Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune, December 13, 1866, Page 2

Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune dated December 13, 1866 Page 2
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®l)icago tEribmic. DAILY, TBI-WEKKLI AM) WEEKLY, OFFICE, Ho. SI CLiARK.ST. fb«*rettne«iUtoiijcruieTii»CsK lorood. lit, Ererj morning. tor circulation by earner*. newsmen andtoetnaUa. 14. TheTe-VaxeLT, Mondoyi, Wed* *a»d*yi and Fridays, or to mails only; and Ue W***i.T.oanHmdaya,Cirlhi malls and taUatosr Co enter and bv newsmen. Terms of the Chlcaao Tribune: t DaUy delivered to toe aty irer wee*) .8 aa ®atl subscriber* (fS* uSusnJ*w*' *** bleln advasev) ”... 10.00 ivi-weeaiy.rpcr annam, payatrie to adranco U.OU ” wfctT, (per aaaam. payaoe la adranoe) 0.00 tF“ Fractional parts of the year at toe aame rates. tW Persons remitting as*i ordering are or more copies oreltoer toe Trt-Wrekly or Weeklr edition*, aay retain ten percent or toe snbacrlpuon price u a constosioa. hones to scßMamssa.— la ordering tos address ot yoer papers changed, to prevent delay, be sore and fpecifr what edition you uke-Weskly. Xrl-Weekly or Dally. Also, plreyoorpasszsxandfatatesddreM. by ITraft, Exprcai. Money orders, orla ItcgUicrcd Letters. may beaent at por>i«y, TRIBUNE CCI„ Chirac* 111. THURSDAY, DECEMBER IS, ISM. tub mission op bbooks and BEACU. It is announced that Mr. Brooks, oftbe y*-‘ w York Eepreu and Mr. Beach, of the New York Aun—two Journals of about the same calibre and pecuniary resources as the Chicago Journal and the Council Bluffs MvgJe, arc er* route to Chicago to arrest thv actiohofthe Western Associated Press. It is added that they were stuck in a snow bank yesterday, somewhere cast of Cleve land, else they would have been here sooner. The surprising zeal of Messrs. Brooks and Beach to take charge of the interests of the Western Associated Press requires a word of explanation. The New York Associated Press has heretofore had a monopoly of the telegraph news in the United States. By virtue of this monopoly they have been able to do two things; Ist, to prevent the establishment of new papers In New York ; 2d, to encourage tbs establishment of new paper? elsewhere. By peddling ont to the press cf the country enough news to prevent the formation of any competing news organi zation, but not enough to make the outside papers respectable competitors of them selves, they Lave managed, until recently, to hold their monopoly, both in New York city and throughout the country. In so doing they have assessed npoa the country press the following expenses, from which the latter have derived no benefit; let. All their special despatches, which were intfrchangtd~ under their local roles, but which were not given to the outside press till next day, if at alt 2. All their marine intelligence from the Atlantic and Pacific coasts—news which the outside press do not want. 3. The lengthy reports of proceedings of Congress which they publish, of which the outside press get but a beggarly synopsis. 7he same icinark applies to the long docu ments from the various Departments la tWhlnp ton. 4. Long reports of the New York Legisla ture, and reports of political conventions In New Tork, New England and Pcnnsyl van is. fi. Imports by Atlantic cable of arrivals aid departures of vessels at foreign ports, which are ol no value to the outside press. C. Fmeipn market reports, by Atlantic cable, especially adapted to New York, four fifths of which are valueless to the Western pn-ss. 7. Market reports from all parts of the country adapted especially to New York, but to worthless to Western papers that the lat t cr are obliged to get special market reports, or go without any. * 8. All news, both general and commercial, is made up expressly for New York, and If It beppets to suit any other point It Is only by accident, never by design. All these expenses are lumped in what Is called “the cost of the original collection f>C news,” and charged to the out side press pro rata —the monopo lists being the only parlies allowed to have access to the accounts, or to have any thing to say in the management of affairs. Of course it was equally desirable for them to prevent the establishment of new papers in New York, and to encourage the estab lishment of journals elsewhere. By the for mer they held their monopoly at home. By Ihe latter they lessened the cost ol the news lo themselves. Every new journal establish ed outride of New York paid a new toll to their mill, while the profits of journalism in New York were secured to themselves forall lime to come. The New York Worfd, In or der to gel into the ring, was obliged to buy the Courier and Enquirer, which was at that time a member of the Association. In no other way could it have got 10, Wc have been thus particular In slating the fact?, which underlie the extraordinary interest taken at this time by the New York Press (Jung In the affairs of the Western As- M-ciatcd Press, and which cause them to send two of their number a thousand miles from home in midwinter to attend our meeting. I: it to be supposed that they would put thi-iuM-lvcs to this trouble merely to punish -Mr. Ciaiir, tbclr former agent, who served tlu-ro with a zeal lltat made him obnoxious to nearly all the outside press of the country ? Would ilu-y do so merely to save one-seventh of lb>-:r aggregate expenses? They tell tii that xittrj paid five-sevenths of the entire Associated Press expenses, and the outside press only two* Tenths. If that be true the Western press could not have paid more than one-scvcnth. is It for this beggarly sum Messrs. Brooks & Beach are sent off to flounder through snow drifts In December? There is not a word of truth in ibtir stories about the cost of the friginul collection of news. We collect ruwfi cnmiqb for onr own p.ivale use to know exactly what It costs, and we affirm Unit tb-‘ erpenpes of the New York Associ ated Prc.-t, for the original collection of n< w-. arc not within one hundred and filly tb.-ti.--; d dollars per year of what they al hgcd to the Executive Committee of the Wt stern Press two weeks ago. Wc presume Mr. Brooks is here to prom i*c all sorts of things If the Western Asso ciated Frets will only restore the old mon opoly. Wc can assure him that lb Is too 1-to to talk of compromises. The Western Press Is lull grown. Itis competent to man age its own affairs. It can buy and sell the ring which he represents and have spending money left. The inquiry is frequently made, “ How t en Mr. Craig furnish the outside press with news as cheaply as they have heretofore been supplied by the New York Associated I'm**” If it should be shown that the cost of rullccting domestic news has been here tofore i«aid • principally by the out ride press, the the question would ho very readily answered. But mppoUnp the outside press have heretofore paid only one-half of such cost (we believe they have paid much more), Is it not appar ent that by dispensing with the voluminous marine news, the unwieldy reports of Con an* cf the New York Legislature, the long docutiie-atfi from Washington and Alba ny, the ttrbatim ol Eastern political Cojiviniions, the cavin reports of marine news, and California ditto, of-marketa adanted onls to New 1 ork city, enormous. taving is effected ? All this is apart i om u, e advantage of having the news collected Mid prepared especially for the Western Press. Under the old arrangement not only «itv the Western Press assessed for the long bungling matter which they did not want, but the wires were half the time crowded with superfluous matter of this soil to the exclusion of news of real value—as every Western editor knows—so that we not only helped to pay for matter interesting to New Yoik alone, but we paid the U-lciriaph charges on It a second Ume- But this wo* all Mr. Crab’s doings.” says tomthodv. The answer Is that Mr. Craig was m-t ill*; under the orders of the New York ring. We only ask ihst he shall now servo I u h half as faithfully as ha served them. No ] Western editor ever prosecuted an appeal j successfully from Mr. Mr. Craig’s decisions, to the New York Associated Press- Every act of alleged tyranny found solid backlog in the Executive Committee ot the ring, whhhfccl In itself proves that Mr. Craig was acting under orders, with an eye single to the interests and wishes of his superiors The Western Associated Press propose to turn over a new leaf. They intend to try the experiment of self-reliance and Independ ence, contmlling.ihelr own telegraph news, and msnaginp their own affairs generally. They have Ikihcmed the deep mystery of “the original collection of news,’’and they find that it is capable, not only of being managed by any competent man, but of be* Ing greatly Improved and cheapened. If Mr. Craig should die to-morrow, or If the Western Associated Press should separate from him for any cause, the business could be transacted by any one ofa dozen journal ists who might be named. At all events, the monopoly is broken, never to be restored. tST The announcement from "Washington, tbsi the rote in the Senate on the District of Columbia Suffrage Bill would be very close, created some surprise. It care rise to fears that some of our Senators had forffotter -» result of the late elections, and the wish* f the people. Tcelcrdaj’a despatches, how ever, show that the only question the Republicans, Is, whether suffrage shall be made universal or placed on an educational or other restricted basis. There Is no opposition among them to an extension of the franchise to the ne groes In one form or another. We doubt pot reflection will convince them that uni versal suffrage is the most Jnst and practi cable measure of any proposed or likely to be proposed hcrealtcr. Congress owes such a Bl'asnre to the country as an example of honesty and Justice. We observe hat Senator Cowan, doubtless foi the purpose of retarding the measure and embamslng the majority, proposes an amendment which would result in extending the franchise to negro women as well as the males of that race. The while men of Penn, sylvan'a baring repudiated the renegade Sen ator, and ths white ladles of Pennsylvania l being as strongly opposed to his flows as the' men, Cowan seems to desire to make his peace with the negro women. We doubt whether he succeeds even In that quarter. boad TO FINANCIAL per, DITION. Secretary McCulloch rays that If his five financial measures are adopted, specie pay ment can be resumed on the first of July, ISGS—that is, eighteen months hence. His programme Is; Ist. In compelling the Na tional Banks to redeem in New York City; 2d. In a curtailment of the currency to the amount required by legitimate and healthful trade; Bd. A revision of the tariff, for (he purpose of harmonizing it with onr internal taxes; 4th. In the issue of fire per cent twenty year bonds, Interest payable lo Eu rope ; 3ih. In rehabilitation of the South. We will confine our criticism in this article to pro]K>sltion No. 2—the curtailment of the currency. In his elaboration on this head we find the Secretary proposing no curtail ment of hank notes, but he Insists on wiping out the “greenbacks.” He says; -Anxious as be is to lighten toe public hardens sne redece the public debt, he does not hesitate advise that the legal tender notes be withdrawn fiOßj mentation, andihattbe famishing of what paper currency mar be required be left to corpo rations, uctirr existing laws sod such amend nunis of three laws as experience may nictate, for the be tter protection and advancement of the Dub lin interest. How rtnldlv they may be retired must depend upon the effect which contraction may nave upon businessaud industry, and can be better determined as toe work progresses. The rcdnctloß could probably be Increased Bom fane millions par month, as contemplated by the set of April 12, ItCO, to »ix millions per mouth for the present fl»cal year, and lo ten millions per month thereafter, without preventing a steady conver sion of the .Interest-bearing notes into bonds, or injuriously affecting legitimate business.” The greenbacks and fractional currency outstanding December :Ist amounted to SH3,OG2,IUS. The Secretary has retired since April 12, eighteen millions of greenbacks, and, in order to do so, has added nearly an equal amount to the Five-Twenty six per cent gold bonds. He has taken out of circulation 518,0X1,000 of legal tenders coating the pub lic no interest, and be has put Into circuits- tion seventeen millions of bonds coating the tax-payers 51,030.000 annual interest Id gold, or $1,450,000 in currency. If U be replied that he has simply used the surplus fnnds in the Treasury with which to “retire” greenbacks, and has not converted the eighteen millions Into bonds, we answer that It comes to the same thing exactly; for he might have purchased seventeen millions of Five-Twenty or Seven-Thirty bonds with the eighteen millions of surplus funds, thereby reducing the bonded debt by that amount, and the interest account by more than a mil lion In gold, ora million and a half in car rot cy. The Secretary declares that his object in pursuing this singular course Is, to effect a contraction of the currency, with a view to a speedy return to specie payments. But his policy is a blunder, which. If not stopped, may prove disastrous to the financial welfare of the country. The true way lo approach specie payments is by redeeming and cancelling interest- bearing bonds, and thereby strengthening the National credit and lightening the bur den of taxation. The vast volume of bonds in circulation control the value of green back currency. The Interest-bearing debtor the United States amounts to $2,252,000,009, including the Compounds. It is in the form of bonds, ranging from SSO to SI,OOO each,' and. passing from hand to hand like hank notes, without ment, and used as a all kinds of commercial transactions and credit?, ai'd for the purchase of properly and i ajment of debit. They circulate throughout North America and Europe; there being at least four hundred millions of them in Europe. These bonds are worth, at the piescnt time, about seventy-five per cent ol tbeir face in gold. They govern and regulate the value of greenbacks in pro portion to their relative quantity. As 2,25 1 is to 4IS, so is the Influence of the bonds on the price of greenbacks, and vice vena. The bonds, therefore, hare five times more In