Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune, December 14, 1866, Page 2

Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune dated December 14, 1866 Page 2
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(Et)ifago OAHT, TRI-WEEKLY AYE'WEEKLY. OFFICE. No. 31 CLARK.BT. There ire throe edition* of the Teibcsi timed. Ist. £tptt moraine, for drcuUUoa by carrier*, newsmen and me mall*. M. The Tn-Wnui, Monday*, Wed serday* and Friday*, for th* mail* only; and u>« WKTSZ.T. on Thondaya, fbr ths nulla sad aale at oar coaster add hr newsmen. Term of the Chicago Tribune: . r>»Uy delivered in the city (w • *•? • “ - » (per flßMtrr).... 3.sS Daily, to Ball anbaertbm (per aotaß, paya- rt t>’dn advance) Trl Vi>t*ly.(pe' antam. payable»■ adiuace) 6.00 WeeklT.lperannmn,payable toadrahce) *A.OO jy ftacttoaal parta of the rear at the aarae rates, jjr rwoa* remltUic aod ordering flee or more coplea of either the Tri-Weekly or Weekly edition*, tr.ay retain tea per ceat of the subscription prtea as a (OSSl!»loB. Nona to s-rof'Ctißiß*.—ln ordrrtns the addrco ol y«>urn»t»m chansvd-to present deify, he tare tad fpeclty wUttcdUlcm roo Ufce-W«wkly, Tri-Weekly, cr Dally. Also. plTeyoarruscrrandfaiare Add mi. tw MorcT, by Draft, Expresa. Money orders, or u lU,;Uu-redLetters,ts»yVeMatatooriUh. Address TUIHL.NE CU„ Chicago, lit. FIUDAT. DECEMBER 14. ISCd. STATE AAD NA- sitruAci;, TIO.VAL. The opponents of Impartial suffrage rely iv airily upon the objection that to establish that rule by an amendment to the Constitu- tion. would bo an Innovation and a formid- able* breach open the “reserved rights” of the States. TVc have heretofore shownAhat the right and authority of every represents- live government to control the elective ftnn- rM-c is inherent and indefeasible. It Is one of those powers that cannot be delegated with out surrendering the very existence of the cation to other bands. The Constitution no more delegates or reserves to the States tlie authority of prescribing the qualifications of the t*U clots of representatives In Congress, than U does the qualifications of the repre- sentatives themselves. The framers of the Government understood their business too well to leave In the hands of any other Gov- ernment the power of prescribing the quali fications of Federal officers, or of the electors of those officers. There can be no coutro versy on this point. The qualifications of both representatives and the electors thcrc ofarc prescribed by the Constitution. The States have the power to prescribe the qualifications of voters not for Conarvts, hut for rocmwra of the Legislature; having done that tb«tr power iu the premises 1# exhausted, and It is from the Constitution of the United States that the voter for member* of the most numerous branch of the Legislature derives his right to vole for members of Congress, and not frouwthe law of the StateT The State has no authority to Icgblate one way or the other upon the qualifications of voters for mem ber? uf Congress; hut the Constitutioni»j tu own direct power makes the voter* for mem bers of the Legislature, voters .- 0 ® for mem bets of Congress. To r* tben ’ tliat an amendment to the* s~*«t»lntlon establishing a rt; ;;VT— -—~jcatlou for voters for national wvdd he to deprive a State of one of si.< “referred rights,” Is nonsense, because •ti-m riic foundation of the Government, the qualification of voters for members of Con- Kres* has been fixed hy the Constitution, and l over loft to the States. We have .Tlscussed this subject heretofore, mul roferto It again in order to call atten ti. n u> another proposition which is equally fair.l to the rebel doctrine that the power to fix the qualifications of electors for meru ter? of Congress Is a State, and not a na tional power. The clause of the Constilu tii.u m,,n this subject reads thus: “Tin ITocpe or:£eprorentatlve.« -hall be com rc-ido! a<raiccr*'c).(tfcii wenr second year by ihi jn'opic oflhi; -cvercl Plaits*; and the electors 11. * act Nate thnll have the enalificaUocs reijnltf ttv for ucnor* of the most numerous crouch ol itoMsiv l-cg^iature.” The reason why the qualification pro cnil-ttl hr the Constitution was not uniform in nil the States, was. that the qualification nf Ti lers under Slate laws varied so widely, :.ml the delegates all sought to lure the rule ii. fere** In their respective States made the r.r-licual one. The result was, that the Cc-mtitulicn adopted as the national rule, the nio?l liberal provision then existing in each of the Slates. In some of the States, j If not in nearly all, the qualifications of the | electors for members of the State Senate wore much higher than were the qualifica tions for members of thy other branch of i the Legislature: and the rule adopted was the nearest approach to universal suffrage j that wa? then attainable. 1 There 5s no principle better settled than that the qualifications of an officer of the Culled States, prescribed by the Con-stlta li* n. cannot be enlarged or restricted by authority. That point was solemnly adjudicated halfa erntury ago, and repeat edly affirmed finro then, particularly in the ca-c oi Sena‘or Trumbull. In that case the di-cUion was that Hie provision of the State Constitution, dhotuDrylntr a Slate judge from being elected a Senator or Representa tive In the Congress of the United States, during and fora certain period after the cs pimti'-n of his judicial term, was void, be e;mse it was an Inferpustiion of an additional qualification for the office, a jkjwct the State did not pr-sess. For the like reason a State law authorizing persens to vote for mem bers of Congress who arc not quali fied to vote for representatives In the <Li era! ArsemMy. or a law prohibiting per sons, qualified by law to vole for Represen tative- in the General Assembly, from voting f> r void. The qualifications of members ot t'or/rcfs, and of the (lectors of members of Ihi lieu.-* of noprcfoatatives, being fired by tin Ccmtituiiou, It l» utterly and ueces'arl. l.v orvoru! t*c juris’lletlon .Tthe State, dl ri\-t!r nr Indirectly. to require any additional qualification. There certainly can be no dis pute uprn this point; and liavlng reached fids stage of the Investigation, It becomes iis'pr.item to know who w«to made voters f r tre :r!’cr.« of Congress by the clause es tablishing the qualifications of the electors ihctccC Tin-clause provides that the Represent*, i tivci In t'ergress shall he chosen by the pco. vie cf the several State*; they were not to K at ptiutod by the Legislature or the Ex t oiiiii e of the Slate, but directly by the 1 «i ’ lir they were to represent. The rule of qualification adopted was the most libera! thrn known, and It is evident thatthe con- Tuition did not propose that the rule should ever he made less liberal than it was then. The moment the Constitution was adopted, ('cry man lu the several States who then hr.d the qualifications requisite for an elec tor of tie most numerous branch of the Mate Legislature, became, o tojehrafi, a qual f«d tlcctcr for Representative In Congress. ll:t\itiiC become jossessed of Iho right by the direct authority of the Con futation of the United States, coaid ho be lawfully divested of that right by any subsequent action of the State? Could a man qualified under the provisions of the Constitution, for an elector for'member of Congress, be required by State authority to have nu additional qualification? Can a State take away from a man any right, power or authority of which he has become posscfscd directly from the Constitution of the United States. In the case of Trntnball, the Constitution of the Stale of Illinois de clared that sll votes given for him lor Uni ted Slates Senator by the members of the General Assembly should be null and void, nud should not be counted. Judge Trumbull possessed the qualifications fur the office required by the Constitution of the United States, and the State could net divest him of h!s eligibility. Can the Slate- take ftctu u man oree entitled under the Ccmturnlcn to vote for members of Con crcr<=, the right of doing so, by .any State lawt LetTt be borne t« mind that we do i.ot question thoabsolttteand exclusive right of each Slate to prescribe the qualifications of voters ter members of the State Legisla ture and ell other State officers; nor do we quttlim Its authority to require of men qualified to vote fur members of the Legisla ture, other and higher qualifications; bot ss the power of the ‘State In the premia Is confined even upon the most liber al construction to regulating the suffrage fi)r member* of the Legislature, asd in no way extends to any control over that for mem ber* of Coegresa. it has no power to deprive a man of aright which be does not derive from the State, but from the Federal Consti tution. The right to vote for a member of the Legislature Is derived from a law of the State : the right to vote for a member of Congress is derived from the Constitution; can the State directly or indirectly take from a man a privilege which he holds hy direct grant of the Constitution of the United States I We think not; and we think that It is evident from the whole spirit and letter of the Constitution, as well as from the contemporaneous comments thereon, that It was never imagined or contemplated that it would be in the power of any Stateto make the puißuge for members of Congress mere limited than It then was, or that any person or class of persons then possessing the qualifications requisite for electors o f tlie most numerous branch of “the State Leg- Llaturc, should ever be deprived of that right by any power save that which bestow ed it—the people of the United States through their >*ailcmal Constitution. lf*wc are right in these several positions, then ft follows that all men and classes of n.cn who were voters In the'several States f« r memheru of the Legislature when the Constitution was adopted, and all others who have become possessore of 'that right ’ since then and are now living, have the right to vote for members of Congress, anything in the laws or Constitutions of the several Slates to the contrary notwithstanding.- tVchavo had recently a very elaborate, aud we believe, accurate, statement: published in this city of the State laws regu. Istlsg tnflVatoln the several Stales at tbo time of the adoption or the Constitution. From this we Jcam that at that timo the qualifications for voters were tbo aarao la all the States (except Sooth Carolina) for both black and white freemen; and that wherever a white man was allowed to vote, the difference of nee and color, did not exclude the negro, who bad tbo same qualifications otherwise, from the same pt IvUepe. "Wherever the white or the black freemen of that day were qualified to vote for members of the meat 'numew>»» of the legislator*, mere, the white and black frociucD of this day arc entitled to vote for members of Congress. Wherever since that dav the franchise has been liberalized, and other freemen of either color have bad the qualifications requisite to voto fork mem ber of the most numerous branch of the legislature, there all freemen of either color or race, having the same qualifications, are to-day entitled to rote for members of Congress. We do not deny that a State may change the qualifications requisite for a voter for members ol the State Legislature, or that a State may deprive a man or class of men' of that privilege, hot we do deny that a Slate can take away from a man tbe privilege of voting for members of Congress. It can nei ther add to nor take from the requisite qual ifications of an elector once possessing that right, no more than It can take from or add to the qualifications requisite for a Senator or lleprcsenlatlve. Once a voter, by the direct operation of tbc Constitution, no State au thority can deprive him of that privilege. Under these circumstances. In onr judgment, tbc free negroes, of all tbc States In which they have at any lime hod the qualifications requisite to vole for members of tbc most nu merous branch of tbc State Legislature, arc now entitled, under the Constitution, to vote for Representatives in Congress. SB. GREELEY FOB THE PHESL DENCC. Horace Greeley is seriously spoken of as tbe probable candidate of tbe Copperheads for the Presidency in ISOS* Improbable as Ibis may strike the reader at first blush, the improbability diminishes. If it does not en tirely disappear, when Mr. Greeley's latest declared opinions and the desperate condi lion of tbe so-called Democratic parly arc taken into the account* A writer In the Georgia CcruiUutionaUft refers to the subject, with the evident belief that Mr* Greeley will be taken up,not only as available, but as not differing materially with the Southern narty, except on the single question of negro snffragc.Tfhiicbc Is willing to trust even that matter to the future, and believes Id granting universal amnesty and pardon, at orco and without conditions. He very Justly remarks: “If tbe Democrats shall adopt the idea of n®/jro autfrage, as recom mended by some of their preset, ia®y and Greeley arc substantially together.’