at i him and deliberately fired. The ball en j tered near the right eye, and death was al- I most instantaneous. On mustering the crew, 1 out of twelve men, the captain and one of the seamen were found dead, and four more | missing, one of whom was seen to fall over board after being wounded. The chief mate, who was unhurt, although he made a nar row escape, then put the vessel round with the remainder of the crew, and returned to Hong Kong, arriving here at 6 p, m. yester day evening. There’ are some 'suspicious circumstances attached to the case, os three of the sum vors swear positively that while aloft they could distinctly recognize the voice of the stevedore of the vessel, and again, the Chi nese cook, who was one of the survivors, dis appeared from the vessel about 8 p. m. last night. FROM KENTUCKY. Arrcm or a Notorious Ontlaxv. JFrom the Louisville Journal, December 4.] . B. Duke, who was a Captain in the Federal army, was brought to the city yes terday, under arrest. He is reported to us as a desperate and unfeeling outlaw, whose deeds of blood arc only rivalled in enormity by those of John A. Alurrel, the famous rob ber. lie has succeeded so often in escaping punishment for taking the lives of his fellow men, that he harbored and nursed the idea that nobody dared to attempt his arrest. He Imagined himself clothed with something like supernal powers, and found himself sad- Ij mistaken. The respectable citizens of Mt. Sterling, la Montgomery County, have long lived in fear of tins desperate character. He has already killed six men, and defied the authorities to arrest him. We remember chronicling a few weeks since, some of the outrages of which this bloody knave has been guilty. We are informed by a gentle man just from Mt. Sterling, that It has long been the practice of this dangerous fellow to appear in the town on court day, armed with two or three revolvers, and thus to prome nade the streets defying the olllcers of the law and the citizens. lie murdered a Lieu tenant in the army, a short time since in one ol the principal hotels, and wounded several others. The citizens attempted to arrest him, bat heavily armed us he was, be successfully re sisted and escaped. lie has been a studious devotee of yellow back literature, and has devoured with an avidity that promises to cost him his life the wild, imaginary and im possible stories of the day that are written in glorification of the “ men of the road.” Duke Is a cousin, it is wud, of General Ba sil Duke, chief of Morgan’s slalT. We know not as to the truth of this statement, and only mention It as the current report of the day. There has been great excitement at Mt. Sterling Incident to the arrest of the scape grace, and the citizens avow a determiuatson to rid themselves of the intolerable pest. Duke was born and reared in the vicinity of Mt. Sterling, but his vicious proclivities and unendurable impudence have so disgusted and alienated even bis once firm friends that he may now lu his tribulation look forward, as it were, to a settlement of old accounts on the basis of law and justice. General Davis has given the prisoner into the bauds of the civil authorities. Clio Jilin A IS MEMPHIS. Several Deaths at ilie Gavoso House. (From the Nashville Press and Times, Dee. 3.] We learn from gentlemen who arrived yes terday from Memphis, that the cholera has broken out in that place quite severely, within a few days. Its ravages seem to have been, so far, almost entirely confined to the Gayoso House, Mr. C. C. Glenvcs, an old m ?r --chant of Memphis, and also one of his chil dren, bavin": tiled suddenly at that place. His wife and daughter were not expec:cd to live when our informant left. The guests had fied from the house, having adopted the belief that it was caused by using* the rain water with which it was supplied." We hope that we may soon hear that this virulent epidemic has entirely subsided In the Bluff City. XHe Author of “licce Homo)’—He 1 Discovered at bast, fFrom the London Spectator.] The author of “Ecce Homo*’ turns oat to be If the Spectator Is right), as every one who has read that work expected, a new writer. The style both of thought and of writing is so different from anything that had been previously published, that It seemed impos sible that the book could be the production of any well known litterateur, Mr. Seeley Is