fluence over the greenbacks than the latter have over the bonds. Now, If the Secretary of the Treasury will pursue a policy that tends lo Increase the standing of the bonds be will bring up the valae of the cur- rency at the same time. The right policy to pursue Is obvious, viz; provide for the certain and punctual payment of the Inter est; and, secondly, employ all the surplus fnnds in the Treasury in baying up and can celling bonds, and let the greenbacks alone. The Secretary proposes to employ the re- sources of the Government In retiring the the greenbacks, by converting them Into gold-interest bonds, and by buying them with the cash in the Treasury. Suppose that on the first of July, 18CS, be should have perfected this mad scheme, what will then be onr financial .condition, both as a Government and people ? lo the first place the $150,000,000 of com- pound notes will be changed into Five* Twenties, drawing 19,000,000 of interest In gold : ££8,000.000 of the greenbacks will he fundi-d Into $250,000,000 of Flve*Twcntlcs drawing $15,000,000 of gold Interest, and the remaining $150,000,000 of them will be re deemed and retired with cash in the treasury. Then the bonded debt of the country will be $400,000,000 greater than at present, and the gold Interest account will be Increased $24,000,000 per annum, and the $413,003,000 of greenbacks and fractional which cost no 'interest, will all have disappeared, leading 'he currency field clear to the National Banks. The Incyitahle tendency of this large in create of the hooded debt will be to depre ciate the value of the National Securities. If the effect of the curtailment of tbe currency appreciates its purchasing power, then onr i winds abroad will come back to the United States for talc, and the coin In the country will be shipped to Europe lu payment of them. This dopblc process, the contraction of the currency and the exportation of gold will act on the body politic in the same way that a redaction of food and the loss of blood would affect a physical body. The power to | produce wealth would be seriously impaired if i not crushed,[and widespread commercial and industrial disaster would afflict the land. | But wc have not considered what effect this currency curtailment and specie expor tation would hare on the National Banks. Uow could the Banks redeem their issues In com after the legal tenders are all gone? The first step erery one of them mast take, will he to contract their own circulation. As fast as they find the greenbacks ebbing away, they must draw in their own notes, and the most solvent bank will be that one which will not hare a dollar of its notes In circulation. When the day comes for specie redemptions, what must be the effect of this contraction on the hundreds of thousands of the debtors of the banks ? And what will be the effect of it debtors’ debtors? And what will be the effect of all this contraction on the National rove uues! Will not the Internal revenue fall off bait or two-thirds ! Will not the duties from Imports also fall off! With this loss ol reve nue how Is the interest on the National debt, Increased $21,000,000 by the Secretary’s folly, to be paid ?—the army and navy to be sup ported!—the pensions to be paid, and all the | other departments to be kept running! Mr. McCulloch may have possessed enough financial ability to manage the Indiana State Bank, but bo U demonstrating that he is not capable of managing the National finances, oor fit to be entrusted with (be immense re sponsibility devolving on his office. Be is evidently too thick-headed to compre hend that the true policy to pur sue is not to increase the bonded debt, and to abstract the currency out •if circulation, thus deranging all basinets and dcstroyii g the revenues of the Govern ment while Increasing Its liabilities for in terest, bnt that the right course to take is, to apply the surplus revenue and the Idtehoard cd cash of the Government in purchasing in- 1 tcresl bearing bonds, and issuing enough plain legal tenders to take np and caned the compound interest legal lenders. By follow ing this policy the money market will be kept easy, business prosperous, and tbo peo ple contented ; and the Federal bonds wilt tteadlly appreciate In value at borne and abroad, because os each million of them arc paid off the others will be held with a tight er grip, and the saving of interest necessarily increases the case and certainty with which the country will pay Interest mod principle of the remainder- This process will bring np the value of the bonds to par before $000,000,000 of them can be bought up and cancelled. Of this we have no shadow of doubt. As the bonds rise In value, they will carry np with them the greenbacks and National tt«T>k notes; and when the former reach par, the latter will on or near the same time. Thus, by strengthening the credit of onr bonds, by paying off a portion of them, we enhance the value of onr currency, and when the bonds become worth their £ice in gold, the notes of the banks will also be worth their face in gold, and the greenbacks will be as good as gold; and specie payments will follow as a matter of coarse, without being attended by financial convulsions and Industrial disasters. Here, then, arc two roads before ns. To follow the left hand one In the track of the Secre tary, will take us Into the golf of financial perdition. The richt hand one is the path of safety, and will lead us out of bogs and marshes to solid ground and pleasant places. gf on the question of ratifying or reject ing the Constitutional Amendment, in the Alabama Legislature, on Friday last, only two members of the Senate and eight of the House voted for the ratification. It is evi dent that Alabama Is a good subject for the prompt action of Congress. A. SEW UEBEL PAPEB. 11. Rives Pollard, former editor of tbcßieli. tuond -E'ronnr.rr, and the champion of many bloodless “affairs of honor,” is about to start a weekly paper In Richmond, to be called The Southern Opinion. lie sends us a prospectus, with the request that we will notice U. A careful perusal of the docu ment confirms the opinion we bsd previously formed, that Pollard is an ats. lie says: “ While The Southern Opin ion shall advocate such obedience to the .Constitution and.thc laws as has been prom ised by the people of the South, and shall support the reconstruction policy of Presi dent Johnson, as the only means by which the country can be eared from the savage and bloody role of Radicalism, it will accept the Yankee as a feet, and logically and for ever as a fee-; whether In war or peace, or in the field or the forum, or the Legislature— always an enemy. There Is a mutual and Inextinguishable bate between the Yankee ~ and the Southerner; when ever and wherever they meet, they will meet as foes at heart; and this feeling will live as long as there arc two men on earth to bear it toward each other.” The astounding announcement that hatred will exist as long as two men entertain it, would do honor to the sagacity of Jack Bunsby. May we not aafely assert, in the light of this great principle, that hatred will not die as long as It lives? Pollard Is not satisfied to have “the lost cause ” lost only once; be wants it lost the second time. He probably wants to write another book. He pants for war rather than negro suffrage or negro eqnaUtysnchos they have in Massachusetts. “ Rather than ever see this slate of things In the South,” he eayg, “we would see onr land again committed to the desolation and devastation of war, and onr homes horned and ravaged by another Butler and Sber idan.” Perhaps the fact that Pollard took no fighting part in the rebellion, accounts for bis willingness lo hate it renewed. He enjoyed an appointment under the rebel Government during the war, and expended his zeal for the Confederacy In Just such windy and senseless trash oa this In hla prospectus. He probably found himself so much better off for the war, that he would like to have hostilities commenced again for hla os pedal benefit. At the close of hk; prospectus he gives a charm ing specimen of his modesty: “My health,” he says, “ haring already been broken down by nine years of constant and unremitting labor upon the daily press, Idedlne to at tempt more than a weekly paper, until I have regained my physical strength.” We trust the stricken public will bear with be coming resignation the afflicting intelligence conveyed In the announcement that Pollard declines to do what be never was asked to do. This prospectus would not be worth noticing were It not for the feet that it is a pretty fair specimen of the trash with which the South is flooded, and with which the minds of the people are poisoned, their passions roused, and their hatred ofthe North kept alive. Pollard’s “loyalty” is ss good as that of the great majority who now control and rule lo the South, under Johnson’s reconstructed Gov ernments. EST* Moral Philosopher Semmca delivered a lecture at Galveston, Texas, on the evening of the 4tb instant, the object of which was to prove that bo was not a pirate, and that the Alabama was a “ recognized ship, wearing the colors of a State, by the laws of nations.” He compared himself to Panl Jones, the Alabama to the Bon Homme Richard, and Mason and Slidell to Silas Deane, Dr. Franklin and John Adams. He declared that If what the Colonies did was right when they did It, then what the Confederate States did was right when they did it. The Confederate Government was a Government He facto , and had all the rights of belligerents. Hence the Alabama was a regular war vessel, and Scmmes an Admiral. Scmmes ended with the modest announce ment of a willingness tu be Judged by the philosophy of history. When a man Is com pelled to go about and deliver public speeches two hours In length, to prove that be Is not a pirate, we think his lot Is a bard one. Such being the fete of Scmmes, he had better betake himself to the chair of Moral Philosophy in Alexandria, at once. But the next time he lectures on the Alabama, we should like to hare him expatiate on tnat interesting period in his history when, floundering about in the waters of the channel, he called to the men of the Deerhound, "Save me; Tm the Captain P'- We have heard of commanders who, in trying moments, have considered It ignoble to purchase their own life at the ex pense of another’s, however hnmble the per son might be to whom that life belonged. Bemmcs evidently took a different view of the subject. But then, we have never occu pied the chair of Moral Philosophy at Alex andria, and are not probably qualified to Judge lo the matter. codorse basis for 137" The people have no confidence in the scheme for an early resumption of specie pajmeuts. They look upon It os wild and Impracticable, and that to attempt it would predpUate the country Into a financial col lapai. It took Great Britain eight years to return to specie payments after her war with Frame, notwithstanding the Inflation of her cuneicy was far less than ours, and the dis count on it never exceeded 25 per cent. And when she finally did retain to specie pay , ments, “ bard times ” set In and lasted for several years, daring which there was great flnancUl distress; debtors were crashed ; labor wis Impoverished, and the public rev* enucs mi oif and the burden of taxation came with crashing force and weight on the back of the action- £3?*Wi learn from the Toronto (C. W.) Globe that the principal business men of that city met tie Canal Board, on Saturday, and made arrangements for extending a snitablc reception to the committee of the Chicago Board of Tade, of which Lieutenant Gover nor Brass h Chairman, on the occasion of their visit b Toronto, next week. A com mittee, composed of tbe Directors of the Canal Compaiy and twelve others, will meet the visitors oi their arrival, and during their sojourn a complimentary dinner will be given them at the Qieen’s Hotel. pEUSONAL. Mrs. John Morrissey baa Riven (1,500 In a Id o a new raid upon Cuad*. John 11. Sotheroe, of St. Mary's County, Mary* land, who some tiae since killed a Union officer, wb« tried for roansanghter last week, and nc quitted. There Is a rumor that J. C- 0. Kennedy is to supersede Lbacmdile Newton in the Agricultural Bureau. Mr. George Alfred Townsend and Hr. Jerome B. SUliioo, who hare been acting a* special cor respondents for the TTorW, In Europe, hate just comeback—the one by the Arago, the other by the Euro pa. Hr. WIDIam Swlnt®, Journalist aod book* maker, has engaged to write the history of the Seventh Regiment durinz the war. with supple mentary sketches ol aoch of Ita members as re a‘gned to take positions la the army or oavy. A metiopolltan correspondent of a Boston Jour nal Ist refers to Booth's popularity among the New York ladies. The women of New York bare a most sentimental regard (or Edwin Booth, and bare, alter the nsnal manner. Idealised him Into a sort of Admirable Crichton. Tbeybellevo him an actual Bam!et»asd seem to think him ever dying o( a spiritual woe too deep to utterance and too subtle lor appreciation by the vulgar world. Be is the dally recipient of mmerous tender missives, and U assured by the sympathies I of several hundred fait women be never aaw or I heard of, of hla knowledge. One of the seem* i of the abstract adoration which women feel for I him conilsta In his perfect indifference to them. I (they believed to-morrow thathe bad a general fondness for the sex, more than half of th*m would be cored of their romantic attachment. The Hockiord SfffitUr says Francis Burnap. Esq., s well known lawyer of Bocklord, In this Slate, died on the *d Inst., aged seventy-one years. Hr. Bornap settled in Rockford In 1£39, and up to within a year has practiced In the courts of that and adjoining counties, and In the So* p-eme and United States Courts. Be was emphatically a ach-made man, and net only learned fa the law, bat In literature—a mas ter of the English language, and a thorough scholar In other tongues, uKtent and modern. Be loved Chancery practice, and In the knowledge of this department had few equals in the State. As a man, be was kind, courteous and dignified in all bts social Intercourse, and, while be waa arable in bis manners, be was firm In bla principles, even to sternness. Tbe tenacity with which be clung to bla opinions -and earnestly defended them, sometimes excited-enmity. Be waa a man of Integrity, and