Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune, December 29, 1866, Page 2

Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune dated December 29, 1866 Page 2
Text content (automatically generated)

Chicago Cribauc, DAILY, THI-WEEKLY AJTD TY EGKLY. OFFICE. He. 51 CLAEK-ST. There art Oirse editions of the Tkbck* issued. Ist. -frery aerate*, fcr drculstioa by canter*. nerimro •sad the mafia. >4. TbeTax-Wnssr, Uotidsp, Wed nesdays tad Fridays,-foe tie m.n« only {""and me W ezxlt, eaTlscndayi,tax the mail* aad saleatoar coaster and hr newnneo. Terms «f tbe Cblcaro Tribune ; Dally deUvered tn tbe cny (oer tree« • *5 - - - - (per charter).... 3.U Dally, to mall sabsertber* (per atcum.-'paya. fteto advance) l‘A-00 T«-W«sly.(per antes. piiyaWc to advance) W.OO Weekly, (pee aaxuua,payao.c la advance) t£,OU .Of* Fractional parts of tbe year at tbe tame rates. tW’PenOBB mslttinjt and order!n* fire or more copies o i either tbe M-Weekly or Weekly edllioss, may retain tea per cent of the suhaolpnoa price as a ooamlatee. hone* to St-Bscaxaro.—la ordering tbe address ol year papers titaozed, to prefect delay, be sure aad apecUy what edition yon take—Weekly, Trt-Weekly, or Dally. Also, clreyoamzaznaodmiore addreis. fW" Money, by Draft, Exp-eu. Money orders, or tn BecUtered Letters, mar be seal at oar i Uk. Address, TRIBUNE CO„ Chirmso. 111. SATURDAY, DECEMBER 29, ISM. TBE LECULmTE SESSION. The Constitution of the Slate of Illinois provides a compensation for the members of the General Assembly, of two dollars per day for the first forty-two days of the ses sion, and one dollar per day for every day of the session thereafter- This provision of the Constitution was made when the popu lation of the State was scarcely more than half a million; when the State finances were at a low ebb, and the interest on tbe public debt heavily In arrear; when there was but thirty miles of railroad In operation in tbe whole State, and the motive power on that road was a span of mules. It was adopt ed at a time when the State was insolvent, and when six ...weeks or less was deemed ample time to legislate for a State that had no material interests requiring legislation, except the unpaid and accumulating interest on her debt. Since tbat period Illinois has grown with giant progress. The half million population has increased to five times that number, and in stead of a weekly train of ears drawn by mules upon thirty miles of railroad, there are two hundred daily trains- running over three thousand miles of railroad in the State. The Illinois Central Railroad bad not then peopled with actual settlers the millions of acres of public land along its route that lor for forty years had been in the market vainly seeking purchasers. The times have changed, but the law of twenty years ago remains; the Interests of the State have become enlarged, and the necessary legislation of the most important character, but tbe old limitation survives, and tbe General Assembly is expected, if not required, to adjourn within six wecks.aficr meeting. This provision in tbe Constitution, how ever excusable it may have been twenty years ago, is the source of much evil now. The Legislature has long since ceased to be a deliberative body. Few measures originate there; but very few laws ace ever prepared there; few arc debated and discussed; but very few arc ever examined by more than two members, and nine ont of ten arc not only passed without reading, bat passed without the formality of a vole. The Constitution declares that “ Bills may originate in cither house, but may be altered, amcoaed or rejmea by the other; and os the final passage of all hills, the vole shall he by tyesandnoea and shall be entered on ttie jour nal ; and no bill ahull become a law without the concurrence of a majority of all the members elect in eccb house.'’ Another pro risen requires the attendance oftwo-tliirdaas n quorum for business- Every bill requires, therefore, the affirmative votes of a majority of each house, the names of those voting to be recorded In the Journal, and U is equally essential that two-thirds of the members elect shall be present and vote upon the bill- It Is a notorious fact that both of these provisions are openly violated at every session of the legislature' It is found to be impossible, for the want of time, to take up the bills separately, to read them, or to discuss them. What Is the result ? Towards the close oftne six weeks, the bills arc put into packages of twenty, thirty or forty ; the yeas and nays arc called once on each Dsckage, and the clerk of the Hou,e is lostiuctcd to record the vole as having been token separately on each bill. The Journal of tbe House on Its lace records the votes upon, and the passage of five or six hundred bills, when in point of fact, no_ such votes were taken, except in ten or twenty cases. The record is false, and, being false, is dishonest- Wc go further, and say that it Is not only a means whereby frand may be easily practiced, but it has been, time and again, ust-d as a means of direct ft«ud. Wlim bill* ar» pat- lato packages, there Is nothing more easy than to withdraw one and substitute another; to lu cre jse the number or diminish U. The Clerk's duty lafej record falsely that separate votes were taken on nil the bills In the ten or twenty packages, each containing from twen ty to forty biils more or less. He performs the duty loquired of him by the House, and that is to make a fictitious record. This system of legislation, In addition to being prohibited by tbc Constitution, is dis grace ml tb the Stale. It invites fraud; it encourages corruption by tbc success which It extends to both. 'Where is the remedy? To amend the Constitution lg the proper way, but that will uot meet the present emergency. The State never la IU history required Mich important legislation as at picseni. There is legitimate business per* taluing to tbc general interestsol the State that requires legislative action, and such ac tion as will follow intelligent discussion and investigation. The whole railroad system is to I*s investigated, the powers of the State ascertained, and the question decided whether Illinois is a vast farm to he worked * for the profit of railroad corporations, or whether the people thereof have any voice left in controlling their owu rights, Interests and llhcitles. The city of Chicago has be come in every respect an Important part of the State. Its commerce, its sanitary af fairs, Its municipal government, its jndiclatj, and its system of local taxation arc matters of considerable public interest. These require legislation, not by self-constituted committees and lob by men, but by the Legislature acting for the general weal. The State Institutions, particularly the Penitentiary, need legisla tion preceded by investigation of the most thorough character; and the proper dispo sal of the Agricultural and Scientific Col lege fund should not be determined hastily by the lobby, but deliberately and after full dbcutslou lu the Legislature. Tet these and other great measures of State importance will necessarily be clogged, dc’aycd and postponed by the countless swarms of com- I oratively unimportant private charters and local measures. We do not mean to say that the Legislature should pass no private bills. That would be unjust; but we do say . that It . is. a .shame and ' a reproach to Illinois, that her Legislature has no time to consider or deliberate upon any measure public or private: that It has to pass or re ject all hills blindly, and by a process open to all manner of fraud, and finally by order ing unofficial record niterlyat varlancewith the tiutb. WL»t the Legislature needs Is time. The next session, In ordcriobavc the Icadingpnhllc measures properly considered, and some attention given to local bills,'will be sufficiently short If protracted tonln-ty days; and we think one of the first things the Legislature should do, should be to have a general understanding, If not a formal de claration that the session would continue for that time. We are tally aware that U is an oppressive demand that members should serve -the State tar ninety days at a ptr cfcm of two dollars for the first frrty-two days, and one dollar per dsy for the remaining tarty-eight days, that, too, when their board exceeds four dollars per day. bnt there Is a remedy for this, and a resort to it will be far more honorable, and far more acceptable to the people than a continuance of the present shameful manner of dolny business. The pay of a mcmberol the Legislature for forty-two days is SB4; for tarty-eight days additional at one dollar per day would make the aggre gate for a session of ninety days, $132. In addition to this they are allowed stationery, postage stamps, etc. The pay of each mem ber at five dollars per day would be $l5O for the session of ninety days. One proposition Is that the Legislators upon meeting shall p««? an order, that Inasmnch as the interests of the State require the General Assembly, to remain in session beyond tbc ordinary term, there be allowed to eachmcmhcr In addition to the ordinary allowance, stationery, or its equivalent. -in money, to the valne of $3lB. This is a common prac tice in all legislative bodies. For t quarter of century, If not longer, the House of Rep resentatives at Washington, by a standing rule, allows each, member stationery to a certain valne per session, and newspapers to a certain valne, and the members are at lib erty to draw the stationery and newspapers, or the money, or part In each, just as they may elect. The same rule prevails in other legislative bodies. There is nothing uncon stitutional in It, because the same power that enables each house now to vote Us mem bers two hundred dollars each in stationery and postage stamps, cutlery and gold pens, will authorize the increase of that allow ance in consideration of an extension of the term of the session. Dcmagoguea will cry out against this prop osition because of the expense, and will prate londly about taxing tbe people. 'What expense will it create ? The whole addition al expense of allowing each of tbe 110 mem bers of the General Assembly $3lB each, will be exactly and there has not been a r yo—y; session of the Legislature held, daring the last eli years wheu the people of the Slate would not have saved twice that earn upon the Penitentiary appropriation had there been time for investigation, exposure and r-discussion. What Is true of that casjlatino of others. Short sessions. In which all busi ness Is crowded Into a few boors, ■ and when the legislation *is necessarily as unknown to a majority of the members as if they were not present. Is the very bar rest time for swindling schemes and the ag grandizement of monopolies. . Compel all such measures to undergo investigation; compel them to await the public opinion upon their merits, and they will fall of their own weight. There being no possible Constitutional ob jection to' this proposition, Justice to the members themselves requires that they should at least have for their time and ser vices an allowance equal to their board while at Springfield. RELIEF OF INDUSTRY. A despatch from Philadelphia states that *• Tbe rollon and woollen manufacturers bete and In this vicinity held meetings on Saturday to consider upon action Ibr the abolition of tbe In ternal Revenue tax on Itaelr mauulsclarca.” This Is infinitely more sensible than to be importuning Congress to pile more duties on top of those now levied, with the view of making goods dearer to tbe public. The present tariff on woollen and cotton goods it* fifty to sixty per cent on the invoice valu ation, and If our manafacturers “arc per ching,” as a certain class of random news paper writers assert, It cannot be for want of protecting duties, which are* now higher than they ever were since the -beginning of the Government. The present stagnation in trade is not difficult to account for; the causes arc plain and palpable: First, the policy of the Treasury Department to force an early re sumption of specie payments has created distrust in every branch of boslncss ; the heavy decline in gold is pinching all classes of manufacturers and'merc bants who have stocks of goods on hand. They find the sel ling prices of their-goods constantly firiling, and they are obliged to sell either at a loss or without realizing a profit. Banks require larger margins on property pledged as secu rity for discounts. Manufacturers find them selves unable to pay their operatives as many greenback dollars with gold at ISO as gold at ICO. In other words, they can’t advance the wages of their workmen twenty per cent on a foiling market for their Goods. And tbe workmen refuse to receive the same amount in gold for their labor, which was paid to them for the year preceding last October. The consequence Is, tbat the owners of the factories and mills are discharging a part of their employes, working on short time and otherwise reduc ing their productions. If the operatives were willing to work for the same rate of wages calculated on the gold basis, that was paid them from January 1, 18C6, to October 1, 18ti6, we presume that most of the owners would continue to employ full sets of hands. Ifgold continues to fall the present stagna tion must necessarily grow worse. More fac tories and workshops will close up or great ly reduce their force of hands, unless the employes shall meanwhile consent to esti mate their wages on the gold basis, but this will not be done without a struggle which will cost tens ol thousands of them situa tions, and close up hundreds of establish ments. The second cause for the existing depres sion in trade Is excessive National, State, and local taxation—bat especially the for mer. During the year 1800, now ending, the National Government has received fire hun dred aud sixty millions of revenue—two hundred millions of which was collected in gold. Four-fifths of this enormous taxation came out of the pockets of the twenty mil lions of people north of Mason &. Dixon's line. The actual wants of the Government during the same period amounted to $020,000,000, which includes all that was paid to discharged soldiers and seamen, and ether outstanding war debts. What became of the remainder of the money ? A hundred millions of It was expended in paying off certificates of Indebtedness, temporary loans; twenty millions were in the shape of green, backs called in and burned, and the remain der Is withdrawn from the active capital of the country acd locked up in the vaults of the Treasury, where it lies Idle, neither drawing interest, nor stopping interest. Now, this tremendous taxation is Just that much added to the cost of manufacturing and farming in this country. It would be safe to estimate that one-half of the sum Is subtracted from the fruits of Tabor and the ether half from the profits of capital. The goods sold in the United States doting the past year cost the con sumers one thousand millions of dollars in cm reney more than If there were no national taxation. We prove this assertion thus: Bcreone collected in gold *200,000,000, equal? in ennener *300,000,000 Rctcnue collected fn currency 30J.uQQ.uio „ ££•1,090,003 Ko aLarv proflm on tame, S 3 per ceat. 390,000,000 Extraetcdfrcm conaumen t&O, 009,003 Betailcrs' profits, taking the whole range of articles, including liquors and tobaccos, ate nearer seventy-five than fifty per cent on nianusnctnrcrt’ and Importers’ prices, and tbe actual tax on consumers is nearer twelve than'ten.hundred millions of dollars; but call it the smallersum, and our readers can obtain an Idea of the cause ofthe excessive dearness of store goods, groceries, hardware, clothing, furniture,' books. Jewelry, drugs, and all articles of appetite aud luxury. The remedy for the exuding stagnation of business, and impending hard times, is per fectly simple; nnd If we had a financial ttalnman at the head of the Treasury instead of a narrow, oplnionatedtbeorist, resolved on carrying onta bobby,thopresentdanger to the industrial prosperity of the country would not exist. The first thing that Congress ought to do, on rc-auembling, is to put a stop to the currency contraction follies of McCulloch by repealing the act retiring four millions of greenbacks per month ; second, to order him to sell tbe idle gold In Ihe Treasury down t0£35,000,000, and invest the proceeds In 7-80 or 5-20 bonds; third, to order him not to keep more thau $20,000,000 of idle currency on hand, but to apply all over that amount in the parchasc of Interost-bearlcg bonds; foorlh, to direct him to rc-issne the twenty millions o! green backs which he has called In and burnt, and invest the proceeds in more IntcrcsUbcariog bonds; fifth, to order him to redeem the compound legal leaders as fast os tuey fall due. with a new Issue of plain legal tenders, *o that the latter will fill tne vacuum crea ted by withdrawal of the former and savs ♦o the public ten millions a year of interest. Lastly, and most Important of all, let Con gress reduce the revenue to tho minimum that will support the Government, by re pealing internal taxation on manufactures and Incomes, nnd extendk.; »he free list on such foreign raw materials an essential to American manufactures, and rnakf» &nch other modification of the tariff as shall pro mote home industry without Increasing the cost to consumers. If Congress would repeal taxes and duties to thcamonnt of two hondred millions of dollars, it would have the effect of cheapen ing commodities to the consumers more than three hundred millions, because they would i save the fifty to seventy-five per cent charged by the middlemen. To sum up the benefits which would accrue from pursuing this of policy: L The paying oat of fifty mil lions of Idle gold and fifty millions of with drawn currency would restore that amount of capital to the channels of commerce, thereby stimulating all classes of trade. 2. It would pay off one hundred millions of the Interest-bearing, debt, thereby greatly Im proving and strengthening the credit of the Government and saving the tax-payers forever after seven millions a year of interest. 3. By exchanging plain greenbacks for compounds a terrible • currency contraction wIU be avoided, and the Treasury wUI save ten millions of Interest a year now paid thereon, and no inflation will result, as the new issue win just fill the vacuum made by the other. Here we have a saving of seventeen millions a year in Interest. 4. The repeal of two hundred millions of taxes would wonderfully relieve industry, and cheapen the cost of living, without re ducing the wages of labor or the profits of capital. The National Debt was created on a currency basis, and it must be managed and carried oo the same basis. A currency contraction and a forced return to specie payment, will most surely be accompanied by universal financial disaster, and who knows but National repudiation. THE LOI7I!tUNi PLAjrrBBS. A series of calamities reduced the planters of Louisiana to a deplorable condi tion of poverty and helplessness. Indeed, it is asserted by the Commercial Bulletin that unless relief of some kind Is furnished them, “ a large portion of Louisiana will bo than* “doned, and some of its most fertile lands “given up to ruin and desolation.” The planters were generally made poor by the war, and at the beginning of the last season were compelled to borrow money from the commission merchants or Northern capitalists. There was no difficulty in ob taining liberal loans on pledges of the eotton crop, and hundreds of thousands of dollars poured in from the North. Indeed, there was quite a “cotton fever” in the North during the fall and winter of ISGS-6, and a prevalent disposition to invest in the plant ing business, directly or indirectly. The planters, therefore, easily obtained all the money they wanted, and entered upon the planting season with high hopes and excellent pros pects. But early In the season the con dition of the levees on the Mississippi and other rivers, compelled them to employ all their laborers and moles in an effort to pre vent an overflow. These efforts were una vailing to save some of the richest districts of the State from Inundation. But this dls k aster was light compared to that which fol- lowed. The cotton worm came, bringing destruction In its train. This same scourge utterly' destroyed the crop of 1904, and scores of men who had invested all their means In planting, were reduced to poverty. This year the ravages of the worm seem not to hare been Icm general or com plete. The cotton crop is a fitUnre, and the planters who operated on borrowed capital (and tbat Includes nearly oil of them) are wholly unable to pay their debts. The mer chants and factors who trusted them, of course find themselves more or less crippled by the inability of tbe planters to pay. Tbe Bulletin says not one planter in five will be able to resume cultivation this year, unless he is furnished with the means of purchasing his plantation supplies. But ho finds no such willingness to trust him as existed a year ago. The unsettled state of society In Lou isiana, and especially the insecurity of loyal men, have created a general feeling of dis trust in the North, and there Is now no dis position to r : sk capital in a community where men are murdered with impunity for their political opinions. The New Orleans massacre did more than the innndaUjns or tbe cotton worm to drive away Northern capital from Louisiana. The -impoverished planters of that State are reap ing tbe bitter fruits of the narrow and blind' policy adopted by tbe people, In sclccUug notorious rebels to rule the State, and at tempting to suppress free opinion by vio lence. Had the citizens of Louisiana exhib ited a proper spirit, and a desire to cultivate friendly feelings with tbe North, the misfor tunes and the poverty of the planters would meet with every indulgence, and would not at ail deter capitalists from giving them another chance to retrieve their fortunes. As it Is, there wQI be a general withholding of capita), and the planters will be left to work out their own salvation. niLITARY TRIALS IN TIRES OF PEACE. Apropos of the subject of military trials in times of peace, just now made prominent by the decision of the Supreme Court lu Milli gan’s case, a very interesting decision by tbe same tribunal, delivered by Mr. Justice Story in 1827, is reported in 12 Wheaton, 19. In ISI4, during the war with Great Britain, the- President of the United States made a requisition on the Governor of New York for the militia In certain parts of the State to be called Into the serviccofthe General Govern ment. Governor Tompkins issued orders de tailing the militia in the districts designated by the President. In September of the same ' year, General Morgan Lewis, commanding the army of tbe United States of the Third ! Military District, convened a General Court- Martial, mainly for the trial of such citizens, liable t perform military duty, as should fail or refuse to rendezvous and enter the service in accordance with the Governor’s orders. This Court- Martial was continued, by various orders, more than three years after the treaty of peace teas concluded. One Jacob E. Mott, of Pough keepsie, was summoned before It, and appeared on the SOlh day of May, ISIS, lull three years and a half subsequent to the end of the war. He was tried and ; convicted of having “failed, neglected and refused to rendezvous and enter the service ! of the United States,” in obedience to Gov ernor Tompkins’ orders, before mentioned, Issued in August 1814. The Court Imposed a fine of nluety-slx dollars, and directed Mott’s Imprisonment for twelve months In case of failure to pay the fine. This judg ment of the Court-Martial was approved by the President of the United States, and Dep uty Marshal Martin under it, seized property belonging to Mott and satisfied the fine, i Subsequently Mott sought to recover the goods and sued ont a writ of replevin, claim ing that the Conn-Martial had no lawful au thority and that its judgment was void. Mott was sustained by the Supremo Court of New York, and by the Court for tbcTilal of Impeachments and Correction of Errors, then the court of last resort in that State. Martin, the Marshal, appealed to the Supreme Court of the United States, and that tribunal reversed and annulled the judgment of the New York Courts, sustain- Ing ftrily the legality of the Court-Martial. Hi noticing the objection that the trial took place three years and more after the war was concluded, and In a time of pro found peace. Judge Story said: “The “opinion of this Court is, that a Court “ Martial, regularly called, under tfie act of “ 1795, does not expire with the end ot the “ war then existing, nor is its Jurisdiction to “ try these offenses in any shape dependent “ upon the fact of war or peace. The act of “1795 Is not confined In Its operation to “ cases of reftual to obey the orders of the “ President In times of public war. On the “contrary, that act authorizes tho Pres!- “dent to cal! forth the militia to “ suppress Insurrections, and tc enforce “ the laws of the United States “in times of peace. And Courts-Martial “ aro, titular tho UOli tootloa of Ik* M i, “ tilled to take cognizance of, and to punish “ delinquencies in such eases, as well as In “ cases where the object is to repel invasion “In times of war. It would be a strained “ construction of the act to limit the au “ thfirity of the Conri'to the mere time of “the existence of the particular exigency, “ when H might be thereby unable to take “ cognizance of and decide a single offence." The constitutionality of tbe act of Congress nodcrwblcb tbe Coart-Martial was convened was not even questioned by Mott's counsel, aud Judge Story declared that, “in our “ opinion there is no ground fora doubt on “ this point, even if it had been relied on, “ for the power to provide for repelling in “ various includes the power to provide “ against thCattempt and danger of an Inva “ sion, as the necessary and proper to “effectuate the object." The Court was also unanimously of opinion that the power to decide when the exigency has arisen has been vetted by the Constitution exclusively iu the President of tho United States. At the time this decision was rendered, John Marshall was Chief Justice, and the decision Itself was pronounced by a Judge whose fame stands second to none as a con stitutional lawyer. If the decision is correct, it would certainly seem to establish clearly that military courts may exist In a time of profound peace, In a Stale which Is not the theatre of war, and exercise its jurisdiction several years after war has ceased In the land, Imposing fines on men who are not and never were either lathe military or naval service, and even Imprisoning them in case of failure to pay these fines. At the time this Co rt-Martial was lu session, and for years befbre, the courts of New York were’ open and process was unobstructed ; the ha bfat corpus was not suspended; the rights of the citizen were surrounded by the same con stitutional pßvtslons that have justly been held, before and since, to constitute their perpetual safeguard. Tet the Court held that the President is the sole judge of the emergency that Justifies the calling out of the militia to enforce the laws, sup press. insurrection, repel invasion, on guard against danger apprehended; that, when In his judgment such in emergency exists, he can establish Courts-Martial and continue them in power, under an act of Congress, for years after peace has been established. All this Is quite different from ihe Inter pretation which the Copperheads give of the decision In the Milligan case. Bat, as we have said io a former article, it is difficult to understand precisely what was determine In that case, nnttl the decision Is fnlly and accurately reported- Then, and not till then, can It be seen whether the Court has adhered to the doctrine of stare decisis, or whether, as the Copperheads would have ns believe, some of the principles laid down are in con flict with those declared by Justice Story in the case of Mott. ENGLISH BEFOBRI RIOTSSKBIVT, A cable despatch gives Urn tallowing im portant intelligence concerning the Reform movement In Great Britain: “ Loicnojt, December 84, p. m.