Erofeseor of Latin at London University, e was educated by Dr. Mortimer at tbe City of London School, and then went to Christ’s College, Cambridge. His university career was a distinguished one. He was, in 1357, bracketed senior classic with three other men—equality be tween four men so high up in the list being a very rare event—and one of the fonr was Mr. Snow, the well known Eton master. He was also first chancellor’s medal list, and thirti eth senior optime. Supposing that Mr. See ley passed his final examination at the aver age age, he wonid cow be about thirty years old. He is a son of Mr. Seeley, the well known LowChnrch publisher,of Fleet street. He may have learned the adoption of the in c gnitio from bis father, who, twenty three years ago, published, anonymously, a book which attracted a great deal of notice, and whose authorship was for a long time undiscovered. It was entitled, “The Perils of the Nation: An appeal to the legislature, the clergy, and the higher and middle clas ses.” It appeared at a time when “Sociol ogy” was n< t the established and recognized science that It now Is, and when it was a rare thing for literary men to turn their attention to social wrongs. The book attracted all the greater attention because, just at the time that it appeared, the poor law controversy was at its height. marine Leases for November. The marine losses reported at New York for November Include fifty-nine vessels—four steamers, three ships, fourteen barks, eleven brgs, twenty-six schooners, and one fishing smack. Sis are missing, supposed to be lost; and tbe others were abandoned, foundered, sunk, &c. t or reported to be lost In other ways. The value of the property Is estimat ed at $2,000,000. The steamers thought to be lost were as follows: Fearless, from Charleston for Boston; Kingfisher, from Baltimore for Charleston ; La Orientals, from Buenos Ayres; and St. Marys, from Brazos for New Orleans. Postmasters Appointed In Illinois to Date. Port Office. County. Postmaster. Big Bend Greene Franklin I, Btcht. BlegsvUle Henderson Henry M. McLain. Blackberry Kane.. H. n. St aw. Camden Schoyler WUIH Watw. Chicago Coog.. -.Robert A. Gilmore. Haytcn .laSaDe.. George W. Maklcsoa. Def*van..« .Tazewell —Theodore VanHagae. Galisvay ySalle John Worthington Greesbneh warren RUey \dams. Herndon Montgomery n**nry Whipple. Hatton Coiea Valentine McGobaa, Sr. Nashville- Washington Lewis M. Hearr. b>w Berlin Sangamon Robert H. Price. Paddock’s Grove..Malison Ronerl Cameron. Raleigh Saline James S. U. Bearver. FacCclpb McLean John B. Fielder. ron e... Peru la. Samuel R. Hicks. Rutland Kane Hits Mary liana. Scbtol White V. Fomthoaser. sraumburc- Cook Lewi* Mink. Sbckoktn... ......Hendeison. -A.Harvey. Slpcl Will B. J.Kra-e. Tontl Marlon..—Mrs. J. B- M. Patterson. Town Line Wtrrea D. M. Smiley. Ztf. Wayre .LavlaU A. Sharp. ... .. . „ . DISCOJ»TCTUXD. Highland Park, THE NATIONAL BANKS. Report of the Comptroller of the Currency. Number of Banks 1,647-—Cir. eolation $392,671,753. New York Becommendcd as a Redemption Agency. Proposed Amendment to the Na tional Currency Act. Omen or toe Cowtcoxxxr or the Cusnaxor i WaSOXXOTOX, 1836. ’ f Sm: In compliance with the provisions or sec dun ta of the'National Currency Act, I have the hare the honor to present through yon to the Con gress of the United StUea the following report: Since the last annual report, sixty-two (62) Na tional Banks have been organized, of wmch Any one (51) are new associations, and eleven (11) are conversions ot existing State Banks to the nation al s) eU-m, making the total nnmlier organised op to October thousand six hundred and sixty three (l,wa>. * The following table will exhibit thr number of bantr. wild tno auioont of capital «nti circulation in each State and Territory: tr o a o States and Ter- ge rtioric*. : 0 : g Sa :?:z : ? : a italnc. 61 $9.055,0i0 $4334350 $7,451,330 New Hampshire 39 4,719,118 4,727.930 4,111.293 Vermont 39 6Jslu,Oia 6.111,000 5.C745W Rhoce Island.*. O 29.334300 11.111,603 i2A73uca Massachusetts.. 307 79.413,000 64 270,330 55,7:0.570 Cconectlcu; S 3 54.584210 1?,471,W0 17.177,130 SOS 116J67.9U 7W7J.WO 67,139,483 New Jersey 51 Pennsylvania... 391 4*230,755 +1,3,’4350 34039,640 Maryland S 3 Rflaware.. U 1,428,199 1.315J830 1,179.330 DUt.ofColnnj.. 5 1.660,000 1,4K.000 1,27*909 Jlrslala 20 2.500.000 2,397.330 2.01 UWO West Mrgmia.. 