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Also. cireyonrPßxssxTaodfatareaddrea*. Ur Money, by Draft, Express. Money order*, atm BcclsterodLetters, may besentatour risk. Addreea, TRIBUNE CD.. Chicane. 111. TUESDAY. JANUARY 15, ISO?. SENATOR TBr.UCCLL, The unanimous rcnomlnation of Senator Trumbull by the Republican Legislative caucus at Springfield, last evening, will send a thrill of Joy to every corner of the loyal States. Judge Trumbull has rendered such conspicuous service in the cause of freedom, has been so clear in his high office, has vindicated the power oud greatness ot Illinois in so many intellectual con flicts In the highest councils of the nation, that his loss from the Senate would have been deemed a national misfortune. TLa*. a large majority of the Republican party of Illinois d- sited his rc-eicctlou there can be no doubt. Since General Palmer has explained that the alteration oftbc date ofhls letter was accidental and not Intentional we ore gratified to be able to repeat what we raid some Drue since that the only objection to his election was that Die people preferred Judge Trumbull for their Senator. We do not pretend to be reconciled to all the meins employed to defeat Judge Trumbull in the bite contest, but we believe they were not of General Palmer’s choosing. That a maim factory of lies existed in Washington city lor his benefit, was his misfortune and not bis choice. T lllv TEST OATU DECISION. The long-expected decision of the Supreme Court ofthc United Stole*. lu the mailer of tin* left oath, wa* delivered yesterday. Without the opinion before ns, and oven wit bout any very clear and connected state- ment of the facts of the ease. Uis quite hit pf-sslble to filter upon any close analysis or niliclMo of (ho lii the t’mirl. ns however, to points determined Knough has reached show* that the j-m dictions of the (’oppcrlouds and rebels In ii mud to this decision, have been amply fill- tith'd, nod that the loyal men of the nation niii!-t prepare themselves to face the disagree* nidu truth, that they cannot, rely upon the Judicial department of (tie Government, ns nl present constituted, to co-operate with tb' in in securing (he fruits of their hard- enmed victory over rebellion, or to uphold (be principles nt Justine it ltd liberty established nl such sacrifices of blood and treasure l ive of the Judges (a Imre majority of one, ns In Milligan's case,) hold that the law of < oiigir«s, pns*ed Mi InW, requiring at. honeys nl law to (uko nn oath, be* f"i e being allowed to practice In tlm Courts •e the Unhid Hates, that tlnh hnvo never voluntarily )>arltcl|>a!t‘<) lit ttm rebellion, or taken up tirinothe United ritaltii,*t<t„ in iiiiroiiniltntioiiu) am) void, and that State 1;»uj-, fin.lhir In character, mu also uneon- I'lltiilloiml and void. Thu Chief Ju*ticc nml .Vm elutes Miller, Swujne, and Davis din* rent. Hut their dissent Is of course quite powerless to slay the mischief Ihut will fol- low this decision, or to retain the public ru sp> el f.-r a tribunal that seems to bavu deter, mined to cling to legal quibbles and tccbul- ctlilies us more deserving of vene nil ion than the graves of a quarter ol a million martyred soldiers of the Union, and to the spirit of a brutal and exploded system of jurispru- dence, as more sacred than the decree of the nation uttered amid the agonies of war, and rc-nflirmed at the ballot-box with a ;h>wct and unanimity scarcely paralleled in tin* history of any free country. It seems by this decision, that Congress, invested as it is by the Constitution, with the sole j ower to establish the tribunals of the United States, to limit their jurisdiction, or extend It el pleasure—to create and to abolish Courts, as in its judgment shall seem best—this Con- grcfs, so clothed with Constitutional author- ity. we say, can not, according to this dc- ci.-ion, exclude a red-handed traitor from practising in ore of these very Courts into which it breathes the breath of life, which is d. pendent upon it for its jurisdiction and the \-ry breath of Us existence- True it-is that an attorney may be expelled on almost any pretext, or withont pretext, in the mere arbitrary discretion of these Cqnrts themselves, for landed or real offences ag-iinst their dignity, or for any or no rea son ; but Congress cannot require an officer of these Courts (for attorneys are officers of the Court) to swear that they have not par ticipated In the great rebellion against ■without violating its lawful its authority. l ower. The creature is thus made more powerful than the creator—the whole legis lative power of the Government is incapa- Me of proscribing a simple rule of qualifies- Hon b>r an officer of the tribunal Itcstabllsl r?. will'** that tribunal itself may exclude him on tire roost flimsy pretest, or without any pretext. In the case ei-parie Sceo/n&e, in lb Howard, the petitioner came before the Supreme Court of the United Slates, and showed that be had been admitted to prac* lice in the Supreme Court of tbc Territory of Minnesota, (a court, by tbc way, ap pointed by the President and Senate of tbc United Stales,) that be bad a family, and was dependent • upon bis practice lor support; that without any no-j lice that be ,lnd been complained <fo» charges preferred against him, without mini n.cnt or bearing, or opportunity to cnfiont Ms accusers or answer their accu s .tion-. Lb name was stricken from the roll | 11 attorneys; that be was thus disabled' irr in practicing law in the Territory; that ! 1 c bad applied in vain lor a statement of' t*.< offence with which he had been charged, and ngaiiwt ibhhe protested and invoked the e.veieb? of the authority of the Supreme Court !<• compel the Territorial Court, by a writ of j'.r.t.u-iuvs, to restore to bbn tbe lights of which it bad deprived him without process ol law. According to our recollection (we write from memory) it was Judge Taney who delivered the opinion of the Court In this ease. It Is true he held that the writ ol vuv.umnv* for which Seer*tube ap plied, was not tbe proper rem edy ; but be also vindicated the right of the Court to do** what it lad «’• no, under u law of the Territorial I,> j.i--::it».ie ol Mir.nerota, which seemed to place the matter in toe dbcrcUou of the Court. AndSecombewassentuway without rilii'f. and the principle was apparently •iiainfr.lred that a Court need give no reason f<-r.i>to'.;ibltiiig an attorney from practicing at it*. Pur; for in this ca*c the only allega ta n was iu general terms that he 1:: d not kept his oath. There w;i.