—The Trades unions have agreed to place their organization at the disposition of the Deform party In the Mining political contest. 11 The Trades Unions of England and Scot land and Wales embrace within their organi zation over 1,500,000 adult male members, or one-third of all the men in the Island of Great Britain. Heretofore the Trades Unions have kept aloof from politics, and remained neutral in the contests between the Liberals and the Tories. A majority of the member* have as individuals taken more or less part In British politics, and the taw possessing the franchise generally sold their votes to the highest bidden on election day. The haughty and contemptuous manner In which the moderate Reform bill, introduced by Gladstone, was treated by the privileged caste, touched the working classes on the quick, and stirred them to the bottom. The non-voters of Great Britain, who constitute four-fifths of all the men in the island, have finally made np their minds to force in ex tension of the suffrage. The present de mand Is for household suffrage and vote by ballot, that Is: every head ofa family which keeps bouse shall have a right to vote for Members of Parliament, and vote by secret ballot. Tbo adoption of this proposition would add more than a million voters to the electoral constituency, and would secure them against the coercive Influence and power of the aristocracy and gentry, who own the lands and tenements and control the votes of the few working men who possess the elective franchise. The agitation for an extension of the suf frage has been going on fbr many years, but all the reform bills have been strangled by tbo aristocracy and their flunkey supporters. Gladstone's bill. Introduced at the last ses sion, met with such an opposition that be and the Ministry resigned, and -turned the Government over Into the hands of the Tories, to run the machine to suit them selves. The Liberals of England, of all shades of sentiment, bate the Tories os heartily as :r.e Radicals In this country de test the Copperheads. The American cop per rebel Is the precise cognate of the Brit ish Tory, in aim, purpose, sentiment and Instinct; and the Conservative Republicans of tbe Doolllllc-Cowan-Soward-McCnlloch stripe have their parallel in those apostate Whigs, like Horseman, Stanley, &c., whom John Bright nicknamed “AduUamitos,” and who arc hated and denounced more bitterly in England than even the Tories. The Tories, and Whigs of Tory feelings, arc powerful from their pecuniary, social, and official atandlng. They own the realty of England, and-moat of the personalty, though in point of numbers, including all their satraps and toadies, they, constitute less than a quarter of the population. No pow erful, organized body has ever been pitted against them, unless we include the Chart ists, who were badly led, and soon broke to pieces. But the espousal of the Liberal cause by the Trades Unions, secures to the party led by John Bright, a reinforcement which, if wisely handled, must tarn the scale in favor oftho Beformers, and give them the victory. . There la no organization in Great Britain so perfect in all its ramifications, so com pletely subservient to its rules and officers, so tenaciously ibsed together, so dannUh in its membership, as the multitudinous Trades Unions. The organization embraces about every man and boy engaged in mechanical avocations, including the common laborers in cities and towns, and a majority of the employes in commerce and transportation. The entire muster roll numbers two millions,' of whom a million and a half arc adult males, who would be voters under the laws of the United States. Hereafter this vast organiza tion of operatives, constituting the bone and sinew of British industry, will throw their entire weight into the Liberal scales. ■ Any members found giving aid or comfort to the Tories will be marked as “ rats,” and treated accordingly. At present, the Reform demand is limited to household suffrage and vote by ballot; but if this be defeated by the ‘'Conserva tives,” as will probably be the case, tbe de mand will then rise to manhood suffrage, and the cry will be raised, “Down with the aristocracy—no privileged classes; no land monopoly ; divorce of Church and State.” These Ideas are fixed in the hearts of mil lions of Englishmen, and ere long will find , open expression. The common people of Great Britain have learned to read and write, and are beginning to think and to compre hend the political situation. They have made great strides Id the direction of equal rights and republican equality. Toryism must shortly yield to the Just demands of the people or It will be crushed to pieces, and blown away as dust before the blast. Tbe Open of Faust. No opera ever achieved each a sudden popular success os Gounod’s Faust, which was produce! lastevcDio£,fora rarity, by the StrtkoachTroupe. Even Verdi’s I'rovatore oad to wait for the verdict ol time and L'Afticaine, though resting upon the reputation of the immortal author of “ ilobert” and M Le Piophete" has yet to be pronounced a success. Faust seized the popular regard at tbe very outset. The peculiarities of Mepbiato were widespread themes of discussion. Tbe Garden music was tbe delight of sentimental young la* dies. Every basso in tbe land shook Ms throat nnavoiliogly trying to sing the serenade and Calf of Gold and every haads)rgan, piano, and military band,ground, strummed, and blew to tatters tbe Soldiers' March. All this was nn doubtcdly very pleasant to hi. Gounod, but it was a sure indication of that decadence which is already commencing. It may be laid down as an axiom that; sadden popular success in mas’C la muons, and Faust baa proved no exception to the rule. In less than live years, it may be safe to presume (bat Faust will be laid up on that shelf where I Lombard!, the Turk in Italy, Marie di Bohan, and Macbeth are quietly reposing, soon to bo followed by Crlsploo and n score of other techie unfortunates now strutting their brief hour on ihe stage. Tbe real cacscs for tbe decline of Faust arc ap parent ou tbe very surface. Both the libretto and tbe score are weak. Tbe libretto Is evidently modelled on Ucrlhe's imnuutai poem, as It has none of tbe characteristics of the earlier French, German and English Fausts. No work since Goethe's day is worthy of mention by its ride. No work before bis day, ezrept liamlet and the Bible, ever excelled it in the analysis of tbe great strug gle of life between good and evil; and as tbU conflict is the key note of the poem. It might naturally be expected that the transcription would have been a difficult task. The excision of philosophical speculation, of all that is purely didactic and metaphysical, of local allu sions ard of pure snpenutunlisms was a work of necessity io adapting It to tbe lyric atage. But omitting all these there was still wide -room for in effective libretto. In iu stead we have an emasculated version, violating the unities, shipped of the sitnillona, characters without a sign of the heroic element, a Faust no better and no worse than your batcher or your grocer; a Mepbleto, who Is mao in devil's garb rather than devil in man's garb; a Margaret, lame, spiritless, tchool-clrllsb, with scarcely a hint of that frightful passage from purity to im purity, with not a single glimpse of the fearful conflict in her breast, won by vice in life, by virtue in death. t*lcbel, the student, sinks Into Blebcl a nonentity; Wagner, the soul of honor. Into an epaulctted comuon-place; and gsod, honest Mrs. Schwerllcin, Into a stupid, old woman. No advantage Is taken of the first inter views of Faust aud Mephlsto. of tho sraohic incantation scene in Auerbach’s cellar, tb« 'mys* cries of Walpurgla night, the awful scene In the Cathedral, when Margaret, crushed beneath her load of sin, stilled by the organ peal and the terrors of the JH't Ira , ■mackedby the whispering fiend at her ear, fMH senseless to the earth; nor of the sad prison •cent, when poor Gretchcn, lu Intervals of sanity, tells, as in a broken dream, the story of the mother dragged to death, the elsln child, and the guilty love; pleads with the execu tioner for mercy; with Pans! to restore tbe old love; defies the fii-cd, and Is javetL All these situations, fall of the most ab sorbing interest, and replete with intense dra maUcpewer, are almost utterly Ignorca, or made up ofmerc common-places. The libretto is only remarkable as an cmascalaTon. The author’ •ctma baldly to have had a conception of Garthe's work e ecu rate enough to keep tbe thread of the story unbroken, although the thread is easily enough followed by the careful reader through all the mysticisms .and local drcumatances sur rounding IL It is what might be expected of a French librettist. Weak as tbe libretto is, tbe music is still maker. A good bass aria,' a passable contralto aria, one solitary tenor aria, an adapted soprano melcdy, one concerted eflect of three or four measures, two or three trivial choruses, a fiddle de dee march, and page alter page of dreary reci tative, make up the musical composition of racat. Tbe "Calf of Gold” isiu reality a legiti mate piece of music, and tbe Serenade ranks above most ban arias; but they would be more elective as exercises tor (be baas register than as 'parts ofaneb a work. Tbe Flower Song la pretty enough, but think of Slebel* tbe atndeut. shouting tbe student's litder over bta AAri’iwrln at Auer bach's, as Ccctbe depicts bun, and?lebc] singing a sentimental song to a poser, with a contralto voice, as Gounod makes him. The Garden music cornea nearer to appositenesa, but its chief beauty centres in tbe Labad, which is not original, tod is really a minor or great beauty ami pathos. Tbe Soldiers' Match 'may claim to be belter music than Washington’s Grand March and tbe Battle of Prague, bat the character cilia composition renders It as much out of place is Faust aa it woold be in (he Stabat Mater. Faust has the good fortune, after wading through tedious recitative half the evening, to get one ana—the eetlte dint ore, which la a positive Idxunr after hi* stupid elocution, and wc get a glimpse orbarmony In the quatuor concluding tbe Garden scene. The choruses are hardly worthy of men tion, and are no better cor worse than may be foond in any glee book. The injirunrotatioa la the only endurable part of the work. This ia constructed artistically, and baa tome stirring harmonic passages, and la elaborately worked np at times. *So much Gounod has dose, but what splendid opportunities he has utterly tailed to Improve t No work evar written affords such salient points for music as Faust. It almost suggests the music of itself. But Instead of the sublime Easter-morn chorus " Christ the Lord Is risen to-day/ 1 in the opening act, we bare s rapid labor chorus of male aadlemale voices. The Walpurgts Night which Mendelssohn has so splendidly set to music, is hut an ordinary night to Gounod; to bet, Is no sight at all, tar be entirely ignores It. The In cantation sceses which Von Weber has made so palpable, graphic and fearful with,his musk, seem not to have suggested a solitary musical Jura to Gounod. The awful scene in the Cathedral. The organ and voices thundering the “Day of Wrath, that Dreadful Bay, 11 Gretcben withering before the sound,and the fiend ether ear plying bar with her wretched condition—ell is treated by Gounod with utter ooatpsion of mu sical idea, and the hearer loses nothing by lu omission, ts is usually done in representations. Ihc fearful Imprecation of Wagner upon his sis ter, as he ts dying, with Gounod Is only fortissi mo raring which might equally well suit any oth er musical situation requlnngJT- The Übteltlst missed Us dramatic opportunities, and the com poser never once catches the spirit of the theme. It is orly what little action the librettist has left to Mepbisto and Marguerite, the specious music of such passages as the march and the double choruses, and the great name of Gcethe, wnlch saves it from utter failure, and even these cannot long. The opera of Feast hi* yet to be written. State AntNßonopoly Convention* The anti-monopolists of the different counties In Illinois are requeued to meet at once, and send delegates to the State Convention, called for ednesday, January IC. ISC7, at Springfield. • By order or Morris Convention, i - Jams M. Allen, President. Gno. W. Abmstboxg, { O. B. Gaixsaa, \ Secretaries. Papers throughout the State are request ed to copy. Confiscation of Baee Horses. (From the Detroit Post, Dcecembcr li.] On December 15. General Morrow, Collec tor of Customs, caused the seizure of two celebrated race-horses, named Dan Rice and Lamplighter. One Alaoson C. Sheley, of Wlnsor, a jockey and horse-trader, owned the horses, and frequently came to this side, ostensibly for the purpose of taking pleas ure drives. This was carried on to a great extent, the well-known animals being seen In Detroit dally. It was soon ascertained that the two horses were the property of a Cana an, and were fed and kept on British soil. The Infonnotlon necessary to warrant a seizure being obtained, the noraes were con- Sheley subsequently filed an affidavit to the effect that Lamplighter had not been smuggled, and alleged that she had never been In Canada. This; to the Collect or, seemed dubious, and Sheley was notified to appear and explain. This be failed to do and Is now In Canada. On this side of the river Sheley sold the horses, and this turned out to be the prime cause of their confisca tion. A two day or since bonds were given for Lamplighter. Dan Bice will be sold at public sale In about a week. CALIFORNIA. Onr San Francisco letter. The Weatßer—Farming in California— Serious Dnwbaclu-A Western Girl In Lock—Great XBratrlcal Success— Wine vs. Gold—Coat of Working * Vineyard—Pigeon ELgUah-Ilovr cnl- namrn Ocnl WUB Bobben. (Special Correspondence of the Chicago Tribune.] Bab Fnaaoaco, November 26. I hardly know whether the date at the head of my letter amounts to anything In a letter from San Francisco, or otherwise. To you, It la naturally associated with cold winds, snow, ice, and to setting In of winter. 