15 2.216,100 1316.790 1.339.653 Ohio 13 21,304730 32,774900 18J 73.2^1 pWools 85 11,370.0iX) M*cM*an 43 4,989,010 +313.600 3.77i'A10 JVlscooain S 7 2,985,009 2J45.730 2,912,750 10w5........—. « 8,0*7,000 3,680.150 s3a4S» Mlnm-sota 15 4M0.W0 1.&62.700 1.4540 W Eaosa* 4 329.W0 532.0 W 569. UM Ml'KHin 15 4079.000 J.9UMOO 2.714490 Eratoay 15 2.519.0 U) 3.015.003 *311,270 Icrm-ssee 10 4709.00} 4SK.£X) £093,793 LopMana 3 1.300.003 gIS.COO 717,100 Eebraaka 3 200,000 130,003 190033 Cotorad o .. s SSCJXO IS4WJ 59,900 MbsUslppl a 150. WM 75,'uU 65J00 Georcla 9 J.7CC.COO 13£» w 1.121.000 North Caxollna. 5 373.730 mow 2&eoO Sooth Carolina.. 2 500,000 140,000 H£foo •Af*®"’® 3 3 aft'.CW 200, COO 179,500 Alabama 3 500.000 SO4,«W 262A30 1 150,000 M.BCO 44970 Oregon l IW.OOU 190.C00 8*503 Texa5........... 4 643.700 4045 X 537.730 Nev. and Moat. 3 255.0C0 195.W0 166,00 b 1.617 *JI7£4U3I 5332,167.7 a 1135.671.733 From the number of banks organized, bereto fnre srated to be stX'cen hundred and sixty-three, there shonld be deducted sixteen, leaving the nenbor in active operation sixteen hundred and fortv-seven. The banks to be excluded are the following: ketch cobtleted Tuxin organization so as to cobbencb business. The First National Bank of l-anslng, Michigan. The First National Bank of Penn Yan. New York. • ’ The Second National Bank of Canton, Ohio. The bcconc National Bank of Ottumwa. lowa. SUPERSEDED BT SUBSEqCSXT ORGANIZATIONS WITH THE SABS TITLES. The First National Back of Norwich, Con necticut. The First National Bank of Utica, New Tork. IX THE HANDS or RECEIVERS The First National Bank or Attica, New Y’ort. The Venango National Bank of Franklin. Penn sylvania. "Tbe Merchants'National Bank of Washington. District of Colombia. CLOSED AND CLOSING ENDED TUB PROVISIONS OP SECTION PORTT-TWO OP TUB ACT. The First National Bank of Columbia, SUsaoml. The First National Bank of Carondclet, Mis souri. Ihe First National Bank of Lcoaardsville, New Y ork. The National Union Bank of Rochester, Now York. The PUtston National Bank, Pittslon, Pennsyl vania, consolidated with the First National Bank of Pittston, Pennsylvania. The Bcrkrhhc National Bank of Adams, Massa chusetts, consolidated -HU the First National Bank of Artame,‘.Massachusetts. The Fourth Naiiona’ Bank of Indianapolis. In diana, consolidated with the Citizens' Bank of la dranapolis. Indiana. Two banks which bad given notice of going into ilquioaiion under section forty-seven of the en. prior to the date of the last report, have paid over to the Treasurer of the United States tic amount of their outstanding circulation in >awful money and taken np the bonds which they had on deposit with the Treasurer for the security of snch notes, as follows, vis: Jhc First National Bank of Columbia, Missouri, The First National Bank of CarondeleL Mis souri, S2S.POQ. These hanks are no -closed. During the past rear the First Natlonclßauk cf l.eoimtdsrfllo. Now York, and the National Union Dank ol Itochester, New Yo:k. have v.ihm taiily given notice of going Into liquidation as requited bv law. The First National Bank of Leoaardivflle has a— Capital of. SSO-0!l0 B-nrts deposited y»,3 o Circulation 43,000 Tbc National Union Bank of Rochester has a— Capital of f-ijO'OvX) Bunds deposited «jrt o 0 Circulation 11X1,300 The Merchant's National Bank of Washington and »hc Venango National Dank of Franklin, Pennsylvania, having failed to redeem their circu lating notes when presented for that purpose, have been placed In the ban's of rccalvere. as required bylaw. The circumstances attending the failure of these two hanks were fully investi gated and reported bv a committee of the House of representatives during the lost session of Congress. .The receiver of the First National Bank of Attica, New York, baa Drought hts labors nearly to a close, and a dividend will be declared to the gen eral creditors of the bank on or about the first of January,*lSC7. The bonds deposited to secure its circulating notes, namely, $31,500 of six percent and 513,500 • f five per cent Bonds, were sold at public auction I.i the city of New York on tbo fib day of October last, In accord ance with the piovbions of section lorlj-cight of the currency act. The net amount rcailz-d from the sale was 501.55f1.2S Of this sum, s2l 000 In lawml money was deposited with the Treasurer of thtt United