* In deed, It Is difficult to detect any real differ ence between tbe political opinions declared by Mr- Greeley in bis Jatc amnesty letter, and those now advocated by tbe Chicago Times. Both arc opposed to inflicting any punishment upon traitors, both would release Jeff. Davis unconditionally; both would possible totry any one for treason commit ted during the into rebellion, or even for acts contrary to the usages of civilized nations and the laws of war. Such as starving prison ers to death or patting a garrison to the sword after It had surrendered. The Tima is in favor of ‘‘impartial” suffrage; Mr. Greeley wants “manhood” suffrage; but this is a difference about details rather than about tbe principle involved. But should ' the Copperhead party fall to swallow Dr. ! Storey’s negro suffrage pill, there Is still no j practical objtctiou to Mr. Greeley as Us ! candidate, since be proposes manhood suf* I frage as a mere theory. As the writer in the VonititmionalUt observes, If Mr. Greeley should become President “the South would “be asked to declare universal suffrage; but j “no fojee, not even patronage, would bo | “ employed to that end.” In other words, | President Greeley would content himself, with a mere recommendation of suffrage, and, being opposed to capital punishment, ; war, and coercion of any kind, he would let the late Insurrectionary Slates do os they ! pleased In this'and all other matters, unless he could control them by moral suasion. Mr Greeley has unquestionably won a'creat deal of personal .friendship and respect in tbe Sonth andomongtheCopperhcads oftho North, by bis recent course. The Southern papers speak of him with respect and often’ | with admiration. Thus the writer in the I Georgia paper, from nbmn we have already quoted, cays: “‘Why should not the Santh “and the Democracy, laying aside preju dice, regain their position under the lead ership of Horace Greeley ? There Is not “ In Horace Greeley’s record half so much to “forget, of what most men call hateful, “<u in Andrew or William IL “Seward’s. * * * You need not he sur prised, therefore, to see the hints I have “ thrown out, take a practical chape.” The South looks upon Jeff. Paris as the great suffering martyr of its cause, and Mr. Gree ley’s i-crsL-icut efforts to save him from the : penalty of his crimes,have ulven him a strong hold on the affection* of the rebels. Beside, the notorious fact that he Is a thcoriserand opposed entirely to the. employment of I-iiyrical force, either in the family, the school or the Government, makes it evident that however much he mluht wish the South to adopt negro suffrage or other measures - of justice, he would never thrust anything nnon them without their consent, or force them to do anything re pugnant to their tastes and wishes; and the South, therefore, would regard him as harm less. The popularity of Mr. Greeley among the Northern Copperheads Is owing to the fame causes- He lias the active support of the Hou. John Morrissey. Hcnj. Wood, and other leading and powerful members oftho Copperhead party in New York, as a candi date for the Senate, while the Copperhead press of the Slate Is almost unanimous in ad vocaling.bis election. Mr. Greeley is both ambitious ard vindictive. Should he be de feated in his Senatorial afpirnlbms, as he probably will be, strong motives of revenge will aid tbc tendencies of his eccentric and 111-balanccd mind lu prompting him to ac cept the position, which there is an evident deposition to Assign to him— tha leadership of the “Conservative” or Southern party. IIOGFUA ' The majority of the voters in one of the ilit-lricte of New Jersey, at the election two years ago, elected one Andrew Jackson Rogers to represent them in Congress. Rogers, a year ago, made his appearance lu the House of Representatives, and was. with chad sarcasm, welcomed by the Kepublic-*os as the leader of the Democratic party la the House- Poor Rogers, unable to dlscovcrthe irony of the designation, accepted it In good faith, and during the whole of the last session' played tbc part of “leader” to the great amusement of the Republicans, and equal disgust of the Democracy. There were various nsplranU for the Democratic leadership, but tlie Republicans would recog nize no one except Rogers, and Rogers, elated with tbo distinction, made himself the laughing stock of both parties. So dis> gusttd were his eonstitupnta, that after the experience of one session they voted that Roger* should stay ot h^tne. If there be any truth in tbe developments made during the campaign In New Jersey, U would appear that the “leadership” of the Hbnsc was not altogether unprofitable, and Mr. Rogers took occasion on Wednesday last to delircran oration upon Andrew John* son that deserves, if it does not mean, an appointment to a foreign mission upon the dose of the session, ft look high courage to declare in open session of the : House that the Almighty had inscribed the name of Andrew Jolm&oa upon the front of His heavenly altar, but Rogers had the courage to do so, and will In all probability be rewarded here aod hereafter for the blasphemy. Rogers evidently understands Andrew Johnson, and the way to reach his hcail and his fiver. Henry A. Wise, George U. FroiQt, and Caleb Cushidg in the dying hours oftbdr Congressional life talked in a like extravagant strain in praise of John Tyler, who bad betrayed his party. Each ot these men got a foreign mission as soon as the Senate had adjourned, sod Rog ers, according to precedent, ought to find equal favor at the hands of tbe -apostate Johnson. Difgraccthl as U would be to the country to have this man selected as its representa tive abroad, wc must confess there would be a fitness in his being chosen as the moral, in tellectual and political representative of Andrew Johnson’s Administration. That much he could do most naturally. ST The Chicago 71met Is progressing In the direction of radicalism at a marvellous pace. It now opposes tbe admission of Colo rado and Nebraska us States of the Union, od these high radical grounds, that: “Neither of them has adopted a confutation which recognises the Democratic basis of » Re ?iObUcaa government—impartial suffrage- The (adteals inserted la those constitutions a section maklnp complexion the only test of suffrage. They dented the inalienable right of the tax-payer to be represented through Lis vote, to all who are not ‘trAi/*’ ciuxccs,” etc. If the Radicals Inserted the word “irftff#/' It was done to placate the fierce opposition of the Democrats of those Territories to negro suffrage and to please Conservative Bepnhll esns, who at that time had not progressed up to the present broad platform of equal politi cal rights to all men- The Constlta lions of Colorado*, and Nebraska were framed two years ago. And further more, the enabling act of Congress which authorized the people of those Ter ritories to form State Constitutions, did not require or hint that negroes should be en franchised. Congress bad not at the time of passing those acta marched that far np the hill of progress. The people of Colorado 'and Nebraska have complied literally with ijjritcrmsandpxescripUonsof lh>lr enabling acts In good faith, and now ask for admission Into the Union. But that the old pro-slavery rebel concern should oppose their admission on the ground of their neglecting to enfran chise negroes, is like castor oil, rather too rich ; and while Its Copperhead readers will endorse its opposition to the admission of Colorado and Nebraska, they will not en dorse Its reasons therefor. But for the special satlslkctlon of our reformed rebel neighbor, we can assure It that If Colorado and V*- hraska are tueir senators and Rep resentatives will support ail measures Introduced into Congress to confer Impar tial suffrage on every citizen of the United States, regardless of color or race; and they will see to It that In the enabling acts 1 for the reconstruction and re-admission of the defunct Stales of the South, “com plexion shall not bo made a test of suffrage,” and that the “Inalienable right of the tax payer to be represented through his vote,” shall not depend on hla color. We hope this assurance will bo satisfactory. EDOOAtION ANP SCFPHACE, Tlie Chicago Times recently destroyed Us popularity with the rebels by proposing to make suffrage depend upon a capacity to read and write; thereby allowing the negro who bad mastered these accomplishments tbo privilege of voting, and excluding the white man who had not. This proposition was extremely offensive to the rebels, of whom such a large numerical proportion ore not able to either road or write. Senator Dixon, of Connecticut, one of the latest conversions to the friends of the rebels In Congress, has Just committed the like mistake. In the Senate In the debate upon the bill establishing negro suffrage in the District of Columbia, he proposed to limit the privilege of voting to-those who could read and write, whether while or black, and he stated that If that proposition was adopt, cd be would vote for the bill. The highest number of votes ever polled in Wash ington City at an election, did not exceed 7,000, Including, of course, all the rebels. By reference to the census of 16C0, we find it stated that of the white popalatlou over twenty years who could not read or write, there were in the District—males 1,235, females 2,248. That was six rear ago. Since , then large numbers of the equally Illiterate whites from (he neighboring counties of Vir- , ginia and Maryland, after serving la the Confederate army, have taken np a rest* dcncc in the District of Columbia, and all these vigorous and lusty supporters of Johnson, and the most of them veterans of the rebel army, Hr. Dixon proposed to exclude from voting. lie hardly understands his new position; has not yet got the hang of the rebel policy, ana his attempt to tail up education and negro equality is only *o double the insole to his rebel friend* If there is anything that Is as offe**Jve to the rebels as negro equality, it I* political super iority founded upon education. Dixon com mitted the error of supposing that he wag making negro suffrage acceptable by insist ing on education as the basis of suffrage, when In point of fact the horror of negro suffrage was only intensified In Ibc rebel mind by being coupled with a condition dis franchising a large proportion of the whites. Doolittle-understood the business better; be voted against negro suffrage In any form, and thus voted as the rebels would have him rote. TDK TWO JKWKL.S. The two brightest jewels ever given to this country, according to Mr. A. J. Rogers, of Kew Jersey, are Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee, and Andrew Jackson Rogers, of New Jersey. In a debate in the House of Representatives, on Wednesday, the distin guished Kew Jersey Jewel said: “He stood bi.ldc the President of the United Slates, who would go down to posterity as one of the brightest Jewels ever given to the coun try.” As Mr. Rogers stands beside this jewel, and Is careful to state that the Presi dent is only “one of the brightest,” it is clear that Rogers himself U another, at least in bis own estimation. There arc two Andrews in tho field. If they arc Jewel?, they arc not of the genuine quality that com mands large advances from the pawnbrokers. We doubt whether cither of them could raise a dlnncr.by giving his future political prospects in pledge. OBITUAKV. d extit or oavxnxi. The most philosophic caricaturist of the age, Sdplce Paul Chevalier, better, if sot almost ex clusively, known to the public under bis pseu donym ofGavaml, died-Is Pari* on the SUh ul timo, arthe age of elxty-llve. Ho came of poor parents, was scut at on early age to get his living it: an engineer* factory, and only came before the world as an artist when he had attained bis thirty fourth year. Ills first occupation was the design ing of cosiuzac plates for books of fashion, which he abandoned, to undertake the direction of a Journal called Let Cent da J/dmfe, in which pub lication be commenced that series of satire oo the life ofthe Parisian youth which he afterward continued In the CAaritcri, and which scented f«r him a lasting fame. This scries, which be completed Id sixteen sections, was followed by his renowned “Enfant* Tenlv.eo,” hi* “ Parent* TcrrlDlos,”hie “Marts Tenges,” and scares of o'fccr admirable works which hit the follies, prot-cd the vice*, and brought to the surface alt me humor of the inter life of Parisian society. Phe com pieties of this second gallery o I bit wcike wss uiterrupted by the Revolution of ISl.\ and Gavarnt went for a time to England, where he produced a volume of sketches catted *• Cav ern! in London.” and contributed a number of dctljms to one or two of (he humorous publics tors of the time. Latterly Gavaml occupied Mmtelfagooo deal with a subject that ban been (he dream of his life, vis: (be steering of balloon* through me air. x. ns Banawrx. M.de Dannie, the historian ot the Dukes of Entguudy. died recently at Ms country seat, the Cbatcan de Baiant; (Auvergne), m theelghty fomtbjear of bis age. He was educated at the Polytechnic School, and filled virions civil and diplomatic offices under the first Empire. After Waterloo he was named by bonis YVIJI. Coun cilor of State and Secretary Genera] of the Minis try or the Interior, while two Departments (Pay de Dome and the 5-Otrc Inforicmc) elected him to the Chamber of Deputies, He wa« appointed In IStd to the responsible post ot Director General of Indirect Taxes. InlFlOfae was raised to the digt.Jry of a peer of France; bat on the fall of bis Mend, the DuVo Decays, after the death of Ibe Dube de Berri, be lost bis post ol Director General. He then Joined the Doctrinaires, and, being no longer a placeholder wen; into opposi tion, and rented the post of Minister Plenipo tentiary to Denmark. It was at thU time he pub lished a work which attracted crest at tention, “/Vs Commune* tt de t Aritlocralv,'' 3 rat?labors from English and German writers. c«fay<i on various writers, kept his name constant ly before ibe public: and tbo temperate liberal ism of the peer of Prance, as well as the talent* of the writer, contributed In no trifling degree to the admiration which his greatest work, L'llitfoirt tiftJHctdi de la Maiton de Valolt, excited. U was as the historian of the Dukes of • burgundy that be was elected member of the % French Academy In iSiS. 51. Jules Ttllere, a distinguished Creole of I oniriana, died recently at bis plantation, in tbc pansb of Plaquemines. He. together with ail tbe members othls family. Including his father, who commanded tbe militia of New Orleans served under General Jackson In 1514. Dls funeral was largely attended. Among those present were General Beauregard, his son-in-law, Pierre Soule, and many representatives of tbe fatally. POLITICAL. Congressman Wo. B. Stokes is the moat prominent Radical candidate for Governor ofToa nraece. George n. Pendleton, candidate for Vice Presi dent no the McClellan ticket, is said to hare adopted the Chicago Jl nee platform of impartial storage. Tbe Charlotte (X. C.) Democrat furors the amendment, as the last