Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune, December 28, 1866, Page 2

Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune dated December 28, 1866 Page 2
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(Eljifaga tribune. DAILY, TEI-TTEEKLY AS» WEEKLY. OFFICE. No. hi CLABK-9T. There are three ediuoai or (he Tersest* tuned. Ist. XTcry tanroinr. Cor ctrculUloa by earners, newtora asd the malls. Jd. TheTti-WUBLT, Bondars Wed nesday* and Fridays, for the malls only; aad tb* WLuiT, ob Tharsdays, ftsr the mails and sale at oar counter and hr newsmen. Terms of the Chicago Trlbase: ZMUydetrnacdtß the city (per week) 9 S 3 Psßy. subscribers (per*tarnmfp»V»- _ hie to Mtraace) Z,. 12.00 Trt-WeeUy. (per annum, payable in adruec) U.UO woekty, (per mama, psya&e I® adraaee) 2.00 (F* Fractlosal parts of the yew at the same rates. KF~ Perrons remltuajc and ordmiut five or more Copies of either the Trl-Weekly or Weekly editions. Bay retain taper cent of the sobeetlptun prices* a owmattoa. hemez to SCBfrcuaxsa.—ln ordanay the address ot yoor paper* chanced, to prevent delay, he sure and specify what edition yon take—Weekly, Trl-Weekly, or Dally. Also, xlveyonrFßSßsyrandfiitare address. tr hlonry, by Draft, Bxpreu, Money order*, or la Baclateredlieaers.maybe*entatoarusk. A dire**, TttIBDNE CO.. Chicago, 111. FRIDAY, DECEMBER 2S, ISGG. THE QUESTION OP BiILWAF CHARGES, The intention of the fanners, mechanics and merchants of Illinois to force the railway companies to reduce their freight and pas senger tariffs very materially, is evidently becoming a fixed and settled purpose. From now until next com planting, little else will be thought of or talked about In the rural districts except the question of chcapcuiug the transportation of property and persons. In no State of the Union do the people dis cus public affairs so boldly and radically _s in Illinois. And now that they have disposed of National politics so decisively, they art- turning their attention to State affairs with a vigor that means business. The Legislature will be In session In a few days, and Is composed of members generally se lected with direct reference to the question of railroad charges, and supposed to be proof against pecuniary temptations that may be offered by lobby agents of the com panies. And It is very evident that the peo ple have resolved to test the question of the right of the State Government to prescribe limits to the tariffs that railways and Express Companies may charge. The meeting held at Morris on Wednesday, was the opening gun of the campaign. It was attended by numerous delegates from the counties of Henry, Bureau, LaSalle, Liv ingston, Kendall, WUJ, Kankakee and Grundy—eight counties. Afier a geueraJ dis cussion of the questions before the meeting, a series of resolutions were unanimously adopted, one ot which reads as follows: 8. That we urge upon our Legislature, at It* coming session, to provide by law a tnariaium rate of cJicrgtt fer iKttewjef t and/retail* on a!l tig line* of tail roast in the .fla <% and to provide against arbitrary dbcriminarlon io all Bucb charges ior cr against dlficreut points on the same lines; also, to provide agitnst ihe coo soudaiion of couDeUtig lines; also, to fix the rsaxuanm rate of charges lor express cotnponio ana all other public or common carriers in thu It is very' easy to ask the Legislature to pass a law restricting railway aud express charges, but it is quite another thing to frame a bill which will stand the legal tests of the Courts. The Convention acting on the suggestion contained In the letter of the Hon. E. B. Washburne, proposed tbe follow* ing mode of getting around the diiliculty: 7. That we cal) upon Ihe Legislature of the State to grastso mote railroad char-era without retaining full control of the rates of fare aud freights, but to adopt such measures a* will en force the right of the people to use the public highways on tuir terms Among the measures that max be mentioned Is the passage of aa act providing that off the monies eo Utcudbv railroad corporation* owe fair maximum chary* s/ioli be atoned, end shall be taken to be in the iia'urt of a lex on the franchise cf said eorjwratijns, to be c outtiid atid paid Info the S.clt treasury. This certainly is a very adroit aud ingeni ous proposition, aud may “hold water." Suppose, for instance, that the Lepislature of Illinois should pass a law taxing the rail ways ol the State on their franchises, a sum equal to their passenger rccoipu over two cents per mile, and on their freight receipts a sum equal to “three" cents per ton per mile, would such a law be constitutional ? Have the railway companies, as common carriers, doing business under special char ters in the nature of gifts from the SUte, the absolute right to exact whatever sum they please for conveying the property aud per sons of the citizens ? Can the people, acting through their Legislature, place any rcalric tious upon them? If the railroad charters arc contracts with the Stale, what conside ration docs the Slate or the people receive for granting such extraordinary privilege* as the right to charge without limit, aud act without regulation bylaw? Can It be poa slide that the Legislature ever Intended to pranl, or the people to sanction special privileges so dangerous to the public good ? Can any contract be enforced, wuicb is mani festly Injurious to the public welfare ? It may be laid down as a sound maxim that when any service of great public ulidiy which Is not fairly susceptible of free com. petition like ordinary occupation#, the pub lic good Imperatively requires that fixing, the charges for such service shall not be left to the *e } jl*h indention or unbridled avarice of the eorjeoratiurt. And we deny that way Lcgis laturc has the constitutional authority to surrender or bargain away the Inalienable right of tho people loan equal voice iu de termining what compensation a chartered company shall he allowed to take aud receive lor its services under said franchise. We hold that the people may by law, limit the maxi mum which only chartered companies may chaigc, and we also hold that such eompauy Is at liberty to refuse to operate, under .heir franchhe, lor the rates prescribed, If deemed Inadequate. In other words, the rights of each side, corporation and people, a:c equal -lu the matter of dctcrmiuldg compensation for services. And as lu all such cases, the people will never refuse to pay % Chic and just price, so the privileged body should not be j irmilltd to extort an unjust price. We are lirraly convinced that the railway companies are acting in their own light in maintaining their present rales for freight and passenger transportation. Wc believe that it they charged half as much thev would make more money in the long ran. A reduction in their tariffs of fifty percent, would enormously stimulate xrroductioa aud travelling. People will travel in the ejumc of a year, more than twice as many miies at two cents as at four cents per mile ; and vast numbcis of persons will use the cars at cheap rates, who would not set fo»t inside of them at dear rates. Suppose the Chicago horse railways charged ten cents instead of cents, would as many prisons ride? Of course not. Would half as many? No, not one-quarter of the present number. A person can travel three miles on a car propelled by horse power for five cents, while on a car propelled by steam the same distance It costs twelve to fifteen cents. This is a blunder on the part of the railway managers and an imposition on the public. How much better It would be for a locomotive to drag five coaches, with fitty persons in each, at a cent and a half per mile, llun to move with two coaches, with twcu ty-Lvc passengers tn each. In the former case the company would receive $3.75 per mllr, and in the latter Lot SIOO per nu’e for the distance the train moved. Aud th*s in ell likelihood would be the result of the adoption of fifteen mills per mile in place .'f forty mills now charged. But if the re ceij«ts from the low rate were even somewhat lets than from the high rate, we hold that It Is the duty of the company to cany for .the low rate. The coinmimUv, who patronize the railways, have rigiitt as well as cor porations. If the latter have the right to lake money, the people have an equal right to save money. If to* r*il*rmro itwlsl on charging what they please, the people may also insist on only giving what they please. The people have exactly as much moral and wc believe, legal right, to oblige rall- ways to perform services for las than it Is worth, as the railways have to extort Irom the public wore than the service Is worth. The people would be no more In the wrong in maintaining that railways have no rights which they are bound to respect, than for the railways to hold the converse of the proposition. The citizens are Just as much entitled to protection aga'nst railway extor- tion as the latter Is against popular oppres sion. But justice and equity lies mid-way between those extremes. Without the rail roads tbc interests of tbc people would be greatly injured and incommoded. Without the patronage of the people the cap- hal invested In the railroad 3 would Vc worth only what the rails would sell for us old iron and the tics fetch fur fire wood, minus the expense of hauling them away. The people once lived without railways and could do so again, altbongh It would be very inconvenient; but the railroads could not exist without the people. The people are there fore paramount to those corporations. In adjusting and detenniulognscale of compoa- eatlon for transportation services the in terests of the people should be considered as well as those of the railway companies. The prevailing rule is, toj>crfonn the least service for tbc most money. It should beset aside as unjust and Inequitable to the public, aud should be substituted by the correct prin ciple, of performing for the people the greatest* service for the least compen sation that will yield a lair profit on the capital Invested- The stockholders should be reminded of the fact, that their roads exist by special permission ofthe people, and arelo cated on grounds that belonged io the people; that their property is protected by laws made by tbc people, and that all their franchises, protection and patronage come from the people. Now. in view of those prem- Sscs, how can they deny the equal rights of the people In firing the compensation for scrvi"w per .ormed? The stockholders a if e; ’tied to rale* which will yield them a fklr profit oq the capital actually invested. (Watered stock should be discarded.) These profits should be as large as those derlrcd from the rental of farms and tenement*, or equal to the rate of interest paid by the State or Na tional Government, on their bond*, ortho Interest on real estate mortgage srcnriUcs, free of taxes. The ranee of those rates are from fire to eight per cent, and will average six or six and a half. What are the tovat rain of Aargtt which will nri Illinois railroad companies Bay seven per cent on their bona fide capital after pay ing operating expenses, wear and tear, and taxes? If one and a-half or two cents pef mile for passengers, and three ccuts per ton a mile lor grain, or other freight, will yield a net dividend ofsoven per cent on the paid-in capital of a road, why should any company charge or be allowed to charge a higher tariff? We propose to advocate or defend no measure that will do wrong or work Injus tice to the stockholders of Illinois railroads; on the contrary, wc shall oppose, expose and denounce any such scheme. But, at the same time, our duty to the whole people re quires that wc shall defend their rights In the premises as well as those of the railways, and Insist on Justice and equity for both aides. TUB STATE A*lil.