Stales for the redemption of the out standing circulation of the hank, and, under In structions of the receiver. $7.55)1.25 was paid into lie Treasury, according to the provisions of sec tion fifty of the act for the benefit of tbo iron *ral creditors of tbo bank. The amount of outstand ing circulation redeemed to October i was $5,810. With these exceptions, the National Banks throughout (he United Slates seem to bo in a sound and healthy condition, as evinced by thrlr quarterly reports to this office, verified oy careful examinations made by agents appointed for (hat purpose. Their total resources on the Istcf October last were $1,525, IOT,0C0; their lia bilities to tec public for circulation and deposits were $1.C24,574,55f1; leaving a surplus of 5501.331,57-t lor capital and earning*, which ore likewhea pledge for the payment of all debts to the public. Tin* increase of capital, bonds, and circulation of National Sinks for tb* year ending October 1, I£CC, bas been as follows: Inctease of capital paid in $21,515,537 Increase In bonds deposited to sccnro circulation 55,217,730 Increase of circulation issued 101,921,603 This statement shows an increase of something more than one hundred mi-boas of national cur rency; hut daring the same period National Banks which have been converted from State banks have retired folly fifty millions of their Slate circulation, making the actual Increase in the volume of cnneocy only about flirty millions. To correct a misapprehension watch exists In the minds of many tint the entire amount of na tional circulation issued has been added to the volume of currency, it may be well to lake Into consideration the amount ofhtate bonk circula tion at a period just prior to the inauguration of the national system. The bank circulation of the United 3tales in January,lßC2,was one hundred and elgbiy-fonr millions of dollars, distributed as fol lows : Northern and Western States $114,000,000 Southern Plates 40,0i0,000 Sons* quctu to this date no farther returns were received from the Southern Hates. Immediately following toe suspension of specie payments there was an expansion of bank note circulation, which reached, in January, 1533, in the Northern Slates alone,l.vo hundred miltions of dollars, melting on increase in one year of fifty six million?. Relieved of all liability to redeem, tbo evident tendency of the banks was to still greater expansion. No reliable returns later than January, 1553, arc ac cessible; but the prevailin'; tendency of the times toward 4 inflation, and the great temptation to basks to avail themselves of the opportunity to put In circulation very targe amounts of their note?, without any restraints m the way of re demptions. would tavor the opinion that this was noMhe highest point reached by the circulation of State banks. The forty million. l of currency in the Southern States may now be added, giving an aggregate of two hnadreiand forty millions State bank circulation- which has been fn greatnart re placed by national currency. Without making any invidious comparisons. It Is no injustice to say that the substitution of a currency based upon United States bonds, secure beyond any contingency, for the miscellaneous Issues of State banks, bas dono much towards Fns’auJnxr public confidence, and preventing distrust and possible financial dis aster. Tbe law as It now stands provides for the re demption of rational currency in the cities of 3L Lutes, Louisville, Chicago, Detroit. Milwaukee, New Orleans, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, Phllidelphla, Boston, New York, Al bany. Leavenworth, San Francisco and Washing, ton. An amendment to the law was proposed during tbe lasi session of Congress, requiring all National Banks,to redeem either in Boston, New York or Philadelphia, bat was postponed until the present session. Some system of practical asd eucctlvo redemption Is desirable for the preservation of a healthy cur rency, and as a safeguard against redundancy. Ucaertbc existing requirements, thirteen hun dred and twenty banks oat of sixteen hundred and forty-seven voluntarily redeem lu New York, Boston, and Philadelphia. These banks represent two hundred and forty millions of cur rency. of which three-fourths are redeemed in New York. The same arguments urged in favor of reqnir ing redemptions in these ihres cities would. If carried