'With us it Is qnlte the opposite. Two weeks since the rains commenced, and np to this time we bare hada total fall of one and 96-100 inches of water—not as much, all told, as yon would have almost any day In a gum mer shower without noticing It. But it has worked a magical change here, nevertheless. The thermometer'this month has stood at an average of about sixty-five degrees through the day, hardly falling at all at night, and the sunlight and moonlight have together beautified and glorified the earth, and made existence not merely endurable, hut an absolute luxury. Already the "hills are growing green as emerald where two weeks since all was brown and bore and desolate and I noticed this evening wild oats four to six inches In height, which had sprung up on ground on Russian Hill, which, ten 3ays since was as hard, dry and destitute of any sign or trace of vegetation asa section of the most travelled public road in Illinois In summer time. I notice also ripe strawber ries and even ripe fhll-grown blackberries— though not abundant—ln the restaurant windows. They were grown in the open air just across the Bay, near Oakland, and with in sight of San Francisco. Enough of this! lIOW WE EjLBM IK CALIFORNIA. The wasteful extravagance of straw burn ing and non-mannring, so long prevalent in the Northwest, has, in a measure, ceased, and good lands are not now being rapidly exhausted, as in former years. Here It u not the same, however, fpr our farmers seem de termined that no effort shall be spared to'cx haust the soil as rapidly as possible, and our business men cannot be made to eec the necessity of Introducing the elevator system, to enable the farmers to get rid of their crons in hoik. This year we have an Immense crop of everything, from peanuts to pota toes, and from mustard seed to wheat, but twenty-five per cent of the entire crop got* to pay for bag*. and after deducting the enor mous rates of interest paid by the farmer on ! borrowed capital, I doubt If, as a rule, as : much la left over, on the average, as with the fanners of Illinois, with all the advantages of our wonderful soli, position and climate. Here is a sample statement filed In the Insolvent Court yesterday: Petitioner, Stephen W. Millard, commenced business os a farmer In Alameda.Countv,lu 1855,0 n a capital of$2,000; realizing as profits since, $143,911. In conse quence of tne &liure of crops, expenses of labor, freights, harvesting, threshing and lencing a large farm, together with the de predation In prices of farm products fro qnenlly occurring through a period of seven years, petitioner has paid for Interest, as per balance of interest account, $150,090; paid for personal and family expenses, $10,000; loss in mining stocks, $2,000; loss by failure of crops, $10,000; liabilities, $23,000; assets, S4OO and a lot of wild-cat mining stocks. A WESTERN GIBE IK LVCK. Do tte readers of the Tbircxs happen to remember the “Little Elfln Star,” Miss Alice Kingsbury, who played “Savanna” for a week or so in Chicago last summer, at McVicker’a, I believe? Well, would j'ou be* lieve it, the pretty little woman came here two months since with her husband, (she is really Mrs. Kingsbury, but according to stage practice, plays os “Mias”), out of money and an utter stranger. She went to Maguire, the San Franci&co manager par ticcUentt, and asked fora brief engagement. Forrest had just concluded his engagement with Maguire, having made only a qualified success considering the “great expectations” entertained before his arrival. The pretty little stranger, coming unheralded from the West, totally unknown, and without a friend to back her, stood & poor chance, and Maguire hardly gave the proposition a thought. He said, however, in an oil-band way, “Well, if yon are so certain you can draw, you may have a week’s engagement on these terms : Half the boose shall be year’s, after deducting S4OO a night for my company and expenses.” This proposition did not look like a fortune to the little stranger, hut she accepted It as the best she could get, and was thankful even for such a chance. She appeared to a ftilr honse in “ Fanchon,” and took San Francisco in an instant by storm. She has since played “Fanchon” some twen ty-five times, and has run through the range of characters, such as “Tolula ’“in Savanna, the "Rose of Savoy,” “Dot,” «fec., and after playing every night bat Sunday, and every Saturday afternoon, for eight weeks, has an nndiminisbed popularity ood fills the Opera House every night, let the attractions else where be what they may. Her first week on the terms proposed before she was known at all netted her $1,500 in gold, and she has earned altogether more than $12,000 already. After concluding her engagement here, she will go up country; then return and play another, and then leave for New York, where she will play an engagement; then go to England. She is a native of Cincinnati, pe- Utf in form, and not free from faults os an actress; but has a lovely face, and a voice and manner which, with constant study aud a determination to please, wins all hearts. She ought to carry away from California at least twenty thousand dollars over all ex {xsau, ntUUi this time la not a small for tune to stumble upon. Such a success has not been achieved by anybody in California within the last six years, and 1 only fear that it may Induce “sticks” without number—of whom we have too many already—to conic out hero with the expectation of doing os well. To do Mrs. Kingsbury justice, I must say th&t she is the most modest, ladylike acd unpretending lady I have ever seen on’ the stage, and richly deienre* the success she has achieved. wink vs. GOLD. £1 Dorado Conotj was supposed in early times to be utterly worthless for firming purposes, and only valuable for the immense deposits of gold in her placers. . Well, as years have rolled on, the placers have been well nigh exhausted, and the quartz mines then unknown, arc now the more valaablc ol the two. Bat it is at length demonstrated that the most barren hillsides in the connty are worth more to-day after the gold Is worked ont, for vinacullural purposes, than they ever were for mining. The best wine and raisins produced in the State come now from the mountains, and vine growing is now becoming one of the leading interests of that section of the country. As vine grow ing is attracting much attention in the At lantic and Western States at this time, per haps the following estimates of the expense and profits of a vinevanl in El Dorado Coun ty. os a sample mountain connty of Califor nia, may not •be uninteresting to yonr readers: One bone is sufficient to cultivate fa good order, •birty acres. Cost of horse, pleach, caldraior. spade, hoes, etc., slls. One mao with a horse can tike care of thirty acres of grapes, from the time they are put out until six years ©M, at a cost not exceeding ITU" per year, including all expense for horse feed, board, wear and tear or toots, etc. Money, when permanently invested for a senes or yean and on undoubted security, can be obtained at one per cent per month. nxcArrruLATiox. Coslof3oacre*atslJ2sper acre. 5 27,50 Cost oTfcLcmg atjlJ per acre... fKJ.OO Cost of grubbing, etc. sax no Co»t of plowing, at SS per acre... 340.00 Cost of furrowing, faper acre.... BO.OU Cost of &0.0 U) cuttings at $5 SSO.UU Costof 80,000 roots at 57.50 310 00 Cost of putting ont roots 3i5.W Coftorbors«s,ploiighß, elc 125.00-t 507.5 C Interest on Investment for G years at 1 per cent per mouth 1,3>5.60 Labor. Cyeais, at fTtWper yeir.. 4,300.00 Interest on labor, 6 years, at I per cent per month LftLOO Extra contingencies 319.V0--8,102.50 Total cost of vineyard of thirty aaea, six yean old 510,000.00 uooxx. The third year, 36,000 Tines will yield S **s of grapes per to e—72,000 tta, a: i cent per $ 730.00 Fonrtb year, 6 35s per Tine, Fifth year, 10 S»a per Tine, spoilt, 3,600.00 Sixth year, 14 tbs per vice, 6W.«1~ 5,<H0.00-f11,530.00 Or, if made Into wine, WJOO Ibf grapes, calling iSlbs per gal, win make 4,000 gals., at fiCc S 2,000.00 2KCC0..12.C00 gals., at 50c. 0,000.00 39>,00u..20,0b0 gats., at 50c. 10,000 00 504,000..26,000 gals., at 50c. 14,000.00 Making raise of wine for id, 4th, sth and 6th years ££,ooo 00 From which dedcct: Cost of vineyard, six years old, 110,000.03 Cost of cellar. “ ** Ooct or euks s,wo.ou Cost of pm»e«, tah*,elc.. I,OOO.OO—JiajXU.OO Leaving a net income of. #12.000 00 To which add the nine of vineyard* wlimaunc toe \ Inca at 50c each, for 36,00 vlaei #15,000.00 Showing the value of vineyard and Income #31*000.00 The Placemlle Democrat, in speaking of wine-crowing, says: “Whv !• it that capital will eeek quart* and copper Investments on an cr certainty, while we have throat into our face* every day the ccmlnty or the crape con ore? Pnblic opinion has heca m favor of quarts. even thongh onr capital moat needs go to Washoe, then Reese River, and Anally B H* •® cceM oi soch men as Bowe 4rDteksoe, Foster. Brocke, Carpenter, Wether* wax, Hicjnce, Jackson, Darcy, Davis, Porter £ Bncb «y* **« Smiths, Allboor, an dr cry many others, mast aatisfac lerily show that capital Invested In vineyard*, ether for wise or rafisln purpose*. will pay heller aad more Bare than any quart* mine in toe State, with the same amount or capital invested. ’ 1 may add that the vineyard proprietors of CaDforoia are this rear ovcrblesscd with a bpantifpl barrest. In Los Angelos County alone the yield wm exceed one million gal lons of wine at this the vineyard of , f° no ? a f^ 01 tcil what to do 1 t u e^? ice their S7»Pw, as they cannot get suitable casks enough to hold I; all. PIGEON ENGLISH. r ?°?s re \ di si e * t * of coirnp- Uom of the leading peculiar words and phrases In all languages, made more ero tewne and ludicrous In the month of a Chinaman by his utter InablUty to distinctly enunciate the sound of the letter r.for which he invariably substitutes the sound ot I or lr mt,3inin of communication o® l ™® lbe and the Mongolian and Malay races all over the world. “ Road J? uighwar robbers, now Infest Cal ifornia and Nevada to an alarmin': f?!? 1 *’ 4nd 80 *£°l d baT ® b ®y irrown that can 7 on their operations on the out- f be . 6QbQrb * of the princl. ,°, f the joterlor. Now “ John ”bv f ku of California Is debarred trom acalnst a white man, even though the white man may be an old State Prison convict, and John I resnecUble mereffm gentleman and scholar tike Chy Lung or '“K Tunpi * nd b « has found out that to Wmsclf he must become “a law unto himself, and he does It. Two highwaymen or read agents’’hare been killed b/chi- SfSSe?.* 4 ?*!? 01 of the Sl *te of late. In one cm,. In Nevada County,(not the State ?.? e JS?M aW * hl !V m,ul fobbed a China *t once “lonned a ring” with bis tricods and sent two of the company back up the road as decoys. while the re mainder of the party crawled through the chapparel and at a given signal poured to a volley which laid the robber out with his toes turned heavenward instanler. AU Shut, the leader of the party, in testifying before the Coroner's jury, pot off the follow* ing, w hich is the best bit of “ Pigeon English,” I have ever found la print, not excepting the Simona translation of Norvai's address, commencing, “Topside Glamploa hilly, mine fladder—you ehabbeo mine fladder?” Ac., which I once sent you. Remember that “Shabbee” means “understand,” and then you must substi tute r for 1, then “wade In Yon shabbee me) He dowuee load go. Lobbah man be sbabhee xno. Be pay,‘-John, you come oat.” Me no shabbee come one He say, •‘mon ey, John.” He sbabbee ‘‘money.” lie takoe dolla bap. He go os. Heep flo my lurlner. My partner kelchw elf bt ten Chinaman Chinamans go up load ketefaee lobbah man. Lobbah man no mnenee ehabbeo; Chinaman mccbee shabbee. Two Chinamans go long® load. Lobbah man be see two Chinamans, lie cons oat, be lob two Chinamans. Chinamans rnncheo talkce—lobbah man no shabbee. Ileep Chinamans come no- Chinamans mnehee taltee—lobbah be no shabbee, he mnehee looke boot. Me say, “you no shootoc, me no ahootee.” Lobbah man mnehee ebootee. Chinamans mnehee shootee. lobbah man he fall down, mnehee tly ciUee op. Mejmule gun to lobbah man head. Me ahootee, lobbah man be lay still. He belly dead. Me git tec my money an me Jan down Ogee. Yon shabbee me Ogee) He not at home, mo ehabbee Billie uarticc. an he no see lobbah man. Lobbah man be mnehee dead. Belly mnehee yon flen. That lets me out for to-day. Altamonte. KAMI'S CHATKA. A Kamchadale Wedding. Bowthe Weddings are Paid for—Brest of the Bride and Bndesroom—Pecu liarities of the JPrlest*—Xhc Ccrejaonjr —The Weeding Supper—Fifteen Drops for an Appetizer* (Correspondence Setr York Herald.] PrraorALOurgKi, Kaxtschatux, July liVISCI * * * My arrival at Petropalouvski was fortunately just in time to witness a wedding after the Russian fashion. The one In ques tion was to take place the very day we reach ed the port, and invitations to attend It were promptly given; The hour appointed was five p. m., and the place was the church, the only one in Petropaloovskl. As It was near ly three o'clock when we first went on shore, onr visit was very briefi _We were obliged to return to dress. Our rendezvous was to be at the house ol Mr.Pfluger, one of the for eign merchants, and 1 appeared there at the appointed lime,, five minutes before five. Fflngcr said there was no occasion to start for the church nntll the bridal party had aet out In the same direction, ana as the house . where the party would start was directly op posite Pflugcr’s, our watching and waiting was comparatively easy. A few minutes past five the procession was on Its way, and X foHowed under Pfloger’s guidance. It is proper to say here that there is a cus tom in Siberia, but not in European Russia, ot inviting some friend of either femily to be master of cercmon'cs when a weeding Is to take place. A very good Joke In the matter Is that the person thus officiating pays from hU own pocket all the expense of the affair, which is oy no means smalt, thus baying his honor at a pretty high price. As the Sibe rians are not less sagacious than other peo ple, they take care to invite on such occa