\TlNG. At the last session of the Legislature there was jwssed an act entitled “An act to re duce the several acts in relation to printing and binding, into one act, and to amend the same,” which Is admirably devised to de feat Its own expressed object, and also to de feat the purpose and aim of the provision o. the State Constitution on the subject. The Constitution provides that; “The General Assembly shall provide, by law. that toe fnol and »ta*lonery furnished for the use of the State, the copying, printing, binding, and distrllmting the laws and journals, and all other minting ordered by the General Assembly, shall be let, by contract, to the lowest responsible bid der; and that no member of the Genera] Assem bly, or other officer of the State, shall he Inter ested, either dlr> ctly or indirectly In an? such contract; Jrotid/d, that the General Assembly may fix amaxltnnm price.” The reason why this clause was Inserted In the Constitution was that cocriencc hod shown the possibility of a combination of parties at the State Capital to extort ex travagant prices ; and to prevent this it was provided that the printing and binding of the State should be thrown open to compe tition, The act of the last General Assem bly, while seemingly providing for competi tion, really excludes and prevents it. The first and second sections provide for letting the printing and binding by contract; and provide for the advertising of the time, place and terms of that contract In some weekly papers printed In Chicago and Spring • field. The weekly papers have a circula tion principally among agriculturists and .persons living at remote points, having but limited mail facilities, and certainly the last people who would be likely to bid for the printing and blading of the State. The State printing is of two distinct kinds. First, there is the printing of the legislative bills and resolutions, and occasionally of re ports of committees, required from day to day during the session of the Legislature. This work requires promptness, often has to he done over night for the next day’s session; U is more expensive to the printer, and ought to be paid for at prices greater than the ordinary printing of the State. The oth er class consists of the Governor's biennial message, the reports of the Auditor, Treas urer, Superintendent of Public Instruction, oi the Trustees and Superintendents of the several State Institutions, the laws and journals of the General Assembly, and the blanks for the various Executive officers. These, conslitutlog the great bulk of the public printing are printed In large numbers, and bound Into volumes, and ore not required by law to be luruUhed for lour months after the close of each General Assembly. While It Is of course more convenient to have the printing of the bills and resolutions duriue ! the sesrion ot the Legislature, doue at Springfield, the other printing might be as well done at Alton, Chicago, PeorU, Quincy, illoomiogtou, Decatur, or elsewhere, and ought lo be done there if the work could be done for leas money. But the law, as It now stands, prohibits this. Instead of Icttlagthe work in separate contracts, the law permits hut one contract,- thereby prohibiting com- \ petition lor any part of it. Section four re- j quires that oft the printing shall be done by j the same contractor, and as about five per i cent of the whole must necessarily be done 1 at Springfield, all competition by parties out- j side of that city Is as practically prohibited i as if the law in so many words declared that ' ao bids would be received from any per sons not d«lng business In Springfield. The result of thU virtual monopoly is to be seen in some of the prices allowed by the law. The State now pays, and the price is ; fixed by law, for press work, seventy cents I>cr token of eight pages. The work is, or should be done lu sheets of sixteen pages, for which the Public Printer is entitled to receive *1.40 per token, while the same work can be done Mi any city where steam is em ployed for priming at seventy cents per to kcu, or exactly onc-half the price allowed by law. Considering the large number of Uucumcma to ne jointed, this allowance of one hundred per cent In addition to the price charged tor such work elsewhere, we can only say that the Legislature has acted lib erally to the Public Printer, first lu exclu ding competition, next iu adjusting the scale or prices. The Slate purchases Its own paper, and tumuhCß It to the p: Inter. There Is a waste nt paper which no skill can prevent. It varies in extent ncct-rdlng to the care taken hy, and the competency of the workmen. An allowance of two per cent ought to cover auy wastage Hint is «.ot the result or reckless ness- It ebonH bo remembered ihal this Is not done with the baste of a daily newspaper. It Is not required to he pul to press at a particular hoar, and be all worked off within a limited lime. It is work ;\>r rainy days.—to be laid when any. other work ofi'cis, and is resumed when nothin? else is to be done. Under these circumstances jibe wastage of paper ought to be very small on the State work, yet the law allows the liberal amount of live per cent, or, in other words, the State fur nishes the public printer one hundred reams of paper, and requires him to return only ninety live. When this hundred reams is multiplied hy the number actually fur nished by the State, the allowance for wastage will go far toward supplying the wants of a daily jmper of small circulation in an Interior town. That portion of the law relating to th; binding for the Slate Is equally objectiona ble. It I?, however. In keeping with lira general drift of the law, which is lo exclude and prohibit Competition. The prices al .owed for binding arc from fifty to seventy five per cent higher than the' work cau be done for In any large city. The law is framed upon the pretext of car «ymg Into effect the provision of the Consti tution that was aimed at all combinations to Ceccc the public upon printing, binding and other work. It was designed to encourage competition; but the law as It now stands uas the very contrary effect. It prohibits comjKrUUon, aud In prohibiting that subjects the Stale lo the payment of no inconsidera ble bounty to the lucky individuals who may, from time to time, get the contracts. Let the Legislature amend the law so as to let separate contracts—one for the printing needed by the Legislature during Us session, tucb as bills, resolutions, lists for yeas and naja, Ac., and another for the other printing tor the State, including the laws and Journals ol the Legislature and reports of the Slate -.dicers. Then if the bulky work can be done cheaper In Springfield than elsewhere, let the printers at that place do U at the market prices. And let Ihoadvertislnglbreontraets oe dose io dally newspapers Instead of weekly. The number of farmers who would oe likely to bid for the State printing and binding Is so small that It is sheer foolishness to publish the advertisements in a weekly newspaper, unless it were the intention of the framers of the law to hide the Job away from every man who would be likely to bid lor It. TUB NCAGAUA SUtP C’ASiL. At the Morris Convention held on Wed nesday last, the Committee on Resolutions, of which General Blrney was chairman, re ported a series, Including the following re nting to the bill Lciorc Congress concerning the Niagara Falls Canal: S. That the Niagara Ship Canal 801 passed bv the House ofEcprc*. stauVcs. creates a monopoly un oce of the national highway* of commerce ; Ihilwcrespccunlly request the Senate to reject >l, orincSKOfitsadepilor, to reserve to Itself the rower to regulate ll* tolls, and provide for the enlargement ol (he locks on the same. This resolution led to a debate. It pre sents In the form in which It was adopted, that style of objection which has always enabled the mlnontv to defeat every pro loosed measure of national Improvement. It was that style of objection which for more than ten years defeated, session after session, the Pacific Railroad bills, and which if sow persisted in will defeat the opening of this national highway. To reject every bill unless it snlts everybody lu all Its details. Is exactly what the 44 do nothings" want, What the country wants is the Ship Canal around tbc Falls of Niagara, and If the coun try Is not to have that until the lore of gain ceases to exist in tlu human heart, then the canal will never be built. The bill, however, is not open to tbc ob* jccilons urged against it. In the first place, the tolls arc limited. The bill fires a maxi mam rate beyond which they cannot go, and wc are assured that that rate la not an extravagant one. We do not believe that It will be possible, during the next twenty years, to obtain a majority In both Houses of Congress end a friendly Executive, in favor of tbc construction of the Niagara Ship Canal by tbc United States. During these twenty yean tbc people of Illinois will pay, in the shape of excessive freights, a direct tax greater than the whole cost of constructing the canal, the Interest on the money gnd the expense of keening It in repair. Sven supposing the maximum rates of tolls fixed by the bill are large, and that the Canal Company will never reduce them, the country will not be without Its remedy. The hill proposes to leave to the company < nc-half the cost of construction. That is to say, that when the company ex* pends two hundred thousand dollars,- the United States will advance to it one-half that sum; and thus continue until the work is completed, the United State* hold ing for Its advances a first mortgage, and the light of purchasing the interest of the com pany lor the amount Invested by It, with or dinaty Interest. The House of Representa tives has parsed this bill. It is now pending in the Senate. If it pass, the first great stop will have been gained, and that Is the con struction of the canal, and the Government virtually the bvlf owner thereof. Under the law itself; the United States may hereafter purchase the other half; and make the highway a free one. The man who would not accept a half a loaf with a prospect of the other half, and prefers to starve unless be can get the whole at once, is about as rcasousble a* the men who would rather pay a hundred millions of tax per annum in ex cessive railroad freights than accept any re lief less than free transportation. The canal ought to be free, and the Government ought to construct It at the National expense. There ought to be a Steamboat Canal connecting the lakes with the Mis sissippi River, and It ought to be free, and It onght to be constructed at the Na tional expense, but the United States will not do either. In the meantime the people of the country are subjected to the moat op pressive taxation upon all routes of travel; the difference between the cost of transpor tation on the freight that will pass through that canal, at the rates named in the bill, and at the rates which will have to be paid on other routes if there be no such canal, will annually exceed the entire coat of con structing the whole work. Is it practical wisdom, therefore, to reject a bill which provides for the immediate construction of the canal; which limits the rate of tolls, and which places In the hands of the Government the power at any mo ment to make the canal a free one? We ask the objectors to the bill now pend ing In the Senate, whether their chances lor a free canal will not be greatly promoted by the passage of this bill ? Could any bQI, appropriating fifteen millions of dollars for the construction of that canal obtain a majority in cither house of Congress now? And will U not in two, fire or ten years hence be more prac ticable to obtain on appropriation of half that sum for the purchattof the canal, than to obtain the whole sum necessary for the construction of a canal? We cannot help regarding the passage of the bill now before the Senate as vitally essential lo the con struction or any canal that will not be a monopoly. Its passage wftl be winning the first and most difficult half of the fight for a free canal. It will give us the canal at once, and leave ns free to w ork for its final pur chase. The canal is of too great importance to the commerce of the country, and the pub lic are at present subjected to too great a tax, to have any substantial measure looking tolts early construction and ultimate free dom defeated by controversies amongst Us friends. Wc should regard the defeat of the hill now before the Senate as a national ca family, and as postponing indefinitely, If not forever,' any hope of a free caual around the Fulls of Niagara. We submit to the practi cal, thinking people of Illinois, who are now paying perhaps lour millions of dollars per annum for freights In excess of what they would pay if this canal were io operation, and free, whether they wish this bill defeat ed and take the chances of passing some other more favorable measure hereafter adopted ? The bill as 11 stands, is perhaps the only bill that can pass this session. To amend that bill iu the Senate, will probably be Us death. The only chance, perhaps, for years to obtain a bill even us favorable as the one now pending, h for the friends of a Ship Canal around the • Falls of Niagara to hold fast to that which has already passed the ordeal of one house of Congress. If the friends of the hill divide upon fruitless proj-oaltions to get something belter, and which Congress, as a whole, will not give, then the fate of the Niagara Ship Canal will be the same os that of half a dozen other National works—postponed Indefi nitely because of the Impracticability of Us friends. Cm LEGISLATION. We understand that there are a number of hills in course of preparation, iu the hands of pi irate Individuals, affecting the govern ment of the city, which arc to be presented to ihe Legislature at its'comlog session, to be enacted into law. These measures may be wise or otherwise. Some of them, we be lieve, embody correct principles, and pro pose healthy reforms. But all such measures depend, for their successful operation, upon the perfection of their details. These re quire careful examination, and no persons are so competent to pass upon them as the City Council. Certainly none arc acting under a higher responsibility titan they. The passage of a law affecting the govern meut of the city Is grave enough in any case. The Legislature should act upon bills of this character only after the most mature delibe ration. While we do not admit that the recommendation of the City Council should be a sine qua non in all cases, we cannot conceive of a case where the advice of the Connell should not first be sought. Tbe Common Council is composed, for the most past, of s ber, intelligent and upright citizens. Moreover, they are tho men who have been chosen by the people to give their attention to cliy legislation. It Is ab.