thing the South can dn, and preferable to a rcconsunction of their Govern ments. | 3be Buffalo Etpreet trots ont Lewis P. Alien aod ex-congressman C. G. Spaulding, as addi tions to the list ot aspirants for Senatorial honors. General Butler aays be Is in Carer of leaving the power of appointment where It la, aod holding tha Ffi sidect to a strict accountability for tutexercise. Sen. Joseph Wilson, Commissioner of the Gen eral Land Office, bu forbidden the use in the offi cial eommunlcailons of his office of tbe words “Tbc late rebels,” “The late rebellion.” Ac. Ljmtn G. Wilcox, the newly appointed Regis ter of tbe laud Office at Traverse City, was re: commended by Mayor 5011 s, and other Democrats of this cltr, for his position, aod H. X. Walker, of tbe IY*e JYtte, U on bis bond. Mr. Bates pro pores to enrrender the office when Mr. Wilcox is confirmed by the Senate, and not before. Tbe official returns of tbe West Virginia elec tion, held October 35th, Ju*t published, are as fol lows : Boreman, Union, for Governor, received 33,455 vote*, against for Smith. Democrat; Boreman’s majority, M 73. Tbe majorities for Secretary ot State, Auditor, and Treasurer do not vary materially from that of the Govern or. in the First Congressional District, Hubbard, Union, has VXt; in the Second, Kitchen, Union, 3,10*; and In the Third, Polslcy, Union, 1.4T1 majority. It is asserted oqgood authority that the Demo cratic County Commissioners of Holmes Comity. - Ohio, have used the preater portion of the sol diers’ relief fond for other purposes than for -which It was raised, sad they did so wiihoat set ting aside a sufficient amount to meet (be neces sities of tbofe entitled to tts benefits, as required by the very strongly worded law of last session. Similar misapplication ©f fends by township offi cers of Democratic faith is also reported. Tbe Democratic party Is turning Its hack upon Johnson. They find him a dead weight, and are preparing to cut loose from him, ss the only mode of regaining the lost confidence cf people- The New Tork Lecder, the recognised official organ of Tammany Dali, says: TVc are at length relieved of the dead wriehj of Andrew Johnson, whose Impolitic proceeding*, abate weak device ot a rtiladclphu-Coarentum —'which as onr readers wiD remember, we always opposed-end whose purposeless a rent'd tbs circle have dooe the Detaocrabc party a r«tcMfaJ amount of irjunr. Mr. Johasoo has been only to ala frtJoas; he has labored bard to manufacture capital for his enemW. Without a»y of hi* spurious assistance the Democracy would hare been stronger tosUr. ttts tour co*t ns Hoffman** defeat It la only in ■this-CUT, where the Democracy practically repp dieted Mr Johnson, that we bare been able vo hold oar own and to increase our vote. Of the nice Aldermen elected at the recent election in New York City, three belong to the rirg; three at* Republicans, elected over candi dates notorioatly incapable or-corrnpt; two are Democrat?, who have already carved each a term with clean hands; aad the reoulalng one Is un known in the political world. TIIOCGBTS OK HISTORY—HI. Saylncs of Great Bea* If “where Ignorance is bliss, HU folly to be wise”—lf the secret of happiness lies In pre- serving our Illusions, In contriving as we go through life, not to he disenchanted—then the reader wOl hardly thank the Niebuhrs and Lewises who have dethroned so many of his historic Idols. But. as the Dutch, by jootiMring one-half of their spice trees, en- banccd the value of the entire crop, so will the common stock of recorded or traditional wit, virtue, and heroism be rather Increased In value tbau depreciated by the Illusion-de* stroylng process to which history Lu been subjected'by modem criticism. The oc casional loss or a charming error trill ho compensated, and more than com pensated, by the habile of sharpness and accuracy which tre shall acquire by challenging every story which too severely taxes our credulity. If, aa wc sometimes hear it said,’ ignorance Is the mother of ad m: [ration, it follows that one of tbc healthiest exercises of the mind rests chiefly on a deceit and a delusion—that, with better knowledge, all our enthusiasm would cease; when, in fhet, for once that Ignorance leads os to ad' mlrc that which with taller insight wcabonld perceive to be a cheat or sham—a hundred, nay, a thousand limes, It prevents os from admiring that which Is admirable Indeed. While, therefore, some eyes will look sor rowfully ujon this reformation —will regard it, in the flo< Image of Londor, like breaking off a crystal fiom the vault of a twilight cav ern, out of mere curiosity to see where the accretion ends aod the rock begins—others will agree with Dr. Johnson, that the value of a story depends od its truth; on its being a picture of an individual, or of human na ture In general; and that If It be false, it Is a picture ofnoil/lng. Lady Mary W. Montague closes on» of her letters with the remark, “There Is nothing that can pay one for that valuable Ignoraace which Is the companion of yontb. * * * To my extreme mortification I find that T am growing wiser acd wiser every day.” But docs any sensible man regret that he is no longer cheated by the fictions which amused his childhood ?—that he has ceased to believe that Bomuln* and Remus were suckled by a wolf, and that Jack the Giant Killer, fiinbsd the Sailor, and Robinson Cru soe were teal personages? If not, why should he be troubled because some relent- less Investigator threatens to sweep away the myths that have deceived bU matnrer judgment, by suggesting grave doubts whether Curtins did actu ally jump Into the gulf* whether Codes defended a bridge against an entire army; whether live coals; whether Xerxes’ army drank whole rivers dry; whether Hannibal levelled rocks, and Cleopatra dissolved pearls with vinegar; whether Zisca’s skin was made into a dram, head, and Charles the Fifth celebrated his own obsequies ? “Strike, but hear me!” is the reply said to have been made to the Spartan Admiral by Themlstocles, who, if he uttered onc-half of the jrux d’esprit attributed to him by Plu tarch, most have been the Talleyrand of an tiquity. But Herodotus, the earliest re porter of the debate of the Admirals, makes no allusion to the speech, and it U doubtful whether It was ever ottered. The fact that a floe sentiment has been put by historians into the mouths of different persons, and on widely different occasions, costs suspicion on its origin, and leads ns to donht whether it was not Invented by historians for rhetor ical effect. 11 Were I' to die at this moment,” Kelson is said to have written to the English Government after the Battle of the NUc, "more frigate* would be found written on my heart.” 'two and a half cen turies before, Mary, Queen of England, is sold to have deplored the loss of the last foot bold of the English in France with the ex-; clamatlon, ** When I die, Calait will be found written on my heart.” Once more, Sir. Motley tells ns in his History of the Dutch Republic, that Montpensfcr, a French prince, protested toPhillpll.of Spain, that he would be cut lu pieces for that monarch’s service, and affirmed that “it his body were to be opened at that moment, the name of Philip would bo found imprinted on his heart.” Among the countless pungent witticisms at tributed to Voltaire wo arc informed that. having extolled Haller, he was told that he was very generous in so doing, since Haller had said jost the contrary of him; whereupon Voltaire remarked,.after a short pause, *• Perhaps we arc both of ns mistaken.” Is it not a carious coincidence that, centu ries before this, Libanlus should have writ* ten to Aristaenctus—“You arc always speak* tug Ul of me. 1 apeak nothing but good of you. Do you not fear that neither of us shall be believed ?” Apoin, who has forgoU ten Calhoun’s famous expression, “ masterly inactivity,” on which editors so rang, the changes some twenty-five years ago; yet what is it but a translation of the “tirenua no* (xavet inertia ” of Horace ? Perhaps of all the memorable sayings of great men, there is none abont which lovers of t factorte have so often bad'' their commonplace, os the famous" “r pur *i muoTt ” —“ami yet the earth doe* move”—of the silenced hut not per suaded Galileo. And yet, os a late French writer has shown, not only Is there no proof that Galileo ever uttered the epi gram, but it flagrantly contradicts bis whole demeanor on the trial. To regard him as a martyr of science Is simply ridiculous. Never was a martyr less disposed for martyrdom. He denied everything with impatient alacrity. He offered to prove that he had never held the doctrine of the mo bilily of the earth, and declared himself ready to show, by fresh arguments, the error of that doctrine. In short, the epi gram is one of “those mote de circonstemee, in vented after the occasion) which tradition eagerly adopts because It «o admirably ex presses the general sentiment.” Writers on religious toleration ore fond of quoting the supposed saying of Charles V., Emperor of Germany, who In his retirement kept many docks and watches, the mechan ism of which he was fond of studying, that It trns unreasonable to expect men to think alike, when no two clocks or watches could Ikj mode to keep precisely the same time. Not only docs the story rest on no good au thority, but Ui mythical character U evident n priori from the tact that in his last hours Charles enjoined on his son Philip to enforce nnliormity of opinion, by means of that terrible engine, the Inquisition. Moreover, he aimin'’ and again expressed his regret that be did not put Luther to death when he had him in his power. Among the stereotyped quotations of po lilieal writers and orators in this country, there Is none which drops ofiencr from their and pens than that which U so general' ly attributed to General Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, namely: “ Millions for defence—* not one cent for tribute.’* While .Mr. P. was Ambassador to the French Court, Bonaparte waa prepar ing for operations against Great Britain, and had pledged the representatives of other powers to degrading contributions. lYhal Mr. P, really did say, when asked by Napo leon, “And what will your Republic give?” was, “N'ot a penny—not a penny.” The ccut was not then known among oar coin. Nearly contemporary with this was the wit ty reply said to have been made by Thelwall to Crskinc, when the latter, In reply to the former’s proposition to defend him from the charge of treason, wrote, ‘‘lf you do, you’ll be hanged.” “Then I'll ‘be hanged, if I do,” was ThelwalTs prompt rejoinder. A living relative of Thelwall’s declares he bad from his own Bps the statement (bat no such correspond ence ever took place. Again, of what ep'- gram has the antborshlp been deemed more certain than of that supposed to have been ut tered by that prince of epigrammatists, Tal leyrand, on the occasion of the murder of the Duke D’Enghlcn by Napoleon; ‘‘lt Is worse than a crime; it is a blander.” The real au thor of the mot was Fouchc, Bonaparte’s Minister of Police. 80, because they have the ring of his unique witticisms, to Talley rand have been attributed the saying, “It is the begtmdng of the endthe remarkjbn the Bourbons, that they had learned nothing and forgotten nothing; sad, sharpest of all, that “ speech was given to man to conceal his thoughts.” The latter saying has been traced back to Goldsmith’s Jack Spindle, who says that the true use of speech Is not so much to express our wants as to conceal them; to Voltaire, who says that “men only employ words to disguise tbclr thoughts;” to the poet Young, to South, to job—till we almost reach the Prometheus who stole the original fire from Heaves. Perhaps so impromptu has been .more ad mired than the well-known saying of Louis thl Twelfth when urged to revenge certain Insults offered to him bclore his accession to the throne : “The King -of France docs not revenge the Injuries of the Duke of Orleans.” Of both the Roman. Emperor, Hadrian, and the Duke of Savoy, predecessors of Louis, is the same anecdote related ; and Instead of being uttered thus concisely by Louis to the Due de la TremouQle, the. saying was the conclusion of an address to the Deputies of the city of Orleans, who were told “that It would not be decent or. honorable In a King of France to revenge the quarrels of a Duke of Orleans.” Among the hackneyed quotations of the dav. is the line, -Scull by degrees, and beanUfoKyleM,” which is invariably misquoted from “Henry wd Emms^’a parody published In 1531 oh Matthew Prior’s “Nut-Brown Msld.” De scribing the dress of Emma, th© lover saya: "So longer shall the bodies, aptly laced. From tb» foil bosom to thy slender waul, That sir othanaosy andelape express, Ft** by degrees, and hsaoUfally teas.” Another current quotation, which, in Eng land and Fiance, aodT occasionally In this country, la attributed to Bnffon, Is this* nLt style, e'ftt rJlommc”—-the style la the ’man- Even Professor Marsh, In his lectures on the English Language, reproduces the misquotation, which asserts a manifest un truth. Whs tßnffon really did say was this; “ I* style ett dt rhotnme meme,” “ tho style of a writer,” that la, distinguished from the contents of a work, which mnat get poshed aside by fresh discoveries, “ is hit own pecu liar contribution.” Perhaps the tritest of all threadbare quotations, is the saying-, “ There Is but oce step from the sublime to the ridic ulous yet even of this the paternity is com monly mistaken. It has been so often credit ed to Napoleon, Instead of to Tom Paine, that even Intelligent persons arc pnzzled to assign the authorship. The French arc so fond of mclo-dramatic scenes and remarkable say ings, that it Is not strange that their histo rians Invent both, to satisfy the cravings of their readers. Who has not admired the daring address of Mirabeau to M. de Dreux Breze: "Go tell yoor master that we are here by tbe will ol the people, and that we will not depart unless driven out by bayo nets.” The real laruruasre of Mirabeau was far mQder, and lacks the most striking Words ascribed to him. But the French