- no specification o' an offence, troin «im- cud of the record to the other. But now the very tribunal which suid*Spcoinbc and bis family might be reduced to starva tion by a Teiritorlal Court; that tbe attor ney n ight be driven out as unworthy to piucUu- before any Court within the limits of its Jurisdiction ; might be depriv'd of bis meins of support, without accusation, arraignment or trial, and equally without redress, and all under the law cf a Territorial Legislature— the very tribunal, we repeat, that said nil this, now declares that the Congress ■which authorized that Territorial Court and Unit Territorial Legislature—the Congress which legalized and which alone could legalize that Territorial Government—the Congnss which at a breath could have swept both Tribunal and Legislature to the winds os mi much chad—this very Congress, w*- arc now told by this very tribunal, has no power to require an attorney, unofficial of one of the -courts it establishes, to affirm L's innocence ol one of the greatest crimes that ever stained the pages of history. >fo. A lawyer who offends the dignity ofa court or its sente of decorum m the slightest man ner may be imprisoned by the Judge, or may I have LU name stricken from tbe roll of prac ticing attorneys; but the people of the United States, speaking through their as* tcmblcd representatives, may not require an officer of their Courts to affirm hla Inno cencc of the foul crime of treason, before being admitted to all tbe rights and privil cgeslhe Court can extend to a loyal cltlacn. In a word, treason is the only crime for which ua attorney may not be expelled the Court. This decision is tbo more significant because it follows so toon the one in the ease of 31il ligan, which, even If propci in Itself, was tn&dc the vehicle for the enunciation of doc trines which promise new life and power to slavery and rebellion. It is the more signifi cant, al&o, because it has been predicted and foretold with great accuracy by the rebel Copperhead correspondents at Washington,** the tools and lackeys of the Presi dent- It will add much to the grow ing fear that the understanding between the - apostate • Johnson -and the £ui reme Court, so Tauntingly announced by lh • former, ami so loudly proclaimed by all : Ir* admirers and supporters, Is not without foi.n laliou iu truth. II it bo the purpose of this tribunal to thwart the loyal party of the cnur.tiy, ard to usurp the functions of Con gress by setting aside Its laws when they run counter to the wishes of the South, and by placing a false and strained construction upon acts calcu lated to exclude rebels and traitors from i over and place ; if, in a word, it be Sts .pur* pose to take np the lost battle of Jeff. Davis and Andrew Johnson , against free institu tions, then, we say, the people will not hesi tate In their coarse; nor will their represen tatives in Congress assembled shrink from the duty plainly before them, however paln •ul It maybe. We would Indulge in no men-, aces, for none hold an Independent and hon est Judiciary ib higher esteem than wo ; none would go further to uphold it. But If the Supreme Court is to bo subverted to the pur poses of a political party, and that party the rebels and traitors who have fought four years to overthrow the Government, and are. stUllts bitter enemies, then wo say it not only forfeits all claim to the decent respect of mankind, but invokes upon Its own head the fate meted out to the rebellion, whose smouldering embers it seeks to revive. GOVERNMENTS Foil TUB fiEßEfi STATES. A Washington despatch says that the Committee on Territories of the House of Representatives, have finally agreed upon a bill to provide legal and loyal Governments for the rebel States, in place of the so-called State Governments upheld by Johnson with out authority of law. As Die report of a committee, and tbe result of .deliberation and consultation, the bill is of importance, as Indieatirg the probable action of Con gress. We hare received a copy of it. It provides: 1. A declaration that the State Govern ments which have been organized In that portion of the United States In which “ the rebellion in its revolutionary progress bas deprived the people of all focal civil Governments,” to wit: in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Not th and South Carolina, Texas and Virginia, ore not valid Coostltu tionnl State Governments, having been es tablished without authority of law, under the duress of military power and without Die voluntary co-operation and ratification of the loyal citizens of the United States re siding In said Stales; and It further declares all the nets of said Governments to he void, i j»re so far ns the same may hereafter bo np proved by the Gotreroments provided for bv ibis act. 2. That nil male citizens or the Unhid States, above the ago of twenty one i cars, having o six tuontlis 1 residence In either of said States, who frill take an oath prescribed by this act, arc Invited and au thorized, in the name and mi behalf of the people of the United Status represented in Congress, to organize Constitutional State Governments In those States; the term citi zen of the United Stales as used In this net !o bo understood ns Including all persons, hTetpeclive of race or color, born ]n the United Slates or naturalized under the laws. D. That Stale Governments may be organ- • i d In nod Hates. In the following manner: llml nil adult mates may vote for delegates to Hit? Convention, who will take an oath llml on the *Uh of March, DMW, they would willingly have compil' d with the require* teenls of the President's proclamation of December, JfrfJJ, had n sad* opportunity been allowed; (hat on that doy, and thereafter, they were opposed to the eonlhmancu of the rebellion, and voluntarily gave It no further nhl; that since that day, and now, they ate and havu been earnest supporters of the United Hlnl.es Government, are members of no oiganizatlon Inimical to the United Stales; Hint they never treated Union prls oners otherwise than art prisoners of war; and will Imrenflet tnwr.trim allegiance to the United Hiatus and to tin* Hlale Government ustablMied under this act, Convention*, to bo eompo*od of ua ninny dclcgidcn a« Ihero were representative* in ibu old State Legislatures, ahull bn elected ■it a Mu** Convention In each district by Uioge qualified to vote under tbia act—the mdegates tbua elected to meet at the State Capital, or at some other point, within thirty days after their election; and before organising, shall take and subscribe to an oath, substantially the same as the existing oath taken by all ofllecrs of the United States, and known as the test oath, with the addition of an obligation to support the State Government organized under this act. The delegates who take and subscribe this oath, shell then organize said Convention, and consider whether they will or will not adopt the terms proposed in the act. If the committee vote to accept the terms, they stall proceed to elect five citizens distin guished for tbrir loyalty and fidelity to the Constitution, and these persons shall net as a Provisional Committee of Public Safety for the State, until a Constitutional State Con vention shall assemble and elect a Pro visional Governor for the State. Any three of the committee to be a quorum for busi ness, uud the committee shall see that the provisions of this act arc duly enforced. The Provisional Committee of each State shall meet within thirty days, organize by elect ing one of their number as President, and »me an Secretary and Treasurer ; after which they shall issue an address to the electors notifying them that they bare accepted the tiust, and Inviting all who are willing to lake the oath, to °o-opcrate in the work of reorganizing State Governments. Tills Provisional Committee shall appoint sub-provisional committees for each county in their respective States; shall also appoint judges and clerks of election, and thereafter issue u proclamation culling upon aU persons qualified to vote under tbc act to elect dele gates to a Convention to frame a Constitu tion of Slate Government, sixty days' notice of the election to be given ; they shall also apportion the State into convenient single districts, and the voting shall be by biUol. The returns of the election to be sent to the Provisional Committee, win shall declare :he result, and give certificates of election to the delegates. They shall then by proc lamation designate the lime and place of holding said Convention, d. Each Convention thus elected .