-urC to suppose that they are not capable of bringing a sound discretion and an unbiassed judgment to bear upon any bill which any citizen may think it desirable to pass. At any rale tbe proper mode of pro ceeding is to consult them first. If they re fuse to recommend any particular measure, they will be able to give their reasons, and then there will be room for argument on the mulls. The Legislature should refuse to consider any bill embodying legislation for the city of Chicago, which has not been first submitted lo the Council. The Courcll are now examining, In Com mittee of the Whole, a number of amend ments to the City Char er, which It Is pro pored to submit to the Legislature for enact meat. There amendments arc undergoing discussion both in the Connell aud the public print*. Everything Is open and almvc board, and there is the smallest possible chance fer deception or misunderstanding. Let the various blits of a public nature, af fecting the city, undergo a like dl.iCus-.lon and scrutiny. They will get along much (aster in the Legislature by reason of this preliminary endorsement. If the Council re fuse to consider any bill which may be brought bclorethcm In a respectful manner, such refusal will necessarily be construed as evidence of assent or indifference, and the Legislature will act accordingly. lim .HILUUS.N CASE. It Is greatly lo be regretted that we have only a very Imperfect report of the decision ol the Supreme Court ol the United States, • In the esse of Milligan and others, of Indi ana. Such importance is attached to this decision, that a natural anxiety exist* to understand ftally the points determined, and to follow and weigh the reasoning of the Court. This anxiety Is increased by the seemingly extravagant hopes founded upon it by the rebel press, North and South, and by rumors that other and still more Important decisions have been arrived at and will soon be pronounced, by which the test oath will be act aside, the In surrectionary States declared to be States within the Union, with all the rights of the loyal States, and the Frccdmeo’s Bureau and Civil Rlgnts bills, together with all the legis lation of Congress since the clore of the war, pronounced to be unconstitutional and voldi because of the exclusion of the representa tives of these States. Indeed, our Washing ton correspondent telegraphs us that Secre tary Stanton holds that the decision already rendered In the Milligan case "overthrows “ the Freedmen’s Bureau, and renders the “ army utterly powerless In the South," aud that good lawyers arc of opinion that It renders the Secretary of War, the Judge Advocate General aud all the members of the Court that tried the assassins ol Mr. Lincoln, liable to prosecution. ’ Mr.Wealherby, editor of the Statesmen, goes back to South Carolina from an Interview with the President, and announces that Mr. Johnson told him the Southern States would be ensfcUncd by the Supreme Court, or at .east that be had reason to hope Hist they would, In rejecting the Constitutional Amendment. All these hopes of the rebels and (cars of tbc loyal, seem to be predicated on a decision so Imperfectly reported that it Is difficult to under stand precisely what has been de termined. According to the statements famished to the press, the principal points settled were, that although Milligan was ac cused of participation in a conspiracy in Indiana, and the writ of Aobu* ?crpus had been suspended, the rights of the accused under the Constitution and the law still existed ; that the civil courts were open and unobstructed: that Indiana was not the theatre of war; that Congress by the act of March, ISGS, bad clearly made provision fbr the trial of this class of offences by the civil courts, and that as Milligan bad never been In the military or naval service, there existed no authority to try him by a Military Commission, and that Congress bad not attempted by Us legislation to confersncb power. We are In formed that the whole subject of martial law was elaborately reviewed, and Us exer cise condemned where the civil courts are open aud civil process unobstructed. At the same time, a ftiU and accurate report of the decision might materially modify some of these points, or at least explain their ap plication. It will be claimed by the enemies of the Frccdmen’s Bureau, that the decision stamps with Illegality the civil Jurisdiction con ferred upon the officers and agents of the Bureau by the act of Congress; that war does not exist In any part of the country; that the courts are open and process unob strnctcd, and that all attempts to exercise civil Jurisdiction through military courts or agents are invalid and In contravention of the Constitution, and that Congress itself has no authority to confer any such power. It is doubtless on these grounds that the Sec retary of War founds his opinion that the decision overthrows the Freedmen's Bureau, and readers the army powerless in the South. The country will anxiously await the results of the important principles pronounced in this case. Should It be found that their application is as broad as the Secretary of War seems to think, and over throws the Frcedmen’s Bureau, and turns the negroes over to the tender mercies of the rebel legislatures and courts In the South, It will be necessary .for Congress to devise other methods for their protection. There is certainly power under the Constitution to maintain the freedom of the blacks and pro tect them from the discriminating and op pressive laws by which it is sought to re-en slave them; and Congress will as certainly exercise that power. The rejoicing of the Copperheads and rebels over this decision is quite premature, and will In the end prove to be altogether unfounded. There is no fear that the rebels will ever be allowed to rule this country, or that the Government will abandon the loyal blacks to their ene mies. If the forthcoming decisions should be as far-reaching as the Copperheads claim, they would necessarily overthrow Andrew Johnson's provisional governments, with the rest of the “unconstitutional” things, and leave the Southern States where Judge Ruffin, of North Carolina, placed them. In other words, the old rebel State Govern ments would be revived and placed in power. EUROPE. Our Frankfort Letter. Confiscation of Frankfort paper*—Tbe Reason Why—A Question of State Blcbts-nem of a Stattgard Publi cist—Confiscation of Hanoverian Pro perty—Tne Pin—lan Pretexts. [Correspondence of the Chicago Trtbaoc.J PauncroßT-oH-TBs-Uaix, December 4. inn BtiGK of rou-r. Last Saturday night the police were busy up to midnight, and In some quarters of the city till after one o'clock, collecting all the copies of the afternoon Journal that could be found In places of public resort. Of course, they were not able to gather them again out of all private houses where the carriers had distributed them; hcocc, the copies that still remained In the city next morning were in the greatest demand, and everybody read with two-foid Interest and delight the offen sive article that bad caused the confiscation. It seems the police had not been well on their guard and did not discover the danger ous (1) document until It had been widely scattered over Frankfort. And what was It, to be sure ? As your readers may have some curiosity to know on what grounds newspa pers are confiscated here, I win give the im poitant portion of it. It was simply an ex tract from the Vienna papers, containing a »eport of a speech made in the Lower Aus trian (Provincial) Parliament now assembled in Vienna. The police took offence at Depu ty Kuranda’s speech, in which he referred to Count Bbmark in terms the opposite of flat tering, os follows: “ The enticing tones of that demon in human form, appse name 1 mil not here mention, [laughter,] reached even here om or Berlin, and •n them were drowned ihe voices of oorown represyniatmc. Soon alter (1901 be refers to) ho Mmfccli came to Vienna aso sighted and prepared the crouun of his fatnre deeds. [Applause:! " ub ridicule aav scorn he spoke of me right oi popuiar icpresentatlon, of constitutional rights, of Constitutions, and with scornful triumph re r rred to the victory he had just won over bis : prnatucrtl AcU ho found here ready bearers icpplantcj ana pupils anxious to be taught, fin* treated applause] ana oatol the school ne then ii.nndcd. presently came those am to the helm, who tuaduil then fiiet ba»n;o»b to confiscate our constitution atd to prepare that chaos which their maeU.-ln Peril o saw with exultation. When be ►aw that the sued he Jraa sown was folly grown ip ‘ha: Austria hadbeen fully Isolated ironi ocr neigh bor* and was rife wlib internal disorders, he knew Us nice had come, tore from his face the mask he I ca heretofore worn, t« ilvphl-topoeks before the (IrnrLcn Modem, and mica: ‘fmhmn! laas lo* dcr Angco Band! Ich patro eie: taolu irt tk» Land 1* ” This is the passage fbr reprinting which the Journal was confiscated. The Anzeiqer, by omitting it, escaped with Impunity. I am at a loss to know whether this was a case of original or imputed sin, i. e„ whether the confiscation was made on account of the bad German used by the orator In quoting Goethe, or to puulsh the editor for repro ducing it, to the detriment of the taste of the Irankfort youth, but am strongly In clined to the former belief. 1 his Is tbe first confiscation that the Pros slana have made lu Frankfort (their previous ••peratlons, when they occupied the city, were sheer suppressions), but It la a sort of ’bins to which Frankfort was not wholly a stronger. Despite the fact that Frankfort was a “free city," no editor In it was free Uom the obligation to send a copy of his l.ajicr {rjHehtejemjdar) every morning to the police headquarters before he put a single copy lathe post office. This was obligatory iu |>cace sud war. though of couree tn 10c lormcr it was mostly a form, but In war con fiscations were made with as little sense dr reason as now, one instance of which hap- Itm-d during the late war to the Frankfort Stiiunq. It Is a sort of disease that Is chronic in the German iriind, tuat “truth must be helped to its rlaliT” by unright. But the must scusclc** cf ail Prussian news paper operations Ts foaud in their dealings « ill* the Jivrtjcr und li<tutrufreutul y of F-as* Prussia, the Sardinia of Prorsia. a pari of the monarchy which, as the cradle of Us present un-aiucfs, oue would expect to see treated with more cumidcjatloo. For three weeks :«gcthu- that paper v.-us confiscated every .’ax but one. when it was permitted t<» no to ■U subscribers to assure them that It still tired, though even that number was not ac void of “cciiftor.gapV as they call them here. UANuvru ok lieu Ki,\i>—wnicu? An interesting question hns lately arisen among the jurists and writers of lulcnuiion til law in Germany, the pith jof which U, did nuraia conquer Hanover, Ac , or the Kin-' u'Hanover, Duke of Nassau, Ac. ? In other wold*', do the previous Uonatiiuliousoftbose Males. nect-Scinjly ?o to the ground with the dynasties that promulgated them? There •s none of ail the UonatUnuons that Prussia ptvjiosea to replace by her own on the Ist of October, Isf... which is not. In some respects, more liberal, and It. there fore, is a question of substance to the eltlrcns of these annexed lands. If they can preserve the favorable features of their present Constitutions, aud, at the same lime, acquire the viiror and the soundness of the Prussian administration, they would be better situated than before- This, I ncee hardly say, is not probable. In Uauover the system of civil and drlmioal courts is arid to be better arranged than the Prussian, and in Electoral Ilc».*e there are certain revenues arming to the Slate out of domain lands which the people are exeecdicglv anxious to preserve as provincial proj>erty‘ Instead of rru?rian; aud In regard to everything of this sort, provided it did not Interfere with the int induction of the Prussian miliuir system King William has over and over attain promised delegations that he would "treat their special priv ileges with all possible leniency." The Prussian nation, however, as I liavo more Han once remarked. Is more intent on an nexation and " Borussization” than the King himself. For instance, the Committee of the House of Deputies, to whom Was assigned the consideration, In the first instance, of the Hoyal annexation decree, said in their report: "The majority of your committee bold strongly to the principle that every National Constitution has application only to a ccrtalu State, and that its existence presupposes national Independence, aud. with the fail of the State, passes Itself into desuetude." Farther: "The right ol the former national representatives to partlcl j>ate in the deliberations that shall be dcci -ive as to their retention of certain rights or their annexation. Is entirely incompatible with the subversion of their independence as a State." The distinguished publicist, Rcyscher, of £tnttgait,h«sjastlasucdapamphlct to wnicb be ably combats these ami similar utter* suers. He wys: “By the conquest of a tiven State, the conqueror achieves nothing more than the removal of its ruler; even Id the medixval fiei States the National Const!