arc not tbe only people who have thus been cheated into admiration of grand oratorical explosions that never took place. Chatham’s celebrated reply to Horace Walpole, beginning, “The atrocious crime of being a young man,” Is said to have been the composition of Dr, Johnson, who was not even present when the actual reply was spoken, and of whose fideb Ity as a reporter in Parliament we may Judge by the boast he made that be took care In his reports that the Whig dogs should always have the worst of it. FEOH EUROPE. Onr Munich Letter. Travelling Monarch*—The Tour of | Francis Jowph-Loali I. Travelling —Distribution of G Ills—Predominance of Uao Prnnian XUement—Meeting of Atatriftb Aaaetnblle*— Exodus of Catholic Official*—The Austrian Ad miral Comine to the United State*. [From Oar Sped*) Correspondent] Mexico, November 21, 1966. There must still be a great deal of faith In tlh mjndß of European Monarch* In the de votb] attachment of their subjects, when they contlmc to act upon the belief that the mere sight cl their persons is sufficient to com pensate the ruled fbr great sacrifices of life, limb and property imposed upon them by the will of the rulers. This kind of princely thlth, arising from a conviction of a “ by the graie of God” existence, seems to be still possessed at least by the Emperor of A os tria and the King of Bavaria, of whom the former has been and the latter Is still co caged in paying flying visits to those parts of tbelr respective dominions, that were vis. Ued by the scourge of war last summer, and to compensate the inhabitants for tbelr bard sufferings by the glorious privilege of be holding their sovereigns withthelr own loyal eyes, and to be commiserated with by tbelr condescending Imperial and royal majesties. The Emperor Francis Joseph Icfi Vienna shortly after the exchange of the ratifica tions oi the treaty of peace with Italy for a tour through the provinces of ilovaria, Eastern and Northern Bohemia, and part ol Nether Austria, upon which ho was absent not quite a month. The greatest pains were everywhere taken by the local authorities to give the sovereign the most ostentatious possible reception; and, though at some points, as at Prague, they were not able to carry out their intentions, owing to the want of popular support and enthusiasm, the people of town and country along the Imperial rente, furthered their efforts very heartily. There can be no doubt but that, generally speaking, the welcome extended to the Emperor upon his Journey was one he Could be well gratified with. This is true even of the districts, the population Of which bad suffered most severely from the Prussian invasion. Nor is the hearty popular greeting to Francis Joseph in the visited provinces to be wondered at. As 1 know, through my personal observations last August, in the very regions that he tra versed, nls subjects in these parts of the Em f>lrc do not consider him responsible for the ntense misery they had to undergo during the months of June, July, August and Sep tember. They firmly believe that the war was contrary to hla expectations and wishes, and forced upon him, notwithstanding his sincere efforts for peace, by Prussian over bearing and aggression. And they are more over persuaded that the crashing defeat of Austria was due, not to anv fault of the Em peror, but to the want of capacity and mis management of bis Generals and Ministers. Hence they looked upon him as a victim of untoward circumstances and misplaced con .fidcnce, and were disposed to treat him as 1 such, and glad of an opportunity to manliest theirsympatby for him. . Louis 1. the youthful rnlcr of Bavaria, has 'as much reason as the Emperor of Austria to bo satisfied with the manner In which the in habitants of Upper. Lower and Middle Fran-- tconlabavc received him during the last ten .days. Last June and July, at the height of the war crisis, he had taken so little part in the affairs of State and devoted himself so eutircly to trifling, frivolous pastimes to the great detriment of all public interests, that nn interne Indignation arose against him among all classes of his subjects In all parts of the Kingdom. He was, indeed. In those days the most unpopular man in all hls realm. In hi* very capital, all bnt proverbial for Its blind devotion to royalty he was denounced &t the time publicly and privately without stint forhls mdiffercucu to the public weal. As he has done nothing since, ant to modify the popular sentiment towards him. It Is a molmr of frenvnl o«tonl*hmcat that he should have been'so well received wherever he went in the mentioned provinces. In all the towns ho has so far visited. the greatest possible ado was nwde about mm. Their in- Habitant* fairly vied with each other to show him the profoundest honor. The glaring In consistency Involved in this conduct of the Bavarian ptiblfc, can only be explained bv a native servile spirit, bora of centuries’of princely rule, that proves them to he sliU . unripe tor anything but a monarchical form ofGovernment. _ Both the Austrian Emperor and the Bava rian King distributed decorations—the tra ditional, un&ninp plasters ofroyillv for sore feelings—and pecuniary gifts, daring their triumphant voyages, with tbergreatest liber ality. and the Austrian and Bavarian papers are fid! of praise of their generosltv. But (n view of the fact that Francis 'Joseph has a yeorlv allowance of eight mil* Huns and Louis three and a half mil lions of florins, which stupendous sti pends are paid by their patient subjects (think of the comparative pflt.nec allowed to the President ox the United States), they do not appear to be deservedly entitled to much credit for distributing a hundred thou sand or so among the poor! The ardent welcome offered every where to King Louis Is generally taken by political augurs os o*f the great pre-eminence of anti-Prussian feelings ibrouphont Bavaria, and there Is no reason to suppose that this construction I; not a correct one. It is an undisputable fact, in deed, that since the Hist dazzling effect of the Prussian military successes ha? worn off, ; the feeling In favor of annlted Germany, un der Prussian hegemony, that had spread very widely In Southern Germany lasi summer, has lost a good deal of ground, and that an tipathy to every thing Prussian represen is the prevailing sentiment- Some ten days ago, a meeting n r "_xrril leaders from various parts of fv'Oi.vrn Germany, was hcldat Stuttgart, at wliich a platform was agreed upon, on which the framers expect the Liberal party of nettc-Damstadl, Baden. Wurteraberp and Bavaria to stand. X: favors the forma tion rf a new federation of Slates, compris- 1 irg the whole of Germany, North and South of the Mala, upon the basis of the Federal Constitution of ISI9, under Prussian leader ship. But its virtual recognition of Prussia as tbc head and arbiter of the fortunes of Germany appear* to have made it distasteful to, with the exception, perhaps, of Baden, the mass of tbc people of Southern Germany. With the accession of Baron von Bouet to the principal position la the Austrian Cabinet, the party, la favor of the organization of the Soot h-German Con federacy, which the treaty of Prague author izes tone formed ont of the States not in eleded in tbc North-German Confederacy un der Prussian leadership, has been Inspired with new hope of a realization of Its wishes. It rests its fresh expectations noon tbc sup position that the new Austrian Premier would secretly or openly favor and support the attainment of an end, vU.: the forma tion of a Southern Bund, opposed to a farther enlargement of Prussian power, that might eventually prove the handle whereby Austria might in the course of time recover her lost position as a German power. But the project of a Southern Band, though it is once more discussed now nod then in some of the newspapers of Southern Germane, after a death-like sleep ot several months, "is as vet not seriously considered bv.any of we Governments most interested In it, and all positive signs arc still wanting that it ever will be. Herr Ton der Pfartien. the Bava- rian Premier, I can affirm with posiiivencss, has no present inclination to step oat 01 the relative obscurity he has so asaidnonslv cultivated since his last diplomatic feat at Berlin, by taking it np; and without his ini. tUtiou, it can be safely calculated, nothing wQI be done In the matter. On Monday last all of the Austrian Hand* tage or Provincial Assemblies, with the ex ception of that of Transylvania, met at the same hour in the several capital cities of the respective provinces. It being universally understood that the Imperial Government mtans to make Ua Internal police, id «r, the regulation of the political relations of the various provinces to the central authority, dependent upon the manner In which the propositions made in the Imperial rescript, opining the Hungarian .Diet concerning that question will be treated by the latter, public attention in Austria now centres in that one of ■ the nineteen of the legislative bodies of the Empire now In session. According to the Imperial rescript, the Emperor is willing and ready to settle the long standing difficul ties between it and the Magyar Parliament acccnpng to the wishes of Hungary, vis.: by airing that Kingdom an antonomousadmin fflration through a separate Ministry, resident in the • Hungarian capital, provided the Diet will agree on Us part, io concede permanently to'the Central Govern ment certain sovereign powers, the reserva tion and exercise of which br it is Indispens able to tbc solidarity of the feroplre, and the integrity of the Imperial authority, to wit; the organisation and reconstruction of the army; the administration of the customs;' the control of the-Government monopolies (tobacco, salt, etc-, etc.); the levy of in direct taxes, and the management of the rational finances, including the exclusive right to contract loans, coin money, etc-, cici According to the Vienna press, the re ception of the Imperial terms of compromise by the Diet, was decidedly unfavorable. The Hucgarians,llke all the other peoples of Aus tria, are sick and tired of mere professions of good intentions on the part of the Govern ment. They want positive rnarrantees In the shape of acts. Instead or bare assuring words, by which they bare been deceived so often before. They desired and expected that the Government should give a-positive pledge for the good frith of us proclaimed mrposcs by reviving tho Constitution, which f iast>cen suspended so long contrary to the unanimous wishes of the whole people of the Empire, Instead of insisting upon tho ac ceptance of its scheme of Internal policy be fore It pot an end to the present abnormal condition of national affairs by a resuscita tion of tbe organfclawof theland. Another reason for the reported disfavor with which the Imperial rescript was received, is no donbt, that U differ* widely from the pro xjsitioiii) for a definite arrangement with the h-own, adopted by tbe majority of m Special 'omrolttce appointed for toe purpose during the last sitting of the Diet. For tho propo sitions In question do not contemplate to vest tbe Crown with three of tbe sovereign powers claimed for It la the rescript, viz.; the absolute right to fix the contingents to be furnished by Hungary to the Imperial army; to regulate indlrcci|laxatlon, and de ride all questions relating to the public debt. According to present appearances, neither tbe Deak, or conservative liberal, nor the radical party of the Diet will favor an ac ceptance of the terms of the Government. How the Diet will eventually dispose ot this all-important Issue cannot now bo foreseen. Bat, it Is safe to sav, that tbe Question of the stability of the Empire will In a great measure depend upon the decision of the Magyar law-makers. Of the many distracting visitations Inflict ed upon Austria and Bavaria by tbe late war, not the least trying, is one that is only now commencing to be tell in those coun tries With the formal cession of Venetla to Italy, and tbe final termination of Austrian rule upon Italian soil, a regular stream of Catholic ecclesiastics of every description— priests, monks and nans, of half a dozen dlf icrent orders, and Jesuits—has been pouring over the Alps into Southern Austria and Ba varia. Tbe arrivals of these w andcrcrs from the rule of the “Infidel” King of Italy—la Austria especially—have been so numerous that the question, how to dispose of (fits pe culiar Immigration, has already become very, troublesome to tbe Government. The advent of the “Jesuits” In strong force at Vienna has revived Jic recollections of the perni cious Influence of that Order in the past up on public affairs, and given rise to a signifi cant demonstration against the followers of Loyola In the Common Council of the Capi tal, which body resolved to petition the Gov ernment not to permit tao permanent do mestication of the unwelcome new-comers in the Imperial City. The public of the United States will soon have another of those periodical sensations in the form of visits of distinguished foreign ers, It loves so to undergo, and this time It is Austria that will contribute a lion—and a , real one—for the benefit of American sight seers. The victor olLlssa—-the Austrian Far i ragut—Vice-Admiral Tegcthoff, left Vienna a few days ago for New York, via England. lam satisfied that the gallant sailor, whose object Is to acquaint himself with the naval resources of the great trans- Atlautic Republic, will become at once very popular on the other side of the ocean through the simplicity and amiability of his manners. As could be foreseen, the news- paper stories afloat some weeks ago, about an alleged rapture between him and tbe Im perial Government, bad not tbe least foauda tlon in fact. Tbe Admiral goes on bebaif of bis Government for tbe purpose of collecting such information In regard to tbe nary of the United States, and especially tbe Iron* clad portion of It, as will prove most useful In tbe contemplated reorganization of the Auetrian cary. FKOK MEXICO, Life Among the Aztecs. Predominance of Indian Tralw-liatred of tSio NpaoUnb-in Imperialist In <H«n Tilbc-The Cltj- of .TXexJco—lm provements made br Jlaxlmlllan— nrxlran Traits—The Plaza—Mexican peddlers—Tbc Ctmrcbts—Power and Influence •of the Charch— Maxi mlllau’s Departure—lll* Case Hope*