-hall meet, and after haring taken the oath prescribed, shall electa Provisional Governor, and all ncccs . ory officers of the State, including Judges ; the officers thus elected to discharge their duties until the complete organization and election of the Slate Government. The Con vention shall then proceed to form a Slate '.on-tit ution, which shall be republican in form, not repugnant to tbc Constitution of ’be United States, and the principles of tbc Declaration of Independence; and said Con vention shall provide by an ordinance, for ever inevoeablc without the consent of Con .refs: 'J hat all persons in tbc State arc free ami . qua! before tbc law ; that no man can hold another as a slave, and all laws shall be Im j aitial without regard to race or former con- dition cl seivitudc. TLat the State shall never assume or pay any debt incurred in aid of the rebellion; that the Suite wilt establish and maintain a rjilcm of free schools, from which no child shall bo excluded because of color or race; that no person who has held civil or mili tary, ofilcc. State or Confederate, during the I icl-eHion, shall he allowed to hold any office cl* honor orpiollt,until the Legislature of the .‘■■tale, by :i vole of two-lhiids, shall have •;i,vud Inm a pardon; and that whenever l>p constituted authorities of the State shall ttempt to destroy the constitutional rela- Sous of the Slate with the United States, or «lt**mpt alliances with other States or foreign poweis, or levy war against the United Slates, such acts shall deprive such Stale of dsrUJilto representation in Congress ; and ihe Congress of tlicUnUed States Is acknowl edged us having the power to do any net, cuiisl»tent with the rules of civilized war bin*, to protect the lives and properly of ■Wizens residing in the States, and for the re.-lorntion ot the State to its constitution tl relalicna with the United States,-upon melt terms and conditions os they may prescribe. it The Constitution framed by said Con vention. ami the ordinance required by this act, shall be submitted to the people for np ruovui or rejection ; and at tbc election to be held for that purpose those only who are •.uahfied to ’vole for delegates shall vote ihemm. If ft majority of the legal vot-s cast nl *ald election shall he jo fever of such Constitution ami ordi nance, tin; Fame shall he certified to the t'loidtnl oi the United States, and to the • residing otllccrs of both houses of Congress; »•. hereupon, If Congress shall approve the Constitution and rrdlnance, the State shall be declared entitled to alt the rights and privileges ol a StaU in the iJuion. c. State and county officers and members of Congress may be elected at the same elec tion at which the people vote for or against the Constitution. 7. That if In cither of .the Stales named, the Conventions shall decline to accept the terms pressed in this act as conditions pre cedent to t heir restoration, ntui ghali refuse to form a Constitution of Slate Government subject to the limitations or this act, : hej may submit to Congress, and are in tiled so to do, such plan of restoration as they n ay agree upon. 8. The Provisional Judges appointed by this act, shall have the jurisdiction, civil ucd criminal, whereof the Statc Courts bad cognizance before the rebellion ; but all laws, judicial usages and decisions, which exclude witnesses or deny trial by jury because of color, shallJbe void. 9. False Swearing under this act to be pun ished us perjury. 10. Tbe President to furnish such military aid to the Provisional Committees and Gov ernors as they shall deem necessary to pro tect the electors at all elections; and to so dispose of the toentorce tbo prompt, execution of this and other laws. 11. Conspiracies to forcibly obstruct the loyal people in assembling under authority of this aet, to be punished as a misdemeanor. • 12. Whenever the Provisional Governor -j-hall be unable, because of forcible resist ance, to administer the Government, be Is autboiizcd to organize, arm and equip such military force as be may deem necessary. 13. Tbe Provisional Governor, in ease of forcible resistance to the civil authority, may declare martial law, suspend the writ'of Jiiibeas corj/u*, and may order the arrest and imprisonment of the offenders; and in ca«o those in rebellion shall be too numerous to -bearrested, be shall call upon the President of the Uultcd States, who shall furnish snob military aid as may be necessary. 14. In the case of Texas, the Convention, ’when organized, may divide the Stale into two Slates, the Convention first ceding to the United States the right and title of the State to the territory, which is not to be in cluded In the boundaries of either State, and lying in the northwest portion of the pres ent State of Texas, * said territory hereafter to form part of New Mexico. After the cession of this territory the dividing line for Die two States shall be agreed upon, and the delegates shall separate and form two Con ventions, one for each of said States, each to proceed in the manner hereinbefore provided. 15. Id ease any delegate to either of the Constitutional Conventions be unable to take the oath because of having held some subordinate civil or ministerial office under the rebel Governments, the Convention is authorized, If satisfied of bis loyalty, to per mit him to take the oath, omitting the clause—"that I have never held any civil office. 1 ’ This is, in brief, the substantial scope ot the bill. It Is designed to sweep the John son-rebel Governments out of existence, and to place the entire organization of new Gov ernments exclusively in the hands of the people who arc loyal, and who have abjured, honestly, the rebellion. To the object of the bill there will be no serious objection, either upon the question of power or expediency; bi.t the LIU requires considerable revision. It lacks finish; it blocks out the work in a very rough state. It is. however, a substan tial foundation upon which Congress may construct a measure that will, with the stern severity of the law, put an end to organized rebellion lu the rebel States, and place what ever Governments arc to exist there In the bands of'those who, at least, arc faithful to their country. TUB MiW OllftjKANH INVESTIGA TION. Private advices from New Orleans repre sent that there arc many long faics and much anxiety among the roLcl leaders In that city, in consequence of the visit and proceedings of the committee of Congress scot there to investigate the massacre of •Inly DOth. Having survived the damaging cxposurrsuftlic tnllllory authorities without experiencing the reltlhulion Ibolr crimes de serve, they had Imped by the system of steady lying which they unhesitatingly adopted, to escape It altogether; and they were not a little annoyed when they learned that In spile of all their misrepresentations, Congress had determined to probe (he nmU ler to tiro bottom, and that they bad yot lo‘ undergo the scrutiny of a cjminUtcc sent out by a body (hat Is In no tom* per u» be trill'd with. Hovcvcr, they made air.ng«meats to go thiough the mdeiil, and, os they hoped, to smother (he truth, and blind thoeyts ortho com* mtUic and nf the country. They appointed a committee to conduct thodcfmc? of the city government, and tovlndlolo Ilia "fair liiniu” r| New Orleans. At the head of this committee (hoy placed Christian Koscllns, been., e of his quasi Unionism, he having voted ag.iliist the Ordltunco of Houusslun lu the J.oiil-'ami Convention of (Hill. Hy his subsequent subserviency to tho pro-slavery Coppeil.cad party ho has done what little ho could to overcome the prejudice against him