* tutiou was always considered as continuing, and as entirely Independent of the person of the ruler. To-day still more are we bound to contend that modern international law assures a State Its rights whatever may be come of its ruler.” This is a South German view, and it is interesting to trace the paral lel that exists between It and the famous one advocated by President Johnson in relation to Iht South. Still, they are differcutrin application, for no one can deny that Bcyscbcr** view Is, for Europe, a healthy one; that if once the doc trine could be established here that the rights of a Slate are, as Rusilan serfs former ly were. Inseparable from the soil itself; Eu rope baa made a decided step toward repub licanism. Tbc difference arises out ui the feet that Hanover, Ac., were recognized lu Europe as Independent States, though they all lo common a Confederation, whose Constitution was as obligatory and as real (on paper) as that of lira United Slates. Prussia and her allies were seeeders, and the others n ade war on them as such, and (some of them) got 44 annexed 44 in consequence thereof. Suppose, cow. tbc South bad con quered, instead of being defeated, w hat obli gations would they have been bound to ob seive respecting the Constitution of Illinois, supposing some of Us articles had been In compatible with that made at Montgomery? 1 leave that to the curious. Reyscher, Southern as be ia, closes his pamphlet with a sensible—the only sensible —niece of advice to those of his latitude: "Wc ought to take measures to perfect a peaceable arrangement with the North in re gard to the fhtnrc Constitution, and that, too, soon, before the North Confedera tion Is brought to completion. If we take part in constructing the new Confederation, wc shall have more prospect of preserving our constitutional rights than at a later day, when tbc question will be to obtain admit tance to an already completed State." This Is entirely sensible, and proceeds upon the only view that any Southern statesman with a healthy understanding ran entertain, to wit: that Prussia is destined at one day to stard at the bead of a Confederation that shall include not only South Germany but German Austria. WHAT HX MAPS BT IT. It wonid seem that KlngGeorge U a stead fast believer in thedoctrine, advanced by the author of this pamphlet, at least if the proclamations be still con tinues to issue as though be still were, “by the grace of God,” &c. t are any it'dication. There has been one lately scat tered broadcast, despite the police, through out Hanover, la which be says; “As the Almlgbty, slit;- years ago, ordained that the eamo Injustice v, -t prevails to-day should not enfloro ;**•>. after a foreign dominion of long years, '-.-.ri.tue through the over to bo admired br»v ry 01 my faithful subjects, again restored *.be throne to the rightful ruler of my nation, and returned to the peo ple their an steal Royal boose of the WelD.and to the Wtlfc returned them their faithful sub jects, so do I now, with unshaken confidence, repose In the belief that He will again lead the righteous cause to a Just victory, and will unite my Royal house and my faithful and cherished people in a bond that shall never be Now, the “late King George** has well-nigh gone mad, that is pat, or he never could nave constructed such a .sentence as that. It is evident that the Prussian Government are'of the same opin ion, for they have answered It by confiscat ing to the last thaler, and the last acre, and the last horse, and taken actual possession ofthessme- They had before taken the Royal domains, but hare now taken his private property and warned his former Mip>«p»r of the Household, Mslortle, not to spend a thaler of this property on his personal re sponsibility. Even the Queen Mary is now, or soon will be if she does not Join her hus band, dependant on King William for the means to keep boose. As soon as this pro ceeding became known In the city a large number of capitalists at once got out' a paper -and subscribed to it liberal sums which they offered to pnt at the disposition of Her (late) Majesty if she should meet with ; any difficulties In the way of procuring mar ketings. Ac. The Prussian Government defends this wholesale confiscation on the ground that King George sent over to England, before the war, together with the Government funds and valuables, a large quantity of pa persof value, and refuses now to cause the English bankers to restore them. It ap pears, however, that these papers of value were simply notes of hand (FanstpCcnde) which private persons had given in receipt for certain moneys taken from the Treasury to be applied to use. A largo quantity of such funds had accumulated from the do mainal revenues and the King, think ing that It ought not be Idle, had U loaned out to bankers and others. The Prussian Government makes these seizures ostensibly to reimburse private persons who have lost by King George’s stubbornness, while, if these facts be true, no such person but only the Prussian Government wifi lose, in not being able to collect lands for wh'cb these notes are vouchers. This zeal for the welfareol the “annexed” Is a convenient cloak under which to seize King George’s splendid property. Ouxb. . FRO9I nrnicxi. The Kins or Bawls and ScWUer, [Correspondence of the New York times.] Mcxtcu, Thursday, December 6,1*6. The journey Of the young King of Bavaria through bis dominions continues to afford material for entertaining gossip. At Wurz burgh, as everywhere, he paid great atten tion to the theatre. On oue occasion he call ed the director, Von Hahn, into bis bar and him what character he preferred to rlay. The Director mentioned several to him, principally characters In Schiller’s ujayA, and among them that of Mortimer. Tbe King then requested him to recite some of the best passages. The poor Director, quite overwhelmed by the notice that was taken of him by hla King, and to tally unprepared for such a request, stum bled badly. The King, however, assisted bjm with catch-words, and even recited to him whole passages. The next evening, dar ing the Intervals of the Court ball, he recited lothe Director’s wife the entire prologue that she had spoken the night before, to tier gicat surprise and delight. Thera is proba lily not another person In Bavaria who can repeal from memory more of Schiller than I.oaU II.; he is, as the Germans sav, “Schll lerfesi.” He frequently amuses hlmsell, when Le should be receiving olficlals or attending cabinet sessions, by acclaiming longestracts from “Wallenstein,” “Theßobbers,” “Wil liamTeli,” Ac. fiGVOaa IX ENGLAND, Tbe fircat Popular Demonstration la London-Lively Description by an American Spectator. [Correspondence of the Jf. T. Evcnlce Post 1 _ , Lowdos, DecexnlurT, ISCo. I sallied ontearly on the mortilugof the 3d Instant, to witness the great Reform demon stration, and was fortunate enough to be picked up by two strangers, ami taken to a bouse where the whole pageant passed before me. They knew I was an American by my sycech. ns we know the English in our conn try. An American here Is no longer at a dis count, bat above par, and onoof Uicspcakera said yesterday that the English stock in America had proved how competent it was to exercise here the franchise. It would be a shame, said another, if the negroes were admitted to the polls before the working men here, and he thought it probable they would be from what he heard. THE REPOBU MOVE3IEXT. The scenes now passing here remind one of an exciting Presidential canvass with us. Reform is the theme of all circles, the one idea before all minds, some for it and some against it. Processions, badges, banners, slump oratory by laboring men, political harangues, shoutings, clappings, and noisy and imposing demonstrations are the order of the day. Vast assemblages have been gathered at the principal points to assert the rights oftbe people. Yesterday there mnst have been out os many as ten acres of peo ple, geometrically estimated, and such a scene as St. James 1 Park presented I have rarely witnessed. The defiling of onr armies through Richmond and through Washington a year and a half ago was more imposing, though the number In view at one time was by no means equal to this Park gath ering. It was a vast hive of human bees, oil astir as If on the eve of swarming. The pro-* cession itself did not compare with this as semblage, owing to various causes—tbe tala, mud, distance to go to reach the-only around* which aritl.uroo* wuid aJOrtt to the plebeian masses. Had the? been ■ per mitted to stop at Ilyde Park, instead of crowding through narrow pa-sages two or ibree miles beyond to Besufort House Grounds, in Broinplou, it would, no doubt l-ave vastly swelled the number in attend ance. And the conservatives, after Inter posing these barriers to the assembling of the people, are out this morning In the pa pers. representing what a small affair It was, «nd bow few are rcallv Interested In reform. THE TRADES UNIONS. . Ttc first company 1 met flaunted a banner with ttic inscription, “ United Brass Finish. ■ rs,” ap|*caring orderly, but sadly dwarfed, f lobaldy by the nature of tbclr occupation, fids is no uncommon thing. Our luxuries und embellishment* arc a sad tax on human limb and life. Is it rlcht to use what dwarfs :'Dil delorms operatives in the making ? This question we must refer to a somewhat nearer approach to I next fell In with the “ Amalgamated Carpenters.*’ .»n«J a stalwart set of men they arc. Their occupation had given them hone and muscle. An English minister, just returned from America, lu discoursing to his people on v hat he had seen, stated with infinite dis gusl that the carpenter In the United stales could sit in the cars side by side with the duke ' and hU lady. I added, pejhaps the carpen ter was the more worthv; and certainly these carpenters seem quite as well entitled to the first place as the first men In the King dom. Then followed a vast variety of trades with appropriate emblems, some scarcely known among us—for instance, cork-cutters, horse-collar makers, French oolUhers, and others, showing that the dlvbfon of labor U carried farther here than with ns. Ther were generally well dressed and remarkably orderly throughout. I saw uo sign? of drink, and nothing unbecoming the dignity of the king people. They threw out to the breeze a great va riety of appropriate devices, the tallow chandlers having this, “Bright and Light,” in honor of their gicat advocate in Parlia ment. Some had a charitable rather than a political object, such as, ‘■•Help the weak,” “Be kind to ail through life,” “Uni ted we conquer.” Others hint cd more than they spoke, as. lor instance, “ The Stars and Stripes,” suggesting the support which they derived from our example. “No more oligarchical —role, the people arc determined to be the cabinet makers,” carried by those of the craft; ‘‘Bright cabinet maker*wanted—no Adullamitcs (those professed Liberals in Par liament who voted against the Reform Bill are so designated) ~ need apply 44 The wearer best knows where the shoe pinches” was home by the shoemakers; 44 Gladstone and Reform;” 44 1 n the name ofJustice we demand our political rights.” The Local Leagues Lad adopted the war-cry of onr Revolution—'“Taxation without representa tion is tyranny.” the rnoccssiox, The procession was arranged in four divi sions, each headed by marshals aud n band of music, and tbe marching was quick and lively, though not with the order of trained troops or even of our mllitu. The proces sion was less imposing than similar displays in New York, for this reason, that there was an absence of companies In uniform, like our own military and Hitmen. - ’ THE COTEHMtZXT AXD THE RZFOBMCBS. Organizations of this kind are here under the control of ibe Government, -which is in an attitude of tacit antagonism to the whole democnratlon. The police, to the nnmbcr of four thousand and fire thou sand; were out, about two hundred of whom were on horseback; but they did not mate themselves conspicuous, being posted tn lurking places, readv to pounce upon the people In case of disturbance- Everrthim; here tends to show that the Governments one thing and the people another—:hc one the strong hand which holds the other in its grasp. The object ofthe demonstration was to protest against this state of thing* and of conjee, the Queen's Own, a magniSccntlv arrayed force which I raw marching a few days ago, could not be expected to lend countenance and add splendor to what thev would deem the rag. tag and bobtail of Lon don. ooihmg would call them here but the inanty of shooting the people down. The &scntl»l dircrslly of what pertains to the jicople and what is claimed by the Gorem. inent, precludes ench a blending of the t» o elements aa we see In a Sew Tork procession WOMEN* IX Tflg rnaoxc'. ~T. l c multitude of mothers. with babies In their nnns Is a remarkable featnre ofa Lon °.nc fttls chiding their folly fttr appearing abroad nndersrch clr enmstancea; and yet there la noalternatire tor them bntto remain cooped np at home with jMI sufficient to enaUlnUfc, or to bSS the harden ot their infanta In Mjottag the lumiiT of air, sunshine and aiirhl4eelni I confess to a very tender feeling toward moth era thna actuated, when I see them elbow ing through a crowd and wading thronirh mud and water, and fainting tinder their bar dc?'’