|Corrc?pondccce or the Chicago TrHiaoe.l Cmr op Kkxico, October 2], 1566. The Indians of Mexico adhere with singu lar pertinacity to the customs and language of their ancestors, and notwithstanding three centuries of what the Spaniards are pleased to term “ civilization, I’and 1 ’and dally Intercourse witbtbc whites In the Valley of Mexico, and In the city itself, the Aztec language la spoken, and the mode of living with a large part of the population, management of the household, and the buildings themselves, arc the same as in the days when the Monlczo mas ruled over two-thirds of Mexico. In passing through the streets, and particularly at the market places, Is always to be heard a strange jargon—not guttural sounds— which eccm to be jerked, by a great effort, from the neighborhood of the waist-hands, ns is the speech of the Indians of the West- 1 cm Territories, but more like the Chinese, I except that the words ore longer and more liquid. 1 Eight miles south of the Capital and lu I sight of the Cathedral, is the town of San Nicolas, in which not a word of Spanish Is > ever beard save when a white man posses I through Its streets. The Aztec is the lan- I guage taught the children, but the adults ' acquire sufficient Spanish for trading purpo ses, and even this little they Late, and use it sparingly. Among the mountains the Indians speak the tongue of their ancestors, and across the lake la the city of Tezcuco, the an cient rival of Mexico, is spoken the same Words as foil upon the ears of Cortez when he first descended into this Talley. So universal Is the Aztec among the Indians that important decrees are frequently trans lated into that language for the benefit of the notlve population, most of whom would ever remain ignorant of the laws il published cnly in Spanish. I hove before me a decree of the 15th of September last, printed in Aztec. in which Maximiliru Is termed “Hue! Xlatnam.” or Emperor. The fartques in the interior frequently rend (heir sons to this city to be educated, almost invariably requiring them to become* lawyers; after they have graduated, they re turn home with their diploma, which is proudly shown to their dependents; theyonng lawyer Is then stripped of his fine wardrobe, and clothed as arc his neighbors, his father telling him he has been taught the ways and. laws of the Spaniards In order that he may defend his people against their oppressors ; that henceforth he is to be an Aztec, and to mix with the wb.tes only when bis people require his services as a leglslatororas n law yer. This explains the reason of ao'many Indian lavrvers and members of Juarez, and several of the roost promising members of the bar being full-blooded Indians. ; Among the Sierras, to the north, in the old States of Puebla and Mexico, are found the Chinijuapo Indians, still a powerful tribe, and possessing many peculiar charac teristics. They arc as white as thefkirest Saxon, bnt with Indian features; cleanlv, industrious, and inclined to be traders; they mix freely with the whites, but preserve the purity of their race. Virtue being sacredly respected among them, half-breeds are nn* known. This interesting nation are remark* ably attached to their homes, hare measur ably preserved their Indcpcmlcnccf and like most of the mountain tribes, are strong Im perialists. They ,havc defended the city of Tulaucicgo for months against the attacks of the Liberals, and resolutely refuse to listen to any overtures for abandoning Maximilian and pronouncing for the Republic. They do not lam-y American protection, and unless their principal men can be won over to that doct riuc, will cause groat trouble whenever the United States shall be called upon to ad just the affaire of Mexico. • For this country, Mexico is a live cltv, aud has something of the activity of American cities. It certainly is about as densely pap ula rod as almost any other place upon the continent—the houses are very compact,and there Is no telling the number of persons which each building contains. The streets arc broader than arc usually found lo Span- cities, but no more than those in the United States they are straight and cross each ether at right angles, forming large squares or blocks of houses. The longest sheets arc those running from east lowest, and are but aboat two and a half miles long: the width, of the city is lea than two miles. Some of the streets are well pared, and are kept very clean: others are In wretched condition, being little better than mud holes, exhaling a stench that would poison the population "of a. less salubrious clime. lam told that, three years ago. even the principal streets were in bat little better order, and that it was by the express and chen reiterated orders of tbe Emperor that the system of repairs was Inaugurated, and the streets raised, newly graded ami re paired. This I can readily believe, as I have before my eyes daily, evidence of the im provements made by their Majesties, and which would not have been thought of by any Mexican of -the present age; for this people hare little -notion of pub lic improvement, but. on the contrarv, every indtviaaal thinks that all he defrauds the public treasury out oJ Is so much gain, and to cheat the (Jovernment Is considered to be a virtue. The Empress has paid thou sands of dollaraoot of her private fort one to beautify the Almedo. and has made It, now, one of the most enchanting promenades in America- The Emperor, like every other Christian gentleman, became disgusted with the old appearance of the Plata, which was nothing more than an open square, with a wretched bare pavement ,of cobblestones, ruinous to carriages and dangerous to pedestrians. llis Majesty planned lor this spot a flower garden, aud almost like cobble-stones disappeared, the hallows became filled, fountains sprang up on every side, shrubs and flowers bloomed where before only bard rocks were seen, and groves of trees afford grateful shade to the lirtd promeuaders. No city lu America has now a more bcautifhl or unique square; sod all this has been the work of a few months. Last spring the Plaza was the some cheeileas spot that it bad been for the Ust twen ty years, Bnt this people cannot be sold to appreciate these benefits, but upon every occasion evince a spirit that would not have disgraced a Vandal horde. Bat one of the four fountains about the Plaza has been finished; the water Is thrown Into the basin from~a' central jet and from the mouths of eight iron swans, life-size, placed around the edge. -These effigies hod been placed iu nositlon but a few uicbU"befofe some “blanketed thief* 1 made a * de scent upon It and carried it off. It has been found necessary to place a watchman upon the Plaza to prevent the scoundrels from stealing the rest of the swans, as well as the iron seals and settees,, of which a large number have been placed , at convenient distances around the square I for tho convenience of pedestrians. They 1 have even been known to steal street lamps snd loads from wagons standing lu 1 the most crowded thoroughfares. Were it not for far of French ba/nneti, tha Jepcros of Mexico would startle the world by their thievish propensities. Mexicans are extrcmclv undemonstrative, and put off everything till a more conven ient season. “Manana” (pronounced, uvra pone) and “ poco tcimpo” are always occur ring whenever they are engaged in business trausactloufi.audanvtblncUke hurry or expe dition is unknown. This sluggishness of dispo sition is evinced in their walk. No Mexican hurries through the street, but he passes along with a quiet, placid gait, as If he had eternity before him and there was no need for baste. They walk but little, and loaf a crest deaL There are but two promenades in the city, the Alemcds and the Flora, andU w only occaxionaiy that these placqa arc crowded. The Alerocda, with its stately trees, shady walks and sparkling fountains. Is one of the most beanUftil of spots, and la a great morning resort, when anxious mam* mas and nurses with responsibilities of every I ace and color, enjoy the refreshing morning ' air, study the fashions and exhibit the beau ties of their offspring. Bat the most fash ionable and only promenade at night is the Plaza. There, after sunset, thousands every evening are found wandering among the flowers and shrubbery, the youngsters talking love and matrimony, the old ’nos calculating profit?, or marrying off, in ima gination, each other’s sons and daughters; perchance a few disaffected may be found concocting treason, or hatching a conspi racy, for Mexicans take naturally to such matters, and politicians rarely meet without discussing “ prominclamentos” or the best method of destroying the Govern, ment. The Austrian bind, composed of seventy .five performers, and one of the best bands In tbc Austrian service, has been wont, to discourse sweet music m tbe Plaza upon two evenings every week ; hut a few even lugs since tbe populace pelted the perform ers with a shower of stones, knocking the Austrians right and left; since that time we have had no music at our promenades, and the Mexicans have in this instance “ cat off their nose to spile their face.” The north side of the Plaza is occupied by the Cathedral, and the east by tbe Imperial Palace; on tbc south and west sides are stores, shops, and tbe Palace of Justice, or City Hall. These stores and Palace of Jus tice have in front large porches, called “ portals,” extending over the sidewalk, and between the columns supporting tbe arches and under tbc portals are hundreds of yen* dersof almost everything found in tbe coun try—codec and cakes are cosily nestled by the side of a tempting display of roe-dol£s or preposterous wreaths of artificial dowers —here comes an “hombre” solemnly bear ing a young banana plant, whilst behind him is a vender of dulcics (sweets) whose stentorian lanes quickly make tbe passerby acquainted with the virtues of bis uninviting confectionery. An Indian with a few skeins of coarse thread importunes a purchaser .who at tbe same time has a glossy silk hat of an cient form stuck under his nose for inspection. A man with a yard stick ana an armful of cotton laces Jostles you aside, and yoa stumble against a seller of lottery tickets, who assures your winning a hundred dollars in the “Lotcriade la Prorideocla,” or some other holy swindle. Shoes and Jewellery, fruit and Jack knives, baby linen and old Iron, peanuts aud hosiery, all in joxtapoal i tlon, are to be found av prices sufficiently low to salt the Mexican parse, bat tbe mo jnent a foreign customer is found all manner of merchandise takes an alarming rise, and an unsophisticated Yankee or Johnny Ball is usually compelled to pay two or three hun dred per cent more for the same article than is a native. This practice of swindling is universal. Foreigners are considered lawful game by Mexican?, and accordingly ho is made to. feel that he b a foreigner upon every occasion. Some of tbcae dealers make a great deal of money, but most of them arc satis fied If their profits amount to four or five shillings a day. It is as much as they could cam by honest labor, and by “keeping store” thep save their clothes, hold a higher posi tion in society, and are enabled 10 gratify ' their natural penchant for cheating strangers I and talking politics. Some few of the wo- I men, and even three or four of the men traders, under these portals, arc very Indus- ■ trions. sewing, knitting or performing some I other light labor most assiduously, when not waiting upon customers; most of them, however, prefer to spend their time In idle ness. smoking cigarettes, or quarrelling npon matters of which they arc totally Ignorant. The city and country would be bettor off if the whole tribe of these venders could be abolished, or pat to honest labor. The pride of this city Is in its churches, of which there is a great number. Before 1850 it wo? estimated that one-third of the prop erty in the city belonged to the Church, and that one-fifth of tbe buildings were used fur churches, convents and monasteries. A §rvat portion of this property was confiscated y Juarez, and the act was ratified by Maxi milian ,* still the number of churches and convents la astonishing to an American. The city contains about%ooo priests, monks and nuns, and with novitiates, attendants, and servants upon churches, «fcc., the num 'twr is swelled to 1.500 —a large number, cer tainly, to be supported at public ex pense. -.The property formerly held by the - Church in the whole country was estimated at over $400,000,000 ; of this Immense gam 1300,000,000 was con llscatcd to tbc State. It will be seen that tbc Church is still a wealthy bodv, and con sequently wields great power. This power, lam sorry to say,'has been seldom used la the cause of liberty, but almost Invariably against tbe people. It was the Church party that asked French intervention, aud invited Maximilian to become Emperor. The same party now sustains him, against the wlshcsof three-fourths of the Mexican people. As a , political party it has been corrupt, always 1 opposing progress and endeavoring to keep the people iu ignorance. As u religious body the Church bas done much toward civilizing I the country, and to her Mexico owes all its i advancement and Christianity. The priests have been energetic, untiring and oftentimes I self-sacrificing; but they are miserable poll- I ticisns, who had Utter give up the Govern | ment into the hands of laymen. Jest now we ere lojt In wonder And amate stent, and arc at a lose to know what kind of a Government we live under—whether an empire, monarchy, dictatorship, republic, or what noL and who Is our ruler. On Sunday morning Maximilian started very gaddenlv fur Orizaba, having appointed, It Is enttf, Marshal Baiaine temporary Regent. The Emperor naturally feels the greatest interest In the health of the Empress, whose sudden and alarming illness whilst In