account of that vote, nml bn* of lulu Hindu bimsuif qullo con*plemm* by a public Jiiittllicutlon of tlie Mmnnucro, It was hardly loltu expected Unit such a man would pos. ecss much lullucnco with tlio CongreHidonal Committee, notwithstanding Ida loading po sition at tliu Louisiana bar. NoverUicle.HH, he war the beat man that could bo found to undertake the detestable work which Mayor Monroe and others thought it so necessary to have done. lie did undertake and bis utter failure is now one of the prevailing topics of conversation In the city, lie Is denounced as though lie. and not the bloody record he was expected to make white in the eyes of the committee, were the responsible cause of bis discomfiture. It is a common expression that be “ made a fool ol himself,’* and there is a very general impression-that the committee made thor ough work In the investigation. Every op portunity was given the rebels to present their own side of the case; but tbc search- ing examination to which they were sub jected, brought out details that quite contra dicted their g< noral declarations of Innocence. Mr. Shcliabargcr, of Ohio, is generally spoken of as having been especially sharp and thorough in these examinations. The Union people are much elated and the rebels correspondingly depressed; and there is much excitement in expectation of the re port of the committee. The Union popula tion look to the result of the investigation with intense hope that it will aiousc'Con gress to a sense of their situation, and to tbc bdentionof measures for their protection. *‘Jf Coi gress docs not do something for us very soon,” writes an intelligent citizen in a private letter, “it will he useless for Union men or women to icmain here. I should have left willingly, long ago, if my circum stances had permitted.” Tbc inrcstications of the committee were not confined to the facts of the massacre, but embraced tbc general state of society and tbc prevailing feeling of the rebels. Not only those wbo hold positions under tbc State and city Governments were subpccuacd, but those who were turned out of these positions, and tbc cause of their removal Inquired into. This inquiry ex tended to tbc teachers in the public schools. The evidence thus elicited gives t he rebels a very uneasy consciousness that an official exposure awaits them, far more thorough and damaging than any heretofore made, and realizing that Congress has the power to adopt any measure it may judge necessary in the ease, they fear their little brief author ity, so dreadfully abused, is about to be taken from them, and Hint the loyal men of the cjty are to become the governing power. It is not strange, therefore, that the visit of the committee created great ex citement, ai d that its report and the result on Congressional legislation arc looked for ward to with the greatest interest by both panics. CENEUAL PALtIISR’S FXPLWW TION. TVc publish elsewhere General Palmer’s explanation of the alteration of the date of his letter to Judge TnlmbulL It is, in sub* stance, that he commenced writing the letter in Louisville some time in December; that he was called ho nie to Carlinvillo, and fin ished writing It some time in January; that he then had It copied and mailed to Judge Trumbull by a friend; that he k:pt the rough dr.itt and had it copied in his letter hook, and that this copy was furnished to a newspaper in Carlinrillc lor publication. In i lids way, he says, the printed letter hap pened tobe dated “ December —’ while the letter sent to Judge Trumbull was dated January 10. This is a reasonable explanation of the technical change of dates, and we think that Gcucral Palmer has relieved himself from the suspicion of having fraudulently made the alteration. It remains to be explained, by his friends and newspaper organs, how the story came to be started that he was en titled to the credit of having originated the Civil Rights Bill. It is only since Judge Trumbull arrived in Springfield, with the oiiglnnl letter in bis possession, that the claim was reduced, from the whole* bill, to tin* llrtt’eccllor ol It—which section may have been mere or less important according to the estimate placed upon It by indi viduals. The contest being over, there Is no need of further controversy on this point. Till-'. SfATE SEAL, It is proposed to “renew” the Slate seal of Illinois from which we infer that the prei-ent die is worn out, and that a new one must be procured. The motto upon the seal Is: “ State Sovereignty National Union.” It appears to us that this is a favorable time for changing the motto, and adapting it to existing facts. There is no such thing as “State Sovereignty” in this country. Illinois has sent more than two hundred thousand soldiers into the field within five years to overthrow and expunge the very Idea of Stale Sovereignty. Sover eignty Implies the power to do everything that a Government may do—the power to colu money, to conclude treaties, to make war and peace, and to secede from the Union. The rebellion was instituted upon the theory of State Sovereignty. It was crushed by tbe opposite theory. Let the “lost cause” cease to be emblazoned upon the Statc seal of Illinois. The Georgia ConrtituZionalUt Is appar ently laboring under tbe impression that tbo mesfoge vetoing tbe District Suffrage Bill Is the joint production of the President and the Supreme Court. It pronounce? the doc ument to be “a solemn protest of the Exec “utlvc and Judiciary against the audacious “ encroachments of the Legislative Depart “meut.” Din>.—O.T. Williams, for several yews past gardener for W. B. Ogden, Eaq., and subsequent ly oco of tbe most prominent florists of this city, died on Saturday last, at the ago of fifty yean. Ills funeral will lake dace to-day from the Church «>u Fullerton avenue, at two o’clock. The de ceased was xnlversafly respected, and was *jer on the aide 01 liberty, ( THE PACIFIC COAST. Our Special San Francises Cor respondence. The Great China Mail Route. Around the World by Steam—The Time and Cost—Magnificent Ocean Steamers. Return of the Russo-American Tel- egraph Expedition. An Earthquake In Oregon. Details of Another Atrocious Murder ky Indians. DUE SAIJ FRANCISCO LETTER. Tbe Great China 91 all Bonte—Around the World by Stcam-Tho Time and Coafc-lbe New Steamers of tbe Pacific 91 all Steamship Line—Their Size, Ca pacity and Cost—A Word about Jug glers—Description of an Astonishing Feat, [Special Correspondence of tbe Chicago Tribune ] Saw Fbakcisco, Cal., December lU. Among the most noteworthy enterprises of the day, and one which is destined to exert a vast influence on the development of the Pacific coast and the commerce of Amer ica, is TUB GREAT CHINA MAIL LIKE, which will go Into operation bn the first of January, 18C7, this being tbe day fixed for the sailing of the magnificent steamship Colorado, the first of the line. The enter prise, as Is generally known, is in tbe hands of the Pacific Hail Steamship Company, the monster maratime organization of America. Originating In an attempt, or rather a pro ject, t 9 secure the pa&scogcr and freight business of the Sandwich Islands—an at tempt which, on the part of the California Steam Novigation Company, resulted In a fallutc—the enterprise is already assuming Immense proportions and is destined to af fect, not alone our own shipping interest and carrying trade, but to contest, on-the part of Americans, the supremacy of thoscos, in a commercial point of view, with Great Brit ain, and compete with Europe for the mas tciy oftbc East. The Pciilnsularond Oriental Steamship Line