.lo c| n>»ge with which they can not otherwise he favored. In the Hyde Park °nc poor mother eras killed holding her inlanl inker arms, which ereayed with Its lllfe. The streets and parks of In.ndon present a much larger ehiwof hahles than thoee of New York. It aeema to he tlionght necessary to take them oat for air and exercise. BFSSIA. Grand Imperial marriage BoD at the or toe Soto, bllltte*—Sapper and the Donee. __ St. Pstsbsbcbu, November 1A ifJpiJ!?” 4 b *U-°!i toe Emperor, at too IVln nip lit last, tu a “£^, or MUancy and splendor. The mas nlflccnt *o»n. of the palaee srere in a bla?e sniv U, ’i 4 ''i'h thenobility of toe Empire, ah .to had toe right ol mint to the court were invited, and not loss than three thousand ladies and gentlemen were S resent. The ladles, of course, were richly rcssed and wore a profusion of diamonds and splendid jewelry, while the gentlemen were in full uniform, every stylo being repre sented from the army and navy—Cossack. Georgian and all. The Emperor and Empress and the Impe rial lamljy entered the grand Nicholas saloon at about half past nine o’clock, the* band playing the march from Tanohauser The Emperor at once advanced to the diplomatic corps, and conversed with each of the heads ol Legations, while the Empress moved about amongaadreccivcd the salutations of the ladles of the diplomatic body, convers ing In the most affable manner, and not omitting to say a word toaU. While this was going on a quadnlle set was formed by the imperial family, the Grand Duchess Foo dorovscaand the Grand Doke Constantine taking the head. In this set danced the Prince of Wales, who was dressed In the uni form of a British General, .and wore a number of orders and decorations; the Grand Dnke Heritier, In the red uniform of his corps, wearing the broad cordon of the older of the EJephint of Den mark; the crown Prince of Denmark, in a Hussar uniform, and la short, all the Grand Dukes and Grand Duchesses present were In Iheflrst dance and entered into It with great The Grand Duchess Feodorowna, the orlde, had on a magnificent white silk dress, ornamented with pearls and diamonds. The diadem upon her head was composed of diamonds and rubies. Around her neck she wore a splendid necklace of diamonds of great size and brilliancy, and one of pearls, cue appeared to bo in excellent health and spirits, and danced throughout with great zest. She danced wlththePrluce ol M ales several times during the evening. All the ladies of the Imperial family wbre diadems of beautiful design and great aplen- Nowhere In the world Is the art ©flighting rooms so well known as in Russia, and cer tainly in tbe Imperial palace, on great occa sions, the very acme of success Is obtained. No saloon could have been more brilliantly lighted than that !n which the dancing took place, and all this was accomplished without any addition to the temperature of the room, os would have been the case If gas,- Instead of wax tapers, bad been employed. Ten or twelve immense chandeliers, pyramids of light, rows of tapers near the celling aud on tbe columns at tbe side of the room, and hundreds of tapers in candelabras on all sides, sbtd a flood ol light upon the scene rivalling the rays of tbe noonday san in brilliancy sod softness. Under such a light the splendid toilettes of the ladies aud the brilliant uni forms of the gentlemen shone to great ad vantage. At midright sapper was ennonneed, and the Emperor led the way. followed by the Empress and the Prince of Wales. After the

Imperial family came the diplomatic corps uml the distinguished strangers, and then the others of the party, tbe members of the court hi advance, according to rank. The splended serves ware of the palace was upon the tables, and a great number ofsilver ornaments, artistically embodying Russian scenes and customs, when all the company was seated, the Emperor, as Is bis custom, passed through all the tables and saw that the guests were enjoying themselves. After the supper there was some more dancing, when the Emperor and the Imperial family retired, which was tbe signal for the break ing up of the ball. During the evening Gen eral Clay sat an excellent example io tbe young men of the diplomatic corps, by dancing with eminent grace and vigor with some of the Princesses. The venerable Schsrayl and his son were present, and seemed to he delighted with the occasion. He attract ed no Utile attention, and was generally the centre of a number of curious spectators. I •observed Prince Gortschakoff in conversa tion with hint, through an interpreter, cvl dcntls greatly to the old warrior’s delight. The Financial Bolter of Secretory- McCulloch. (From the Paris Patrie, December I.J But can he do It, (return to specie pay ments)? It is doubtful. At the present lime Mr. McCulloch Iras but five or six hundred millions In the Treasury wherewith to pay the interest on tbe national debt and meet tbe current dully expenses of tbe Govern ment. He will then be constrained for many days, If not many months, to pay In paper the expenses ot the Government. Beside* the representatives of the Northern States, of the Northwest aud of Pennsylvania, pro tectionist States who have wane their for tune by the emission of paper money, will i erase, perhaps, as they Lave since ItitfJ, to return to specie payment. Again, all the capitalists who have funds in th*-innumerable national banks established at the beginning of the war know that, as tar os they are con cerned, ruin would be the result of a return to specie payments. These banks In fact have no need of specie to carry on their spe culations ; for they use bat piper money and >ield magnificent dividends to their man agers. Thus at Philadelphia one of these hanks has paid a dlvldeud of twenty-two per cent, and others from seventeen to twelve percent. Twenty-five of these banks have given annual dividends of thirteen percent, these immense results would be Impossible with a return oftbe old system that existed before the war, with specie lor a base of operations, which then was not worth a pre mium of lorly-lwo per cent as it is to-day. It Is this which leads us to believe that the specie F«Ji*ient planannounccd by the Sec retary of the federal Tre.sury win, fora long lime to come, remain decreed but not tululled. Tire Suez Canal. Ti.e Malta (bsetrer, oftbe latest date, says: By reliable information, recently . :ceived, we learn that the works of the v :hmas of Suez Canal are being very actively carried forward by M. dc Lease ps, who, however, is at this moment in France. An average depth qffiom seven to nine fecthaa been obtained Aoui rori Said along the salt water Cauai, and the rest of tbo distance to Suez Is tra versed temporarily by a fresh water one about seven feci deep, connected to the othrr by means of lock-and powerful pumps. As far as sixty slaliors tbe full width of the proposed ship canal has been excavated to sixty metres, but from that point to the seventy-fifth station and Isnulia the width is complete. All that has been done is done well, and reflects the highest credit on the science, JktU and pcrscvcricgeuergy of the French engineers. The real difficulties of dredging in a constantly dissolving sand are now commencing; but well informed per sons entertain but little doubt that these andean others may be overcome by time and money. The Franklin Memorial Statue. (From die London Post, November 16.] The Fianklln memorial was unveiled yes terday lu Waterloo place. The statue Is eight feet four inches high, cast In bronze by Aietsrs. Kohiucon and Cottam. The Pedes tal U of polished granite from Aberdsco. The moment •selected («»r representation is that in w hich Franklin h»d the great satis faction of describing to his officers aod crew that the ‘‘Northwest Passage” had at length been discovered. lie grasps In his hand the telescope, chart ard compasses, and wears the uniform of a naval commander, with a iqote overcoat of fur. Mr. Noble’s great ob ject has been to give the character of Franklin, and, as far as possible, to indicate those qualities of mind which enabled him, by his deeds in life, and by an example of heroic endurance In death, to add to the fame and glory ol hrscuuulry. The likeness bus been pronounced by Lady Franklin and tbifec'wbo knew him best to he characteris tic and excellent. The baa relief In front of the pedestal rep resents the funeral of Franklin, where Cap tain Crosier reads the service for the dc.*d. He is surrounded by the officers and ctews of the two ships Erebus and Terror, it >s well &nown that not one of the whole number ever returned. Their names, however, are recorded In bronze panels at the side? of the memorial. In the hack panel is auembos»cd chart of the Arctic regions, shoeing the po sition of the ships at the lime of Franklin’s death. The pedestal is ornamented with a bronze cable, and tbe plinth euriched with oak leaves and acorns, denoting strength and magnanimity. DESTRUCTIVE FIRE AT HAVANA, ILLINOIS. Losa sloo*ooo, Witti Partial Insurance, fFrom tbe Peoria Democrat Decemoer 251h.] On the evening of the 23d iast., a terrible fire occurred at Havana. The fire broke oat In room of the “ Senate” restau rant. The building was owned by James Mallory and IN’. R, Cleaver, and was occu pied in the upper story by tbe Senate restau rant and Ur. Mallory. The lower floor was occupied as follows: First, Foochc & Whec lock, groceries, loss about ten thousand dol lars; second, 3. S. Kirk A Co., books and stationery and newsdealers, and Mrs. Maggie Steward, millinery, impossible to state loss; tbe third room was occupied by. a German clothier and gents’ furnishing goods, loss not known; the fourth room was occupied by Cleaver A Havinghorst, druggists; they will h>sc not less than two thousand dol lars. From this block the fire spread to Beck’s paper and picture store, and paint ‘shop in the rear: from thence to J. Saul’s suloou and ball alley, which was totally de stroyed, The next building was TV’. sher mixe’s harness and saddlery shop, totally destroyed. Major H. Fnllcnon’s law office, and from thence the flames spread to Kre brenm AMiddlecamp’s dry goods bouse and Hoitzgrafe’s new building, occupied below br J- tV. Browning, grocer, and above by a saloon. Tbe total loss of propertv will exceed §IOO,OOO, which was hut partially in sured A much greater destruction of property would have ensued but for the labor of about fifty citlrcns.someofwhom braved tbe rasing fire, and witn backets and without any other mesns ol extinguishing the dames, battled long and By their exertions the stores of Foster A Kupert, Polity & Meyers and Emmett & Snyder, which were on fire several times, were saved. Horrible murder la Kama** (.Firm tie Lea yea worth (Kinsas) Bulletin, 3t.] We stop the press to give particulars of a horrible aUalr at Ogden. A iqnad of soldiers, under a sergeant, went out after deserters, stooped in front ofa house; the serccant order ed his men not to allow any one to come Into the bouse ; went In and attempted to take liberties with the woman. Cries of children attracted attention of husband and brother, who ran for the boose.' The brother of the woman asked what was going on. The ser geant ordered his men to shoot him. One of them shot him dead. Citizens armed them selves, and drove the soldiers out of town, wounding two of them. The soldiers were arrested,'and are in the bands of clvilaathor ities. The murdered man leaves a wife and five small children. Ogden Is In Riley County, twelve miles from Manhattan. The affair occurred on Friday last. A Whole Family Poisoned. [From the Milwaukee Sentinel, 1 . .amber 2T.) A special from Rlpon informs ns that on Christmas Ere., a most diabolical attempt was made to poison the family of Mr. Frank Culver Mr?