boldly avowed bla opinions, however unpopular. Be belonged to the Liberty pt r.y at lu> origin, and proclxlmed bis aatl-slavery tintimenls when Abolitionism was a reproach evm in tbe free North and West But be lived to eee tbe time when a large majority of the people of tbe United States maintained the same senti ments with himself, and when slavery was abol ished throughout the laud. Ibe last report that Edwin Forrest had quit the stage lorcvcr. Is as true as a hundred pranoua statements to that effect. Be will play an en gagement during tbe holidays, at the French Theatre, New York. Among tbe dties added to the long list of those containing defaulting office-holders Is Albany It Is announced that tbe Receiver of Taxes of that dly, who handles *l,(OQ,oqp yearly, and gives but f 10,000 bonds, has abstracted *S,MB. Hr.J. 8. Blunt, of Detroit, sold a ficticious piece of real estate for *IO,OOO, last week, and de camped af>er receiving *B.OOO cash. He had also Ingratiated himself Into a “dually of the highest respectability," one of the female members of which he waa engaged to marry. Bla conversa tional talent did it alt. Louis Kossuth, writing to a friend In Brooklyn, to acknowledge the gift of an album con'amfog photographs of some of the moat distinguished statesmen, heroes and martyrs of IheUulon cause, ' says: “ 1 bare derived great pleasure from con templating the features of those great and good men whose wisdom, perseverance and heroism carried the Am. dean Depubljc victoriously through aB the trials of the tremendous war. on tbe issue of which depended cot only tbe mainten ance of the Union, but even the future progress of the ChrUUan world (ownrd true liberty. Inasmuch as 1 am thoroughly persuaded that the onward march of the democratic principle will now be irresistible, a/tar ita vitality has been tested with to much success, on a scale unprecedented !n history." EUROPE. Letters from flnnlcli and London. RECONSTRUCTION K AUSTRIA. The Bad Faith of Austria—Bore Bo* formatorjr Promisee-Dualism the Baals of BeeonstruetUm—node of Di vision—l be Army Hcform—The Pro posed Financial uelcrou-lbe Aus trian Debt. _ ... [From Oor Special Correspondent] . Mujnca. November IS, 1565. BECOXStBrCTION IS AUBTUIA. One of the leading negative characteristics ofthff wretched Government under which Austria has been suffering these many years, Is an invariable indulgence, whenever’ U're capes from a great n atlooal crisis, in a pro fusion of promises of radical and compre hensive reforms, regularly followed by an early relapse into the former bad ways and practices. Alter the profound humiliation' of the rulers of the ill-starred Empire by the allied French and Italian arms In 1859, they sought to allay the intense general indlgna tion of their subjects at the miserable tra ditional political and military system, to which the misfortunes of those days could bo distinctly traced, by the most liberal as surances of immediate and sweeping changes for the better in the ad ministration of every branch of pub lic affairs. As repeatedly before, the promises were only given to be broken, part ly Jrom Intentional faithlessness, and partly fromwantofstatesmanship in those intrusted with the guidance ofthesMnorstate. That Austria was so easily prostrated by the ag- i grcsslvc blows of Prussia last summer, was due, indeed, to the unwillingness or Inability ofber rulers to profit by the lesson received in 1850, In Northern Italy. The show of promise held ont to the Aus trian peoples from Vienna after the peace of VUlalranca, Is now being repeated in all its details. Since the appointment and Install ation ofßaron Beuet as Minister of Foreign Affeits, a series of programmes, proclaiming the earnest purpose of the Emperor and his Ministry to inaugurate reformatory measures In all departments of the Govern ment without delay, has appeared la the of ficlal paper, the L'patina Poet. They purport to define the Intentions of the Government not only in regard to the final settlement of the vexed, apparently insoluble ques tion ol the political status of the people of the Empire at large, and ot the political re la turns of the several nationalities compos ing It, to each other, but also In regard to the thorough reorganization of the military es tablishment, rendered imperatively neces sary by the experience of the late war; and, last not least, relative to the difficult prob lem of extricating the Empire from Its ever incrcaslog financial perplexities and Us chronic state of on the verge of national bankruptcy. The latest Austrian “plan of reconstruction” thus promulgated, deserves a close consideration, though to Judge from precedents, it seems to bo as little certain of practical realization os the “ policy” of the dangerous demagogue at the White Boose. As to the character of the political future, Francis Joseph and bis Immediate advisers profess to be Intent upon working out for tbo benefit of the Austrian peoples* the published programme Is hardly definite enough to cn able the public to perceive readily the exact line of policy the Government means to pur sue. The official revelation, indeed, is so full of generalities and obscure expressions, that its positive parts can only be deduced by the most liberal construction. Thecx- J-erienced expounders of the Vienna press, owever, have agreed in the Inference, that the Government proposes to adopt the prin ciple of “dualism” ns the basis of Its inter nal policy. “Dualism” in Austrian politics means the ranging of the different countries and nationalities formlns)tbe heterogeneous whole of the Empire into two main groups for purposes of legislation and administra tion, in contradistinction from “federalism, ’’ or the system of polity, in which each terri* .lorial division or the Empire would be au tonomous and held to the other only by the tie of common allegiance to the Sovereign and from the system of centralization, aim ing at common Institutions, laws, rights and duties for all the subjects of the Empire, re gardless of territorial divisions ana differ ences of nationality. The dualUtlc as well as the federal and centralizing system, each represents the creed of a political party. All these have already been successively tried and aban doned by the Government. Dualism, to which It now proposes to return after a long periodic f no-pollcy-at-oil-rule, alms, to speak more specifically, at the division of the Em plre Into two grand parts for purposes of government, one consisting of the wetem provinces or Hungary, and the dependencies south of it, and the other of the eastern and northern provinces, viz.: Galicia, Silesia, Bohemia, Moravia, Upper and Nether Aus tria, Salzburg. Styrla, Cariothla, Croatia and the Tyrol. These two grand divisions, so to speak, are to bo as nearly autonomous and in dependent of each other as possible. While fsverned by the common authority of the roperor, they arc to be legislated for, as far as toe common ruler will deem It compatible with the interests of monarchy, by separate law-making bodies. The dnallstic scheme Is, no doubt, accept able to the German and Magyar elements, which, owing to their numerical preponder ance, would do sure to rnle in the respective aggregations of provinces; but distasteful without question to the Czechs, Foies, Rsih enians, and the other nationalities that would find themselves destined to play but subordinate parts In tbo contemplated sys tem of internal government. The vague terms of the published programme prcr'cht a clear conception of the nature of the pro posed relations of the two autonomous or ganisms to be created, to the Supreme Gov ernment. But the imperial decree, convoking the Hungarian Diet, Just promnlcateo, throws more light upon the Intentions of the Government in this rcs’pcct. According to It, the control of the national debt, the regulation of the Indirect taxes, and the or ganization of the army arc to be the powers reserved to the central authority of the Empire. Tnc programme for the re-organization of the army, the product of the new Minister ot War, Lieutenant Field Marshal John, de fines the purposes of the Government much more fully and clearly than the official reve lations concerning the proposed internal polity. It first enumerates what it terms “cogent rcaso; «” for an immediate and thorough sweeping reform of the entire mil itary system of the Empire upon the basis of the principle* now In course ot practical adoption by all the leading military nations of Europe, of the liability of every subject, capable of bearing arms, to military duty In defence of the honor and safety of bis Sover eign and country. In order to carry oat this principal In Austria, it represents as abso lutely necessary, first to limit the exces sive exemptions from military doty under existing laws, and secondly to abolish entirely 'the system of substitution, and to exact uniformly per sonal service instead. Next, the programme proposes to shorten the time of actual ser vice in lime of peace, with a corresponding extension of the length of service in the re serve. It also alludes to the organization of a well tniifcd militia, in addition to the reg ular forces, as part of the plans of the Gov ernment. It refers further to tbe recognized necessity of overhauling and reorganizing tbe various staff departments; of elevating by proper moans the spirit of the army and raising the standard of Intelligence among officers os well as men by more thorough in struction, and insisting upon professional pro ficiency as tbe ouly title to and means of promotion. All of which would be well enough, if capable and certain of being car ried out. The programme for the solution of the roost Intricate, all but hopc-forbldding pro blem, vlr.: The introduction of order Into the chaos to which the finances of toe Em pire have been reduced for many years, is even more replete with glittering generali ties than that for the political reconstruc tion. It promises an early stop to the emis sion of paper money, that has been going on for many months at a rate no less volumin ous than that kept np by onr Government in the same business In its worst financial straits during the civil war. It assnres the Austrian pnbllc furthermore that every branch of public affairs would henceforth be administered In tbe most rigidly economical manner ; that the foreign policy of the Em. plto ■would hereafter be" so conducted to 1 preclude the possibility of further cos»’,r ware, thereby stopping the main, source©! the chronic deficit In the Xt£perl*i Exche quer ; and that every nerve wou\a be strain, cd by the Government to ; e palr the dam aging effect of the late d war upon the material prosperity of tbe Empire; to develop rapldlr the, resources of the whole country, and thereby Increase Its general productiveness and capability of taxation. Lot,tutor tubalely, these high-sounding, well* turned phrases arc unaccompanied either by posh Ire feels and figures, demonstrating the poaAbiUty of realizing these high-strung assurance*, or by an announcement of the time at wtlch tbe promised reforms arc to begin. Moreover, the Austrian pablic has been deceived more thin once before by sim ilar grand strains of promise, into the most confident expectations that never knew ful filment. Aod i>cn«c it can hardly be blamed for receiving this repetition with decided In credulity and want ot Gmh. It would be uolair and absurd to aa&cri that the present rulers of Austria are not anxious to extrieatetho Empire trotnthe dan gers surrounding It ou all sides, and threat ening ruin and desolation, and not willing to initiate reform In the administration of pub lic affairs for that purpose. While they arc no doubt loath to enlarge the political rights of tbe people, the Instinct of self-preserva tion Impels them unquestionably to make political concessions as well as carry out .other necessary and salutary reforms. Bnt, granting their good Intentions, the question still remains. whether they will be able to realize them in the Ctce of the extraordinary obstacles inherent to their task. For, In the first place, the want of uniformity and co herence In, and ccntrllhgtl tendencies, so to speak, of "the population of the Empire, arising from iu heterogeneous character, naturally render the establishment of a suc cessful government over Austria acceptable to all tbe governed impossible. The mutual Jealousies of the various nationalities composing that strange conglomerate of peoples, arc so great and bitter; their na tional peculiarities, necessities, desires and aspirations so widely differ from and cross , each other, that all attempts to reduce the I antagonistic elements to a harmonious whole ! bare resulted heretofore, and are likely to I result hereafter, in nothing bnt successive 1 feilnres. Dt-roocratlc Institutions alone, guar antcclngto the several peoples the right to choose their rulers, as well as absolute equal ity of all other political rights and duties, could alono work the wonder. Monarchy will never prove a cement of sufficient strength to hold this polyglot State perms ncnlly together, and neither the experi ments, now Id constitutional and then in ab solute, centralized Government, nor Us suc cessive trials of Federalism and Dualism, will save the Empire from the disintegra tion that will befall it, sooner or later. The same obstaclethaihascausedand will cause tbe wreck of all efforts for a change to tha better In the Internal politics of tbe Em pire will render futile all attempts to make the army of Anslria as Intelligent, efficient and coherent a bodyas that of Prussia, the excellencies of whose military system the new Secretary of Warjwoposes to Imitate la W* programme, though his Austrian pride does not permit him to avow it openly. The soldiers of Austria, belonging, u they do to a dozen different* nationalities and tribes, ■peaking as many languages and Idioms, can never be formed, whatever effort* In drilling and disciplining them may be made. Into tbe bomopeneom whole, animated by the aamc rational feelings and sympathies, that the hosts of King William’ have proved them selves before Ihe eyes ofastoolahcd cotem-- forancous mankind. The problem of Im parling nniform clllcicncy to. and .Insuring sympathetic, intelligent co-work ing In an army like the Prus sian, composed of men of the same nationality, is capable of solution. But it will