now odtfks passengers by f-team direct from Hong Kong to Southnmp. rnn, and steamers me also running between Japan and China. Thus we have it in our power to-day to travel Diroc-fburths of the way around the globe, or nearly so,iiy steam. On the flint of January, 18(17, It will ho possi ble for u man to start from New* York or Bau IToneleeo and go around the whole world by steam, returning lo his homo within a hun dred days of the time ofhls departure. tub rnosiTcrs ok tub i.inb. . .... - 11’ wr aiiii lima* The Immense capital of the Pacific Mull Steamship Company will cn«hlc the cum puny to make the line a success, If money mid enterprise can do It. Hut llieioarodlt (lenities to be overcome and drawbacks to the prospect ut Immediate success which do* maud Immediate attention. The Congress ortho United Stales has subsidized the line siillleletilly to Insure Its paying expenses nmicr eerlaln circumstances, but unwisely linmpeied (he grant by restrictions. Imoosou at the last session, which will Berluiisiy hi* lerfcro with Us chances of success, It not re* moved ol an cuiiy day. Thu subsidy of (fflO,ooo, granted on condition of the steam ers of the tine towelling each way aV Horn*. Inin, wits Cuitml to be useless, for the reason thatlho w.ilcmn the liar at that port was not deep enough to allow loaded steamers ol such size im they propose to run. to cross at nil times with safety, and, furthermore, I}ht joiito wotiltl ho nii much hmgihminl by this delour that Urn iHuy would be fatal to the chance* of the Him compel Ing with Urn Pcinlmmlur und Oriental I.lm', for the pus senger Irulllc between China and Japan ami Europe. If wis can Htvvo live to law day*, tlmt Is to say, land passengers from Hong Kongtn England five to tend ays earlier than they can do It hy the route via the Indian Ocean, lied Sea and Mediterranean, we uro all right und enn divert the travel this way beyond a doubt, for this will be far the pleasanter and more comfortable route, ns the discomforts of a trip through equate* rial regions will be avoided entirely. But we must have time In our favor; that Is a mutter which docs not admit ofan argument. Now Congress, at the lost session, consented to a change In the programme, allowing the steamers of the Japan and China line to go direct and not touch at Honolulu, the latter sendee being done by a separate lino of smaller steamers plying between this port and the Islands, but a provision that, la lieu of this intermediate service, a thirteenth round trip should be made between San Francisco and Hong Kong was coupled— most unwisely—with it. This additional trip can hardly be made at all, certainly not without au additional outlay on the part of the company which will be cutirely dispropor tionate to the benefits to be derived by any body from it. Tbe company propose to put on six first-class ocean steamships, to run regularly fioui the American to the Asiatic shore of the Pacific, and by carrylug coal lor tbe trip from Stan Fraucbco to Yokohama, Japan, and rice versa, and making an aver age of ton miles per hour, through the day and night for the whole trip, they expect to lend passengers from this port at Hong Kong In from twenty-seven to twenty-eight days, and at Yokohama in nineteen to twenty days. II the line were required to xun cia Honolulu, it would require twenty-eight to Ihlrty slx days to make the trip to Hong Kong, as the steamers would be compelled to ran 7,087 nautical miles. They propose, also, to have a relief bout here, ana at Yokohama, and one at Hong Kong, always In readi ness to be brought into immediate use in ease of accident or extra busi ness requiring such service. It will be seen that to make the twelve trips each way, originally contemplated, will re quire all the time at the command of the six steamers provided for active service and leave no margin to work oxu If Congress Insists cn the thirteen trips, youwiJl see that at least two additional steamers must be provided and a heavy* addition will be made to the expenses of the company, with no commensurate increase in receipts. As to the prospects for freight and passengers I can only say that aireadv, twenty-three days in* advance of the sailing of the first steamer, over 200 passengers are booked for the trip, and a lair freight engaged. The trip from China here can be made by a sail vessel quicker than it cau be made the other wav, as the winds are more favorable. The average time «s forty-five to fifty days from Hong Kong to Sin Francisco *\ m reel, and, perhaps, sixty tbe other way. Sail vessel in this trade do not touch at Honolulu or Yokohama. The dificrencc is, of coarse, largely in favor of steam ; bnt the Chinese merchants arc, os a rule, not of that energetic push ahead class which makes a tew days more or less a gi eat object to them, and their freight av.d treasure will not at first, at least, leave its old channels for the new line. Sail ves sels at enow offering to carry treasure at a quarter to a hall per cent from here to Hong Kong, and the steamers will be compelled to carry it at tbe same figure, or see it all go bv the slower sailers. The same may be stud of tbe Coulic passenger business. If the sail vessels can offer anything like the tame accommodations it a very little less fare the travel will not be diverted from Its old channels, at least for a long lime to come. With Americans and Europeans, however, the ease will be different, os all that class of travel will go by the best and quickest route aud Hue ; if ours is the best it will get It all Something also depends on the course Con- 1 grots may take In regard to Chinese emigra tion. We want labor, both hero on this coast not get American and European labor fotd iitough, we must hive Asiatic as the nest Vest thing ou which we can lay our bauds. The Pacific Railroad Company (our end of the line,) alone stands ready to-day to employ 10,000 additional coolies—more than tlmt number are now chopping down the Sierra Nevada* for a roadway, aud some are already at work on the desert slope beyond— and parties in the South will contract imme diately for a tmndred thousand if allowed to do so on terms which will enable them to pnv. llt by thch labor. What course Congress will pursue in this mutter, mid what influ ence the new Hue will have on this class of ImmlgiTlllon, remains yet to be seen. As for the freight business, that can only grow by degrees, and will only assume Us ultimate vast proportions when the Pacific Railroad is built, and daily trains me passing from the Pacific to the Atlantic, loaded with the people and conimeicc of the whole earth. I think it doubtful if the new line pays the first year ;*but after that Us business must increase Immcn-cly, and ultimately It will bo enormous. TIME AND COST. Now ns to the lime ami cost ofn trip around the world, or hair way oround, by the com* J-oth-c routes. From San Francisco to Hong long via Yokohama by the Pacific Stall SUainsllp Company's line will require iwtuly-eiglit to thirty days ; faro, first cabin S3OO. Ftom Hone Kong to Southampton i/u the Peninsula and Oriental Steam Lice, will require sixty to seventy days at least, nr.d tie fare will bo $590, with numerous •* extras.”. From Southampton to Sew York will lube ten days ; rare about SIOO. From New- York to San r ratclsco via Panama twcntj-twodnjg ; 'Total timclls to 127* days—total cost sl,-00, or say for all •bills,!