- Culver, hla wife, a gentleman from Michigan, a hired man and a girl were poisoned, thoueh it appears that all were living nr to «:£nt o'clock p. m. of the 25th, The pofcon used was strychnine, which was introduced into the teapot. Suspicion points to an Italian who had Just been d is. charged from Mr. Culver’s employ. The adl Is worth/ of an Italian, and a Borgia at that. THE FASHIONS. The Latest New York and Paris Styles. Brcrnsakcrti In Trouble—Poncr Dresses —Description of New Co*tnzu»-New Figures In ibe German—The “ Bon* b«nlerrc>»— livening and Ball Dresses —The Sew SlUcs—Aprons—Coral Beu Saahe* uul Shoulder Knots— LUtle Boys’ Salts. [From Our Fashion Correa pond cut.) N*w Yon*, December, 1306. The sudden redaction in prices has given a new impetus to shopping. ladies who had determined to fight It out In their old cloaks, and furs all winter, have all at once appear ed decked in their brightest smiles, and an entire new outfit, the great fail In the price of wool having apparently suggested to the retail dealers a most singular proceeding, actually that ol lowering a little the price of cloth. The tendency for the past four years has been so persistently np, up, that merchants and manufacturers had no idea of ever al lowing any article to come down, and they really began to believe In their power to keep prices upon the elevation where they had placed them. They argued that people had got Into the habit of paying Just so much, and that they would naturally go on paying the same or more without thought or Inquiry. This was true to a certain extent; but they overreached the mark. They for got that large profits would ludncencw com ers to enter into competition with them, and that. In their efforts to obtain trade, they would break down prices. Persons who were wise enough, to retire upon the fortunes made during the past ftw years,'now find themselves all right; but many others have placed themselves under the pressure of enormous rents, just as the scale is turning downwards, and already they realize the rnin In which they are likely to be involved. What Is bankruptcy to three or four men. however, is cheap New Year’s dresses, and nice cloaks at half price to three or four hundred women: and an bargains have been scarce lately,and a “bargain” (with the ex ception of husbands,) is the principal end and aim of most women’s lives, why, they cannot be expected to feel much sympathy r. Ith the sufferers, and the long and short of it is tbot “ patdi” prices have been an nounced tbre ach the papers, assignees’ sales of stock hare been placarded in several in stances in tbe principal thoroughfares, and shop; mg on the Mrs. Toodles principle has fioml-hcd, to tbe extreme satisfaction of that worthy ladv and her numerous family. THE PRESS-MAKERS IX TROUBLE. Tbe dress makers who bare only jost been extricated from the tax law which was so annoying' to them, (women bare to pay taxes,) have got Intoonother difficulty. For a long time self-colored silks, self-colored satins, and eclt-colorcd poplins, all of which are susceptible of an immense amount of trimming, have been in high rogue, and ar tistes who hare fashioned theminto dresses hare flourished accordingly. It was not alone the wearing of trimmings, but tbe par chase of trimmings, (nearly all done by the urcss-makcrs.) which was an immensesonrec ot profit. The flat has gone forth, however, that plain silks, poplins and satins are to be discarded, and rich brocades and figured fabrics arc to take their place. The season Is that the Lyons wearers ore suffering, and it is necessary for tbe fashion able woi id to come to the rescue. The Em* pnsshus taken the ma’terln hand, and Is exhausting herself wearing heavy figured bilk dresses, the ladies of coart are following her example, and cur ladles must of course f-How suit. In fact they cannot hslp them reives. If they want to be in the latest style. It is surprising what magical etlect that word “latest style” has. A lady goes into Stewart’s, for example, and wants a handsome dinner or evening dress. She Is shown rich striped, or flowered silks, or satins, bat she has an idea that these florid styles are not becoming to her. and that she “wants” a plain mauve, or pearl color. The fashionable and authoritative at tendant is overwhelmed at the bare sugges tion. “A mauve? or pearl-colored? Oh! dear me, that Is quite out of tbe question. No lady wears such things now-Uays; figures, striking figures, arc all the rage, and tnese— that, madam, ore the very latest style." Why, a woman would be more than human who could persist alter that in getting her pearl color. The embroidered satins, representing lace designs, are the moat beautiful we have seen, and are so perfect as to be quite indistin guishable from real iace at a little distance. This Is especially true of ctnny lace, which Is more effective, if somewhat coarser, than the finer point laces. A very rich design gives the effect of a flounced tunic, looped back with bunches of roses, another of festooned drapery, with silk cord and tassels, catching back the fes toons. It is said that the Empress Eugenie and her ladles have been instructed by tbe Em peror to forward designs of their own pro ducing, the most beautiful and artistic that van be Imagined, to tbe Lyons manufac turers, for the Paris Exhibition. PAXCr PRESSES. The favorite amusements this season con sist of masked balls, “surprises” (masked), and entertainments at which charades are enacted. These require a great variety of fancy dresses, and much Ingenuity is dls p.ayed In devising eccentric and striking costumes, as they arc more admired and at tract iubnltely mure attractions than tbe or dinary rich court toilettes. The Welsh cos tume is one of the most effective, with its short petticoat of bine serge. Us high-heeled shoes, scarlet stockings, white muslin hand kerchief crossed upon tbe breast, and tall, black, sugar-loaf bat, the hat being literally ibe crowning point of the entire dress. It Is true, although no one would believe It, unless they had seen them, that Welsh women sleep in these hats. The costume of “Little Red Riding Hood” is n very pretty one for young giila. It con sists of a scarlet cashmere petticoat, trimmed with two bands of black vetvet, a high white waist, a black velvet boddice, a white-apion and a scarlet hood hanging at the aide. Your g ladles, pale and with a tpirltueUe expression, may wear the dress of Evange line. A .-carlct petticoat, a black corslet, cud s black circular cloak, with a round hcod, which Is worn on the back part of the head; hlgb black slippers, with scarlet roset tes and white stockings. Black rosiry with crosi-attached. A plump fair-haired blonde will find a be coming costume In that of ” Kate Kearney.” A short, grey stnflT dress, trimmed with two rows of black velvet upon the skirt, very low in the back in the neck, aud with short sleeves, a little clear muslin apron, with pockets ornamented with knots of scarlet ilbbon. kid hoots, stockings striped red and black, short scarlet circular cloak with hoed, the cloak tied so as to fell half off the tbouidcrs. Fair hair curled, and somewhat dishevelled, falling from under a little straw bat, worn coqucttlohly on one side of the head, necklet of black velvet, with jet cross attached. The “Haitian” style requires a chintz dress ol old-fashioned pattern, with tf squats hedy, and a train two yards and a half long; ashortblue and while stripped chintz pet ticoat. Black shoes, with buckles, and blue heels. Fair hair, dressed very high, pow dered, aud ornamented with scarlet roses, blue satin ribbon, and a little boniton lace mixed. Little patches of black court piaster may be pnt on, one at the corner of the mouth, between the cheek end the chin, near where there U or should be a dimple. The costume of “Geraldine” is always c-catly admired. It consists of a petticoat of plain buff mohair, or potidt cfcrrr, short, and trimmed with three rows ofblack velvet. A violet silk skirt, lucked up so that It looks as Ifit wore doooled. A little muslin apron, trimmed with black velvet, a high white chcmlscUe, cut square at the throat, a gold cross, and rosary, a high white muslin cap, (Normandy style.) violet silk stockings, shoes, with gold buckles, and cold tassels. The dress “Rowena ” is very Beautiful lor a stately blonde. It Is Composed of a dress of wiilie cashmere, gored plain in the prin e(*>* style, and ent with a very long train, bordered with black velvet. The body Is made high, the sleeves long, with high puffs on tbe top. A mantle of scarlet wool Is fastened across the back of tbe dress to the shoulders, and trails off nearly as long as the dress. The mantle is bordered with gold. A baud, and stomacher of jewels are worn down the front of the dress. A new and pretty figure has been Intro duced lately into the “German.” In the course of it each gentleman bands to his partner a little packet. In such away that when she takes - hold of it, it opens with a loud report, which nroduecs the utmost con etcrnation and some confusion. When this has subsided. It Is discovered to contain tome little article of costume, fashioned In the prettiest and most Frenchified or grotesque style, as the ease may be, in tissue paper. Sometimes it is an apron, sometimes a cap, or perhaps a fool’s-cap ; whatever It is, the young lady must wear it to the end of the dance. It is at her own option whether she continues to wear it during tbe evening. The hon-boniere* is another pretty figure, and one the young ladies like tbe best. In this the gentlemen present their partners with wonderful boxes and caskets of delicious boa-bont r the most of them compositions of sugar, filled with liquors bearing marvellous names. EVENING IXD BALL DRESSES. Very new styles of evening and ball dresses are made of white silk, or white gaze de choti.bay, striped with narrow Hoes of cold and silver. They are very effect!re by gas light, and ore generally trimmed with gold or silver cord and tassels. Very beaniifhl tarlaUne dresses rre trimmed with tulle ruches and satin ribbon, white or colored. One of the advantages of this style Is that the tailc ruches can be renewed, the tar la tine Ironed oat on the wrong side, and Id this way, freshened and made to do doty fur the second, sod even the third time. Ribbons are now' frequently appended to the shoulders of evening dresses, and tied in a bow below tbe line of the waist, the ends Coating low down upon tbe skirts. These are particularly appropriate with tbe dresses of white grenadine and organdie, which arc striped with satin ribbon,'a novel arrange* ment which proves very effective. A very beautiful dress, which we saw re cently, was a white corded silk, ornamented on the back with innumerable rows of nar row black velvet, placed close together on. the body, bnl widening oat like a fan, until it takes lo as entire breadth, upon the lower part of tbe skirt. Fan-like epaulettes were simulated in narrow black velvet upon the top of the sleeves. A very simple yet elegant dress was made recently of black gaze de cAambery over white silk, gored. The skirt was trimmed with white silk ruebings pat.on to simulate a pepluxn skirt, with very deep points, and had a narrow let beading run through the centre. The body was trimmed with ruebings to match, in the pointed berthe style. A, waist bard was worn with It, fastened with a white rosette.* One of the new while brocaded silks was worn at a large party, the other evening, the skirt quite plain, the body very richly trisftned with point lace. A toll set of pearls was worn with this dn-ss, and assisted to produce a very distinguished effect. TRIFLES. Aprons are now worn with home toilettes, and form a charming addition to simple cos tumes. They are generally of black silk cut square, and trimmed with hordes, and corner leaves, or other ornaments, ofcluny bee, or they may bo trimmed with flat black braid or velvet, beaded with let. The coral acts are among the pretty novel ties of the season. They consist of breast pin and ear-rings ot some small, pretty flower In bright green leaves; rosebuds, crimson and white daisies, forpet-menotk and fuchsias arc all snitable. Some of these seta are made in enamel, and some of tiny artificial flowers. 1 be garniture of the dress should correspond with them. Sashes and shoulder knots for little girls are now made of silk, to which a net-work Of fringe is attached, instead of ribbon, as for merly. Long braided plaits, tied with ribbons, are coming Into fashion again for girls. Fashionable suits for little boys are made of black or dark blue velvet. In the Knicker bocker style, and worn with high ahoe-», with antique plaited buckles, and white or scarlet silk stockings- Jex.vix Jl’xs. THE STATE TEACHEKS’ ASSO CIATION. Proceedings ol the First Day. Address of the President—Appointment of Committees—Horace Greeley on hdDcauon—Afternoon Session- 1 -Ols* cssslon on Sloral and Religion* in. straetton in the schools, [Correspondence of the Chicago Tribune.] . Jacssootilijc, ilk, December 25. Christmas morning found your correspond*' tut, la company with a large number of teachers from various points of oar fair Pndrlc State, at Springfield Junction, waiting tor a train, that seemed determined not to come, to take ns to the annual gathering of the schoolmasters and schoolma’ams of the Stale. This fathering has been held for va rious reasons during holiday time, but it is becoming a serious question whether the time must not be ebanged. Arrived at length at this beautiful inland citv, and snugly ensconced at the Dunlap House, we sallied forth to the Congregational Church, where the exercises were to be held. President S. H. "White, Principal of the Brown School, of Chicago, presided, and afler calling the meeting to order, desired Professor O. Blackman, Teacher of Music in the Chicago Public Schools, to take charge of the singing, which was followed by an appropriate prayer bem Her. Dr. Stcbbins, of this city. Pending the absence of the regular Sec retary, Mr. E. L. Wells, School Commis sioner of Ogle County, was elected So-crctary n> tern. Mr. S. H. White then delivered his inaug ural. The central thought he desired to elucidate was tbe relation of education to the government of the State. Like all his efforts, this was plain and very pertinent in re'atlon to the subject at issue. Claiming that practical teachers, who bad studied au the various systems of education, and who had tried them by actual school room tests, were tbe best Judges ofwbat tbe educational polity of tbe State should he, he