never be practicable to nuke the Austri an nallocar oUapodrida of Germans and* Hungarians, Czechs and Poles, Croat* and Ha tbeniani. and half a dozen other Slave tribes' it* equal In the mentioned martial charac teristics. Besides this greatest obstacle. Field-Marshal John will find the realization of his dream of reorganizing the Austrian army so as to bring It np to the standard of the Prussian, seriously obstructed by an other, Tlz: the state of the public finances. Ou the 30th of June last, the Austrian pub lic debt amounted to two thousand, eight hundred and thlrty-ono millions of florins (equal to $1,415,500,000). Since that time tbe assumption of elghty-lour millions as the share of Vcnetla by Italy baa reduced It to 2,707,000,000 fiorins. But this reduction has been more than balanced by new loans to the amount of one hundred and twenty-five millions! and by additional Issues of paper money to tbe amount of some two hundred millions, so that the aggregate amount of (be debt Is at this time no less than thirty-one hundred millions of florins. The annual revenues of the Government from all sources before the late war were about four hundred millions, and the expenditures, of which those on ac count of the army represented thirty-four Bcr cent, about four hundred and sixty roll ons, making an annual deficit of sixty mil lions. The additions to tbe pnbllc debt dur ing the last twelve months,- amount to an aggregate of nearly five hundred, and fifty millions. Tbe additional annual interest of about thirty-five millions, which this In crease involves, will alone swell tbe annual deficit to nearly onehundred millions. When it is considered that in Venetia the Empire has lost a province that contributed In re sources three times more than It* adminis tration cost the Imperial exchequer; that two of the richest northern provinces—Bo hemia and Moravia—have been utterly im poverished by the Prussian invasion, and consequently cannot be relied on as tax-pay ers for years to come, and that tbe capacity to contribute revenues to the Imperial treasury of all tbe other provinces has been serlonsly impaired by the war, tbe predictions of certain Vienna papers, that tbe deficit for the next twelve months will not fall much short of two hun dred millions, cannot be looked upon as ex aggerations. Before the late war, tbe best financial talent of tbe Empire proved In adequate to the task of overcoming tbe deficit of sixty millions and bringing the ex penditures within tbe limits of the receipts- If the former Incombcnts of the ministry of finance could not level the hill, will the present one be able to reduce the mountain ? And Is tbe Austrian public not Justified in the (ace of these facts and figures, to treat the generalities of the latest financial pro gramme of tbe Government with something akin to derision I That tbe Minister of War is not likely to command very readily the tens of millions required to carry out bis plans of re-organization—the cost of furnish ing the whole army with breech-loaders, is alone estimated at some fifty millions—needs no special demonstration. The programme of the Minister of War, alone ofall tbe mentioned official revelations was favorably received by tbe Austrian press and. public. But though his plaus arc ap plauded, his ability to execute them Is doubted. In regard to the other manifesta tions of Imperial Intentions, there seems to be an all bat unanimous opinion, that some thing much more definite and explicit, and above all, deeds instead of words, are needed to restore full confidence and frith in a secure future. OUR LONDON UKTXEfI, The Trade* Union* Demonstrations— Ibe Promised Invasion of Ireland— roluml)kilP* Prophecy—Failure of an Irish Contractor—The Corner Failure —A Utcllnf In British flloralUr— The Alabama Claim*—.an. Dr. Walker. [Correspondence of tbe Chicago Tribane.] Lovnos. November 91. Tbe great Reform demonstration of the Trades Unions and Friendly Societies, which is fixed to come off in London on the Sd of December, and which I referred to a fort' night ago as Hkeij to be one of the moat significant political demonstrations that has ever occurred in England, is exciting no Inconsiderable amount of alarm. The Demonstration Committee applied to Lord John Manners, the Commissioner of Public Works, for permission to assemble and mar* sbal the procession is St. James Park. His Lordship has replied, declining to Interfere in tbe preliminary arrangements, adding that "a grave responsibility rests on those I who call together large masses ot people , In the public places and streets of a I crowded city, without the power of Influencing or controlling disorderly and I 111-disposed persons.” As the official I letter was not an absolute refusal, the committee decided on organizing tbe procession in tbe Park and marching thence to Ashbnrubam grounds near tbe well-known Crcmorne- Gardens. It appears, however, that the freeholder of these grounds has ob jected to allowing them to he used for this purpose and the lessee, Mr. E. T. Smith, has intimated that he bad given no permission to the committee to meet on the grounds. These are not the only symptoms of fear In spired by tbe approaching demonstration. There are many quiet, bread-and-butter Re formers who wish well to the cause but who deprecate tbe calling out ol large mosses of men so well organized as the members ofthe Trades Unions. They look upon it as an ex hibition of physical power which an accident might convert into an en gine of destruction. Mr. Bright staled at the Manchester Reform Banquet tliat It was expected some 200,000 persons would walk in the procession. Ido not think this Is by any means an exaggerated estimate. Some four years ago no less than 84,000 persons assembled within the grounds ofthe Crystal Palace on the occasion of the Anniversary Festival of the Friendly Society ot Foresters, and from what I know of the efforts which are being made to make the forthcoming display as effective as possible, I am inclined to think Mr. Blight’s estimate la rather under than over the nmnbcr Unit. wQI assemble on Monday week. It Is strange to hear the oatcry of the anli-Refarm press at these “lawless” assemblies, which tbev de clare have no other object than to Intimidate and overawe the Government. A few months ago the great argument of the same press was that tbe people were In different—that the working classes made no sign that they cared to possess the Iran chise—whereas now they know not bow to lay the spirit they have raised. Toe real sig nificance of the manifestation of December 3d will consist In the tact that It Is essential ly and exclusively a working class one. tvery man who walks In the procession will do so with a fixed and single object in Ties’, and each trade will be perfectly organized under the command of leaders whom they know and in whom they confide. It will be an army of industry marching to *he con quest of political rights. A great deal will of course depend on the weather, but If tbe doy be fine It will be such a demonstration ss nas seldom been seen in England. That it will pass over quietly I have no doubt, nn less the Government should in any way interfere with tbe profession. Tbe | telegraph will probably Inform yon before this letter Is printed, that “the Trades Unions demonstration took place, and that ] public tranquility was not disturbed.” At tbe same time, between this and th'- 3d of December, elements of disturbance ma y exist which arc not within the Conl cm pi a ii 0 n of the organizers of the demo-.gtration • Xn a city of more ttara 3.000 there arc hundreds of thu-. i>nd , , h o lf« from hand to mouth, beanies that very numerous class who lire the proceeds of plunder and violence. 1* j s jfcc invariable result of a few day* <if severe weather to throw numbers of uota 0 d other river-side laborers out of em- Payment, and scarcely a winter passes over In which bands of able bodied men are not to be found In all parts of the metropolis asking for charity in a well-known song with the melancholy refrain of “we have no work to do.” It would be difficult to overestimate the ex tent o! suffering, amounting sometimes to absolute starvation, to which the laboring population of London is exposed by a hard frost, and should an atmospheric change of this kind coincide with the political ex citement, the consequences may be more serious than any one at present anticipates. Bat taken In itself, and apart from those fortuitous circumstances which may aggra vate it, the Trades Unions Reform demon stration is not regarded without apprehen sion- The promised Invasion of Ireland by Mr. Stephens may powiblv coincide with the London manifestation, bnt although the Gov ernment professes to be aware ot the feet thatscveral persons arc entering Ireland from America, and have offcred£l,ooo for the cap ture of Stephens. I cannot find an Individual who believes In the fulfilment of the prom ise. Unless men. and gnns, and cannon, and •teres are shipped with a eccresy of which there is scarcely an example, the Atlantic telegraph should hare Informed ns bv this time ot the sailing of the expedition. *lths« lot been stated that the British fleet has £ c *“' >rdcr **l out to Intercept the Fenian do not think the Gov ernment feel* very anxious about what In I fr.la ml bef.rc thr end of tin Jen ISM, nUhomjb orders here b«n Uaucd to tacriase tit mUlUrj fbree along the coaau tord j.i,„ienant Laab.cn making a apccA , t a corporation dinner in Dublin, in whlth-ae of the increase In agricultural stock as om 0 f the signs of prosperity in Ireland. 1 it would be more to the point if fivefold prove that a greater portion of this .-*Ack was left In the country to be consumed I the people who prodnee it. In the very I height of the Irish famine the food of Ire land was exported largely to England for consumption. Was that a sign of the pros perity of the country also ? Me likewise re joices that the emigration from Ireland has been less Ibis year than the previous one, and considers that It is not a good symptom of a country to sec Us population diminish ing. Rls predecessor, the late Loid Carlisle, was of a contrary opinion, and the London Timft quite recently declared that the real -evil of Ireland was that it was still over populated. Whst a country, to be subject to rulers who do not know whether It Is good for It to have fonr, or five, or six mil* lions of people 1 There exists amongst the people a prophecy attributed toColnrabklll, that dnring the reign of an Abercorn some great convulsion Is to take place, and as the Moronls of Abercorn is the present Lord Lieutenant, the superstitious among them will have it that this Is the appointed time. This belief, of course, only exists amongst the lower class of Irish. They are less to be blamed than the well dressed congregation, who can patiently listen to Dr. Gumming and endnre bis telling them that the end of the world which he predicted for the year 1860 has been postponed till next year, or possibly the year-after. Wc have a law which pnnlsl es fortune tellers, bat It is cm forcid very partially. One of the frw Irishmen who realized an Immense fortune by Industry and energy has come to grlefi Tbe papers of yesterday at nonneed that Mr. Dugan, “ tbe great Irish c« ntracxor,” assignee over his property for the benefit of bis creditors. Ill* Liabilities arc estimated at £1.000,000, hut it Is expected that bla assets will yield » respectable divi dend. borne twenty yean ago Ur. Dargan was worth £BOO,OOO. He gave, I think, £30,000 towards tbe exhibition which was held In Dublin, and he was offered a baron etcy or knighthood, which he had the good sense to decline. Tie was extremely liberal, but he 1 ad one falling—too common In Ire land, and among Irishmen—which was the main cause of his downfall. Hud.he not given away to this pernicious habit, U might have been laid of him one day, as It has been said of Mr. Arkright, who has just died In his “personalty was sworn The last twelve months has told bcatfly on men who were supp<sedtn bemUliic sires. The story of the once famous bouse of Gurney has been told this week in the Court or Vice-Chancellor Kendersly with crushing particularity. It appears from the affidavit of John Henry Gurney, a partner in the firm, that for the five years ending the Slst of December, 18C0, tbe profits divided amongst tbe partners avenged tbe large sum of £11(0.000 per annum. Between ISUO and lb€s, when the private partnership was con verted into a Joint Stock limited Company they not only lost the profits but realized losses to the extent of £4.199,000. At the very time, therefore, that the firm received £500,000, namely, Jnl>, iSiw, for the good will of the concern, from tne Joint-stock shareholders who became partners, it was hopelessly in solvent, and the directors must have been Srfcctly aware .that It was. It Is due to r. J. U. Gurney to say that he states in hi* affidavit, that he considered tbe private for tune of the firm would guarantee tbe share holders acafnst loss; and since the failure the entire of his landed and personal pro perty has been sold In liquidation of the lia bilities- But this Is only one ofaserles. Tbe London. Chatham & Dover Railway Com pany, with which Sir Morton Peto’s name has been disparaglnly mixed up. Is hope lessly Insolvent, with liabilities to the amount of something like £5,000,000- Tbe Great Eastern Company U in no better position, and Mr. ft. Hodgson, late member for Carlisle, has Involved the North British Railway to tbe extent of £2,000.000. 1 could go on to Increase tne list of defaulters to au indefinite extent. I was present when an Indignant shareholder, who had been in duced by false representations to take 500 shares In a speculation in India, called the man who got up the company, a member of Parliament also, and the reputed owner of hundreds of thousands of pounds, “liar,** and “cheat.” and “ swindler.” It Is no un common thing, Indeed it is now au ordinary thing, to bear epithets of this kind bandied at public meetings between delinquent cred* Itors and swindled shareholders. Bat it is still more common, so general bssthis kind of rascality become, for shareholders to resign themselves uncomplainingly to their fate:

or to treat their misfortune as a good ioke—though there are lustances where it bos led to the suicide of the beggared victims of this species of commer cial fraud. It is scarcely credible, but It Is nevertheless true that men who trail with them an odor ot fraud—who have been ex posed and gibbeted in print and wood cut appeal to audiences of their fellow country men with the air of in lured Innocents and are not only condoned but received with ap plause and resolutions of confidence os sanc tified martyrs. Bat fraud, like fashion, de scends with “awful diapason ” from high to low, and If successful knavery be attended with no social penalty why should pecula tion in detail be regarded as a reproach ? One of our social reformers, Tom Hughes, the member for Lambeth, met his constitu ents this week, and In the course of bis ad dress referred to the practice, which,bo said, was quite common, of using false weights and measures, andselllng adulterated articles os genuine- Ills hearers received tbe state ment as a good Joke and laughed, and when he tried to impress them with the conscious ness that It was no laughing matter, they only laughed the more. “Pale virtue” has so little chance now-a-days agalustthc “scarlet bead ” of fraud, that “ pale virtue ” thinks It more desirable to descend to some pecu lation on her own account than to be “cart ed ” to the place of execution. The heroism of martyrdom Is regarded as weakness, and “ not to be corrupted is the shame.” The Tima of yesterday had an article on tbe subject of the newftusslan Loan of £0,009,000 brought out here. In which It ears that whilst old Governments end new Govern ments get the money of England, wc have come to that point of commercial Immoral ity when no man's good faith is less trusted than that of tbe Englishman, and Punch, In Its satirical way, says that perpetual motion has at last been discovered, and consists in the winding up of bubble companies. Bat as there most always be some scapegoat, and as there is no general rule without ex ccptlon, 1 must add that the manager of one of those concerns—the Joint Stock Discount Company—ls at present lodged In prison on a criminal charge of misappropria tion of the funds. He bad the sole manage ment of the concern, nod gave out several hundred thousands of the stockholders’ money In the most reckless manner, and not content? with that applied some checks to his own use. It Is on tola latter charge that be has been committed for trial. A shoit time since the public was some what surprised by the sadden and simul taneous appearance of leading articles In the ministerial ionmals on the subject of the Alabama claims, and most persons arc yet in ‘he dark as to the reason. I believe they have been the result of a formal delivery on tbo part of the United States Government to our Foreign Minister of a claim for the amount of loss sustained by American mer chants and ship-owners in consequence of the depredations of the Alabama and other vessels of a similar character. This docu ment gave the most precise details as to the rames of the vessels, the owners, the date of capture and destruction, and concluded with the amount of tbo bill. It was not, I understand, presented Ic the form of a claim, to be exseted or pressed with the al ternatlve of a war If refused, but In the form of a bill which was justly due, leaving to oar Government the responsibility and future consequences of non-payment. On yourside of the Atlantic you may already be In pos session of this fact, hot up tothe present mo ment the general public here Is m entire ig norance of it. Dr. Mary Walker bad, as I anticipated, an overflowing audience, bat her lecture was In ter' upted by the unmannerly proceedings of a knot of medical students, some of whom were fined by a police magistrate for miscon duct al a music nail on the night of the day on which the Esculaplan heroine appeared. A TBIT THROUGH THE SOUTH. Southern ifllsreprcwntatloß-Antago. nl»mi of ClaM—Negro Suffrage—The Cotton Crop— Camiea of Failure— A Ne groe’a Story—Not Safe for Capital to Go South. (Correspondence Chicago Tribune.l Cdattanoooa, Twin., December 7, 1668. X have now spent four weeks In Tennessee, Arkansas and Alabama, and conversed much and freely with different persons belonging to the three classes of Southern society—to wit: The former slaveholders, the poor whites, and the freedmen, und will give your readers some account of wbat I have seen and heard, though fully conscious how diffi cult it Is to “ hold the mirror up to nature,” to “ naught extenuate and naught set down In mallet},** vis-statehents of the press. There have been any amount of exaggerat ed and positive mis-statements of facts pub lished which, whether designed or not, are having a mischievous effect, as lies always do. As a sample. I enclose the following paragraph from the, Knoxville 3fu*enger % which is now going the rounds of the South ern Press, and which has not a single circum stance of truth w a basis, but la a pure fie- “ Ore of (he methods resorted to by 'the Radi cals or Joliet, Illinois, to snow their dcllrbt at the reenUof the recent election m that State, was the honing ot (he Constitution of toe United States, w hlch was dose In the open streets, amid the most votlierous cheering from the crowd of partisans assembled.” THREE-GLASSES IN' THE SOUTH. There are three distinct classes of people in the South, (those named above,) which are as plainly defined almost as the different crops In her fields, and these classes seem al most irreconcilably antagonistic. The mean, low-bred, degraded whites bate the negro, because he Is a negro, with an Implacable hatred, yet they themselves arc os degraded as the negroes themselves, and lu some local ities more so: and the negroes reciprocate this hatred by thoroughly despising the “ Low-downcrs,” as they call the poor whites. On the othc r baud, the aristocratic late owner* of the negro hale bimiecanse he Is a /ree man, <nol particu larly because he is black.) with a deadly hatred, while they fully agree with the negro in Lis estimate ol the poor white*; and both thtinegro and the poor white trash envy the aristocrat, and would like to see him brought down to their Jevel and compelled to toll for his bread like themselves. This triple antagonism, however, has been much sefttned and modifiied by the late straggle, which bos brought down the aris tocrat?, and raised np in a degree both of the lower cla*scs. Not withstanding this, It is very certain that the effort to place all clones upon an equal footing before the law is meeting with quite os much opposition from the low-bred whites as from the aristo crats themselves. Krono smuoL A prominent rebel General, just returned from Mexito, said to moaonly yesterday that “ Negro suffrage is Inevitable, and that be was tor it; that the negroes ol East Tennes see, where be had lived all bis life, were fully as well qualified to vote as half of the fol lowers of Governor Brownlow and Andy Johnson; and (bat a movement is on foot, recently started by the rebels themselves, In favor ot impartial suffrage coupled with uni versal amnesty.” A prominent rebel politician, who was a supporter of Stephen A. Douglas In the Charleston Convention, said to me to-day “ttoi. the leading politicians and the late *j*y«(->ldera would readily agree to Impar tial snflm s * if u were not fortne unreasoning and bitter opposition of th* poor white voters. Two large planter* from Hisriwlppi, who were listening to tbe conversation, expressed the same opinion. And, corroborative of this view I heard an Em; Tennessee Union soldier, who had served Vs the Federal army four years, and who belonged to the class of poor whites, and was a moat energetic upholder of Governor Brownlow. dccWe with an oath, that the Union soldiers ot East Tennessee would kill every negro before they would submit to negro suffrage. The politicians of the rebel school would like to steal a march on the Radicals, and sccore the confidence of tbe negroes by throwing themselves Into tbe movement for negro suffrage, and would attempt It, were U not that the poor white voters cannot be induced to follow in that direction; and no disguising tbe feet that the Radi cals arc Impelled onward, and held in check, by tbe same considerations. In this State tbe Radicals have the Legislature and the entire State Government In their own. ,* bands, and while ihey dare not wholly refute to act on the suffrage question, they dare not act to any purpose. They are like the nss in the frb'C, who starved b**iwem two bandies of bay. The rebels. If In power, would act inst the same-indeed they did so act, in the 'onfedante Congress, on the question of arming tbe slave*. 1 venture tbe prediction, which! am very well aware is contrary to tbe general expectation, that tbe reariniloui and discussions In the Tennessee Legislature on the suffrage question will amount to nothing more than a general agitation of the subject. Meantime the world {amoving, and all classes arc being educated" np to an understanding and acceptance of this great fundamental principle of the Republic. THE COTTON CBOP. The cotton crop is an entire failure in many localities, and, on an average, not more than one-third a crop. Southern men without experience In cotton-raising have Invariably, so far as my information extends, failed to raise a crop, and In many instances hare failed to pay the freedmen In their em ploy, from sheer Inability to do so. * The censes of the failure of the cotton crop are understood and acknowledged by everybody, to-wlt: too much wet in the spring, drouth In June, and July rust, and the worm—not a single favorable circum stance daring the whole season, except good weather, to pick what grew. Those who are attributing tbe failure of tbe crop to tbe refusal of the freedmen - to workj cither know nothing of what they talk abont, or are ereat liars. It U tbe almost Invariable testimony of the planters that the freed men have conducted themselves well—as well as could be expected. 2t is true, how ever, that there has been a general scarcity of laborers, and that white laborers, no mat ter bow pressing the necessity, have refused to work on plantations where freedmen were employed, and the consequence has been that much land has not been cultivated. TESTUfONT OP PLA.VTZBS. Two cotton planters In Middle Tennessee took a scat behind me In the cars, and one addressed tbe other thus: “Well, Collins, how have the freedmen in your section conducted themselves f” “Very welL” was the'reply, “they have made abont a third to half a crop, I reckon. 1 paid my men ten dollars a month In rations; they stole some of my bogs and cat 'em up. but have worked very well—frill as well os I expected, and rather belter, on the whole. I could not have them punished for stealing without losing their work, and I believe tbe black ensses knew this. But I could not help myself without biting my own nose off, so I kept them steady at work, and am very well satisfied.” “ What Is your experience f” Inquired Col lins. “My niggers did uot work mneb, and I have not made a crop. I planted late—could not get my hands together in time—the weeds got tne start in toe wet weather, and the cotton dried up in June sod July, and I have not paid expenses. I have not made com enough lor my mules, let alone the niggers. I hardly know what lam to do. I have not been able to pay my niggers a dollar, ex cept rations, and they have earned me noth ing. They stole my hogs, 100, while they lasted, and I shot one fellow In the act; but It did no good—the rest have been sulky as h—l ever since. I wish to God the niggers were all out of tbe country. 1 think I won't plant cotton next year—uot in Tennessee.” “What will you dot” Inquired the other. “I don’t know,” he replied. “Go to Texas, I reckon.” Colonel James Wiley, an extensive slave holder before the war, and a very candid, intelligent gentleman, told a n>e that be had made two hundred bales of cotton wltb twenty-six fieedmen and women, on' Lis plantation near Fort Gibson—that his hands had worked well un der the stimulus of one-foartb of the crop and rations, which he engaged to give them. He anticipated some (Utiicuiiy in determining satisfactorily to all what amount to pay to each, but nad concluded to leave the ''.vision to the negroes them selves. Colonel Wiley knew an Indiana ’man near Port Gibson who had worked a large plan tntion, and had employed one hundred men, but had not made a bale of cotton, and had not paid his men or his rent. General Alexander, an old Tennessee plan ter, had employed forty freemen la. Missi ssippi—they had worked well for him—he worked with them—be paid his men twelve dollars per month and rations. Another planter had had trouble with bis freedmen, and had attempted to punish them by shooting them (a very mild pun ishment to be sure for petty larceny and laziness), aud had succeeded in making but very little cotton. I asked him If he thought 11 right to shoot men at pleasure? He re plied, “I had as lief shoot a nigger as a dog.” These tacts taken at random are sufficient to P’ove, If proot were necessary, that negroes will work for an inducement, resent injuries, and steal when hungry, Just like white men. Bnt I have a negro’s story to relate. Let all sides be heard before deciding tbe question : (In Memphis 1 saw a grey-headed negro eat ing his dinner on a load of cotton. I ap proached him, when tbe following conversa tion took place: “Well, my friend,” said I, “did you bring In this cotton to sell?” " No, sab,” be replied; “ I fetched It, bnt am’t coin’ to sell it.” “Did you help raise U?” “ Yes; six of us worked seventy acres, and we made sixty hales.” “ But, they soy, freedmen wQI not work; that yon arc lazy, now that you are Dree, and that you steal the bogs.” “I know,” said he, “that some niggers don't work very well, and I spec some steals; but heaps of white men Is lazy and steals,. too ; bat they steals so they don’t get cotch ed, and they tells heap of lies a bom niggers; and they cheats us ont ot oar wages sometimes, when wc docs work hard. m 3 u we did not steal we wouldn’t get aaffia ’tall. I tell yon, massa, what one man did. He worked twenty niggers, and he sent op Noff and got a heap ol brass watches, and car rings, and »Icb, cause be knowed niggers dun go crazy after such thlncs, and he sold ’em to his men and women, for big prices. Pretty qnlck the watches wouldn’t go, and the nig gers found out they wurn’t waff nnffln, and then they acted as bad os they could, and wouldn’t make a crop. ' Now, ma&sa, I can't fcc much diffrcoco twlxed slch cheatln and stealin hogs—can you massa? I tell you wbat Is true, when any hogs are nig gers always steals ’em, no matter If they all die with the cholera. When white folks docs right, niggers will do a heap better £ reckon.” - k This Is tbo old negro’s story—and I co n* mend it to the consideration of the slander ers ofthencgro.gencrally. NOT SAFE FOR CAPITAL TOOO SOUTH. 