*! a moderate estimate for extras, $1,503 in Amctican told coin. Now it.wUl be seen that from Hong Roue to Southampton rlo the Red Sea route the cost will be $590 to S7OO with extras— time sixty-five days on an average at least, while from Hong Kong rfa San Francisco and New York to Southamp ton it will not exceed sixty days, and the fare will be about the same, while considera tions of comfort will all tell infavorofour route. It will be seen that the time is about equal, but we hope to beat them five to ten . days, and by offering better accommoda tions, induce the better class of travel to come this way. The ‘‘ extras” are always lesson American than on European lines, :nud we expect this fact to tell considerably in oor favor. When the Pacific Railroad Is complctcd,or nearly so,we can beat them out of sight; the trouble is on the start, before the railroad Is finished. THE STEAMERS. The six regular steamers to be employed in tbe line arc all of tbe most magnificent dess, large, powerful, and furnished with everything necessary for the. comfort and tvcrythiurforlhe preservation of tbe lives of passenger* which human ingenuity has yet devised. The Great Republic, just launched In New York. Is tbo largest prac tical steamship afloat, and her sister steam ers arc on a similar scale of size and finish. As tall descriptions of these steamers have been published at'the East, I need not re capitulate, but I will give you a few tacts la regurd to the Colorado, which will show the Immense amount of labor required to fit J oven the finest American steamer to buffet I the waves and outride the typhoons of the I Chinese scab. The Colorado was built in I New York in ISOS, and costs3so,ooo. Shots 314 feet in length, of 3,723 tons new measure* merit, forty-five lect breadth of beam, aud 31J£ feet depth of hold. She has flrst-cla-s slaterocm accommodations for 220 passen gers on the main saloon deck; sixty in the lower cnhln ; 407 between decks, and 463 on the mam deck; total, 1,250. Of steerage and Coolie passengers she can carry an army, In addition to the above. Since she was detailed for this Hue she bos been completely overhauled and doable planked at the wharf. They have put ou her twenty-nine streaks of Oregon pine plsnk of great length, and eight inches in thick* ness, from the floor heads .up, and. .pat la lorty new-bcams, thirty-one carlines And 264 extra knees. These planks are bolted iu with %-inch square iron between each frame, and ail the hanging knees rciasfcncd with screw bolts, one m each frame between the knees on both decks. Under the orlop deck, for ward and abaft the boiler, two extra streaks of clamps, 6 by 13 inches, and, six feet lower down, two more extra alrcaks.O by 13 inches, have been put in with eight beams laid on them, and secured with bodying and hang ing knees. Abatt the chain lockers a diago nal water-tight of 8-inch plank, doubled and caulked, has been bnilt* The old treenails bare been backed out, and 15,600 new locust treenails driven through aud wedged at both ends. Twelve thousand pounds of composition bolts and spikes, and twenty-five tons of iron were used for fastening the work. The ship was horsed and- rc-canlkcd before doubling and' the doubling caulked. She was then ro sheathed with copper up to 17>£ feet aft and 18 feet forward. And ofl this, mind yon, was “extra work” to fit her for this particular trade. She has a beam engine of 105 inches of diameter, and cylinder 12 feet stroke,and four doukey engines, with two separate boilers. As she now lies at the wharf she is worth $1,000,006. And yet she is bnt a baby beside the Great Republic and the other new ves* selsof the line. With each vessels to bear our flag around the world we need have no fear our commercial marine will suffer in comparison with that of any other nation on earth; and as for onr navy, behold Is not the Ml&ntonomah la the Mediterranean and the Monadnockin the Bay ofSan Francisco? A WORD ABOUT JUGGLERS. A tioupc of Japanese jugglers, some fifteen In number* came here a few dare since, and arc now playing to crowded houses nightly at the Academy of Music. Thev visit New York soon, and I presume you will see them in Chicago before leaving for Europe. They are the first In their line who have ever visit ed foreign countries, and are rare curiosities in thrh way. Their teals In legerdemain are much in the some llntf as those of the Chi nese Jugglers, and not superior, but their icats or strength, muscular activity and rigidity, and Impassibility of mind and body, beat anything on earth. 1 will describe a single leal as a sample: - A man stretches himself on a table oo his back, and puts his Iczs straight up into the air at right angles with his body. A boy twelve years ot age then climbs upon hts feet, and lays down on his back, closing his arms, legs ond bend up so as to form himself Into the shape of a turtle. The man thou whirls him around In every conceivable man ner, with such ropl-ilty that the eye cannot follow the movements, using only tho soles of his naked feet to do it. Then he tosses the boy up into the air, aud an attendant places a wooden box, about the sire of a sudu cracker box, on Ilia feet of the man, and the hoy rests upon it, and box and boy are whirled together In a similar manner. Then the boy and box come down, a young man climbs upon the upraised fbot, ami, lying down on ills haute, raises his (bet In turn straight up. Thu old man pitches Ihn young man up, a box Is placed between hts (cot ami the buck of the young iimu, then another box on tho young man's feel, and then tho little buy climbs up to the top of that, lays down on his buck, and puts up his feel. Then tho boy rollsoveroti Ills side, the box falls fiuin under him, aud ho falls upon thelcet of the young man, who duos the same thing In turn, and then when tho boxes are disposed of tbu two men and boy tumble ntmrl and strike right side up. like cats, on their foot ou the Hour. Another: Tho old man stretches himself ou Ids hack on tho table, and puts up his foot ns bo* fnro. Attendants bring In a framework, like a door*yaid gate, consisting of two upright slicks of square timber, say throe Inches In diameter, held together, about three feel apart, by two crosH hars, which mu through the lower part of a Immhoo snlii" twentydlvo feet In length, and about the slxc of a man’s wrut. This U lifted by attendants, ami the lower ends of the two uprights placed on the upraised (but of the man on Die (able, lie balances thu Cm mo work and bamboo on Ids feet, and the feat excites the audience to shouts o< appiaufle. Then tho little boy again comes In, strips Idnocir, and climbs on thetablu, then on the upraised feet, and then to the top of the Cate or li-shupcd framework, where he rests and commences to fun himself. The man below Is lying ns if made of iron, not a mus cle moving, and lion* be manages to balance the whole framework, boy, and tall bamboo In air at once, having nothing whatever to hdld on by, is a mystery. Then the boy wraps a baud around Ula head, glrda up bis loins, and climbs deliberately tothetopoftbe pole, which bends like a willow beneath bis weight and swings him back and forth in the air precisely as if be were climbing a lloxi ble young sapling. When he readies the lop he loses hts balance and slides down the bamboo nearly to the bottom, while the spectators hold tbc!r breath In terror. He catches himself before reaching the bottom, opens his tan and, bowing mockingly to the audience, commences fanning himself. Tho audience applaud Immensely. Now he climbs again to the top, catches the upturned toes of onp loot half around the top of tho bamboo, places one foot fiat against the side of the baujboo, and slowly drops his boly down until 11 stands out