proceeded to i cview tbe vital questions whose speedy adjustment aas necessary. One question upon which action was needed and which woold come before the Association for their consideration, was tbe blending of Intellectual with moral aud religious education. Another was tbe re vision of oar school laws in several impor taut particulars. Many of our fellow. Uflchers cannot meet with us here, because they are held to their work. This ought not so to be. The teacher should have this holiday week In which to attend the Association, compare results of the year’s work,aud profit by others’ expediences, and gain strength from the blending of opinions and sym pathies. To do this, tbe week should be given to all teachers, and the salaries of those who attended the Association, continued for the week. ' The educational interests of tbe State would gain by It. One of the most momentous subjects now agitating the minds of educators, is the relation which the State should sus tain towards education, especially in its higher forms. This question was pertinent ly Illustrated by the status of the two sides during the late terrible civil war. The rebel States lacked education. The masses were ltd blindfold to try to found an empire upon barbaric Ideas, and they reaped a terrible haivist. Education must be moic univer sally diffused, and high schools multiplied if we would keep pace with material progress. At tbe conclusion of this really able and suggestive address, Rev. Dr. Willard moved thai a committee of three be appointed, whose duty It should te to bring before the Convention the various poiuts presented by the President in his address. The motion prevailed, and Rev. Dr. Wil lard, of Springfield; Prof. «). B. Turner, of Jacksonville, and 3lr. Barrlll, of Urbana, were appointed as said committee. On motion, a committee of thirteen—one from each Congressional District, was ap pointed to nominate officers of the Associa tion tor the ensuing year. On motion, adjourned until 3 p. m. From some cause or other, the Association is smaller jd numbers this year than usual. Many of Us members no doubt tarried at home to eat the Christmas turkey and attend Christmas festivals. The course of nearly all the railroads in refusing to pass the teachers at the usual half fare rates, has doubtless had much to do with the slim at tendance. Yet a large accession Is expected upon the night and morning trains. In this connection, it will be pleasant to remember the couite.-y of, the Chicago; SI. Louis & Alton Railroad, which alone passes all the teachers at half fare rates. AFTtItNOOX SESSJOX. Professor Blackman Introduced the after noon exercise* with music. Horace Greeley, of New York, who bad 1 ecu detained in town, kindly consented to lill Rev. 3lr. Lalhrop’s place, the latter gen tleman not being present. He was received *» ith earnest applause, and proceeded to give a lucid and profitable address upon SCHOOL JEHROBS. Having devoted no portion of my lift In teaching I can only speak trom the benches. As I speak of errors they will be of long ago j.mkma» be now exploded. I would like to Apeak a few words upon school government, because government is a subject we are all interested in. I apprehend a fault exists la schools of attempting too much. Teachers sometimes create more noise in suppressing than theorlgiaal Teachers are sometimes too anxious to haVe every pupil do just right. A long list of posted rules al wajs give un impression of poor government. The teacher who can take a charitable view of little fallings is the best teacher, t ewer rules give belter government. Chil dren tolerably brought up at home always In-hare at schoo*. But we know that too come many to school to obtain the first rudiments of government. What can be dene with the cowering child or the domineering one • lattcnded at five years of age, a large school kept by severe masters. Our next distrusted severity, and jet it was a better school In discipline nnd everything else. Defiance .v.o*f be put down, but in no other case Is Infliction of pain necessary, it is so difficult P* make a child und-rtlaod that the man who chastises him loves him. Anger must not be among the Impulses prompting the teacher. It is good proof of a teacher's worth when he can rule a school without taking advantage of his own personal strength. Another deficiency Is la oral teaching. V> clean too much upon text-books. TheV are go-carts upon which the teacher Is too apt to lean, lie instanced study of gram mar. Mere text-book study is a wooden machine, a parrot routine of words and phrases. Proceed by very steps, ask each scholar the same question, and then give your opinion. The teacher must show himself a master of the books, or he win lose the respect of the scholars. My own first start in study was from finding errors In Murray’s Grammar. Teachers try to teach 100 much; require too maty lessons on dif ferent subjects in too abort a time. One les son ecch half day, and that given from the teacher’s lips rather than from books, would Improve onr present cramming system. Children’s minds are too often forced. At thirteen years we sometimes find them fluent In algebrad "WV cannot-learn aft in school • hence we'-pirnt choose the most fruitful. Hhat the child needs most of all Is that receptivity of mind which leaves him beat prepared to glean knowledge from all above, around, and within him. Chemistry and geology are more Importune than ex tensive mathematical knowledge. No man can be a good fanner and no woman can be a good housewife without some knowledge oi chemistry or geology. Chemistry, studied by a system of diagrams, with an appropriate oral teaching, would interest scholars ten years of age. It would make our farms and our mines more productive. If onr student, four years after graduating, cannot read his Latin or Greek nooks, it is proof positive that something was wrong in the reaching, and that it was something be should not have learned. Life.made no demand for this kind of knowledge, and so it was a waste of time. Had we known more of chemistry vast quantities of peat would have been preserved, which have been fool ishly horned np. Too few teachers study to teach for life. It is unfortunate that so manv consider it only a stepping stone to something else. I wish ooryoung men or women loved teach ing so well as to abide by it- I wish Ameri can industry were not so turbulently restless and ambitions as to deplete oar ranks of teachers If teaching were only an office, everybody would be rushing after it. Be lieving, then. In the utility of normal schools, ibis, I trust thousands will find It so honorable and useful, and withal so easy, that they will live and die in It. MOHXI. I3»STBCCnOJf. . A discussion then ensued upon the ques tion, Should Moral and Religious Instruction be given in the Common Schools? frof. J. V. X. Standish being absent, Mr. Blodgett, ot Rockford, assumed his place and briefly adverted to the blending of Intel lectual and moral development as going on at the same time, and needing equal care, and to the fact that the Bible is not read In many of onr Common Schools. Mr. S. M. Dickey also spoke in the affir m»tive. alluding to the great idea of duty which should be impressed upon every mind. >o fear" of running into sectarianism. Precept must be blended with example. Me gave an instance of the influence of the example of a teacher who. himself addicted to dj inking, soon taught many of Ms scholars, and that most thoroughly. Let, then, the teacher be what he would have his scholars. Mr. Mcniman thought there was an inver sion ol terms m the wording of the resolu tion. Religious Instruction must precede moral instruction. Mr Dow, of Moline, said that tee child’s first moral instruction should N gained at home. The mother should W a living epUtle. Were this so, there would be no use of moral instruction In our Common Schools. But this la not so, »ud our Sunday Schools cannot, in one ho*r of the week, efface a whole week of immorality. . .. Mr. Leal, of Champaign, said that there was a great apathy in this mailer. And ministers are greatly to blame In this mat ter. They pray tor everything and all things, for bless legs in basket »nd store, and for everybody except the Coium-n school. He had never beard hot onc reverend pray for the Common School, and he, alter praying for Colleges, Theological and other Semina* rice, then said: “And we pray thee, 0 Lord, forget not even oar Inferior schools.” Mr. Andrews, of Warsaw, was pleased with the speeches made, but was not satis fied with the argument that because o’ child Is capable of moral instruction he should re ceive it. The converse is also true, and the argument falls of Its own weight. We moat come to the root ol the mat ter, and teach certain things because God commands It. If the boy dishonors his parents, or steals, or does anything else that is slnfn), it Is the teacher's duty to teach him that God has raid It was wrong. God's word Is above the teacher’s word and most be the supreme law of school as well as all other conduct- Dr. Brown, ofPeoria; Mr. Rolphe, of Chica go ; Dr. Willard, of Springfield, and others, also participated in the discussion. All the speakers deprecated anything like sectarian teaching, it should only pertain to those duties toward God and men which ni dcrile all successful growth, both of Indi viduals and governments. Proceeding* Yesterday, [Special Despatch to the Chicago Tribune.} Jackjontilix, Hi., December 26. The first exercise in order after tbe opening ex ercise was an essay by Hiss Edith I. Johnson, of tbe Nonna! School. Her subject was "The Value of General Principles in Educa tion.” We ofitn bear u said that general princi ples, though readily uttered, are oflltUe practical value, and that Instead of them wc need, in order to work successfully, specific instruction. These thoughts lurk in the minds of teachers, perhaps as much as In those of any oth ers. Take, for instance, the principle so often re iterated, that education consists in afoll develop ment of moral, intellectual and phrslcal power. In early times, memory was the only faculty considered worth cultivating. No Inquiry was made as to understanding ot facta, but the prltclptc continued to be r.ttered and men began to gain an appreciation of its meaning. Attention wes Aral paid to training tbe intellect, and then, after a dime, of it was known that man tosscssed a moral nature needing development. Tbe teacher must leach to do as well a» io bear. Different modes of governing mu»t be studied, to mark its efihet upon char acter. To-dar another step la demanded—the Importance of physical culture to tbe life of Our schools must be recognized. In our best schools soma kind of gymnastic exercise is de manded. As one result, teachers occupy a higher place in society and In litera ture than In lonncr days. Writers no longer recognize tbe teacher only to ridicule , him. This principle is all Important. In primary s< bools the method right and best yesterday must give place to tbe better one of to-day. Primary schools must resemble the Klniercvtn of the Germans. Entertainment most be blended with Instruction, and yet this gland principle is only tn the inCmcy of Its development. Ages to come will bear its enunciation with a deeper and fuller appreciation, as the results of observation and iipenrnce stall be gathered up and made pro ductive of nobler efforts and higher success. THs f s sy was read in a clear toco with a grace lul manner, and distinct articulation, thn some j of our gentlemen might well Imitate. 5. H. BlodgeU was then announced to addre-s tur association upon the topic: ** The obstacle to maku.j thorough scholars In modern schools.” After exacting the progress of the world, from tho Invention of teaching, especially of our own country, tbe speaker said that ihere was found a falling oS in (be austere vigor wiih which perrons! education was urged. Fourth of duly eloquence pictured our progress In rosy terms Now complaints are rife, but levelled at the dally public school tbe discrimination Is not pioper. It U lee* my purpose to decy those alle gations than to defend tbe laborers of our public retools ft cm undue cecnic, and to consider some of the obstacles in toe path of our complete success, Multiplicity of text books is oneol-Jectioc, Uts simply improvement, a great ceslr e for cheap teachers, la another sti on? obsta cle In the pain of any material progress. Too ninth organization t? & hindrance to successful achievement in study. Wc have too much legislation, too many constitutional amend ment.