Europe upon a mission for the Empire, causes great con cern here among all classes. In order to re ceive the earliest Intelligence from his august consort, be started lor Orizaba, where ho would be within a short distance of Vera Cruz upon the arrival of the steamer. This p'aclng the regency In in® ©i Bazalnc, caused intense itidlg tatlou’among the churchmen, and the Min* biers ot once tendered their resignations, Which were not accepted- Many believe the Emperor will not return, and this belief Is strengthened by bis studiously avoiding General Castlenau, the Commissioner des patched by Kapolcou to this conatrv, to in vestigate the condition of affairs. Oastleuan came the most direct road from Puebla and Orizaba; the Emperor -made a long detour, and in this way escaped the General, who was entrusted with despatches to be placed In no otherhandathan those of the Emperor. Who is Emperor? asks every one, and none can answer- The Ministry deny that Ba zaine b Regent, and the whole Government is in a turmoil. What the end will be none can tell. General Castlenau has arrived, but bis instructions have not been made pub* lie. It is hoped that a few days will deter mine the Question, and settle when Maxi milian will formally abdicate. Abdication appears to be the onlv course left for the Emperor to pursue. The French will positively leave the country before spring. His Austrians are deserting In scores, ana he bos no other force with which to sus tain himself. lam sorry to say so, but truth compels me to write that Maximilian's case u hopeless. He would make a good ruler over an enlightened people, but he has not enough sternness In his composition to fit him for Emperor of Mexico. He can now rally no great partr to his support, even the Church party showing a determination to de sert him. The Liberals are obtaining Important ad vantages In every quarter, and driving the French and Austrians .before them, until nearly the entire force of foreign troops la concentrated between the City of Mexico and Veni Cruz, to keep open the communi cation and to be ready to embark at a proper moment. In this dilemma, wltboat a party, without an array, and without money, he will be forced to give up his throne; he can with dignity resign, and unless he does bo, it will be forced from him. A dreadful state of affairs prevails throughout the country. Bands of robbers infest every district, relieving the people of the few poods which war has spared. Com mcrce is ntlcrly dead, agriculture languish es, and nearly every mine has suspended operations. Mexico is said by old settlers to be worse off now than ever before; and the fear Is, that If left to its own people, the condition of the country will become more desperate Instead of better- The eyes of many arc turned upou the United States for assistance, and the Prayer of the moat enlightened Is that the Federal Government will extend a help log hand to Mexico, enabling her to re establish the Bcpubllc end to quiet the hordes of tuerUlas who now infest her bor ders. “Intervention” In some shape is nccdcd—shali we have It • Vf. B. D. FBOII URUSDT COUNTY. Herder of a Man Jfear Morris. Lore* Jealousy and Revenge. (Correspondence of the Chicago ftibsne.] Sobbjb, 18., December 19. Ihave refrained from sending an account of the fallowing murder until now—fearing that such publicity would hinder the efforts made by the authorities to ferret out the criminal. Thomas Page was a bachelor of about 47 years, residing with a frmOy named Bunker, upon the prairie, shoot ten miles south of Morris. Be was a man In no respect re markable—except, perhaps, far a.jealous disposition, which, as will be seen, cost him his life. He worked a farm near Banker’s, and was reported to hare laid by from $5,C00 to 55,000 In gold and Treasury notes. Bunker’s family consisted of himself who is a feeble Oldman, his wile, who is “ thejnan of the house,’' and a daughter, Nancy, who is the widow of Amos Parker, a deceased soldier, who left his widow s nice farm worth some thousands,'upon which the Bunkers lived by consent of their daughter—having no means of their own. The widow, although a good-natured wo man, was not 'considered personally at tractive. as she was a dwarf *• very short, and very broad,” but having an' excellent farm and valuable stock, the widow with horses by the murdered man. but he easily proved au aim and all were satisfied that whatever he might know of the murder be could not hare done tbc bloody deed, and no evidence could be found soffleint to hold any one. Hon. James K. Heading, County Judge, spent much time and pains in taking all such testimony as might throw light oo the or possibly be of any use .In the future. A truck waa found leading from the body, which showed peculiar heel-plates as haring been on the boots of the wearer. The excitement gradually decreased. Still through the whole community there was an “the appurtenances” was sought after by manv, among whom was Page. Bat Page, like’ other became exceedingly Jealous, and particularly of a young man named Ajonro Tlbbilta, a widow’s sod. Young Tibhlta,- although poor, -bad a fine span of horses, with which he often carried the widow to parties and dances In the Til lages around. This Irritated Page exceed ingly.. and thinking it might not be the fiaxen'halred bay the widow loved so well, but the span of horses which he drove, he resolved to strike at the root of the evil and poison tbe horses. This ho did. Soon after Tibblts sued Pape for poisoning Mb horse*. On the day of trial Joseph Tlbbita, a brother of Alonzo, came home from the army, and learned the story of Phoning his brother’s horses. . , Od the following day Pago was engaged carrying corn from the field to the house, and in doing this, passed through a point of woods which was not lar from a number of dwellings. About 8 o’clock In the afternoon two ladles riding on horseback through this timber, found the team of Page, with one hone down and the lines wound around the wheels. The neighbors soon collected, and found Page lying dead in the road a few rods behind the wagon, with bullet holes m his Suspicion of course rested on Alonzo Tib bets on account of the poisoning of bis evident-anxiety to know who the murderer was, as It was Impossible for a stranger to have escaped- unnoticed in broad daylight the attention of the teams passing continu ally on the various roads. Alonzo Tibblts and the widow were mar ried, and Josenh went to Athens, Maine, where he, his I family and the Bankers had formerly resided; but before he left he brought into a shoe store In Morris a pair of hoots tritA the h«U tom ojr, and desired a new pair placed upon them, giving some trivolous reason for their being torn off. This foct, with the contradictory statements made by the young men and the Bunkers, led suspicion to be fastened again upon them, and at the present term of the Circuit Court Alonzo was induced (it is said by taming State’s evidence), to confess that his brother Joseph killed Poge and at the request of the Grand Jury he produced the pUtolwith which It was done—which weapon fitted the bullets extracted from the body of Page. An Indictment has been found against Jo seph Tibblts. for the mnrder, and a requisi tion obtained, for the purpose ofhrlngmgthe criminal from Maine. The Board of Super visors appropriated S2OO towards defraying the expenses of bringing him here. Tibblts’ fether died some years ago, in Maine. His mother Is an excellent woman, ' and lives with her daughter (who is a young lady much respected by all who know her), near the place where the murder was com mitted. . , . Public opinion seems to condemn about equally alllhese. Page for his contempti bly mean act In poisoning the horses of vdnng Alonzo Tibblts; Alonzo for his mean er acf In turning State’s evidence against his brother, and Joseph for his crime of taking the life of a fellow mas. Many items of interest might he mention ed, showing the probable-acquiescence of others in the murder, but these I refrain from forwarding until after the trial. FROM MICHIGAN. Onr Detroit Letter. TUe Official CatrraM—AnalTftU of the Tote—Democratic Agitation—Tbo ses* sage—Political AflCUn-Ilt' Weather —Ulstorl—The imbroglio —Fire Alarm 'i clcgraph—The New City Hali.gjgfjiie, [Correspondence Chicago Tribune.} Dtroorr. December 11. The official canvasafor the State of Mich igan shows the magnificent proportions of our late rlctorj* over the combined Demo cratic and Bread-anu-Botter parties. The highest Republican majority on the State ticket la thirty thousand and twenty-nine; the lowest twenty-nine thousand fire hun dred and seven. In 1864, the Republican majority in the State was seventeen thou sand nine hundred and eighty-two for Presi dent, and seventeen thousand and sixty throe for Governor. The aggregate majori ties for Congressmen this year are twenty nine thousand seven hundred and ninety-six —only lacking four of thirty thousand. The lowest majority for Congress men is two thousand three hun dred and eighty-tour, and the highest eight thousand three hundred and ninety five. Thus we have plenty of leeway for a redaction of majorities In the next election without losing any offices. Moreover, wc claim the banner* Republican county of the Republic,Manistee Couuty/in this State,hav ing given fonr hundred straight Republican votes, to none Democratic. Beat tnat who can. The fitment In the Democratic camp In this Slate over the question of universal suffrage continues, noiwijhstandlDglhe cold weather. The State Democratic organ—the Detroit -Free Frets —alter giving strong signs of coming out opculy for universal suffrage, suddenly drew hack again for a time. It bad consulted the Democratic leaders, and they were divided. Moreover, the party was divided. The consultations ana debates showed that the party could neither stay in its old tracks ormove forward without a little internal feud. The sbrcwdestlcadcrs wished to strike out at once for the new policy. The small fry hesitated. The Free Frets found itself noahle to decide without aid. It conld not procure the arrangement made in Illinois, whereby the party leaders secure the Chicago Time* against loss by raising a fund for It. The leaders in Michigan have little money to spend, and will not spend what they have. They want their organ to go ahead—at Us own risk. This placed the proprietors and editors in a cruel dilemma. If It should come out lately for .universal suffrage, its subscribers would drop off by the hundred, and take the New York Xtvty or the Old Guards or some similar organ. If it should not come out, its subscribers would drop off by the hundred and take the Chicago Times. Moreover, Its editors see plainly that the party mtui come upon the universal suffrage platform next summer, when the election for the members of a State Const’tutiooal Convention is held, and when the Republi cans may propose to make suffrage Impar tial, but limit it by u loyalty and intelligence U'»t, or cltc up the gbost. But, being thus left to decide for them selves, without pecuniary aid from the party leaders, the necessities of ita exchequer and the demands of its subscription books, com pelled its proprietors to go slow. They nave, apparently, resolved to follow the tide, and not attempt to lead it, at least for a time. Meanwhile they are preparing to take advantage of the drat de cided change in the current, to head the other way as soon as it becomes safe to do so. And the party leaders continue to revolve the problem whether it will pay them to pay the organ for coming oat soon; or whether they, too, can affordto drift with the current unlit the Issue la close upon them, and the party is still divided and unable to make a fair light fur existence. Things look really Interesting at the present Juncture; and the Democratic cat Is liable to jump both ways at once. • The President’s message has fallen cold and flat upon all parties here. It is not even discm-scd. Xobody carra about either it or to responsible author. The chieftopic of po litical Interest Is the question, What will Congress do ? It seems to bo the general im pression that the work of reconstruction will be begun de novo, by sweeping away the illegal State Governments set up by the Presides! in the South, and. establishing loyal State Governments to lliclr place. It is considered doubtful wbethcrJudge Kelley’s Sian will he adopted, which declares that overnreents must be established in the Territories lately occupied by the several Stales ; but, on the contrary, that Congress will simply declare that there arc no legal State Governments existing in the several Stale* (not Territories) of the South, and that it Is the duty of Congress to pass laws ena bling the inhabitants of the said Inchoate States to set up proper and loyal Governments, thus avoiding the theory of State extinction, and adopting the theory of the lapse of the several State Governments; or, taking the ground that the States still remain, but with out Governments, and without loyal popula tions capable of forming Governments, until tumbled to do so by act of Congress removing their disability brought on by treason, and regulating, limiting and directing the re newed exercise of the forfeited rights of citi zenship. This, of coarse. Is mere specula tion, of which yon have enough at aome: but 1 deem It my duty to keep you jiosied concerning the more thoughttui opinions of public men in this State. . ' The weather here has suddenly changed to cold. On Friday, a severy gale set in from the northwest, which has veered to the north and northeast. On Satnrday the gnlc swelled to a storm, which on Suodav was still violent, accompanied by snow- All day Monday the wind blew with much force, the cold constantly increasing, and it Is' now (Monday evening) • pretty near zero. We look for skating as soon as the gale sub sides so as to allow the ireeziog of smooth ice. Bistori Is coming to Detroit. She la to bring with her the entire dramatic company with which she has been playing in New York, consisting of filly-three members. Her terms are five thousand dollars for two nights. As