to Incir logical conclusion, establish the expediency of requiring redemotioas at one central point. Every National bank In the United states is obliged by the necessities of business to keep an account in New York city; dearly snow ing the current of trade and the tendency of money, and affording evidence that New York is tbo great commercial add financial centre. A currency of uniform value !n all sections of the Union Is of the highest Importance to the commercial and industrial interests of the coun try. The cotes may be of uniform design and have the same ultimate security, but these condi tions, though steps in the right direction, will, cot compass the end In view, unless tbe notes are available at par for the payment of debt-* and a jt- : tlement of balances at tho financial centre. Banks of issue are a necessity of our finan cial system, recognized, encouraged and protect ed by the Government for the public good. In return for tbe privileges conferred they should he required to make their issues conform to the de mands ol The demands of trade require currency that will pay debts at the centres of trade. If the banks do not famish a circulation that will conform to this standard, their Issues will be depredated and the toss will fall upon the business of the country. The question Is whether this tax shall bo borne by tbe people, while tbe banks reap the profit, or whether tne banka shall perform their whole duty by famishing a currency which shall be available for the payment of rebt» every where, acd thus complete tbe conditions neces sary for a “ uniform value.” This question is one ol growing importance, and one that presses for an early eolation. National banks in Boston. New York, and Phil adelphia recognize their obligations to med every demand in lawful money ol the Uni cd Sta’es, whether It be gold and silver or legal lender notes. They are obliged by law to receive la payment of debts the notes of every other national bank; bat they cannot compel their customers to receive the same notes for their balances doe trom the banks; and here lies a difficulty which will subject the banks in those dties periodically to very great embarrassment. Tbe tendency of money to accumulate in these centres of tiade—except at certain seasons of’he year, when it is needed to bring forward tbe pro ducts of the Middle, Western and , Southern Stales—is afact that cannot bo questioned. These bents are obliged cancel pay It out. A. maybefonadln either-vw r First, th-back* may beft£Ol£tU. tion (o receive Unscarrenc. or, secondly, national cur, made a I’cal tender from the - erst or else, thirdly, national • • kept at par by redemption at the trade. Without discussing the expediency accordance with either of the two drat named—because. the first raelh lc*vc the currency In'a worse conditio, now is. and because the •ecood m ihjd woBM arbitrary, aim would place national Lank note.., a par v\|iu United States notes, tne necessity*, which la not apparent at this juncture—tha natu rpl and most feasible method would nee in to be t* that requiring the banka to keep their own issues * af par by redemptions a* above stated. Lcd*T existing ciicumatance? this requirement rannet be onerous; lawful money, waich now stands as the representative of specie, as the agency of redemptions, being macrially ia excess of the currency to be redeemed, would mase the inauguration cf aty-tem of central redemptions feasible and practicable to an exceptional degree. Fonr-flf ha of the banks have voluntarily recog nized the propriety and expediency of such a course by selecting their redemption agencies in New York, Philadelphia and Boston. Justice re quires that those banks which are willing to con form to the highest standard should be sustained ; and this can be done effectually only by requiring all to place themselves on the same ground! It la que tionable, however, whether object would be best attained by the plan proposed Is Bouse bill No. 771 w v ich was postponed to the present session. Ibis bill provides that every bonk shall redeem its circula ting notes a* an association in one of the seven teen cities named In section thirty-ooe of the cur rency act, but that each bank in those cities shall redeem In New York Philadelphia or Boston its °Y? poles aud the notes of every other bank for which It may be the redemption ag-nt. The ob ■cctcf the last provision U Indirectly to compel every bank to redeem cither in New York. Phila delphia or Bostc-n; not so indirectly, however, btu that i> purpose is perfectly evident, and therefore open (o every objection that would be urged against a direct requirement of law to that even. In recommending redemptions t n Vew York, them 1. bo tatatUto the claims of any other section oftho country. There are cities «-f great commercial }mn.rt»oea In tne Middle, Western and Soomera sSu? whose financial Interest** demand cot.