*, tco many prohibitions are thrown around tic teacher. ct>d he Is hampered on til sides, laws mnet be made, out mast bo so made as to simplify Instead of confuse. I’nbUc ientlmentmustbc aroused, teacher* mn-t lake more i)>tcic*t In U-lilalion touching cdcca ticsal points. Tbe speaker concluded Lyau as semblage of local tacts for the encouragement «f a!) earnest, thinking members of the Association, Attcr tie appointment of some committees, tae choir gave a nne rendering ol tbe popular good night sccg, and the Association a-ljncrned. wansexssAT roccsoos. The exercises ofbMiay commenced with singing by the choir under Professor Blackman. Prarer was then offered by Kev. Dr. Adams, of Jackson wllle. irritations were tendered to the Association by the various State Institutions located la this aty to visit them at the convenience of the Association. iLcee were acc ptei ilr.J. B. Blodgett, of Bockford, introduced the following resolutions: Jtitclud, That we request the Representatives and Senators from this nutc to use their influ ence to secure iho establishment of an Educational Bureau to collect statistics ana fur cub a means of intercommunication be wren different parts of the Union, end especially to look to the appoint n-mi o a thorough educational man as the bead of the same. Kc marks were made by several members, and the icfolcilobs passed. The President then Introduced Mr. George W. Perkins, Sopcrlutefidect in tae Reform School of CMcseo, wbo prcceedrd to address the Asseda tion opon Befona Schools and ro'ormatory ni.e»njes. lOuisgto the lateness of the hour, tbo closing portion of this despatch is necessarily omitted.] NORTH CAROLINA* The Execution of General Mcklcs* Or der—The Conflict nUQtbeOflleen or the Superior Court, The Raleigh (N. C.) Standard, of Deccem her 22, contains the following details of a case alluded to by telegraph ; On Monday last, an order Untied by Gener al Sickles, commanding this department, was handed to Judge Powlc. by oraer of the military Commander here, prohibiting inflic tion of corporeal punishment. On Thursday a telegram from Governor Worth, at Wash ington, was received by the same Judge, saying “that the order was rescinded—you may proceed with the punishment.” Whereupon one Cornelius Walters, a freedman, having been duly uled, convicttd and sentenced, was placed In the Mocks for one hour, preliminary to whipping. General Bomford, not having re ceived uuy official Information of the rescis sion of the order of bla superior in command General Sickles, was notified by a staff officer who happened lo pass the court house, that corporeal punishment was about to be In- Uictcd upon the freedman, Walters. Major W ells was immediately despatched to pro hibit it, and he arrived in time to prevent the sheriff from striking a blow. The temper of ttc concourse of people present being appa rent, though the Sheriff uor any one else offered opposition, Major Wells walked to the street and despatched an orderly for a guard. Meanwhile Sheriff Kuy proceeded lo luthct the punishment, and e-gbt lashes were administered before Major Wells cbnld return end order him to desist. Ihe Sheriff then informed the Judge; the guard arrived, followed soon after by General Bemfoid, who deemed it his duty to be present on the spot. It is due to the General also toi say tnat he patiently waited on the ground fur near half an hour, being informed that Jndgc Fowle would meet him there, lie was not thus met, however; and mean while the names of the officers and soldiers acting under orders were obtained as far as possible, for the purpose of indictment for contempt of court. The negro at the stocks being held for a time, was turned over to the Sheriff and* again pat in jail. Later in the evenin'’’ a* company of troops was sent to headauartera lor any emergency. Thus the matter stands for the present; and os General Bomford baa received no offi cial notification that General Sickles’order has been revoked, he will enforce U. We suppose the Indictment will be quashed, as 5. kipping has been suspended until turther instructions from Washington. The order of General Sickles, until official ly revoked. La the supreme law. It would not be, if this State were in the enjoyment of all its privileges as a member of the Lulon; but we are still under military law to a certain extent, and the orders of the Commandcr-fn-Chiel, through his subordi nates, must be obeyed by all until officially revoked. J It is not onr purpose to censure any one. But it was unofficially known that the order prohibiting whipping had been revoked, and It seems to us the Judge might have waited a day or so until General Bomford could have received official notification of the fact. Me deprecate conflicts or even disagreements between the military and those officials among us who administer the civil law by permission of the President, and we think great care should be taken by both sides to avoid conflict. General Bomford had no option in the matter. He was obliged to do what he did, or disobey the orders of his superior and incur the risk of being cash iered. We have no sympathy with those who avail themselves of this unfortunate occur rence to excite feeling against the military, or against the National Government. Such persons would be mnch more in the line of duty if they would exert themselves to re store the Lnion on the terms prescribed by t s c majority, and thus recare the establish ment of snch civil law as will be permanent* ly paramount is all things to the military power. Howioco to Knrope fi»r Holhlaz. A correspondent of the Louisville Demo crat has the following comparison of prices in Louisville and London. He thinks the margin on & suite of clothes would cover a trip to Europe. ion require a new suit of clothes, new overcoat, hat, boots, etc., and the Little nicknacka that you know, as Dundreary sajs, “no fello’ can do without.” Nothing of the kind, my dear sir. My advice is. when travelling, take as little lugcage as possible. New clothes yon may want; and that and other things can be got on the other side— ibe difference In price is to pay toot ex* peoses— and “ thereon hangs my tafe.” My plan of a trip to Europe and back for noth ing consists in the saving to beeflected by the purchasing of a few Indispensable arti cles over there, rather than pay the shame ful price charged for similar goods by trades men In this •‘village,” who appear to have lost all modesty (if they ever bad any to lose, which I much dc-nbt,) ©("-sense of lair play and justice. We will take, as moat suitable (or our purpose, clothing—an article always wanting—and we will assume that every person going over to Europe willieqnlrea new “ set out,” either before he leaves or on Lis arrival on the other side. Our advice Is (founded on experience) not to purchase here. We willett down In parallel columns the articles and the prices in both countries, thes: l«uisTin« Brldsb Price*. Prices. 1 Sneer, West of Eoglaod, black 1 Wearing tweed c01t... i 10 i Winter orertozt...Bo.oo 2(B 1 Hat, silt.. - . 8.00 oio 1 i tlr boot* ILCO I*oo 1 t'airft’Qosbe*. 10.00 Ois 1 Dozen French kid glorea *I.OO j 03 iPozeaeockz 8.00 003 tSLOO Or, In greenbacks, at the present price of gold, S9L So yon sec yon can have in Britain the above ennmeratea articles for ninety-one dollars in United States currency, while you «ill have to pay $334 for them Inthecitvof Louisville. Well, on this item we effect a saving of s233—a trifle not to be sneered at, 1 tell you. What are we to do,with it? We> will see: , Tbe railway Are from Loniarjle to New York Is, 1 thmk $5-0u The came for retain 23.00 From Sew York to Liverpool ot Glasgow, second cabin 50 00 ihesameforretum 50 00 The price of the above outfit. lake mmm, Trade of the Port ofClfeJ Imports and Exports of Lediw| irtieles. I- Exports to Foreign Country! $1,879415.18. Imports from Foreign Counttiti $403,568.88. Tonnage of the Port—Compara- tire Statistics. Tbe following table shows the receipts sot. shipments of leading article} of produce, by lake. • for the years 1606, 18W and ISM: ' Bxcsrts or LtVDtxa asncua sr un v<s 7 ISO. 1666. 1» Lumber. M CT6.236 61-VBU 6 bintries, M J 97,169 mS3O. 133.5* liSt JS. U<4os 62,533 Square Timber, ft. H,(TS S,2Bi 4,H Bctdlsss. So lUCGI l,i® 3* ftekeSTxo 97.£« *.«» is Staves. No 10,TW 0,63 ?».*, Cedar Posts, No 736.103 9?5,263 Stave and Smcgle bolts, _ cords. v^.; ... 12,004 18.445 11^, TelemohPoles, 50... 15.35* Bart.cda 21,U50 123,642 Wood, cda 140,951 lt,«W l;;.v PI? Iron, toss 21,447 2,131 j£-« Ksllroad Iron, tons 3,330 30,712 5.73, Rallroid Bar*, tors 69,391 5'.331 ',C'M Iron, bundles 53,359 537,711 n» ; . Coil, toes 37i,T31 sa^J KaU«, kers, Salt, brla... Sait. bass., bait, tons . Fiah, brls.. Barrels. Bliley, bn.. Floor, bria.. Potatoes, bo. Wheat, bn... Lead, pigs... Lead, tons.. shuszsts or tranrxo armcizs bt t <»-t THOr» mn ™ Wheat. bu 5.327.JM6 6,50-413 ic,7rvßi Corn, bn 32,437,355 gJ,23:/.0 I*-).*? Barter, bn MLam ir,S Dais, ba 7,r2tt,U3 8,719.9 0 m Rye, bu 1,(23,63 TSWW) r.i& Flour, brls.-,...... 451.491 4»l>VEt Lfttus Cora ileal, brla. . 33,002 Sl.Tl'J Coro Meal, bags... 10,113 16.352 ttSy Seed, bags 51,937 n.exi 23.6 a Beet, brla 12.331 “J.S 4 Fork, brla »MM 6U.552 3C6.551 Lard, brla 2.331 7.253 «*sa Tsllon - . brla ... 1,307 3.:«3 iTsg Grease, brla 453 1. 25 I** Bams, casks 2,806 4.C7S 54*; Bacon, casks SSS 4. in 172 s Better, legs 3,587 io,«P koit Grefo Hides, N 0... 63,5C0 12-M3S Dry Hides,'No.... 31,016 50.C1T it,T6j Bl°twines. brla,.. 4,110 0,7tfl liquor, bits 4.246 a.4t»l i>} —2 >■ o 23 5 es«s£.= r?- •« =-a 3 = 3 -§•= S r 2 fs.| 7 ; ?: 3: •: : 2> 1* :1 : : : : 5 i f 1 a? si » £=-~2 “£ “2 e * g“ S g 22SSSSS*» S® * ex _ a sg- S a •* o 5« 5 I «•-->» 3 \% S | : : fi.s.S|| 2 St 8* • • 5” B 5 n x “* IS- • • »o o ~ |S f sls:;:-sss 5 If | gg I ~s=?sszsf~ 3.3 I ■b 3 I linsflrs? §| = - fc s «2 t> Iff ? |KSp|i P 3 it I ==a&:|S| 3 i| s |£Sft I gs I li o|t=| |g°r= |. p: g a| “Is? 1 tin; r! j i 3 3’ f's; Se; ::: :: : > »g |S.«: ?= : ::;::: a 2 S Ilii. : \ :::: —2 \ ■ SSSS : e|°a =WO S 3 • s ag=3Sß r ||f|ri i i Fi|S 2 % 88SS§IStlsS3 s ggssssgsgggg «# m S I 3p l* fa o| & =x*!sc«'p v- I'= »a. 51 eS£3S^€£SSS3 *sj * 11 : I: ilili. :: : £ j «* Ip efiS : I: :* : : gl: : £SS B: : : : : ||;g§i : g: I: : ggg: g: C ie O if > fr > 2W «* *3 2 0 —ssE.s ws a2* E |B||s: : : : «| . - - S g Sf SSSSSiSSpS* g 2) - SiS£sesS32s2ig . “«_P m I : §£i§§£g: : : ; SI: S'iSSSSS: ;: ; ?i.." g- ; : : lj; :: ; : Is- ;: ! Amount total of dutiable goods imoort- ed daring 1866 tvy* an « Amoniit total of dnUcs oa eune un to DiceofcerSb, ISSS isLlhl(B Amount total of free goods imported H duntglS€6... 10,717 00 _ WiiTiu B, Pc.isi, Conector. **♦ B-fTne tmqtmu of the different anlo’es re preaenting the above valnes are lacladed la the BOIL mar; atatearnt 01 receipts by kite daring die jear lego. TEE TONKAOE OF THE PORT. The following la an abstract of the Inward and outward tonnage of this Port for the year 196 G ? TOXWACK CrwjUtDS. So, Vcm els. Men. Toscase. Am, vessels from itilsnd ports Am, vessels from 10,766 89,:52 2,116,057 foreign port*. .. rf>?ricn from fomro pores Total TOSXi.CS QCTWAED. . , , No. Vessels. Am vessels to in- land ports Am. vessels to lor- 10,823 91,206 2,263,973 elgn Forelj fore: n ports igu vessels to eign ports... Total 11413 2.3310:4 The following shows the tonnage of the port Car three years: Toxxaez onrasss. !«». 1*63. 136 t ....... axaft> IQIISSOI omr ipti« .1866. 1565. 196*. ......... t SS42S 7?Ks 2.ggl,M4 2,092476 2,1C040t Vessels.. Nr. men. Tonnage. Vessels.. No. men. Tonnage. FHOfi SPRCfCfXEU). CMnmammt the *Cate Capital-The v ew Theatre Opening a Ollaerabic Vulm? Proposed linsd Opeoinx at ibe Lelnaif * LSpedal Despatch to the ChlcauroTrfbnne.J _ . Sraxcmm, December S 3, Christmas passed amy m the canal aolet atrlo Is the Slate capital. AU the pabcc ofllcea tad Urn leadfcr bnsineaa houses were closed. whfl* »al ot the chnrchcs were open for ejrfe e £££l" The day wa*nuaaiii»iy pleasant. and the af£r* i bi th ' r °""£ <se P ssw^vf?a ,i sa'wgt ! beeuagranaailareaolirasiiiepUyaeiecf-a 1 *?? mai ter of its rertUtion were coneerr ed! corrcapoudeot not belajj a pJarsoer, U Sable to 1 B F ,eiilr A®^? tDl JndclD? from tte citms ofboih dally papers, as well as iheaerST stn«ore* of lie experienced In aneb mitSSf be *ra the actlpp weald seem to harebS: fcu better sol ed to a becr-jerUn s or coKcejt-faloor. Ihe sob^ti«Sd T°; # , rtin *derold of mS? a^-isjssss , * opening of our new hotel, th» La. c ? IBe off on the ereainj of the SSt of^f aoa,T *? !,eB ,he Editorial CoareoliOß £ d .iiH-?? tt,,er * - 0l Le-fciatare wS «?. of . • erand banquet -at the expense of Air. Leland, which. It la gal? rffit?* ** anythin? of *£fcd that has erer transpired wcsiof the *nz ghjuiy aoomsina. The romttaw and fiknreTiSr an In place, and 1 heller* that tn all reapSS\S gwPtef. lie Wand Hotel will h* eo£t%£* »™b. 7 «Ub any lihe calabiuhment in* the £1509 foUevHcff sddincnal assessments for »“v^ ~53U wS: . .f£ e V 1 Airny of lie Bepoblu h«« been or- tn the of Sonh Carolina, by tbe ap- Ane,) C * Kumerfoi Co£ of i ihla commission ?.?, r* be * tPVFv® 5 1 , R - F - Steoheiwofl, Anta unt Genera! of the Order In the United Stales/ C«BBRB«fflca in Richmond. lacmioxD, Va.^Decembery.—SeostoF* Pofatad of \ ?° d Kirkwood of lowa, and Eeore sentallve Spalding, of Ohio, amved this mnmfor “ d “• stopples , t SISOOO . 91.03 $30.00 30,6>3 6U9.5*4 3MI 433.-J97 153,.1K g^SI 2.331 S£S3 £w 2,015 55,500 ■> Mivaw 39.03 s 35.75 20,931 47,758 73,113 li; 43.400 12,441 8:0,832 2C7,7« i-v, 0,111 4,;iSO 1 3 ** :• • S sa «* H S 3 r • .. s ” r§¥i s !888 5 ’£*l*3 no pdses^y •eg-jo onis^ »2o 00 pnrd .s%no(i jo jatacxy •aptofy *«JiO »I l»A ox is spoojjo •spooo p99Uoqaiv,ti 00 »n«a j o lauoDV no spooj) oj'injj -ua JO 'XIJffT oo PI*J SBJUI(J jo ;oaocuv •vpOon a*»a;oau •patuoq -axsji Bpoog JO 301V^ *p»jnotr spooo no wjjtia jo tcooqy IK 3,019 77,00 215 2,353 61,907 sfcn. Tonnage- ?0 753 21.323 213 2,^30 63,011