we have only one ball capable ot seating more than one thousand persons, and as that only con tains sixteen hundred seats, the price of tickets will be two dollars and a half be- Iqw, two dollars in the galleries, and five dollars for reserved seats. As a pecuniary venture, Manager Bough, who has embarked In the enterprise, runs considerable risk; Still, we are to see and hear Bistori. and that soon; aud all Detroit feels disposed to crow over Chicago and other cities of the West, which, for once at least, we consider we have outdone, whether our public is suffi ciently artistically Inclined to make the en terprise pay or not. It is a “big thing” to got the start of Chicago, even if wc are not Targe enough to stand theexpense. Among our newspaper establishments, the telegraphic-rivalry now going on between the new and old Associated Press combina tions Is the theme of greatest Interest. The Adrertiter end Tribune and Detroit Pm Pm* appear to adhere to the New Tork organiza tion at all hazards: at least they so express themselves now. The newspaper, the Port, hoa not concluded on iu course. It will probably remain under existing arrange ments for a while, and aw&it .developments. Having experienced a good deal of difficulty io getting into the old Associated Frees, it will not let go again until It has a sure re fuge elsewhere. If the new company gets tairly established, and continues, as et pres ent. to furnish the most copious news budget, the Po*t will Join Us for tunes before long, it is probable, to that combination. But His a new enterprise as yet, and not sufficiently established to be Independent; while, being a large company concern, it Is not os readily manageable as though its corporation was confined to a few proprietors, such, at least, is the tenor of the current conversation I hear upon the subject. The wires for our fire alarm telegraph, upon the same model -as that now used In Chicago, are being rapidly put op, upon poles, the wires being generally confined to alley-ways. When tos work Is completed our fire Department wQI probably be re modelled. A number of workmen are engaged cutting stone fortbe new CityHaU, lobe erected upon Campus Martins- The excavation for the | basement has been completed some time. The building will be about as large as the' Court Douse In Chicago, and it is to be laced with Michigan marble, of a fine quality. It will be two or three years in the process of building, and will cost one hundred thou sand dollars or more. There was one arrival of a steamer from up the lake yesterday; and no clearances. Navigation has closed, If the cold continues a few days, the river will be covered with ice, , . Mica. SBBBATT. Statement of the Canadian who Discovered him. the interview with cardinal astoselli. How Surratt EKJPffI Ut Italy. From the extensive correspondence sub mitted to the House on Monday, relative to the capture of the assassin Surratt, we take the following, Illustrating interesting phases in bis adventurous career. The first letter written by the Canadian who recognized him In the Papal Zouaves, was os follows: Arnt23,lfSJ. BoyonAsu 6m: With reference to the Infor mation 1 hod the honor to give you Saturday lost, 1 most respectfully sute and Borgeat that It would be adrietble to proceed at once and ascer tain If each Information is correct, as 1 under stand that * • • • • • may be soon under orders to go farther ra the mountains, and u would be more difficult for me to communicate with you. As to tbe Identity of toe party, I can assure you on my moat sacred honor It Is lost time to acquire further proof. I am fully convinced that tt Is (he same InotnJaal. 1 have known him In Baltimore. I have seen him heie. Dave spoten to him; recosnoed max at cnee: and when he made himself known to me and acknowledged he wae tbe same party 1 thought ho resemoled. He related several particulars of our first meeting at Ellen Gowan’s, Sneers.miles from Baltimore, where I was then encaged as a teacher, which no one but himself could have remembered. This was about a year before the assassination of Preaidcnt Lincoln. All this occurred about a fortnight ago. I then re volted that as toon aa I could get leave to go (o Roma I would seek the American Minister and in form him of the fact, which so one bear, and I am certain in Europe, knows bat myself. I am fulfr aware of the danger of my position, for In my opinion that party must have friends here, find tbe utmost caution must be used both in securing him and for my personal safely. X have told yon it la my desire to leave • • • as soon aa possible, and that I can do by paying a irm of five or sis hundred franca. I Huns I have done my duty Ln conscience, and trust la yon not to be forgotten. 1 shall expect an answer at your earliest con venience. In writing to me use ordinary paper and envelope, and take a form and turn of ex pression aa none but myself will be able to under stand. 1 bare tba honor to be. honorable Sir, very res pectfully your mo?t obedient servant. . Bon. General King, Minister of the United Stales. Subsequently tbe Canadian made the fol lowing statement under oath: Horn. loir 10,190* I,——, a native of Cauda, British America, aged thirty-three years, do swear Ri d declare, un der oath, that about els months previous to the issasrinatlon ul President Abraham Lincoln, I was living icilaiylacd, at a amatl vltlag-'calleltl langovm, or Llulo Texas, about twenty-live or thirty miles from Baltimore, where I was cnjjtgtd as teachcc, for a period of about fire months. I there and then cot acquainted with Lewis J. Welchman atd John U. Surratt, who came to that locality to pay a visit to the parish priest. At tut flrt-t Interview a great deal was said about the war and Slavery, the sentiment* expressed by these two Individuals being more than secessionist. In the courts of the conversation, I remember Surratt to hare said that President Lincoln would cciiaicly pay for all ibe men that were slain dur ing the war. About a month after 1 removed to ; Washington at >he Instigation of Welchman, and pot a situation as tutor where he was himself encaged. Snrra’t n-ited ns weekly, and once he ; uCwtd to seed me South, but 1 declined, I did i not lennln more than a month at Washington, not being able (o agree with Welchman, ana en lis'cointbe army of the North. as stated In my first statement in writing to General King. I nave met Snrratt In Italy, at a small town called velleln. Beia now known under the came of John Watson. 1 recognized him bcfaie be made himself known (o me, and told him privately, “You are John Surratt, the person leave known In Maryland.'’ He acknowl edged he was, and begged of me to keep the thirr secret. After some conversation, we spoke of the unfortunate aralr of the assassination of Presidio t ijncoln, and these were his wonts: “tpamnthe Yankees, they have killed my mother. But 1 have dose them aa much barm aa 1 could. Wc have killed Lincoln, the niggers* friend ” He then said speaking of his mother, “ Had it not been for me and that coward Welchman my mother would be living now. It was fear made him speak; had he kept his (opgue there was no dinger for him. But It I ever return to America and meet him else where I shall kill bun.” Be then said be in the secret service of the South, and Welchman who waa in some department there need to steal copies of the despatches and tor ward them to hint and thence to Richmond. Speaking of the murder, he said they bad acted under the orders of men who arc not ret known, some of whom are in New Vork and others tn Lor ‘ * •> . - “ yet jsdon. lam aware that money is sent to him el Crca London. When 1 Jail Canada, he said, I Ltd hot little raocev, bat 1 bad a letter tor a pa’ty In London. I was (n dUpulse. with dved hair and false beard: that party sent mo to a hotel, where bo told me to remain fill I wonid hear from him; alter a few weeks he came and proposed to me to go to Spain,bnf i declined, ard asked toco to nuts. Be gate him seventy pounds, with a letter of Introduction to a party there, who sent Uta here to Home, where be joined the Zouaves. Ee eaye he can get money in itomc at any time. I believe be is protected hr the clwgr. and thattle murder Is toe result of a deep laid plot, not only spamst the life of President lincoln, ont against tbe existence of the Hepnbllc, as we are aware that priesthood and royalty are, and alwajßba'cbeeD.oppoMdtoUiiCny. That such men as sntiatt, Booth, Welchman and others should, of tLetr own accord, plan and execute 'he infernal plor wMcb resulted la the death of Presi dent I jncoln. It Impossible. There are others be hind the curtain who hare to matte these scoun drels act. I bare also naked Mm If he knew Jef ferson Barts, lie said not, bat that be had acted under Instructions of persons under hid lamed!- a'e orders. Being asked if Jett Darts had any thingto do with tbe assassination, he hall. *M am not going to tell yon." .My impression Is that be brought tbe order from Richmond, os he was in the habit of gome there weekly. He must , have wished the others to do It, lor when the event took place he told me be was In New York, prtpared to Py as soon as tbe deed was done. Ue iay a he docs not regret wnat has taken place, and that he wfll visit Sew York in a year or two, ! as there la a heavy shipping firm there who had 1 much to do with lac Scuib, and be lssnrprJ->eJ that They have not been suspected. This Is the exact truth or what I know about SrrraH. More 1 1 could net learn, bdfa>e*fr**w to aw»v«ii nl« btu* pfiiucs, ana further I do not say. * Sworn ar.d sub«;rited before me at the Amer ican Legation lu Rome, this tenth dav of July, A. 1)., JbW, Do witness my band and sc4 of ofllce. fi. b.J ilrrrj Kr»o, Minister Resident November 3, ISOO, Minister Kingf details bis Interview with Cardinal Antonelll to ilr. Seward as follows; Sru: 1 hssica to acknowledge your despatch So. 43, marked “confidential," under data of Oc tober 15. in reply to my letter of September Ifi, r om Hamburg, and conveying instructions on the suojccl therein referred to. 1 tost no time In seek ire an interview with the Cardinal Secretary of State as directed to do in (be aforesaid despatch, aud with that view proceeded this morning to tbe Tatlcas, accompanied by Mr. Hooker, Acting Sec retary. as well that bo should hear the conversa tion between tbe Cardinal and my-elf, as that he should repeat to hla Eminence in Italian what 1 proposed saying to him In French relative to the wishes and ex pectations of oar Government in refer ence to Surratt. We were fortunate in finding the Cardinal alone and disengaged, and I proceeded at once to state the business upon which we bad ralltO. Bis Eminence was greatly interested in the matter; tbe more so as 1 si‘Owed Dim the por traits of the conspirators contained io the volume published by Ben. Pittman, and entitled “Assas (■{nation of President Jjncoln. 1 ' Remember very well our previous conversation on the same subject, referred to to my despatch No. Oi of Angus! P, and tbe Intimation he then gnve as to the disposition of the Papal authorities to turxeauer Surratt should he he claimed by the American Government; aud In reply to my- question whether, npon authentic indictment or the usual prelimina ry proof, and, at the request o; the State Depart ment, be would he wlPfpg to deliver up John IL Surratt, be frankly replied In tbe affirmative. Be added that tbere was. Indeed, no extradition trea ty between the two countries, and teat to surren der a criminal where capital punishment was like ly to enrne was not exactly in accordance with the spirit of the Pap*l Government; bat ibat in to grave ard exceptional a case, and with the un derstanding iba* the Called States Government, under parallel drtum&lacces, wotud do as they dtslrec io be done by, he thought the re quest of the Suite Department tor the em ■enour of Surratt would be (wanted. I then, Tv-quested, u a Civoc to the Atnerl* can Government, that neither Sarralt cor ■- - should be discharged from the Papal service until further communtcutloa from the Mate Depart* nest: and Ills Eminence promised to advise with the minister of War to that effect- 1 thanked Ilia Eminence far bis prompt and frank replies to toy queries, and assured him that they vroald give cieat aatlslactlon to our Government. I shall, as directed, employ a trusty and coafi deonal person to proceed to the station where SmraU is, aid Identify him by the photograph which I expect to receive la ibe next despatch from the Department, and 1 will pay the gam rimed by tie Secretary, tn consideration of the inlonatlion already tarnished. I may also bold oot to him the hope of some farther remuneration, sbooM Surratt be {denuded and 8 or rendered, as also of bis speedy discharge, lo order to be • witness against Surratt, if required la the United Statca. Dating thns, I trust, saHs&etoriiy fulfilled the wishes of the State Department, 1 await within* temt farther instructions cm the mb'em. ■ 1 tare the honor to be, very respectful!*, yonr obedient servant, llcrcs Kero, Bon. Wjf. ILijrwAEp,Secretary ol Male, ' The following letter from aa officer of the Zouaves to hU Colonel shows hoar anrratt made bis escape J Fcnou, stb Xorember. UrCotoszL: Irecretto announce to you that notwithstanding all my precaution*, Jean Watson has succeeded Is escaping. To cairy oat the or ders received. 