-id»'auon* The notes of banks located m those cliie/ar-* br the provisions of the law a? It now ‘•land’’ re deemable In New York, and the manager* oftioae hanks would sot Jure It otherwise, it toe law dio not require It, they would voluntarily redeem there. The proposed ameroment only rcoaires all other banks to do the same tiling, u will irivo loose cities and the banks in those cidc* a cur rency worth par in New York, lnste.ii of a deurc clated cnrtency that would be a continual clcvr upon all business operations. ” If any particular section Is not trlbutarv to New York, tbe fact that the banks of tlur section are required to redeem in New York will not make it tributary, but will make such red-rauiioi.t casr and In uowUe burdensome. The commercial im portance of force Us o«n recogni tion; money can be drawn from it ouiyfor’the payment of Its debts. Trade hows in natural channel?, and money goes with it; wherever trade centres, there money will accumulate sufficiently for Its wants. If money is arbitrarily concentrated con trary to this principle, It will flow back team, just as water will fled i s level If the ar camei.; against redeeming In New York is cased a non ihe prepocrieralm** Importance of any other place as a centre of trade! it ceases to be an argument, «ts in the natural order of thing? fhe circabtlou Issued by bank- In that place will be worth more at oome than at any other point, and will go home for the payment of balance? rather than to Sew York tor redemption • consequently there will be no hardship In the re quirement. if the argument is not based on that assumption, ii Is an arrnmest for the other side ot the question; lor If i: Is a haresktp to redeem in NewTork, the hardship is evidence of the ne cessity. It all national banks are required to redeem their issues in New York, reciprocal obliya;iona will be imposed upon the banks of iha; city. The ba'accrs kept In those banks win amoaiu in the aggregate to a very large snm, and there w ill be competition between tbem for the account? ot the country banks. Such competition already exists, and ha? led to tbe dangerous practice of pa . ia" Interest on deposits. This practice is condemned by all prudent bankers; but where use d ies it others mutt do It or lose tbe accounts cf -ood correspondent?. “ A Lank that pays interest on current balances Is obliged to keep it- funds tn constant use, or lose money. In order to do this loans payable on call are mado npon collateral se curity ot more or less value; and there is so om-h competition for snch loans that it has the tuect lo lower tbc standard ot security requhed Frery thing which causes extraordinary facilities in monetary transactions tends to produce excite ment, overtrading, and speculation snretobriti" ccmperfailott sooner or later, if not checked in pressure, distress and disaster. Loans of lbi-»'de scription a.c made chielly to speculators, and ibnt Is reason enough why ihcpra-ticc snoul.t be re garded as unsafe. Conservative bank? should not countenance or aid speculation; an.l .\,»w York city banks, made by Jaw the custodian* of tho available means for redeeming the cl:c.;lalion of all the hanks m tbc United States, should be Ihe most conservative of all bank? They fhonld not b ■ allowed t-» jeopardize tit * fund- of the country bank? by loaning tbem tor -pecula tion, and they would not, h* they were not 001 l -ed to pay the interest on them. Stop the payment of interest, and Ihe Irmpaiion to make Itao -oner uso ot such funds is removed. ‘ Ibe only way in which tbe evil in question can be reached. If it can be remedied at all. is by a law protibhlngevery National Punk from narln~ or receiving intt-re.