at right angles with the pole, ills arms being folded across bis breast at the time. Then he recovers him sdfand goes through a thousand contortions and tree-toad antics on the pole. And all this time, say twenty minutes, not a hand touches the pole or bamboo, which is kept iq place safely by the ends of the uprights resting on the fiat soles of the man who is lying below on his back as rigid and impass ible as an Egyptian mommy. These Japan ese arc ns ugly as sin to look at, but let a “Mcllcan man ” try them on at such feats and see where he would find himself. Altamonte. NEWS ALONG TEE COAST. Return of tlie Russo-Amort can Tele* graph Expedition. (Prom the Sac Francisco Alla California, Dec.l6.] On Monday morning the last vessel of the Rutrian-Amcrienn Telegraph expedition, the steamer George S. Wright, arrived m this port, bunging Colonel Charles S- Buiklcy, chief of the expedition, and several of the of ficers. The Wright left this port last Jane, since which time she crossed tho Pacific Ocean to Fetropaulovski; thence north to the Anadyr River and Plover Bay, situated in Northeastern Siberia: thence across Behring Sea to the shores of Norton Sound ana Port Clarence. Here the heavy work of thu steamer was done—crossing and re crossing between Russian America and Sibe rlii’towlDg vessels and distributing stores and material throughout the season. The winter weather in these bigli northern latitudes put an end to her work tonne season. On the return passage the Wright stopped at St. Paul’s Island in Behring Sea, Ouniaiisska, Sitka. Steckiu River, Fort Simpson, Nanaimo and Victoria. The steamer remained north until ail the licet had left for winter quarters, except the bark Gulden Gala, which is sup posed to have been frozen in at one of the telegraph stations in the Anadyr River, Sibe ria. The Golden Gate being the supply ship, and In a section of the country where arc large native settlements and a plentiful supply of reindeer, her ship’s company will not suffer. Daring the past winter the shore parties explored the entire route of the telegraph Ime, with the exception of about 2CO miles in Russian America. This work was done with reindeer, dogs and sledces, much of the time the thermometer being forty degrees below zero—the young men who performed the work being so well sat isfied with tbeir wild and novel life that they prefer to remain another year. The stations In Northeastern Siberia and Northwestern America have mostly been constructed this year, aud the various shore parties have been busy setting the poles and putting up the wire. Large parties are on the route to distribute supplies acd material when the snow falls, so that they can travel with ease and rapidity. The two rmail stern-wheel steamers, the Wade and the Wilder, which were taken up on the deck of the ship Nightingale last spring, were sue ccMfullT* placed, the out* on the Anadvr and the Ollier on tbo great river of Russian' Amer ica called the Yncon. They have both been of service during the post summer In trans porting supplies to points on those streams. The material for thu completion of the line is ail ou the ground, and the work of the past season gives every reason to believe that another year may find the great work com pleted. - An UnrtXiqtiskc in Oregon. (From the Oregui.lsn, November B*.] Our city has at list become a second San Francisco—that is to say, as far as earth quakes arc concerned. Yesterday morning, hi ten minutes post ten o’clock (Saturday), >c experienced a heavy shock of earth quoke, which lasted five or six seconds. The first serration noticed was a heavy, vet dull rumbling sound and trembling, resembling thunder. This lasted nearly three seconds, then oscillations followed, oscillating east and west, to severe that lamp fixtures hang ing to ceilings, and pictures and mirrors hanging to walL, swayed to and fro fright fully. In several instances, men ran out into tbe streets dismayed. The ►heel Iron and store store of Messrs. Bunnell «fc Miller, on Main street, was shaken so that ail the tinware and stoves n adosuch a tcmblo din that the occupants ran frantically into the itreets, fearing that .hey were to be enveloped In a massof rains. Had there been any three or four store brick buildings In town they certainly would have teen badly damaged, If not thrown down. Expedition against tbe Apaches. (From the Alta California, Bee. IC.J Wc Lave received a copy of a general order issued by General McDowell, giving nn account ot an expedition which left Fort McDowell, Arizona, on the 14th ult., under the command of Captain G. B. Sanford, to attack the Apaches. The party consisted of sixty-five men in all. Including Company E, First United States Cavalry, eight Maricopa and Finio Indians and three others. After travelling fifi} five miles, and taking the greatest precautions to prevent discovery, not even making fires to cook, they reached a place where the Maricopos and Flmos dis covered an Apache rsneheria, which they attacked at daylight on the 17lh. The gen eral order says: 44 The men and Indians charged imme diately down the rocks and into theranche ria and leaping from their horses, pursued the flying Apaches over the WUs and across the canons in the most gallant manner. • Many of them got bad falls among the rocks • and precipices, but they kept on without regard to anything hut the Apaches. Six were killed, five taken prisoners, and two • horses captured. . . , , “ There wasa very large amonnt ofwintcr 'stores In this* xaicbcrla, which were all destroyed, and the rancherla burned. Among the articles found wero two tin canteens, 1 snch as arc Issued by Government a portion of an English copy of the New Tcstamoit, some mall and plecos, of fiaddle, a pun-lock and brass plates belonging to a grip, and baskets such as arc used for carry ing grain, &c„ In great numbers. They bad Hgreat abundance of seeds, nuts, aoros. buckskins, scrape?, aud other articles used by the Indians, and the destruction of these. Just as winter la setting in, will bo a great blow to them. “This was evidently an old established iniiclicrla, and one which they-considered very sale. Words cannot do Justice to the place. It was as nearly inaccessible as pos sible. Toe huts were situated Just at the head of the cannon, and back of them the rocks rose almost perpendicularly for several hundred feet.” The party then rode on the gallop to at tack another rancherla five mites distant, but the Apaches escaped, and put up signal fires to worn all of their race; and Captain Sanford had to return. He reached Fort McDowell.on-the evening of,the 19th ; and In his report of the aJTalr pays a high com pliment to the Plmos and iiarlcopas fortheir valuable services. An Atrocious Ifinrder. [Correspondence 01 the Alla California.