sions some one who bos sufficient funds to meet all liabilities without inconvenience or hesitation. The person selected for the present honor was Mr. PhiUipcus, a Rus sian gentleman who trades in this and other localities, and is now on his annual visit to Kamtachatka. His funds being con sldercd without limit, and as he was well known to all the interested parties, he was naturally selected to supervise the affair. I recommend that the custom be adopted in America, and if some one can be found In New York who will thus meet the expense of a “diamondwedding,” a considerable outlay may be saved for the young couple to use as they start In life. The wedding was a doable one, two sisters being tbe brides, and the procession starting from the house of their father. As the party emerged and moved toward the church, I coala see that Philllpens had one of the la dies on each arm, and that those damsels bad each her victim on tbe arm not held by Phil lipeus. The brides were in white, with veils (ulmay so call them) of the same character placed over their heads and filling down on each side and behind, but not covering their faces. The men about to be made happy were in sombre black, as if In sorrow for the act which was to lake them from single life, their white vests being almost entirely con cealcd by the coats buttoned over them. Be hind this front rank were the groomsmen and bridesmaids, who assisted ”at the af fair, In nnmbcrs a dozen or more- Behind these were the members of the families and tlfb Invited relatives, so that the cor tege stretched oat to a considerable length. Each of the groomsmen wore a bow of colored ribbon on his left arm and a smaller one in tbe bntton-bole usually devo ted to such ornaments. As there are few young women who have no “little brother,” there was in this case no exception, a small troop of juveniles bringing up the rear. The whole proccsrionformeoa miscellaneous assemblage of rorles and females, from very early youth to respectable age. Following with my guide I found the ser vice Jnst commencing as 1 entered the build ing. Two priests of the Greek Church were reading the preliminary portion, which was listened to by both the couples standing, with their supporters and friends in the cen tre of tbe church. There were no seats in this church, and lam told there aro none throughout Russia, ail the worshippers and spectators under this faith being obliged to stand during the performance of the service. In this case everybody remained standing, the wedding party In the centre of tto church and thespcctators near the entrance, the ladies, of coarec, having the front rank. As the thermometer stood afserentv-two degrees, and the building was not ventilated according to modem rules, I found the erect portion rather a- feel ing which was shared by most of those around me. The two'priests that officiated were dressed In the costume of the Greek Church, a long robe extending from the shoulders to the leet, and a chapeau much like an old fashioned bell-crowncd hat, with out a brim. “ The short one,” said a friend near me, pointing to a little, round, fat, amiable looking priest, “will get very dnmk whenever he has tbe opportunity. Watch him to-nlcbt and see how he leaves tbe din ner party.” If one mav judge by appear ances, this priest certainly gave Indications of a fondness for the cup that cheers. His. ruddy countenance reminded me of some 1 feces I have seen around the club rooms la New York, and Lis tendency to embynpoUt showed that be was nut on starvation diet. Kotwithi'tanding Lis apparent enjoyment of life, he appeared to l»e thoroughly Versed In the ritual of the Church for the service he was performing. These Russian priests wear their hair and beard long—tbe former parted In the middle and banging down over their shoulders. I am told that they are not expected to give any heed to the decoration of their persons, and therefore never care to call the narber’s services into requisition. Like tbe priests of the Catholic Church In America, the Russian priests seem to be thoroughly devoted to their calling, but do not consider themselves debarred from enjoying life. Unlike the priests of the Roman Catholic Church, thev marry, raise up children, and live like the people around them. Tbe chief of the three priests of Petropanlovski is called “the Pope”—a fact or which I was not aware until I»was startled by an Introduction In the evening to “the Pope's wife,” as her position was translated to me. The ladv greeted me in Russian, and I responded in‘English, nei ther of us having a literal understanding of the other’s salutation, but each believing that it included the Usual good will of such •expressions. ' I cannot describe the marriage ceremony In detail, as I,do not understand Russian, and there was no one at hand to translate as th« affair progressed. There was much reci tation by the priests, reading from the ritual ot the church, swinging of censers, singing by tbe chorus and the priest in the secluded chamber, responses by the condemned, and those of the audience who took part in the affair, many bows and gesticulations and dgus of the cross by those who belonged to the chnrch, and a general response on the part of the outsiders, who were unaccus tomed to these solemnities. Colonel Bulkley had accompanied a lady to the church, and as he stood with his uniform' fastened a la regulation, and the thermometer at seventy two degrees, he appeared as if be would gladly seek the open air. My yonthfbl pic tures of Eamtscnatka painted a region of ice and snow, bnt X bad found a midsummer heat Instead that was stronglv suggestive of fens and linen clothing. There was a Hog In the affair which was mantged by Mr. Philllpens and the priests, after which two crowns were brought forth by an attendant and held for a short time over the heads of the first couple that enter ed matrimonial life. Two of those who as ®frted at the ceremony held the crowns over the beads of bride and bridegroom and soon allowed them to drop. The crowns were very large, being made to fit heads of every sue, and therefore large enough for the largest. Tbe head of the first bridegroom was not large, so that the crown came over it farther than desirable. Wearing these crowns, and preceded by tbe priests,’ the party marched three times around the altar, chanting a pertain part of tbe service. Then tbe crowns were removed and kissed bv each of the marrying pair, the bridegroom’ being tbe first to perform tbe esculation. After this the pair, one after the other, passed before some of the pictures, kneeling before one. kissing another »nd hewing to the floor before a third. Then there was more passage of rings, as nearly as I could sec from my standpoint. A cup of water was held by the priest, first to the bridegroom and then to the bride, each of the parties quaffing a small portion. Then, after the return to tbe former position, the first couple retired to thesmall chapel which opened out from the chnrch and tnc second couple passed through the trying ordeal, as well asT could estimate the preliminary cere mony, for all occupied about twentv min utes, and the same time was consumed by each couple separately. When the affair was ended, the whole party returned to the house whence It had set out. tbe small boys carrying pictures of the Virgin and tbe saints, and hold ing candles before them. I am told that there is a picture of the Virgin in the house ol every one throughout Russia who believes in the faith of the Greek Chnrch, and that this picture Is kept as the ehrmc of perpetfial adoration. It is sup posed to see all that transpires in the room, and'so great is tbe regard for It that ills said thieves will not practice their calling in its presence. A gentleman who has lived some time in Russia tells me that whenever a thief esters a house, they first cover tbe picture with a kerchief or veil, which they leave to screen their departnre. Placing the picture high up In a corner, in such a posi tion that it cannot be reached, la a very good protection against pilferers. I should havementloned before that before the party left the church there was a general congratulation extended to the newly mar ried. There was a nniveml hand-shaking on the part of all, and some kissing ex changed among the women. One of the brides bad an attractive face, so that It is possible some of the male spectators may nave regretted tfaat tbo custom of kissing the bride did not prevail In Kamtschatka. Tbe wedding was by no means ended with the departures of the parties from the church. There was to be a supper In honor of the event given, of coureo, at the expense of Mr. Phlllipeuf, thedlrcctorof the affair. To this supper everybody was invited, and as one house could not contain all the guests It was to lake place lu two dwellings. \Ve first went to the residence of the bride’s father, hut this could not contain all. and there was .very soon a division. Mr. Pfluger told me that au entertainment would take place at hia house, which was only across the street, and 1 was one of some forty or fifty persons that proceeded thither. The tables were not ready when we arrived, so that nearly an hour was passed in conversation and in a ceremonial of a bibnluns character that is practised throughout the civilized world in a variety of ways. In Kamtschatkalt Is called taking fifteen drops” (pttnaisd copfa), and is so frequent in occurrence as to merit de scription. It la a Russian custom to precede a dinner with something stimulating, Just as the -American takes his ante-prandial cock tail, though the Hessians are more general In the observation of their custom than the Americans with theirs. A small side table Is set ont with a Innch of meat, dried and pickled fish, reindeer tongues and bread. Then there Is a decanter of gin and one of cognac, though the Utter U not so general as the former. There is always a small bottle of bitters, unless the Utter has been already mixed with the gin. The fifteen drops are taken In wine glasses; bat it Is proper to say that the - number Is never counted out, hut taken “by guess,” every man giving himself the benefit of any doubt that may arise. Proposals to take these doses of gin or brandy, arc by no means on frequent in Kamtschadale houses, particu larly at a feast like the one f was attending. The lunch and “fifteen drops” are used as an appetizer, and apparently servo their pur poses. I noticed that the priest, before men tiooed.was one of the foremost in patronizing the solids and fluids of the lunch tabic. One of his first movements was to invite me to join him in the ceremonial. I wished to take nut a small quantity of the beverage, but he insisted on my swallowing bis own dram. T next endeavored to dodge the matter by Swallowing only a few drops, but the priest held In the air his Inverted empty glass, as be might hold a rat by the tall, and motioned me to do the same, if all priests were like this one I fear for the example to the young of their flocks. 'When seated at the table we had “fifteen drops” again. The party was composed of merchants of the city, together witn officers of the ships lu port and some of the officials of-the post. The apartment waa crowded, and even the opening of the windows did not sufficiently reduce the atmosphere. The dinner began with fish pie, a very toothsome compound of minced salmon ana boiled rice, baked in a crust like a Yankee pork pie. Then came soup of beef and chicken, it being the Kamtschadale custom to have fish pre ' cede the soup. Then came roast beef la slices, and afterwards a sort of real cutlet, as near as 1 could make it out. Last of all we had cake and jelly, the cake resembling the gin ger soaps of America. But the dishes were by no means served as rapidly as 1 have men tioned them. There was a long Interval after each coarse betbro the next was served. It Is a well known law ofnaturc that lluidsuh stances will most rapidly fill vacancies, and so these periods of time were filled np with fluids taken from cylinders of glass. Ale, porter, champagne, sherry, port and claret, were rapidly absorbed. There was much drinking of healths between Individuals, the parties generally touching their glosses be fore drinking. Pflnger was toastmaster, and proposed toe health of the married pair, the guests of the evening, and other subjects as Each toast received three cheers and a tiger, ala Smericaint, but there were no speeches, ills not a Russian custom to call lor speeches at dinner, but any one can make them who desires to do so. Cigars and cigarettes were actively circu lated, and every one who loved tobacco could smoke at his picas arc. Messengers were kept lu motion from one bouse to the other to carry the toasts,-and cheers were exchanged between the parties as the sentl .mtnte were received and read. Dinner came to a close about ten o’clock, and let us out Into the cool open air. The old priest was In a condition where he would appear best alone, and was escorted to hla home by two of his American friends. The party was not ended with the close of dinner, out the whole company adjourned to the bouse of Captain Suthavoi for a dance. Feeling oppressed by the heat, 1 wanted to escape, ana meeting Colonel Bulkley I joyfully accepted his pro posal to return to the steamer and Indulge in a little sleep. The boat was In wailing at the little wharf, and we left the happy as semblage to finish their festivities without us, as we well knew they could. A Kamtschadale wedding last for three days, or long enough for the married ones to make calls upon all the guests who were present at the dinner. The party goes from house to house, until all arc visited, ou the day after the weddlcg, and the third day re ceives visits of congratulation. It has been a continual round of mlith on shore, and I presume that everybody is satisfied. All is now ended, and the parties whose union has been celebrated have settled Into the happi ness of matrimonial life. May their shadows never be less. THE PARIS EXPOSITION. Tlie