-t on bauk balances, asi the pro priety of sntb a law is recommended lo the con sideration of Congress. Cc.ntnnenlly with a practical svstem of redemption?, a marinal redaction of the volume of legal-tender notes would operate beneficially upon the character of the national currency, by checkins it* expau-l-jn beyond the recessltiea ot hm-iucss. it le-'al lenders were reduced to snea an extent that ’mo amount in circulation should not exceed the emn required to perform the tnnction.l of lawful money a? the snhatiinto lor specie, redemptions would be more stringent, and banks wosid be com pelled to regulate their issues by the demands of trade. A law enacted during the lost session of Con gress provides that the Secretary of ihe Treasury may diminish the volume of the United States notes in circulation, not to exceed four millions of doPars in anyone mouth. Taking four hun dred millions an the point from pti'ch the diminution commences, a legnlsr reflec tion of four millions each month would leave at the expiration of two years tuee hundred millions ot legal lender-notes tn ex istence ;or one dollar in la-ifm money for the re demption ot each dollar of national currency authorized. Thi- ratio wonM hardly render re demptions sufficiently stringent to produce ranch tCeci on bank circulation; Dot if this point could be reached t*y the expiration of one vear, the ef fect would oc more decided. Four million* per month would bo at tbo rate of one hundred and thlny-throe thousand dollars per day; but if bankers should see the means for the redemption of their issues diminishing at the rate of two hundred and slx'y thousand dollars per day, they would naturally and una voidably curtail their circulation to tbo lovest Soin; their business would permit, and ihebone ts atbing from a practical system of redemption would begin to be realized. Tbia proposition is based upon the presumption that It will be the policy of the Government to withdraw all its notes Issued for circulation as fast as It shall liave the power to do so. The tact is not overlooked, however, that an opinion pfe-' vails to some exfet t adverse to this view of the ca-e. It Is frequently and strenuously ursrea that the Government should beep its notes iu escala tion, and th ns have the oae of somnch money without interest. It Is proposed very briefly to consider fbU aacetlon. united States Dotes originated la to necessities of tbo Government, not !a necessities of the trade and commerce. The amount was, regulated, rot by the busi ness necessities of the conntry, but by the necessities of a great emergency, and was only limited by ranching the maximum of expenditure during a time of war. The amount issued was entirely arbitraly, so far os the business interests of the country were concerned, and altogether In excess of the demands of trade, as Lsct merit by the high prices borne by every kind of commodi ty, and Irom tbo surplus of money subject to the control cf speculators. This currency cannot contract or expand Irotn natural causes. It was issued to save the country from bankruptcy dar ing a protracted struggle with armed rebellion, ana can only be contracted by legal enactment of Congress. There is no element about It in sym pathy with the commercial and industrial inter ests of the country. The powtr of Issuing notes to circulate as money is too dangerous to be placed at the mercy of political parties in a Government like ours, and ts fraught with possibilities of corruption and disaster calculated to excite the gravu-t ap prehension in the minds of nrndent men. Hav ing served the purpose for which it was called in to existence, provision should be made for Us withdrawal. On the other hand, banks are In direct sympa thy with trade, dependent on i: for their profits; they meet it- wants by discounts and byiomlsh- Icg a ciicolatirgmcdium: if currency is Issued m excess of the demand, II Is Immediately returned for redemption, and contracts and expands os trade requires. In a word, banks are amenable to the laws oi trade, while the Government Issues aicnoL Furthermore, the banks have rendered import nut aid to the they have been lamely instrumental In developing onr national resources and in increasing bur na tional wealth. The manager* and stockholders comprise a large, oaetal. and public-splmeii class In the community, numbering over two hundred thousand citizens. During the pait year they have loaned to the business of the country as average of six hundred millions of