1 Inquired of & prominent and Influential rebel near Morfrvetboro, If Northern capital could bo safely Invested Sontb, for instance, in building a cotton factory and improving their floe water “power on the East Fork oT Stone River, lie fixed his eye upon me very earnestly, and said. “1 suppose yon want to know the trutht” I replied that I did. “ Then I tell yon,” be said, “ that it would not be safe. I would like to see mills and factoi ke built here, bat the loW-down and low-bred men would burn the factories, on* loss some Influential Southern men were as sociated tn the enterprise.” I inquired if he would invest in such an entcrplse. Looking at me with stern inquiring ex pression of countenance he replied, ‘‘l would rather not answer yonr question ; you may deem my answer an Insult.” I assured him on that score, when he said, ‘‘Well, then, to be frank, 1 could not. 1 hare taken an oath on my bended knee not to do tt.” Suddenly checking himself, he said he would give me the names of some men be thought bad not taken the oath who might invest. I un derstood him to mean that he belonged to a secret society which had sworn its members to eternal hatred of, and non-intercourse with, the Yankees, as the modern Greeks did against the Turks when they entered the Hctarl. It is really and sadly true that person and property are very mnch at the mercy of ruf fians throughout the South. If half a dosen young men of the best families (?) almost anywnere in the South, wish to have a little fan, as It is savagely miscalled. In the way of shooting or hanging a nigger or a Yankee, they can and do often have it with impunity. The commander of the military post here said to me that United Statca soldiers. If canght out alone, arc not as safe as during the war. In a little town In West Tennessee (I will not name it,as I have to go there again), while I was stopping there, three negroes were arrested for stealing clothing, and pre parations were talked of for banging them as soon as dark. This was spoken of In a gleeful spirit, as yonng men In the South would speak of an anticipated bonfire or dance, xbis language was used In my hear ing; ‘‘Come out—we are going tohavesorae fun to-night.” 1 have not heard whether the negroes were banged. If they were. It would not be likely to get Into the papers. ROWISG. The Oxamplonablp of Use Thame*— Chambers ffloa by m Pool. (From tb?London Herald, November *L] The issue of yesterday's great race upon the Thames lakes back the championship once more to the banks of the coaly Tyne ; Robert Chambers, of Newcastlc-on-Tyne, ex champion, and Joseph Sadler, of Putney, both landsmen, contended for the battle from Putney to Hortlake, fbr £2OO a side ; and the North countryman wonf the decision of the referee being in his favor respecting a foul that occurred when a mile and three* quarters from the start. At twenty-five minutes to two the men ap peared from their respectice boat yards, and rowed to the Aqueduct for the race. They had signified their Intention of not • starting without the steamers were astern of them, but such was fouod to be quite im practicable, and the steamers lay in different positions, heavily laden, np the reach. The towing paths were swarmed with equestrians and pedestrians, and the trees and bridges were a!so well patronized. Mr. John Ireland was referee; Mr. H. Claspcr umpire for Chambers, and Mr. James Messenger, of Teddlngton, for Sadler, Stephen Salter showed Chambers np and Henry Kelley looked after the interests of Sadler. Cham bers won the tossand took the Middlesex side, nearly on the top of the water. Having stripped, they did very little dodging, but when off the Duke’s Head the race began at 1:46 o'clock. Fora couple of strokes Cham bers held a lead; then be was dispossessed of it, and as they approached Simmons’ Sad* ler, rowing in excellent form, led by half a length. He quickly increased iW and was nearly clear at the London Boat Uouse-row ing so well that between the Creek and rolnt be bad taken his mao's water. Offers of three to one now met with no response, save from a few gentlemen with a strong Northern cent, who relied upon their man’s staying powc*« |o outrow his opponent. Sadler had taken bt» water, and was rowing a quarter of a length riving Bob all bis wash. He rowed bcantUuily but was delicately trained, and «inlbltcd nothing like that tremendous omonnt of muscle shoot the back ana shoulders that did Chambers, bnt had gr**tly improved upon hU form when he rowed IhvwUu The North countryman’s rowing was grand ; the long drag was perfection, and as they;nudo the dung wharf end Cham oers got no nearer, he turned and eyed his man with some anxiety, until, near Crab Tree, hcXHed to get inside, bnt was prevented, as Sadler wm taken there also. Torn began a tremendous race across the water, Sadler still a quarter ot a length ahead, bnt looking nervoos, yet he did not falter. A wave catching Cham bers’ scull near the Soap Works, gave Sadler an advantage, bnt as they finished the shoot and made the Soap Works point, a change, was (ikiog place. Chambers havirg onco. more looked *t his man. smiled, and spurt- j ing, overlapped him. The other began to tire, but as Chambers tried to pass him in** side spurted hard, avd got half a length ahead again, being that distance ahead at the Bridge. Ho was then taken midway be-’ tween the steamboat dummy and the shore, and Chambers on the inside of the dummy would not have room to pass if Sadler held on that course. There were several skiffs a’engside the dummy, and Chambers nearly fouled them as he passed, and although he gave way as moch as possible, he pat on a brilliant srnrt through the bridge, and when became out be bad fouled Sadler, who was bortrghlm. They started again, and Sadler got away, but Bob rowed him down again, and again foiled. Sadler was first clear, and when leading by a length, Chambers not per severing, be was nearly swamped by a steam er, and casing, allowed Sadler to finish the race by himself. The umpires both appealed, and the race was awarded to Chambers on the foul. The time occupied was twenty-five minutes and eight seconds on a very bad tide. This is the first occasion on which two landsmen have rowed for the championship of the Thames. The result of this race most not be consid ered a lair criterion of the superiority of Chambers over the London men, as Kelly most be considered superior after his late defeat of the Northerner. THE FENIAN UPRISING. Gunboats and Troops Sent to Ireland. Arrests of Fenians and Seizures of Arms. CONTRABAND GOODS. “-• * 1 . ■ *■.■ • UVVI/O. (From the Cork Examiner, November 26.) The Cork Steamship company’s screw steamer Halcyon arrived here from Liverpool at 3 p. m. yesterday, and, according to tpgnal Sractlce, Head Constable Gale placed two electives—Constable Courtney and Sub- Constable Monbsey—to w*tch, and, where cver It might appear expedient, to examine all cases landed from that and all other steamers arriving at the quays. At 8 o’clock this morning, when the cargo ofthe Halcyon was In course of being discharged, the detec tives, under the direction of Head Constable Gale (the Custom House officers were also present, assisting), opened several eases as they were Drought ashore, but for some time nothing of an unlawful char acter was discovered. At length, two very ordinary-looking deal cases, Iron bound, were brought ont of tbc ship. The first was a shallow case, similar to those in which plate glass is usually packed, and on one surface there was painted In black letters, “ TMs side up—with care.” Its dimensions were five feet long, three feet wide, and about eight Inches deep. On tho marked tide a small plain white card was tacked which bore the address. In a good, bold hand “John Daly & Co., 84 Grand Parade, Cork.” On this being opened by Detective Constable Courtney, it was found to contain thirty En field rifies, perfectly new, with a new ring, lock bayonet attached to each. There were also spare parcels of nipples attached to some ofthe rifies, and six new brass bullet moulds, for costing the conical bul lets, were also found in the case. The weapons were the same as those Issued to the British army, and appeared to have just left the manufacturer's hands; the bayonet blades were still coated with congealed oil. On the bntt of each gun was fiaoreased, “Kynock «fc Co., Birmingham.” The arms were - closely packed with straw, and the case was bound with iron hooping. This case was registered in the ship’s manifest as containing American leather. Another case was soon afterward landed, similarly made to the lormcr, except as to dimensions, which were—five feet long, two feet three inches wide, and one foot eight inches deep, This case had merely the card on the lid, with the address : “John Daly & Co., No. 84 Grand Parade, Cork.” On this being opened, It was fonnd to contain fifty rifles and bayonets, exactly similar to, and by the same makers as the thirty others. There were also spare nipples and six new bnllet moulds. Each mould would cost 7s. 6d. in the shop. This case was mentioned in the manifest as containing “ oil cloth.” No other case examined con tained anything prohibited. These eighty stands of aims were ail In the moat perfectly serviceable condition, and a shot never ap peared to have been fired out ofone of them. Immediately after the discovery had been made, Head Constable Gale communicated the fact to Sub-Inspector Hamilton of tho city force, and It was also reported to the County Inspector, both of whom proceeded with an escort to Penrose Quay, and had the , two cases of arms removed to the Union Quay Police Station, where they were unpacked and examined- Tho seizures occasioned no HUle excitement in the city, and tho Mayor and several of the magistracy, and other re spectable citizens, visited the station during the morning, for the purpose of seeing the arms, the Surposc of whose importation cannot be onbted. It la right to say that the author ities entertain no suspicion whatever that the anna were Intended for the very respect able firm (who keep a carpet and upholstery warehouse in one of our principal streets) to whom they were addressed, bnt believe that house being In the habit of receiving goods connected with their trade, from English manufacturers, packed In cases similar to those seized, that this mode of conveying arms into the country was availed of as the least likely to excite suspicion, and that they vata.itt;ai»l<iil U> La mmiwh) br him* m« connected wltb Daly Co.’s es tablishment, who would undertake their removal to their ultimate destination. AN ALLEGED AMERICAN FENIAN ARRESTED. The Northern Whiff of November ‘2O says : “Lost evening Sub-Constable Courtenay ar rested, at Donegal Quay, a very respectably dressed young man, who gave his name os McNally, under suspicion of being an Amer ican Fenian, or agent of Fcnlanlsm In this country. The yonng man admitted that he Uad been recently in the American navy, but be denied having any connection with Fcni anlsm. He was arrested at the Glasgow boat, carrying a portmanlean, which was searched, bat no documents of a treasonable descrip tion were fonnd npon him. lie stated that his father resides In the County Mivo, and gave respectable references to parties of standing in that part of Ireland. Snb-10. spcctor Harvey telegraphed to Mayo, ac quainting bis friends of his arrest. Mr. Orme, R. M., attended at the police office last night, and being acquainted with the llict of tbc or* rest, uave orders lor the prisoner’s close cus tody.” THE PEXIXX rXirOßil. [Fiom the London Time*, November 23] Yesterday the Liverpool detectives seized a large box recently arrived from America, which on examination was lonnd to contain a very handsome Fenian officer's nnilorm, to wit: A rich tunic of green cloth, elaborately braided end with gold lacc on the collar; a dress waistcoat, with harp buttons, and a cap of green ‘lib, with the Irish harp In gold on the front. The box also contained three re- velvets, a dancer. leathern belt and cartridge box, and a copy of “ official regulations.” ALARM IX THE PROVINCES. fProtn the Cork Examiner, November 37.] A number of arrests for Fenlanism have been made since Saturday. In Drogheda two men were taken Into custody on Sun day, one arrest bas been made In Belfest, one In Team, and four at Carricmacrosa. In the latter case the prisoners were charged with attempting to administer an unlawful oath. Unusual vigilance is being displayed by tbc military authorities in the principal gar* risen towns. In Cork and Dublin the troops were kept under anna all through Saturday night, and the suburbs of Dublin were pa* . trolled by cavalry. In Limerick toe military force Is being strengthened, and it Is stated that an im portant position on the Shannon ia to be occupied. „ A force of two hundred marines will ar rive in Queenstown in a few davs; and the London correspondent of thc'Manphcster Guardian states, under reserve, however, that a project for sending twenty regiments of English militia into this conntry is under consideration by the War Office, The large naval force on the Irish coast, including several Iron-clads and frigates of the flm-claas. Is, according to report, to be reinforced by a flotilla of gunboats, to be distributed in various directions. jluhests ix mallow. [From the Cork Examiner, November*?.! Considerable excitement and some appre hension baa been created in Mallow, by some arrests which have just taken place in that town, hi connection with Fenianlsm. It Is believed there are a good many members of the Fenian Brotherhood in the locality, and tbc absence of military protection causes timid people to fear distmbaoce?. There is a barrack, capable of accommodating about one hundred infantry, and this U now in the occupation of the staff of the North Cork Rifles, wUch numbers thirty men In all, bat some of these sleep at lodgings through the town. The local constabulary