Historical Library of France—Lit erary Cariosities—American Hen* spa vers—Articles from Somli America— KestaarmUon—Bast Indian Articles. IConopondence of the New York Tribune.J Pauib, November 37. A more practical and practicable scheme for the embodiment of french literature In a manner to render profitable its participa tion in the Exhibition, than that which I mentioned in a former letter, has recently been set on consists in extending to books end mannsertpts the principle hither to confined to plctorca and other objects of art, as regards contributions to be made by amateurs and collectors. The collection exhibited will take the name of “ The Historical Library of France,** and will comprise scarce editions of celebra ted works, and choice specimens of printing and binding. Several works ore mentioned as having already been offered by their own er* ;amocgthem are the first edition of Jacques de J'boo, published in 1583; the first edition of Montaigne, 15U5, the copy which belonged to Queen Elizabeth of England. The Duke d’Aumale, a great collector, has offered asplendid copy of the works of the celebrated Huguenot, Philippe de Morney, the stem friend of Henry IV. This copy is bound in white vellnm, and bears the device, “Tito weia virtue, mortis comes otorta.” Vic tor Cousin, Ferinim Dldot and Duke d’Uze have also promised to lend some of their choice books. In relation to this subject I wouid say a few words respecting a sugges tion which I understand has been made by Colonel Norton to the numerous and influ ential body of persons connected with the daily press of the United States. The Com missioner in question has advised that a col lection of specimens of all the newspapers published in the United States be formed, ooond together in volumes, and sent over to the Exhibition. AiIEUICAX NEWSPAPERS. It is generally known here that America Is the country where newspaper literature is more universally brought homato the entire population than any other; but I much doubt whether any just notion can be formed of wbat is really done in that way. It seems to me that there can be no better mode of letting the world form a correct judgment on the subject than that proposed by Colonel Norton. By the way, the English Commis sion has already resolved upon carrying ont the same idea as regards the English dally press. The system upon which the proposal is to be carried out In the United States Is. I understand, as follows: By a prearranged organization, a specimen copy of thejtrtf number of every newspaper, of every description, published throughout the country In the month of January, 1567, shall be sent to a given place, together with a statement ol the amount of Its circulation. The copies so received shall be bound up in volumes, classed either by States or by large cities, accordingly as may be dctermlnea, with a view to portability and convenience of form. It is to be hoped that the proprie tors of the publications in question will, as a body, perceive that the success of this Im portant feature of the Exhibition is a matter which concerns at once their private interests and the credit of the country. BESTACRATIOX. Along the centre of the great nave will ran a double row of colamas, at once form ing a passage for the visitors whence, on both sides, they may sec the machinery in motion, and acting as supports to the spindles and shafts in nse for toe machinery. Outside the great nave Is the covered gallery in which provisions and beverages of all natures arc to be at once exhibited to the curious and con sumed by tbe hungry and thirsty. Independently of this provision gallery, there will be restaurants and cafes In abnn dance, in and near the park. In particular a bufftt restaurant on a lams scale Is now being elected in the park to the left of the princi pal entrance opposite the point dVena, It covers a space of 2,500 square feet, and a vast system of cellarage for tbe preservation of provisions, and the preparation of food may be already ascertained. The Conccs sionarcs of this establishment are Messrs. Bouge and Offrog, both famed restaurateurs. It is proposed to open a portion of this imffti-raiattrant at the-beginning of the New Tear, which will be a great advantage to the persons engaged upon the fittings of the palace. _ There is to be an equally largo culinary establishment under English superintend ence, and a third of specially American character is talked of. I find that a belief exists among Certain French critics, and other persons taking «n interest In tbe Exhl bivion, that the United States will seek to shine chiefly In tbe show ol natural produce and of raw materials, to the exclusion of machinery and manufactured articles. Whether this belief is sincere, or whether it is affected, In order to cover a certain amount of apprehension, I' win not venture to pro nounce; for it la beyond a doubt that In their anticipations of the ulterior consequences to the International commer cial relations of France and America, their tone is this: “America is a country ezsen tmlly agricultural, and her produce Is most advantageously disposed of by being sent to Europe m general, and France in particular, for consumption as food, or for manufactur ing fabrics. America does not, or will not, attempt to compete with ns as a manufac turing country. Unlike England and Ger many, she Is not to be feared as a rival In in dustrial operations; she will continue, as at present, to send us her raw produce, and to take from us in return our manufactured goods, our articles of luxury and cUgance and our wines.** * SOUTH AaCERICAX ARTICLES. The space in the palace to be given to the Sonth American States is nearly G 000 square feet, and It adjoins the English section. The arrangement and decoration of this section Is to be carried out by the order of a commit, tee presided over by M. Victor Herron, Min ister Plenipotentiary of San Salvador. These States may be expected to shine principally in Natural and Alimentary produce. In par ticular the Republics of La Pla*a and Para rnay derive their chief wealth from the vast locks and herds which pasture in the Pam pas. We shall doubtless have some splendid specimens of wool from these countries; in addition to which the different modes of pro paring meat for European consumption there adopted will be fully exemplified. - The marriage of lh« Prince Amadeus. Duke of Aosta, ton of Victor Emanuel, with the Princess Dells Cisterns, ia definitely arranged. Phis lady lathe daushter of the Prince or that name, who, being a decided Liberal, look part in the Italian Tiling 01X91. THE PABDOSISG POUEB. Snutor Trumbull's Uemarki on the Proposed Amendmeotol tlxe Confisca* Oon Ace,- [From the Congressional Globe, December 13-J Mr. Cowax. I should like to have the thirteenth section of the act of 18G2, which it is proposed to repeal, read. The Secretory read as follows: u Seo IS. And be it further enae'ed, That the President Is hereafter authorized at anytime here, alter, by proclamation, to extend to person* who mar have participated in the existing rebellion in any t*tat« cr part thereof pardon and amnesty, with such exceptions and at each time and on such conditions as ho nay deem expedient for the public welfare.” M.r Jodnson. 1 should like to hear the honorable chairman of the Jndtciary Com mittee state what particular reasons there are for passing this proposed bill. It docs nothing but repeal, as I understand tt, one of. the sccticus of tho act of lS62,whlch gave the President authority In certain cases to grant pardons either general or special. Ido not know whether I am right or not, bat I hnve been under the impression that that power is now m the Executive by the Constitution; that it is not conferred by the act of ISG2 ; and that nothing will be accomplished by its repeal. I suppose that the proposition to re peal the act was founded on the opinion that without it the power coold not be exercised by the Executive. I should like to know if it at Is tho opinion of the honorable chair man ; whither he proposes to repeal it upon hat groat d. Mr. TRCMnn.I.. Mr. President, I presume the Senator from Maryland, and every Sena tor. is familiar with the constitutional pro vision which confers upon the President au thority to grant reprieves and pardons. Of course, tte repeal of this section of the act of ISG2 will not repeal the Constitution, and I suppose no one denies the authority of the President to grant pardons under the Con stitution. effect of the passage of the bill under consideration, is to repeal the thirteenth section of the act of July 17, 1563. It Js possible, as has' been suggested by the Senator from Maryland, from the baste with which this bill was hurried throngh the other branch of Congress, and the anxiety manifested iu this body by some of its members to press it to an immediate vote without thensnal reference to a committee, that an impression has gone out to the country that by the repeal of this thirteenth section the power of the President to grant pardons and restore to rebels their property would be taken away. Such, how ever, will not be Its effect in my opinion. The President's power to grant pardons and restore property will be Jost as complete after the passage of this bill repealing the thirteenth section of the act of XSC3 aa be fore. The Constitution confers on the Presi dent the power "to grant reprieves and pardons for offences against tho United states, except in cases of impeachment." It is not in the power of Congress to deprive him of this pzerogntive. A pardon is a remission of the crime or offence, and not of the conviction, and may be granted as well before as after conviction; and it also may bo either absolute or conditional. AU these questions were settled by decisions of the Attorneys General and of the Supreme Coart of the United States yeais ago. Mr. Wirt, who was Attorney General under Mr. Mon roe, gave an opinion, 1 think in IS3O, that the President had authority to grant par dons before conviction. He placed it upon the ground that a pardon was of the offence and net of the conviction for the offence; that the conviction was only evidence of the crime or offence which bad been committed. Subsequent Attorneys General have given the seme opinion, and the practice of the Government, I oelieve, has conformed to that opinion; The Supreme Court of the United States, in the case of ex parte Wells, which Is reported in 18 Howard, page Sll, and which X have before me, quoted with appro bation this passage from Lord Coke: ‘‘A pardon Is said by Lord Coke to bo a work of mercy, whereby thu Kinr, either before attainder, sentence, or conviction, or alter, forglvelh any crime, offence, punishment, execution. Debt, title, debt, or duty, temporal or The same Conrt, in a case reported In 7 Peters, in which the opinion was delivered by Chief Justice Marshall, decided that a pardon may oe cither absolute or condition al. They quote in that opinion also from common law writers on the subject of par don and Us effect, and say: •* A pardon is a deed to tho validity of which delivery la essential, and delivery is sot com- Eicie without acceptance. Xt then may bo rejected y the person to whom ft is tendered; and if it be i ejected.wo have discovered no power In a conrt oforce it on him.”— United S!aut vs. Wilton,** Ftt'rt, pace 101. *_ - The point in this case was the authority of the President to Impose a condition in grant ing a pat don, and the Supreme Court held that that authority existed in the President, and they laid down the rule in both these cases that the power of the President “ to grant reprieves and pardons" is to be con strued as those words were understood at the time they were Incorporated into the Constitution of the United States. The President’s power to re store property seized under the confiscation act to Its former rebel owners will not be affected by the repeal of the thirtieth sec tion of the act of 1562, as the section Is silent on that subject. It is certainly within the power of the President to refuse to restore property to pardoned rebels by making it a condition when he grants the pardon that they shall not claim the prop erty which has been seized by the Govern ment. The President, however, has not generally done this, and by granting abso lute pardons, has given an order in act for the restoration or property. It will be seen by the report of General Howard, madeto Congress at the lost session, that tho Presi dent did direct property to be restored to a person who had been pardoned, and under the rule adopted in that cose General How ard states that be proceeded to restore to pardoned rebels more than four hundred thousand acres of land which hod been seized under the confiscation act. I will not under take to say whether the President has an thority to restore this property. Ho cer tainly has no such authority where the rights of third parties Whenever the property has been condemned under the confiscation act, his right to take away the title of an Individual who had acquired any interest In the property and restore It to the former owners would doubtless be gone Whether r he could before, after the mere seizure of the property, is another question • but it is not affected in my opinion by the repeal of the section under consideration. Ii the President has this power under the Constitution, it may b-j asked why then re peal this thirteenth section; what harm does It do? I answer that this thirteenth section is broader than the Constitution; it author ized the President by proclamation to grant pardon and amnesty. The difference, os I understand, between a pardon and an amnes ty is this: a pardon is an act of merer ex tended to an individual; it must be by deed • it must be pleaded; Chief Justice Marshall says It Is essential to Its valldlty.that it most be delivered—an amnesty is a general pardon proclaimed by proclamation. This stat ute undertakes to confer upon the President of the United Stales authority by general proclamation to grant pardon aud amnesty to everybodywho has been en gaged In the rebellion. The President