collars. They now hold one-fourth of the entire indebted ness of the United States. They have redeemed and rammed to the Treasury of the United States over fourteen millions of mntilahd leifal-tenUera, and have redeemed twenty-five millions of s.ven ibiity coopons. to the very great convenience of both the public end the Treasury Department. They have been Instrumental In placing ic the hands of the people more than eleven hundred millions of United States securities. Thay have received and dbhuiscd from the revenues seven teen hundred and seventy-four millions of public moneys free ofExpense to the Government. The expense of transporting and concentrating for disbursement tills immense sum by ordinary means, whhout the agency of National Banks, would nave been, at a moderate estimate, not less than three minions of do!Ia»s. The net loss sustained by the Government through the failure ot two banks, which were de positories of public moneys, will probably not ex ceed a x hundred thnn-and dollars, or about ona tblrtfcth ofone per cent of the total amount in volved, and about one-fifth of the amount it would have cost the Government to do the business without the aid of the banks. From thir e'atcment it will be evident that Na tional Banks, although organized and managed by Individuals for their own profit, are yet capable of rendering nnporrant services both to the Govern ment and to the public, and have demonstrated tbclr entire willingness to perfotm each service; and that if losses have occurred to the Govern ment through their agency, the amount Is small compared with the omlay that would have been necessary to carry cn the business without them. ntsTUTßcnox or tux emeunanox acTHonizso The original set of March 35,1563, provided for an apportionment of the nations! currency to the several Slates and Territories os follows: One hundred and flf*y minions, according ta represen tative population, and one hundred and fllty mfl liona according to banking capita), resources aEcT business. This requirement was repealed by tho act of June 3.which left the distribution to the discretion or Ihe Comptroller of tbe Currency. By the amendment of Starch 3, IS€5, the clause re quiring an apportionment to be made was re enacted, but at tbe same date on amendment Co section seven of tbe Internal Revenue act pro vided that all existing State -Banks should bare tbe right to become National Banks, and should have the preference over new organizations up to the Ist day of July, ISC3. These two amendments were not in harmony; for. If the apportionment • was made as required by the amendme~c to section 21, the State Banks then in existence could not have been converted without exceeding in many instances the amount of circulation apportioned to the different Slates. But as it seemed to be the Intention and policy ot the act to absorb all exist ing baskirg institutions rather than to create new banklcgtntenrsts in addition thereto, the Comp troller of the Currency so construed tho amend ments as to permit the conversion of State Banks without limitation. The etteet of this action was to make a very unequal distribution of carrcncv. some or the States receiving mote than they were entitled to by tbe apportionment, and leaving bat a very limited amount to be awarded to the Southern and some of the Western States. : Now, as the Government has assumed the en tire control of the currency of the country. In volving a direct supervision of its hanking inter ests, it becomes the dnty ot the Government to provide adequate banking facilities to all sections. The Slates lately in rebellion, not being in a con dition to avail themselves of tno privileges granted in the National Cuirency Act ac tho lime when they were oCcred, and when u was still pos sible to obtain them, are row lett almost en tirely destitute of currency and banking facilities. This deficiency is the occasion of great inconve nience and loss to the people of those States, and i» la very desirable, for many reasons, that it tbonldbe supplied. First Ills Important to ail sections of the country, particularly to the Northern States, that the South should be sapphed with flit the facilities rectory for the production of the grest staples of that section, because the export of these sta ples would reduce the exportation of gold. Second. Although, to a limited extent. m *