force musters about a dozen men. These make up the en tire defensive force stationed in the town. The first of the recent arrests was made on Saturday night. Patrick Markham, who has been lor some time employed as bead waiter at the Royal Hotel, near the railway station, and Is one oflhe rank and file of the X. C. Rifles, was beard by Head Consta ble Rente to nee seditious language lu the public street, at U o'clock on Saturday night, and was thereupon taken Into custo dy and lodged in theßrldewell. On a search being made at his lodgings, it Is reported that documents were found of a compromis ing character, and that they, in some degree, led to the second arrest. About noon on Sunday, Mr. SnbTnspector Boyse. Head constable Reale, and a party of constabulary arrested John Sullivan, at his lodgings in the New street. Sullivan was the proprietor ofa bakery In the town some time since. He had the reputation of being “centre 1 * ofthe Fenian circle in Mallow,ana was amongst tbe persons about to be arrested last year-' Be then went to America, where he remained a few weeksyafter which be re turned to DabUn, under an assumed came, but was recognized by Warner, and was then arrested under the Habeas Corpus Suspension Ad, and lodged in Mountjoy prison. After some months incarceration he was Übetated by tbe late Government, and has since been at T argc. following, it is said, no particular occupation. He is now a widower and the fotheaof several children, on whose account’ great commiseration Is felt by the towns people. On Sunday night a young lad named Daniel Duggan was drinking and card play ing In the public house of Richard Wallis, Bridge street, and it is alleged that be ut tered a Fenian sentiment over tbc game, which led to his being arrested by Head Constable Reale. Each prisoner was lodged In Bridewell Immediately after being arrest ed, and was subsequently brought before Mr. Moriarty. R. M. Markham and Duggan were hy him committed to Bridewell for fur ther examination, and Sullivan was removed to tbe conntr gaol yesterday afternoon. ARRESTS- IX DROGHEDA, A despatch from Drogheda, dated Novem ber 23 'night), says: Considerable excitement was created in our usnally quiet town this morning by tbe'arrcst of two men, suspected Fenians, on the steamboat from Liverpool. The circumstances arc as lollows: At a very early hour this' morning a mounted orderly dashed furiously into town, from Dublin, and dre-w np at the Westgate Constabulary Bar racks. The excitement caused by these unusual movements of the authorities was rapidly spreading, and at this time there conld not have been' less than two thousand persons Assembled. The po lice slopped Ingress and egress until their doty was accomplished. A short time had only elapsed from the mooring of the eteamrrs, when thdentire force was sig nalled to hoard the Brian Bern, and It be esme apparent to all present that the search bad been successful. The police went to the forward part of the Teasel, and returned In a moment escorting two strangers, securely handcuffed. Both prisoners were tall, well built young men. One wore a brown felt hat, of the prevailing Yankee cut. and had an immense oeard. The other bad nothing to distinguish him from an ordinary citizen, being dressed respectably In black. Neither seemed to feel the slightest trouble at his position, and they stepped ashore with the utmost nonchalance, smiling on the im mense crowd, who cheared them loudly when, they appeared. It was with some dltHiplty 1 the pouce could make a passage through the mass, who pressed aronod thenars In waiting with the most dogged persistence. At length the prisoners were placed on a back and driven rapidly to the jail, followed the whole way by large bodies of pedestrians, who kept up a perpetual clamor. The names of the prisoners are Edward Waydock and James ilcCookc. They are known to the Liverpool detectives, who telegraphed to Dublin their departure from Liverpool, and thus gave the cine to their arrest. 1 may here remark, as partly the cause of the great excitement here, the fact that one ol the “subjects” was believed to be Hr. S. J. Meany, the Fenian Senator, who was long intimately known to the Drogheda folk. HU presence In Liverpool gave rise to the sus picion that be bad attempted a visit to his old haunts, and suffered for his temerity. I need scarcely say that Mr. Meany was not here, being doubtless too wise in bis gener ation to entrust himself on this side of the Channel. JAMES STEPHEN? ANNOUNCED DT TUB CABLE. [From the Cork Examiner. November SS-] Stephens la reported to have left the United States on his promised expedition- to Ireland. The news of his departure, which comes throogb the Atlantic cable. Is not positive, but the London Times, writing In anticipation of the telegram vesterday, states that there U every reason to think that Stephens, if not already in Ireland, will soon be hcie. The Government, acting on this or other information, are despatching two regi ments troro Aldersbott to Ireland, with every mark of extreme baste, and toe gunboat Sepov has been ordered to Queenstown. The marines for the Frederick William left Ply mouth on Monday. JAMES STETnENS SAID TO BE IN ARMS ON THE BANKS OP THE SHANNON. [Dublin (November 2t) Correspondence of the lonflon I’oatl The public excitement regarding Fenian- Ism, although nothing has yet taken place except the repetition, 'on a small scale, of tbe arrests, aclznres of arms, and searches of last winter, is increasing every hour. In fact many persons seem to expect before long tome catastrophe. The result of this stale of alarm is that trifling occurrences are magnified by the more easily frightened por tion of tbe public Into matters of mo ment, and that each groundless rumor rapidly swells into startling propor tions. A case in point happened yester day. The correspondent of a Dahlia paper, who appears to be firm in the belief that a convulsion is imminent, stated In his last communication that Stephens was reported in Fenian circles to be “either at the Liraer ice or the Clare side of the Shannon,” and ihat two hundred “enrolled and sworn-ln members of the Brotherhood" had left the city of the violated treaty to meet him at the place where he had disembarked. Also that “from all parts of Ireland volunteers had started with tbe same object in parties of threes or fours, so that they might not be suspected.” This story, preposterous though it was, found not a few prepared to put feith In it, and, as the day advanced, ana it was repeated from mouth to montb, “It lest no thing,” as the phrase is, “by the telling.” By evening It bad developed Into the as tounding statement that the rebellion had broken out in Limerick, and that the first blood had been shed in tbe conflict. So gen eral did this rumor become, that tbc mte editions ofthe papers were bought up to “sec what they contained about Limerick,” and many persons seemed positively disap pointed when they discovered that they had been hoaxed. This circumstance ought surely to make the newspapers cautions about pub lishing “sensation” intelligence; indeed, at the present moment there is great danger of the Fenian movement being ridiculously mnenified by the journals, in their eagerness to keep the reader Informed of Its reported progress. THE LATEST—THE EXCITEMENT CONTINUED IN „ CORK. (From the Cork Examiner, November 231 It is evident that the excitement caused by recent movements on the part ol the Fenian leaders, and by the anticipation of others, is more or less shared In by the authorities. Wo learn that Patrick’s Hill and Tuckey street police stations are shortly to be re-In forced, and it is In contemplation, we under stand, to station a considerable force la the Alhenmnm during the present emergency. That most nnnsnal event In this city, too, a public review of the troops-hi the local gar ribou, reinforced by detachments from the surrounding towns—has, we believe, been determined on, and will come off within a few days. The force to assemble will bo about 1,4*30 infantry and the Twelfth Lancers with whatever artillery la stationed here or , “djmnlng towns. We presume notifica tion of this event will be given before It comes off For the post few weeks the city has been inundated with rumors, some of the wildest description,as to the movements on the part of the authorities in anticipation of a Fenian outbreak, nearly all of which are, of course, groundless. The facts men tioned above, however, we learn on good au tlwHO' , IBJBJI OPINION OVJCXVSIS AND CONSEQUENCE. fProm the Cork Kxamlnar, November C9.] The Loudon Timet bu boon again diffus ing some ol Its rounding absurdities lu ref erence to tire Fenian question. With a Judi cious eye to that which will please the Brit* isli reader it revives its old theory about racer, snd congratulates Itself the ab horrence which Saxon and Norman natures Itave for conspiracy, which it considers con genial to the Celtic temperament. We do not pause to inquire what were the constit uent elements in the composition of Titos Outer, or Low many Celts were engaged in the Rye House Plot. It ought to bj a suffi cient answer to sar that Germany, which ought to contain Saxons if any country does, has been the parent, or at all events, the great fosterer of secret so cieties, and that fur a space extending over at least a century, England and Scotland were the scene of Incessant Jacobite con spiracies. And did circumstances of a like character again occur in Great Brilaic we have not the slightest doubt that they would produce similar effects. But considering now long it is since the famous English King | fell in fair tight on English ground, wc do < not precisely see that the absence of secret political organizations proves that that race is not as other men. Moral merit conshts In resistance to temptation, not In refraining from the committal ol “ sins we have no mlud to.” We don’t praise a rich man be cause be doea not pick pockets, nor a lord because ho does not spend his week’s wages In a public house. As wc have to remind our great contem porary ol the very A. B, C. of historical philosophy, we may mention that the faults of nations are a consequence of the political and material circumstances which surround them.; Change the conditions under which for centuries the respective peoples have been living, let the Irish Inhabit the larger of the two islands, have bt-en as fortunate In the nature of the invasions they under* went, bare coal and iron, easy of access and of manufacture, have been os lucky in the avoidance of late foreign conquest, and they would probably be as self-satisfied, as dom ineering, os regardless of the feelings of other nations as are the public fur whom the Times writes. Pat the heterogeneous assem blage ©traces which now inhabit England into tbc circumstances of Ireland, let to poverty be added long oppression, inhabitants di vided by tbc great gnlfs of opinion or preju dice, and the greater number subjected to the few, let their destinies be in the hands of acother natfbn which know nothing about them bat ” how to suppress a 'rebellion and we feel perfectly satisfied that conspira cies would be as rife amongst them os they hare been amongst the Irish Celts. Wc are not vindicating the conspiracy. On the contrary, we. regard it as one of the many misfortunes of this na tion ; and it forms one of the counts in our bill of Indictment against the mode in which it has been governed by England. For not only has it sprang oat of the feelings of the people, naturally but not wl«e, but even moderate men can not help seeing that this mad Fenian organization has really pro duced from the rulers of Ireland an attention to tbc grievances of the conntry that was not given to them before. The mingling of alarm with shame, the sense that England, tbc pedagogugc of the governments which arc not able to keep their boosts in order, is now pointed at and taunted because of Ire land, has at least suggested the necessity of doing something to care the disease. A Belfgloo* Department mt the Paris Exposition* One of the most Interesting and Important departments of the Great Exposition to be held at Paris the coming year, will be the one devoted to the exhibition of the results of Protestant Christian benevolent enter prise. The very choicest partof the grounds devoted to the fair have been set apart by the French Emperor lor this purpose, and it wm furnish the grandest opportunity Protes tant Christianity has ever had for the display of its works and results. It certainly could hardly have been expected that a Catholic Emperor of a Catholic conntry wontd have taken much interest in such a matter, but buildings are to be erected and every pos sible facility afforded for the exposition of the results of the modern missionary and charitable cflbrtsof Protestant Christiana. It is the intention of the Emperor and those concerned In the Exposition to hare it a per fect Illustration of the life of the world, and permission was cheerfully given to some English Christians when they breached the matter of having a place assigned to Protest ant Missions. The Catholics bad previously obtained permission to make an exhibition ofthe results of their missions to Pagan na tions, but when they learned that similar liberty bad been given to the Protestants, they retired from the work they had com menced end declined to come Into contrast with the Protestant world. Partial preparations have already been made to render this permission of the Empe ror of practical value to the cans© of Protest ant Christianity; but much more remains to be done in order to make foil and proper use of so grand an opportunity for aggressive re ligions effort. A Protestant chapel Trill be erected at one end ot the “Holy Ground”—as it may most appropriately be called—and a committee of evangelical ministers has al ready been raised In Paris, who are to make arrangements for dally religions services, un der the direction of able preachers. In all the languages that shall be represented there. The Gospel will chns be publicly and freely Breached in English, French. German, Ital m, and other tongues, and ail may hear the truth in language that they can understand. Another building will he devoted to the dis play of the results of Christian enterprise in the preparation of the Bible and other reli gions works for the use of heathen nations; another building will ,be devoted to the gra tuitous distribution of religions books and tracts, and the printing pres will at once attest to the skill of invention and the thoughtful foresight of Christian benevo lence. Several English gcntlemAi of great wealth and Christian liberality have taken especial interest in this work, acd arc posh ing it along with all the energy possible. SANITARY REFORM. The Metropolilan Board of Health of Kew York. more la the brletekai* R **** olir dtT 9n * ;re d wS •ToJoillj euUUtd to, tail c .So'toL'olV'’ ” •UnUu of the duth. l» UJ, d „ "* , t : “o*- *... to*. Pimatrf w ™ h to the Inlrodoclioa offorel'-n owerottded t0.rn.01,, „=J :! » esnses to the ravages or comaclon* P «iL*. 