has already issued general proclamations of am nesty and pardon : there egg be no occasion for the exercise of that power hereafter, and therefore there Is a propriety m repealing the section of the statute which confers this power upon the President. Let him have such powers as the Constitution gives him • of course Congress cannot take from him those powers; bntlctusnot be a party to conferring any additional powers or any ad ditional facility upon the President to grant pardons to persona engaged in this rebellion who have shown themselves after obtainin'* Kroon so undeserving of tho mercy which s been extended to them. Let us repeal that clause which authorized the Issuin'* of proclamations of amnesty. This will at least be an expression of opinion on the part of Congress that general pardons and res toration of property should not be contin ued and If the President docs continue to pardon rebels and restore their property by individual acts under the Constitution, let him do so without having the sanction of Congress for his act. Therefore, sic, the committee recommend ed the passage of this bill, believing that the ■expression oi such an opinion on the part of Congress was but carrying oat the expres sions of the people of this country, and that we should withhold any encouragement on our part to the granting of general pardons and restorations of property lor the future until we can see a better spirit manifested on the part of those who are their recipients. FBOM VIENNA, Tbe Grim of Bectboreii and Sclmbert. [Coiretpoßdence of the N. T. Tribune.) i«4i« a,. Vimra, December 2, 18G6. At a little distance from Vienna Is the vO iage Wahrinjr, It was a bright and pleas ant Sunday afternoon when I went thither some days ago. The church-yard Ilea on a gentle slope, and as the gates are kept shut, you meet hardly any living being there. An old man entered with me by a side door, and at once told roe where tbe graves I sought were to be found. “Keep along the wall to your left bond and nearly at the top of the avenue you will see them. Ton cannot help finding them. 1 ’ And going on along the quiet walk, I saw a plain pyramidal slab resting against the wall, and on it In long gold letters the one word, “Beethoven?’ At first It seemed like a dream rather than a reality, that before me. In that narrow space, should be contained the mor tal frame of him who had filled tse world with his music, sounds which seemed almost to he a part of the divine organization of thi« earth rather than mere human handiwork. Involuntarily one thought of and compared the smallness of room now occupied with the immensity of his works, the boundless spheres be was able to fill with his music. The simplicity of the inscription pleased me greatly. Any addition would have made it less impressive. The name alone of him who lav there was enough. That one word said more than the longest epitaph; l« was Itself the noblest monument. Over the grave 1* & flat stone, on which When I was there'lay a large, fresh wreath of evergreens and flowers. The grave la inclosed by an Iron railing, and in the space between It and the slab ivy creeps along. The whole is very simple ; bat anything to the contrary wonld, it seems to me, be here misplaced. Two or three graves—one of them with the name Count O’Donnell—and then comes the resting place of Franx Schubert, of him to whom song was part of his nature as of that of the thrush or the nightingale. And like a bird, too, he poured U forth unstiut- Ingly; now It was the merry note of the blackbird, now the yearning.rejoiclng of the lark, and now It was plaintive like the cooing of the wood-pigeon- A stone with a railing and ivy creeping round the grave are here Just as to the other one. There is a niche in the stone erected against the wall, and here a bast of him who lies beneath is placed. On the stone are these two lines: ** Der Tod begrnb hler elneu relchea Besltz, Aber Doch Bcbonere floflhnmren,” Hler Itegt Paaxs Scammer. Ot burn den 81 Jasnar, 17V7. Ceatorbra am 19 November, fr3B, 81 jstre aIL It was well done to place the two men near together, almost side by aide. I was glad the? were here, and not in the other, larger church-yard, with its new and showy mon uments. Here It is tranonll. On one aide yon aco tbe hills that form so pleasing a background to Vienna, and on the other the fields and dwellings belonging to the village. The whole place has a pncelol look. Xi is removed from the noise o t the city, and,what U a till better, from the crowds ot Idlers thst throng the other church-yard. The spot where Schubert now rests is not tar from where ho first saw tho light. On leaving Vienna and going towards tho North, you pass the Licbtentbal. on the way to Dotting, a suburb alluded to In a former let ter. Hero, on the right hacd, just where tho street grows a little steeper than heretofore, is a substantial house, and over the entrance is the inscription, "FranzSchubcrt’sGebnrts hans.” These fcw words mcke that dwelling a monument. For my part 1 should prefer such to a statue. The living take an inter est In the object associated with tho memora ble man who is no longer among them, and thus a peculiar pleasure, connected with a fond remembrance, is afforded them by the inscription; and to the dead it Is the most honorable tribute; for, at the same time that it is a mark of affection, it shows how great the name must be when that word alone is sufficient to invest the commonest thing of our dally life with importance. It supplies the place of bronze, for It can do without It. King Louis of Bavaria favored the custom, and on the house, where on eminent man was born, had lived ’or died, he placed a small tablet recording the fret. Popular es timation has done the same regarding Bee thoven ; and a path leading from a Village into the vineyards and open country at the foot of the Kahleaburg— mentioned in a lonner letter—ls still named "Beethoven Weg.” A rough board on a post announces this to the wayfarer. The path lies beside a brook, bordered by high bushes. A little farther on, where the ground somewhat suddenly rises, is a flat spot with scats, whence a fine view is had over the imperial city, and the great stream on whose batiks it lies, and tho vast plain extending to the south and east. Above you n the contrary direction are the green hills; and from their ridge downwards to where you stand, one vineyard joins the other. It was hitherward, I can well suppose, that Beethoven came along the pathway which is still named after him.- He no doubt has wandered on up the hill-side, where every moment in summer a lark rises from the ground, showering down bis song as the snn pours forth Its light, and so at last have reached the monastery farm on the hill-top. Who knows but that here, gazing on the wide expanse before him, he composed some of those passages of his music which seem to speak to us of Immensity, of immortality. A Masked Bail at coart and Hxtraordl- VcxxvA, December 1,1930. What shall I -ay of the masked ball which lock place on St. Catherine's Feast, the 33th of November. Sunday, of course 1 As a pre cursor of what one may expect daring Vienna's celebrated carnival it deserves more than a passing notice, particolariy as so little Is known of the frivolity, passion for every amusement, and frenzy for dancing which yearly seizes the people of this city at the return of the " Fashion" or six weeks carnival. The particular ball I speak of, the best ol many given In Vienna on the same night, was held in a magnificent suite of apartments in the Emperors palace. No In rltalionswere Issued.no exclusion practiced; any one considering him* or hcrselfsuflicient ly i repared to stand a considerable quantity of chaff, to mix with the best and th» worst society, to flirt with Immunity from serious consequences for foor or five hours, and en joy the amalgamation of vestals and Cypri ans, peers and nobodys, high life with low, had out to purchase a ticket of admission, don a mask, if a lady, and white gloves, etc , if a gentleman, and " go in” fur Cremorne turned loose. ’ -Before eleven o’clock eight hundred per sons were in the room, the ladies, except such as were in the galleries as spectators, masked, while gentlemen, to prevent too gteat freedom, were obliged to appear with out. This arrangement laciUtatea the pro gress of manj-an intrigue, os the fair sex, for once relieved from the Iron rale of so ciety, cast aside all restraint, and under cover of black or white dominoes, expressed to husband, lover or friend (in a disguised voice of course,) their opinion on subjects usually not broached, except—ln the con fessional. Some ladles not so particular as to the chances of a recognition, were not so carefully masked as others, while some, in their endeavors to keep their incognito, walked about the room, the impcreoulfica tiou of a lace, muslin and crape establish ment. With manyofthe former, ladles whoso reputation or rather want of reputation was patent to all, the Archduke Albrecht, Commnnder.ln-Chief of the Armv, prome naded the whole evening; the Emperor’s brother and one of nis cousins, Wil helm, also followed the same example, aud thus broke the ice .of restraint, which the mingling of these ladles with others of different mould might occa sion. Under these circumstances to say that the whole affair would have been con. eidcrcd a disgrace to aoy other country is superfluous; yet this is but a “ preliminary canter ’’ to the race of licentiousness which is to be run every night next Januarv; it was but a trifling: experience of what’ will follow—a sort of “ nip” to whet the peo ple’s appetite, to raise their imaginations and prepare them for “carnival.” I moat add that there was no dancing till two o'clock a. m., when the respectable portion of the company had retired. The evening tm that hour was spent in promenading about the room, eating Ices, sfttlng In dark corners or mystifying strangers. But in the small hours of the -morning, when all re straint bad been cast aside and dancing had commenced, a scene of what can be fairly called wilfl orgies began, and was continued till four a. m. This in the Emperor’s palace. SPAIN. Sudden Arrival ot Queen Christina- Probable OTcrtbrow of the Narvaez ministry— \¥ hat Next?—The Ap proaching BcTolutlon. (.Correspondence of the New York Herald.] ManaiP, December C, The liberal tendencies of the Queen Christina are well known, and the few friends Queen Isabella baa left, hope that the dow ager Queen has come to this city from Paris to exercise her .maternal authority In order to drive the Narvaez Cabinet from power. But vice Narvaez, whom shall wo have ? what stop-gap from among the numerous list of carpet knights with resounding titles, earned by the slaughter of their fellow-citizens? One such must, of conrse, be Prime Minister, according to the custom of the last two years. Narvaez, O’Donnell, Concha— lodoa lo» miernoa perroa , all tarred with the same brush, as the Spaniards placidly remark when a change takes place all these worthies, as well os the place hunt Ing politicians who support him, are equally ruthless In the maintenance of order and the suppression of liberty. To make hay -*hhe thestm shines is the motto of all, and so the efficiency of the public service is destroyed by the wholesale dismissal of Government employes upon the accession of every now ministry to power, and the appointment of new men, worshippers of tho rising sun. In their places. * As X have been already able to assure you, the sway of misrule is rapidly approaching ftf close in this unhappy country. An effort will be made for freedom under a sincerely constitutional sovereign, supported by capa ble and honest men, who will secure lor spam the novel luxuries of respect abroad and liberty and progress at home. The courts of France and Austria have re cently been in communication respecting the probability of a revolutionary outbreak In Spain, and it is understood that they have agreed upon the successor to Queen Isabella f her ilajesty be forced to fly the country. Who that successor may be Is difficult to conjecture. King Louis of Portugal would certainly stand an excellent chance with the Spanish people. If fils own subjects relished the notion of Iberian unity—to which, how ever, they Lave hitherto manifested great aversion. There remains the Duchess of Montpensler, who ha? hitherto had credit for liberal and progressive ideas, and who is deservedly beloved and respected for the amiability and good sense of her character aud the purity of her life. With the Spanish people, however, will r .st the derision In this matter, and not with any foreign potentate— not even imperial France. Interference from abroad might, perhaps. Indeed supply that bond of unity and energy of action in which the Spanish people are at present so sadly deficient. But however much France may meddle, by intrigue, In Spanish affaire, there is no apprehension that Napoleon would, be gttflty of so impolite sn act as that of forc ing upon or even recommending a ruler to the Spanish people. But, heedless of aQ save the pleasure of the hour, Queen Isabella provokes fresh scandal, and adds to the heavy account which her people will one day exact from her. On the occasion of her recent birthday festival she conferred the rank of a Marquis upon a tenor singer, having previously enabled him to live in a stvle ol luxury which created the greatest scandal. Narvaez long resisted this act of Her Majesty, who, however, insisted, and the Minister was forced to yields Madrid is very gay jost now. Thefashlon able season is at its height, and balls, ban quets, soirees and bull fights follow each other in rapid succession. It is true that therstate of siege stili prevails, and that the Government takes as many military precau tions as If the city were Invested by a hostile force. The press rests Ins gagged and help less. and what papers do appear either dls- Sst the reader by their fulsome adulation of e powers that be and their doings, or ab stain from any comment whatever upon home affairs. Nevertheless pleasure runs its