1 bad test Sergeant Halyarllsad.aiz men to TresnliL where ibts Zouave was on detach ment. They did sot And him there, for cm that day Watson bad asked leave to go to FerolL 1 c&uN (be Corporal of the third company, Van derstneten, to take him aod tors bin over to the Tost Corporal, Warren, to whom J bad already given all my iustrnrtlons on this subject. .AH the meseoree ordered were carried out from pome to point. Two sentinel*, wbb loaded arms, were placed, one at the very door of bla prison, with orders to prevent any communication of the prisoner wltb perrons oar tide- and the other at the door of toe barracks. Tbe prison, the doors and windows. Ac., bad been inspected la tbe minutest details by the locksmith ot the common; there was, therefore, nothing to feat In that quarter. All passed off well smtQ this morning at 4 o'clock. Tbe prisoner was then awakened, and rose; pot on bis niters, and took hit coffee with a calmness atm phlegm qnlie English. Tbe gate of toe prison opens on a platform which overlooks the country. A oiloatrade prevents proses sders Cram tum bling on the rocks situated at lea*t ttlny-fire feet below tbe windows ol tbe prison. Beside the gate of this prison are situated the privies of the bameus. Watson asked permis sion to bait there. Corporal Warren, who bad six tseo with bim as guards, allowed bia to slop very naturally, pot thinking, other be or the Zouaves present, that their prisoner was going to try to es cape at a piece which It seemed quite impossible to as to clear. This oerilocs leap, was, however, to be taken, and was crowned win success. In fact, Watson, who seemed quiet, seized tbe balustrade, made a leap and cast himself into the void, Calling on the uneven rocks, where be might tare broken Ms bones a thousand times, and gained the depths of the mlley. Titrols were immediately organized, but in Tito. We taw a ptasant who told us that be bad seen an un armed Zouave who was going towaidCaya Hart, which Is tbe way to Piedmont. 1 address to yon here tbe reportof the corporate of tbe post. Besides two letters wtlch are not without importance. They may bo of some nse to the police. Lteutemaut iloosly and 1 have been to examine tbe localities, and we asked our selves bow we could make such leaps without breaking our arms and legs. 'Phase, my Colonel, to receive the assurance of my respect. Colonel of Detachments, DELAWBnxr. The Killing of nralhczleßawki. [Frost the SL Paul Press. 9th inst) Our readers will recollect the tragic affair that occurred at the Mansion House, on the 21st day of August last, in which Mrs. Lisle Hawks suddenly came to her death by a shot from a pistol in the bands of her reputed husband. The testimony before the Coro ner’s jury tended to show that the parties had been at the Mansion House abput three weeks, living apparently on the moat affectionate terms. 3lr. Hawks was not examined by the Coroner’s jury. Inasmuch* as he appeared to *be so overcome by his misfortune that he was not in a suitable state of mind to undergo an examination. The verdict was that the death was caused “accidentally, from tbc discharge of a pistol In the hands of her husband. Hr. M. A- Daws.” At the time of the catastro. phe, there were some who thought there were strong grounds of suspicion that the shooting was not wholly accidental, but tbc verdict of the jury for the lime quitted all these suspicions. They were, however, af terwards renewed, by tbc following para graph from the Lincoln flit.) InieUt-jewer. ’: rom which place Mr. Hawks came: “A despaten from SL Paul to & Chicago o&ncr sate, that Mrs. Hawks, who bos been Urin--aero with her Mster-ln-law, Airs. Morgan. >• as ac:f Jen tall y sbotbT her husband, a i a hotel In that place it u generally believed here that (he abooiinr was set alloccibcr accidental.” About that time letters were received here from Illinois which stated that the parties concerned in the tragedy had been separated for some time before, and that they hod been irevlonsly living very unhappilv. These etters renewed the suspicions which formerly existed, but as the parties were out of onr jurisdiction, nothing was done about the matter. Vie learn'now, front those who know, that in April last, Mr. Hawks effected a joint insurance upon his life and that of hla wife, for 50,000 in the Hotnc Life Insurance Comnanv, of Xew York, and about the same time two other in surances, each for the same amount, on their . olut lives, making in all $13,000. Wu aUo earn that the insurance companies arc <iis rosed to examine more fully into the matter refore paving the money. The annual prs miem on these three policies wonld be no small sum lor a man in medium circim/. stances. DARISG BO3D EOBBEEY. $200,000 In Bond* and Securities Stolen in Wall street—Escape of toe Thieve —$10)000 Renard offered. [From tbe Mew fork Herald, December il.) Another daring, and aa yet snccc?.-f;il, bond robbery was perpetrated yesterday at tbe office of the Royal Fire and Life lo>cr ance Company, of Liverpool and London.X«>. 5C Wall street. It appears that a meeting of tbe directors had been announced to be held at the company's office, at 12 o’clock, mun, and that at about half-past ten a tin box usually deposited for safe keeping In tbc vaults of the Merchants’ Bank, and, on this occasion, containing upwards of SIOO,OOO in United Stales coupon bond. 4, besides $75,000 In registered Gov ernment stocks, bad been sent for to be used or inspected by the directors, in the event of any change in stock, as was tbe usual custom at such meetings. The box with Us contents was placed in tbe vault opening from the loner or back room, Mr. Anthony B. McDonald’s private office, and the inter Iron door of the safe closed, but not locked. At about a quarter past eleven two well dressed and apparently respectable men called, and expressing a desire to be Inform ed regarding the conditions of life Insurance, were shown into 3Jr. McDonald's apartment. One of them, a young maa probably about thirty years of age, Imiucasalcly entered Into conversation with the agent, and taking a scat on the opposite side of tbu table a the Ccims of life policies, stating that he sod several otberJn divlduals wished to effect an insurance on their lives, as they -were about leaving to go down the Mississippi to New Orleans, lie then made some remarks to tbe effect that they were undecided as to whether they wonld take a traveller’s risk or iusur© for a life period, and stated that as he bad last been married be felt an additional anxletv to secure bis wife against prospective pom tv. Duringthe lime this conversation was gnjrg on the accomplice remained walking in an in different manlier about the room, and once remarked to bis “pal” that he was going oat, bat would return in a few moments.' The vault was situated ou oue tide and to the rear of Mr. McDonald, and the young man who remained entered Into the business *r.a Ibc agent so arduously that Mr. ,v«*j>ora;d made some calculations fr»m the table of risks to satisfy his inquiries regarding the policies for hia friends. During this lime the young man who had left the office returned and resumed bis careless manner of walking around the room. He then lei', the apartment a second lime, and shortly afterward his friend left also, stating that lie wualdco-jeult his friends and would call again after >o doirg. This individual cxhibiUrd cunMOcra hie business tact in the transaction, and la asking questions.rapidly, so as to draw .Mr. McDonald's attention from Ids associate. Ills manner was that of a commercial or travel ling commission agent. Ihe discovery t.| the robbery wa* made scon after hia departure by the age:i£, who mimdiatcly telegraphed to about a dozen of the principal cities, had circulars j riulcA containing the number?, and, os nearly os could be aiccrtulucd, the dcuoiulsaiuus <>:' tbe stolen property, and gave informftiem at the affair to Captain John Young, at head quarters of the Metropolitan Police, who at cucc detailed a squad of detectives to ferret ' out tbe thieves. Upon the circumstances of the robbery being related to Captai.i Young, that officer gavelt as his opinion that there . were but two or three parties in the city of the fraternity who had tbe ad dress and ability to carry oat an un dertaking of this kind. In the building where the office of the company Is located, ah open passage leads from Mail to Tiun street, and large numbers of persons doing business , in the IccalUy use Ibis hull as a shorter wav of passing through to tbc various bunking • houses in the Pine street end of the building. For some weeks past the attention of per eons occupying offices in the premises ha* ba a attracted to persona standing idly about in the ball, and t-n one occasion the janitor proposed to send fora detective in older to i point out to him two young men whose movements bad attracted more than orei ; nary suspicion. The description of tbc?c two persons, as given by the Janitor, scem» ; to correspond pretty nearly with that «l the parties implicated m this robbery; but It i* , not known at present whether the snag®. I tb.n to send for a detective was -d ovu. • The clerks attached to the office were a.'.’ ; busy, owing to the meeting of tee Board« f Directors which was to take place, and none of (hem have nay very distinct recollection of the appearance ot ibo robber?; but Mr. , McDonald will be able to identity at least • the oue Tfhi« conversed with him. * James X*. Ur»»v.iiio;v, csptola. A 1.005] dvu! of cheap admiration has been expended in eejiaJu q nailers npon the gene rosity cf Andrew Johuitm hi making Brevet Brigadier General James P. Browobiw a Captain in the regular army. The following from the last Knoxville TTAty thrown upon the subject a light which Is at once instruct ive and amusing'; General J.P. RrownlowhashccnaopolntcJ Captain in the Eighth Regiment of Regulars Id the Cnitcd Slates army, and Is allowed until the first cf April to report for duty at San Francisco. One of the Nashville papers intimate? that Governor Biownlow ought to feel grateful to tho President for the promo tion of his con. The Governor does not sco the matter in that light. Ill# sou entered the ceivicc at Camp I):ck Robinson, as a private, and fought through the war, having been* made Captain, Lieutenant Colonel, Colonel, and finally, a Brevet Brigadier General. As Lieutenant Colonel of the First Tennessee Cavalrr, of which the President’s sou was Cohmel. joung Brownlow did all the duties of Colonel, all the flatting, and agisted in taking care of the when he was uot able to take cafe or mmsclf, and never commanded the raiment in any one of the hundred odd battles and skirmishes it was in! The Governor considers the honor of commanding a company of Regulars on our Western frontier, and skir mishing with wild Indians, a poor com pensation for having fought through the rebellion, and having received wounds in tattle, from the effects of which he never can recover. And had hi* son consulted him. the Governor would bare advised him against accepting any gnch position. And had the President felt grateful to young Brorn;2y»- for his extraordinary kindness to bis son. and forhis services to his country on many a battlefield, he would have complimented him with a position more honorable. These are the Govern r.t’9 views of the matter, and they will be concurred In br thousands who are familiar with the history of the past. Suicide at Gcqmc, [From lie Milwaukee Sentinel, December litb-l A case of suicide transpired in the village of Genesee, Waukesha County, Wisconsin, on Monday the Sd day of December, !Etso, ,In the person of Mr. Stephen Morris,k high ly TL-szkcted and beloved citizen- who has re sided here fifteen years past, lie was a tem- Eerate and industrious man and reared an itcrcstloc family. Deceased was a native of Pembrokeshire. South Wales. Mr. Moiris has been declining in health for several Tears past, occasioned bv a throat : disease—a tnnjor—and the best medical skill that the country afforded has been brought Into requisition, but It was unavailing. It became evident to deceased, and also to all his medical advisers that ail human aid is his case was powerless. The fact resulted in producing gloom and despondency, and a fixed conviction in the mind of deceased that be could not fall to choke to death soon. The tumor kept enlarging, which greatly affected hU speech, and he experienced much diffi colt? In swallowing his food. About sun down on Monday, he went some sixty rods from b!a house to an old log house, not oc cupied, and attached a rope to a rafter and the other end around bis neck. No expe rienced official hangman could have ar ranged the rope more nicely and effectually. He was thus /bead suspended. and all ap pearances Indicated that he died without a straggle. His cap on his head, even, re mained properly .adjusted when he was found. A. GorlUa captand. M- de Tangle has forwarded to the French Academy the following account of a young gorilla recently captured: & * Gxßctw. tii» Zrsoati, earn July, 1868. **3ly subject Is a female. lomtoldbythe black who brought it to me that the mother was in a palm tree when he carried off the animal. It was eating the palm fruit—those in>m which the palm oU is made. The Uttle • Gina ’ is always suspended from its mother in front, in such a position as to be able to suck at any moment, and it always takes up that position when the person who carries It lets it do as it Ukesf Bat it is Tei y soon troublesome, and when yon wish to make it give Up that position It ut ter* cries, and It is only by trick that it can be made to let go Its hold. The sailors man age to strip off their Jerseys, and in this way to let the poor ‘Gina* fight with the gar ment. Great Is Its astonishment when it finds the people it has fallen among can get rid of their agin at pleasure, and it envelopes itself forthwith in the cast-off garment. This docs not last long, and It begins Its rounds over again until it finds a new friend. It likes bread; In lact, it Is very fond of it. and often prefers it to fruit, which makes me hope that it will survive the passage to France.” An attemptat mnrdir was mads la Paris last moßth. Msdame Chapols, a yooctr actress at (be TZifctre det yctntcutet, was caCcd out by a mes sage from her baa band, who. wished ardently to speak to her. She went down to tie street oaf aidf, and ao sooner was she la the presence of her ihoshasd than be made a blow at ner neck with a poiaard. Fortnnatcly, tie weapon glanced. Inflicting only a slight wound. She. however, fell to the ground, bleeding, A crowd assembled, and while (be wounded woman mt earned into the theatre, tie assailant, under lie impression (hat he had killed her, inflicted flee stabs on hint* ■ eelC He was taken to the hospital of St. Louis, wiae- ha lies without prospect of recovery, Jeatbosi wta tie moUrc oJ the attack.