1 0 J n S la the past tear, sSflered nottn proportion to population bnf c^? °: numbers of fleaihs from cholera. rrihn? CUu i Other epidemic.. Awio end4ai£ “i 4 caplne from tfre Dtoiit-InfeMed <e.,.u m C" quarantine, or Infected good* aarl i-imi... bronchi tnto fixe city, have •.here pesoTlhe most contagious and fi. at y and each lime the sanitary regulations artn-, e !r for the control of the city W« be« louad clenl in checking their progress and resiGn-,™ condition ofperfoct health througiiout the «h,.r ofthe crest metropolitan district. **inf*cv'rti irtcta” have been unknown, a».d «\ e c buildings have only continued aa such fur if., boats. Measuresofprevmmm a*welld*i‘ erne have been liberally and Judidou-iyVi^ 1 and the result has been a# we have sta—<l aa !r feet control of plagues which hire been viewed wiih most terror all-devouring and uncontrollable To on. acquainted with the dyof New York, kscui-w the filth of the First, Foorlh, Filth, Six-*! Eighth Wards, the overcrowded tenement* 0 f these and the Tenth. Eleventh and Uhi.-tr-nLS Wards. Ihcpest-breeUingtiopnlatloa ofccrsala £8 tlonaof the Twelfth sndTwonlleth Wards and pwt of the Ninth avenue district, and the lower p*a 0 f Brooklyn, such a result teem* almott miramfoas and the means by which it has been achieved arc in the highest degree interesting. What these have been we propose briefly to state, not alone for the gratification of nnio?tiT in regard mere to, bat as a basis for the adoption of a similar hygienic system for the protection of our o«n city. Every one will be abl- to sx* readily with what advantage such an one might be adopted in Chicago sea there can be iew, who, ncdnstanding Its meats, will not, without dis tinction of party or the Influence of private in terest, favorlts adoption by onr Legislature at the coming session. In me month of November, JSCS, the principal citizens of New York, awakened to a dne appre ciation or the alreudv anticipated dangers from epidemic diseases “Uarng the summer of IJhfi, and fully conscious of the weakness and Ineffl cierev of ih<» local parly machine ibtn denom inated tho “ Health Department" of their city began to takemeasurea towards reform, and to thta ccd held a number of deliberative meetiu'-* wbem the necessities and available means of prol tectlon of the city against epidemics, wore thoroughly dUensscd. Earlv la their iave*;l-a tion of the vnoject It was nniiersio id that an en tire rc-modclhng of the Health Department, a new system of control for It, and a creator de gree of authority conferred upon it, were impera tive. A ‘Couccu of Hygiene.’cousistia" of some of tho most eminent medical and easiness men in the city, wa? appointed, and they, after preparing and publishing lor ceceral clrcnlalion a report rf the condition of the city, showing bow frightfully it -then Invited the rava-«M of any epidemic disease, p.vpurcd also, for adopUoo by the legislature, an act eunstitoCng, oa an en tirely • now!basis, the “Metropolitan Board of Health. Their report was the result of patient end laborious investigation and personal obser vation among those eecilois of the citv mow to be dreaded os haunts for the pestilence. *aad uo oa.* alter reading It could doubt tbc accv.-sitv for a now older of things. The Democratic cliy au thorities violently opposed any change—tie value as a political machine of the then ensue: Health Department, to ibem Cur more important tliau any coosideration for the Uvea and health of cine ~*. Notwithstanding their opposition and overib>lr heads, the act proposed by tho “Council ol Hy giene,” taking from their bands iho power of ihe hygienic regulation of the great city, and pudaa It under the control ofthe State, wax pa--ed. The provisions of this bill may, la this coot>ec don, be briefly slated as follows; The Governor is empowered to appoint, wh the consent of the Stale Senate, fonr suitable per seta, residents of the Metropolitan Dlstrtc.'.thrcv of whom must be physician* and one a resident of Brooklyn, who, with the Health Officer of the poit of New\otk tor the ilmo being, shall bathe “Sanitary Coromlssioucre ” for the .said (tijtrict, end who. with the “.Metropolitan Commissioner* ot Police,’* shall constitute tbo “Metropolitan Board of Health '* of the said district, Five of the members of this Board sba'l con-timte a nnornm. One of the Sanitary foaimi-sioncra shall go onto* office each rear. The Pre*l<teut aoo Treasurer of the Board shall be members thereof but the Secretary shall cot be. Heavy fines are imposed upon members for non-attend ance open meeting- of the Board. The power to Contact tor cleaning the streets of the die net U rested in the Board. Ko Sanitary Commissioner may hold any other office. Any mcm'ier of the Board may, cpoc due trial for dereliction of duty or otterjust cause, he removed by the Governoi. the Board may aptiottaa “Sanitary Superinten dent,' to execute the orders of (be Board, to ex «'clse a practical supervision over the in spectors. Ap*lls, ard other minor em ployes of the Board, ard he shad nuke fall n. - Kme. weekly, or ©fierier, if required, of e action himself or bis subordinate;?, the con dition of health in the District and any causes ea daticeiing life or hesllh which may come to Ida knowledge. The Board may also appoict two “Assistant Sanitary Superintendent-v’ ©so of whom shall he a resident of Brooklyn, and any number of “Sanitary not to eio-cd fifteen, which they may deem needful, tea of the Inspectors being physicians of ‘kill and expe rience. Each ot these inspectors shall make semi-weekly tepotis to (be Board. The Board may also appoint whatever clerks, agents aud servants It may require. All the powers of tho old Boards of Health ot New York amt Brooklyn, of the Mayors and Common Connells ot both clues. Commissioners of Health and City Inspec tors and their officers, are conferred upon the new “ Metropolitan Board of Health,” and no expendi ture under any health law or ordinance la allowed except by the anhorixallon of this Board. Power i» also clTen to the Board to use the police for the life or hoilih to the cliy. they w *rd havo removed, medifiL •“«- thing so dcrlflred. or^”y“ t «. , .ii c ? matters vested in the P°pV * a /•'n’-tary tlonvi* is also veiled Lomtnta- Tteir officers may make arrestsr2!.i°v ”mlth cessarlly incurred by them In abatLirCl I }*'* 3 no -1 stall cossiitu'c alien upon all rent 0.-?I U44 ' ,c **» , lien dne for the use of property, or th^ DDeDsa " Itself, on which nuisances are *JP r ®T ; <?rty may issue warrants tor tbo arresUof anr B '' 3rd violating its ortuia, for the pre«crvoi oua , I '*;r>'on tenance of public health. They aliq ai«3 llc * power to- administer oaths, take Uadavlts"** 5 nuke examtnauora In such matters, *md compel the attendance ol persona ami iCdae??* of payers belcrc any Judge of thf SuprSk, oi„* tor Inals of such cases. The Board i»ii T*. choice mfoimalion, whenever needful, jL JuY Ocat online Commissioners and Ucrjt-. OGxL toe Port, and send all proper aud uCfnt Information and soegeettons to the Y*“r authorities of any city, village or towiKr the State who shall request it, and It is tc only likewise of the saul local authorities \ trat smlt s tmllar Information to tb* said Board oV Health, The Board iray take moa«nrcs aad f»up-\ ply agents, and tilonJ Inducements and facilities \ jor cvucral ui.d crntuHous vaccination and disln- \ frcliou, and for medical relief amors the poor of the Metropolitan District, and may remove to places to be by them designated-any person aide '>ilh any contagious disease. They shall alro, ■» Ith the approval of the Governor of the blato. In the preface of any Imminent peril to public health hr reason of impending pestilence, exer cise whatever extraordinary power they may deem the public safety to demand. For this ex traordinary power not provided lor in the act, they shall, however, reqrure the written assent of an I: ati sir numbers of the Boom, and It shall only be exercised during the time in which the Gov ernor shall by proclamation declare the Imminent datnrvr to exist. The Metropolitan Board shall advise the Board of Health of all threatened danger to life and health, and shall cooperate, through its officers and men, with them tor the t romotion of tmblic health and safety of human Ife in the District. Board shall cafhcr all useful icformatlon regarding deaths, disease and health lu alt parts of the nute, but especially in the metrocoiltan district 1 hey efcall a&o mane a yearly report to the Governor of the Stale of all matters relating to their province. In their cis trier, and as tar as they hare the infor mation, from other parts of the btate. Sold Hoard shall have power to enact by-la ns for the govern ment of Us scents ana employes, and '* health ordinances” for the protection oC the puolic ' health in the metropolitan district. Infractions pf which mat be punished before any Justice, or In anr District Court, by lines not exceeding {SO. m addition to costs of prosecution, la each ease. The Board shall also beep complaint books lor public entries, nay engage civil engineers when necessary may publish sanitary reports, and shall cause thtfremployes to wear tnitabli badges of their vcve; *1 offices, and fraudulent wearing of such badges by unauthorized persons is mode punishable bv ifnr or imprisonment. The Board shall enforce alt laws of the Slaw relative toclean liness, the tut or sale of poisonous, unwholesome, deleterious or adulterated drugs, medicines or food, and they may enforce reports, when they may deem proper from all public dispensaries, hospitals, asylums. inflrmariej,prlsont* and schools and from proprietors or lessees of all public places ofres- rt oramusrment. on all matters ctm ctrr.icn We and health. Foxer la given the Board to publish such information us they mar deem publicly beneficial regarding birth*, deaths, tr-arrisces, and the general sanitary condition of the bUtikt The City Inspector's department is abolished. A land In the State Treasury, appli cable to'be purpofess of tbfS Board Is constitu ted. Cosmi-slonen nay be publicly examined regarding any aIK-ged wrongful clm-rnlon or mis application of any funds or o;ber delinquency, upon the application or affidavit of three free holders of the district, and signed by any justice oftheSnptemeCourtofthcDUtnct. The Mayors and Comptrollers of flew York and Brooklyn shall constitute a Board of Estlmatu to determine the stun required for the Coord during the year. The sum expended In any one year, independent oftbetxpenditniev in time* or great and immi nent pexiJ,#han not exceed SIOQ,OOU. Extraordinary expenses are to be paid back by levy of assess ment on the several miles and towns in »he dis trict- The spsottionmcnC of salaries, rtm, shall be on the several conn tie* lathe District, In proportion to tbtlr annual tax-levy, in which or Cor which services were performed, and. in due proportion thereto. Tho Presidents of the sc venl Boards of enpcrrlsors of tie counties In the district. President of the Board of Aldermen of Brooklyn and of the Supervisors of the towns of Newtc s, Flushing and Jamaica are constituted acommitteo of revision on'his apportionment. Authority I* given to the Board to borrow money and Issue certificates therefor bearing interest ah •even per cent and payable In not more than, eighteen months from the date of their issue. Ja conclusion, an* violation of this act is made a misdemeanor and prosecutions and punishments are ordered to be prompt. This act was passed February 26th, ISG6, and on April 19th, l£W, an amending act was passed, increasing the power of the Boara to" make ar rests aid institute prosecutions and pre.-triolng the xocdcs of trial and degrees of punishment, ry fires not exceeding $350. for infractions of the ordinances of the said Board of Health. In accordance with the provisions of this act. Immediately after its passage, the Sanitary Comjnbriouers were appointed by the Governor and meeting with the outer authorities constitut ing the Metropolitan Boat d of Health, adopted and pnoilahed a ‘‘Cede ef Health Ordinances.” Our space will not admit of an extended resume of these ordinances at this time, particularly as they are secondary to the general purpose of this arti cle, but it may in brier be remarked that they reg ulate the aale and administering of poisonous and dangerous drugs; prohibit the tala of adultetsted food, drink and medicines; enforce cleanliness In bouses, cnins, stream, alleys, etc.: command, underpesaHies, the registration of births, mar riages and deaths; make It obligatory upon phy sicians to register tcemselvesandrepoit promptly contagions diseases; mike It obligatory upon boarding bouse and hotel keeper , neuters of ves sel*, officers of public institutions and otuers, to report contagious ilia eases; prohibiting tho land ing or removal from plats to puce of any person sick with contagious disease, with out a permit of the Board: command vaidnatiou tymbllih the quaratiln© laws; pro hibit the sal© ol impute and enwaclesume meats, fish, milk, fowls, Ac., and regulate hr strict pro visions the conduct of business Jn these articles, and also the management of slaughter hon es, stringently prohibit the deposit of osno, garbage and filth In the streets: regulate the construe lon of sewers, and Ihe clcoa-ing ol ecss-prols, privies, Ac, and mu removal.of dead animals, manmc and c:ocrefibrstTv _ a.tcr, ore smite the manner of keeping ?„ d vl*?- cattle through the dt-trict; prohibit all bone, oual tat ana % will Ullmc. at-d other employment* which are of themselves nuisances; regulate the manner of keeping tenement booses, boarding house*, Ac ; enforce the obUdnlag penatta foe