course, and for the time draws many from the of the abyss opening at their feet. Che Governor of Valencia, as well as the Governors of many other towns, has thought It necessary to issue a proclamation, with the object of tranquUlzing the inhabi tants and defyingthe machinations of the constant enemies of public order. This doc ument admits that a central revolutionary rinb “Indubitably exists in Madrid,’ ’a strik ing testimony to the Impotence of the most despotic police regulations against deter mined men enjoying the sympathy of the people. This central club, continues the official proclamation, has active auxiliaries In the provinces, so.that nothing more is needed to testily the ferment that now ex ists throughout the country. A “Congren” of Fashion, The Paris correspondent of a London journal says: The arbUer eUganiiarum of Paris is U. Eugene Chapas, of Lc Sport. M. Chapas tells as that "the Directing Committee of the High World of Paris” held a meetlngreeent "lt to deliberate on the reform of certain so cial relations. The committee came to the conclusion that a gentleman or lady at table may or may not, as he or she pleases, follow the old customs of breaking on the plate the shell of the egg that has been eaten—of not pouring coffee Into the saucer, however It may be—of breaking, not cutting, bread— and of not eating or drinking Ihe whole of what is served—bat that he or she may not under pain of social ostracism, "allow the sf® hMd » the other. The fork, add M. Chapus, "must be kent Invariably to the left baud, and the knlfofn the right, without permitting them, on anv pretence to rook, as is done with certain pieces on the chess-board.” Tour readers will see that this is In accordance with your English rale, though I believe the English table code, mere merciful, does not punish a man with death for taking his fork in his right hand. But it moat greatly embarrass the bulk of the French people, whose rule It is to cut their food into bits and then carry to the month by the fork in that band it must 810 l more embarrass the Germans who, in the conveyance of their Ulments use the knife, or the knife and fork combine However, the Directing Committee kJJJ’ beat what la good for ns, and wo most oh*. Its mandates without marmoring. 1 ■ Another coelom which It has bad nn i, consideration la taking ladles Irom dwV It pronounces against the present practi£ of awarding a particular lad v to a gentleman, or flve or sli geatfemTa competing for the arm of one lIH7 H ‘V!, iemc. as rscor J; ed by M. Chapas, 13 “henceforth to choo« her cavalltr herself. But ihe best thin.iato abstain completely from enchaining together two persona who are often slranieis one another, undfiom furmlci a ridiculous pro. cession. Besides, from the manner iu which Isdica dress now a-dajs they can display morccraco in walking l-ofaledly !” “Amen’’’ will he the response to that decree from every unfortunate dame or wL-ht who haa had the ipisfortone-and who sos not? to he coupled at table with a Wins antipathetic to him or her—and by ercry nun who-e C have been hurt in collisions wiihcrinolimyo* PERSONAL. We announced In our last Issue, the sadden death at Council Bluffs by apoplexy, oi General Samuel B.Curtis. GeneralCimUvx-bcta la Ohio, (while his parents were emigrate from Connecticut.) on the 3d of February, vg- He graduated at West Feint Academy ia lv,i. was appointed a Lieutenant in the Hefted State, army, which place he resigned in 1333. Be tfier wards studied and practiced the profession or it* in Ohio, but afterwards engaged in the business of engineering In Ohio and lowa. Frotff 1517 to 1840. he was engineer of the Muskingum Works. During the Mexican war be served as an Adjutant General In mastering the State troops. Be went to Mexico as a Colonel under General Taylor. and acted for a teim as Governor of Matamoras, Com ayjgna. {Monterey, and Saltillo, performing hia important services with creel acceptability. On his return from Mexico, he practiced law for a time; hut was*, called t> lowa and Missouri to perform important labors as aa engineer, on the improvement of barbers and the building of railroads. Havmg Anally settled at Keokuk. lows, ho was elected to the Thlrty-Aflh Congress, and re-elected to the Thirty-sixth, sen lng on the Committee on Military Attain, and also on the committee of Thirty-three on the re bellious Staley. Be was also a delegate to the Peace Congress of IfCI. lie was to-elected to the Ihlrty-tevcuth Congress, but resigned in 13(11 to serve in the Union army as a Brigadier Genital against ihe rebellion. He was quickly promoted to be a Major General, and con iiLth honors In tho great victory at Pea Hldge, and on older fields. At the time of his death he was on dutv as a United States Commissioner of the baton Pacific Railroad. Mrs. Mary Ann Smith writes to 'the Ctsricutti Ccmvurcid, from Newport, Ky„ that eha is us “ tree and lawful wile” of General Morgan U Smith, and ebc “knows nothing of the cutter ’ of her husband’s marriage in Vicksburg, as reported very generally through the press, “ and, therefore, U must be a false aod malicious lid.” The Com mercial add*, editorially, to Sirs. Smith, ‘-that there are so many General Smiths that, of cot::--, this Is ail a mistake as to the Indivlduil. SVclm* no donht somebody named Smith has been guilty oi lawful matrimony la Vicksburg, but it by no mears follows that the gallant General Morgan L, Smith has fun fished tbe iaw material for acoihcr faslfionablo novel by Miss Brad Jon.” Pet*-r Richlngs, while playing at the Mstropo. litan Theatre in Bnnalo, on Saturday la-i, in n fei cmg 6cei.tr with Mr. Seguiu, had Ihe sword of his opponent thrust Into bis hand, badly Injuring Jn the will of Mr. R. Garrett, a noted agricultu ral Implement maker of England, occurs the singular bn; sensible bequest of a great coat to each of bis three hundred emp’ojva. A; least three hundred people tpoko woD of him utter his death. John R. Bartlett, of Provideace. has Just com pleted a wort which will >ooa be paiiitihPd. ginog a full biographical account of each ot the eixty-fonr Rhode Island officer- who fall during the war, and of the bring field officers. The U«l comprises fourteen Generals and seventeen Colonels. It Is expected tha* Mr. John Stuart Mill win dj- Jlver his loanmrni address as lord Rector of tho University of St. Andrew on the Ist o: Feb ruary next. The Nashville Union, of the 17th, says that the health of Hon. John Bell la quite feeble. Dario last week he was considered In a critical condi tion by his medical attendants, bat at lost ac counts waa slowly recovering from h<s attack. the Nashville (Tenn.) Banner of the lath an nounces the decease of Prof.-ssor Nathaniel Cro<*, for forty years a resident ot that city, sod for nineteen years he occupied the Classical choir la the University of Nashville. He was a native of New Jersey. Gall Hamilton has gone Sooth, and intends to write a book shout in An only sou cf the late Hon. William L. Day t •»« is to marry she only daughter of Hon. Georg.* U. Pendleton. Mr. Allred Thorpe, en American student of ar chitecture, has just passed a brilliant- examif.a tlou at the EcoU dee Beaux Art*. n e me only student oat of eighty, from the same A'»(i*r, to whom the distinction of mimio/i !,ononiAf was awarded. Daniel E. Setcbdl, a favorite tciorofSsa Fran cisco, sailed from that city nearly a year since for Auckland, New Zealand, where be bad an en gagements play. Tho vessel In which he tojk passage was tho Trieste. She has never been beard from since the day of her calling, aud there Is scarcely a doubt that ail on board perished. On the night of Mr. Sctcfaell’s last appearance iu San Francisco, he played Captain Cattle la “Dom bey and Sod,” and In the coarse ol that perfor mance one nf the actors having occasion to real from a newspaper, the announcement of ;hej<m of aablp, jocosely announced the loss of the Trieste with all on board. Nothing was saved from the wreck, he said, bat a trunk fall of.stage ward robe and bad parts. Tac joke waa much laughed at, and so dismissed. An American lady, Md. le Moulton, has become one ot the principal favorites of the Empre-a Bu getile, and waa one ot the leaders In the sports of Compiegne. The new French Minuter of foreign Affairs, M. de la Valletta, married the widow of Samuel Welles, the well-known American baoker. and adopted Ler son. who U now iLc Count Welles He la Vallette.a leading deputy iu the Corps Legt-tstir. Mrs. Welles was formerly Miss Fowler, ot Water town, Massachusetts, famous many yuan since lor bcrbiauty. It Is said that Nathaniel Hawthorne loft a novel, no portion of which has been published, Ila widow hesitating to permit its publication on ■ccoontof the great number ofpoinu in it *hidi he had marked for alteration. The Fremont Journal “spots” a Professor J. H. Van Cleve, who formed classes in that place to give instructions In “rapid calculation," collected the pay In advance, and then It fr. Don J. C. Flganicre e Morao, for many verr« Envoy from Portugal to the United Slates died at the residence of bia sor-In-law it Brooklyn, on Monday, aged sixty-eight yean. Police, Fire and Health, The regular semi-weekly meetlogwf Ihc Boa-d of Police, Fuo and Health wu held at their room- yesterday afternoon. Presea*, (be President, T.B. Brown, Good aud Tils worth, and the heads of the several De partments ihemioutre of the last meeting were read and approved. The blil of Jame Bntherford, for work on the new engine house on West Lake, Jnst completed, was examined and approved. Patrick Doyle waa appointed fireman on the steamer “Queen.” Thomas Cooper, engineer of the steamer Econ omy, waa tiled for assaulting Joseph Slolz,a pipeman on the same engine, stolz testified that on Monday night he was in a saloon when Cooper came In with a new hat, which the former sog k.eeted ought to be Sect.” The wetting toon place with acch thoroughness that Cooper became pugnacious, and begondo use offensive epithets, calling him a“Dntzh loose” and other choice names, and proposing to fight him. In the ru>v which ensued Stolx’a finger was badly bitten by the drunken engineer. For this conduct Copper was ouehar-sd from his position, the President remarking that there bad been too many drunken men connected with the Fire Department, and that ho thought that hose had been frequently burst on account of the engineer turning too mnch steam on, both la his engine and himsclfi. J ?hn Cooney, fireman of the Economy, was pro to be engineer in place of Cooper, and » u.f’W *Pl>olßteJ fireman. -•aL? 111 of lading was received by tho Board, o^oirtn*-tbat cne of the new steam flee engines was on the way te »ht? dry. Aldermen Holden called the attention of the hoard to the matter of making compensation to police officers who are disabled ana maimed ia “““Esrrwts, and otherwise in the line of their dnty. jm Board coincided in the propriety am justice of such action, to which they ban already Ctvrn attention, and decided to present the matter to the Connell. ago.Wllllam Flood, residing at ?.?; P 1 ?° rthWeU3 street, sent In to the Board a Mil for *37.75, for damages caused to a carpel by Asststsnt Health Officer rlcj colds. 11 seems that a mitt named J. E. Armstrong was attacked with cholera and died in the boose of Mr. Flood- In October last and that officer Reynolds, In ac cordance with instrnrticne. disinfected the bona? with chlorine of zinc, which dLcolorea the car pet On the strength of this trifling matter the claim for damages was msde. The Health Offi cers reported against the claim, after due investi gation, and the bill waa disallowed. Lawtence Paneller, an engineer on tho Chicago A Northwestern Railroad, presented a comnlamc against Officer Donahue for arresting him without cause, and since that Threatening him with bodily nijnry. The matter cot 'leingpresented in proper form was not considered. The resignation* of Police Officers Wn. Nied golm Jacob hchurer and Conrad KnhL of the Third Precinct, were read and accepted. Officers John Fowl and Join Horner were tried fomeglectofdatraadlnioxleatiaQ. The accused Slead guilty to the charge, and the Board voted to iscbarge Officer Fowl, and to suspend for so—- days Officer Horner. The Snpertn-endent of Public B itidings waa re quested to discharge from employmeiittae tor of New Buildings on account of the near com pletion of all anch public worts. On moi'oo ot Comzmssioser Tiiswoilh, the Board tVn adjourned until Thursday moraior at nine o’clock. COMMON COUNCIL. f OFFICIAL REPORTS Adjourned Regular Meeting’—Decem- her 27tb, 1866. ftetfnt-ma Honor the Mayor aud Aldermen Eucimbocjer, Cox, D*Wolt Wlcher, Barretr. w H n SSI. K *? ,, i Pllliraatn ’ Moore. Rafferty, ThZ- KnseeH AckhotT. Gs« We’d, Fran -s>.?£.,FV??*cVfort» lawßon, b’Sdllvan. CMkias, Hatch, Wallwort. Ho “™> Honllej,P.-mu- ... __ »w*jeiws ornn acxE?. Aid. wicker moved ibat the roles he suspended ?r‘SSffc°lKskJ l r^ i,I ° jr " , ™ ra&o “ u ‘” Bolnl lhc motion prevailed. feZVOUTS OF PUBLIC OFFXCT3S. The Board of Public Worts presented a reprrt J? to tbe renting, for their use, of the oniJalcr knows s« decree smith’s Bank, elinited V,, 15 4Bd 17 Wells street, which, oc motion of Aid. Bauelkwas Referred to the Committee on Public Buildings The Board of Pnlnlc Works presented a rep-jrt bavingrtfetencc to an accompanying communi cation from Sanger. Steele A Co., as to their con tract* lor work on the lilbaoia & Michigan Canal- Aid. Kirn moved that tbe report, and accam ranrmg papers, be referred to the Committee oa Finance, and The motion prevailed. rrarntTnoßornncsoPocDra. Tbe purpose forwhich lbs rules weresospen-ied, having been accomplished. Oic order of the basi nets was resumed. COSXRTSS OF THB WHOI.B. Aid. Tawson moved that the Conscii into Committee of the Whole, on the oropcsed amend ment* to the City Charter. Ihe motion prevailed, ana ‘be Council resolved U?clf Into Vocmultss of tbe Whole, Aid. Woodard in tbe Chair. Alter sitting, the comoiueoiose and reported progress. Aid. Lawson moved th*t tbe Cowncii do sow adjourn. The modi>n prevailed, and the Council stood adjourned. A. a- BODMA2T, City Clerk.