} Psxscott, November 25,1808. * * * * The most atrocious of the re cent movements of onr brutal enemy remains to be told of. On the morning of the 17th Instant, Mr. George W. Lelhy, Superlnten dent of Indian Affaire for this Territory, left here for La Paz. On the morning of the fol lowing day he started from Roberts* Ranch, say twenty-five miles from here. When in Bell’s Canon, on ugly pas sage, about two miles distant, he was attacked and most cruelly murdered, as was his clerk, a Mr. Everts. The mule of the latter came back to the ranch, filled with ar rows, and a party started out at once. Mr. Lcihy was found stripped and terribly muti lated. His head had been pounded until It was flat, bis arms and legs were broken In many places, and bis heart had been cat oat and carried off, a pair of bullet’moulds being left in its place. Those who saw the body described it as presenting a horrid spectacle. Near by, the headless trunk of Mr. Everts was found; the head has not yet been discovered. In each of tbe bodies numerous ballets and arrows were found ; and tbe bnggy of Mr. Lcihy, saving a wheel or two, had been homed, probably in cook ing one of bis horses, parts of which were found near by. Mr. Lclhy was not a popular man In Arl zona, the majority of our people differing from him on hts policy with toe Indians, con sidering him too friendly to them, and bis death ot the hands of the savages Is bat a startling exhibition of tbeir characteristic treachery* lie had been their best friend, and his mission to Prescott was to procure the release of a La Paz Indian cap lured In tho famous Skull'Valley fight. The vagabond and a Maricopa in terpreter were with him and Mr. Everts at the time of the murder, and it Is notf known what become of them. Tho supposition is that the Maricopa was tortured todeath,and that the other Joined the band, which, evi dently, was a largo one, and, perhaps, took an active part In the murder of the superin tendent and his clerk. Ills noteworthy that Mr.Lcihy was warned when he led Prescott that he might fall a irey to tho savages unless he went with a argo company, and that when at Skull Val ley station, twenty miles from here, ho was told by the Maricopa that the hills were filled with Indians. Mr. Lclhy hod doubted the hostile Inten tions of what arc called the La Paz Indians; but tlic long-settled opinion of our |>eoplo
that they are ns llillo to be trusted when away from the Colorado as the genuine Apaches, is now proven to bo correct. It is further shown that kindness Is nut nt all ap preciated by (ho eoppcrskiiis. If there was n man In the Tcnllory who deserved well of the Indians in question—who had been their champion to a degree that made him enemies among Ihn whites—lt was Mr. Lclhy; nail /at, at the first opportunity, they not only (tiled him, but mmllutcd hts body in u most fiendish maimer. THE HAILIKOAt) QUESTION. lni|iorlnnt Meeting ntl’onllnc, llltmik A Movement Aittitimt ICxcesslvo Hull roml llnieM-ftpecelien by lion* J« \V t Mrevell* ll* Kl* llt»rU» Iftr.llrytiiii, of I'rorliM ami N, 1.. I'lrltiliig-Adoplloii of llr«oliillon»~'fTie Appoltmiient of w of llntlrond Commissioner*'* ICeeoinmciided. [Hpectat Corrinqiombnefl of tlio Olilmgo Trlhnno.] Pontiac, Illinois. January 11, A largo mooting of thu citizens of Livings* ton County was hold at tho Court Homo In this place lust evening upon tho subject of railroad clmigcs. Hon. J. W. Strove!!, member of thu last Legislature, related what ho had witnessed In the last Legislature upon this subject. Ho said the people supposed, when they elected one of their (cllow-cUlzons to tbo Legisla ture, that they could rely upon being truth fully represented, but in most cases they found themselves disappointed. The capital and infiuenceof the railroad companies were too much for them. Ihe railroads were or ganized and drilled to their one purpose, and the lobbies of the Legislature arc crowded with their agents and retainers, urging all soils of objections to action on behalf of tho people. Their staple objection Is tho cry of “vested rights.” B. B. liurd, Esq., of Chicago, being pres ent, WBB called upon and responded. Uo said he wonld confine his remarks to tho question ©flaw. He knew that the railroad companies had claimed that they had the “ vested right ”to charge what they pleased, and that the Legislature could not interfere, lie said this was not tho law. That in giv ing these railroad companies the power to coLclcnmand take private property fonhelr rise, the Slate exercised the right of eminent domain, which is simply to take private property lor the public good. Not a foot of your land could bate been taken by these roads, but upon the ground that they were public institutions, demanded by tho public necessities and to be operated for the wel fare of the Slate. It was upon the ground that you needed them to transport your grain and products to roa:kct, and that you would derive some benefit from them. Hav- ing secured all the benefits of the exercise of this great prerogative, can they turn round and say to you, n Wc will operate our roads os we please—you have nothing to say In the matter? If onr charges arc so high you cannot patronize us, take your wheel-barrow and trudge to market the best way yon can. we have vested rights; yon have no rights in the matter.” It is the inalienable right and dtity of the State to provide for the protection of the lives, comfort, and property of its citizens, and. whenever the necessity arrives, the power accompanies U. The regulation o( the conduct of the citizen, the prevention of extortion, as well as personal injury, per tains to the police power ol tho State, in , which no person or corporation can have a Tested right. It is this police power upon which rests the constitutionality of the usury laws, and the laws restraining the sale of liquor, and the regulation of the charges of hack and omnibus drivers and the tolls of millers. There Is no argument made by the railroads that has not been urged by the money lender. Why should he not use bis own ps he pleases? Why not take such a rate of inter"* be could get? Simply because experience uas shown that when thus permitted, he becomes an oppressor ; he lakes ndvan'aq'O of his already large means to absorb that of his wcokcr neighbor ; he becomes an extor tioner. There is no comparison between the ability of the miller and the back driver and the rollroads to extort money from the people, and neither of the former have received any favors from the public, and could with much greater pro priety say, if you do not wish to pay my price, von can go somewhere else, Mr. Bivant, of Peoria, spoke in favor of the railroads* He said be would not discuss the question of law before thataudience. It was no place to do so; bnt that if the Legisla ture undertook to regulate the rates or lure and freight, they would drive cifpital from the State. S. L. Fleming. Esq., replied, in a telling speech. He said the New York Central Road had been built with tbe restriction to two cents per mile In its charter, and that it had been the means of building up the central part of New York State, and In turn making the investment the best In the United States, ai d that such would be tbe case here. If tbe charges were limited to fair rates, tbe coun try would prosper and the railroads would in the end reap greater profits. He Instanced the reduction of postage by the United States as Illustrating tho good policy of cheap rates. The following resolutions were unani* mouslv adopted by the meeting: Wiizbeas. The railroad companies of this Stale here, by authority of the Legislature, taken oar nitrate property lor their nac, upon thogroaud that their toads wero a public necessity and lor the public convenience amt good; and, whereas, «ccn reads have, within tbo last few years, in cicnsed tbeir rales of fare ard Irught to such ao extent ss to absorb cenrW,and in some cases quite, sh the modi* of the agriculturist and tradesman, thereby depressing the vaine of oar property sad •tenUy tcwrdhig the development and prosperity cftheeoarln : and. whereas, we deem. It to he the right and duty of thv legislature to secure to ihopnMie the benefits promised by the building of such roads, and to ptcrenl extortion and op rmsion; therefore. Ul« ~ , .... lhat the rights and Interests of the people of thlf Male demand that tbe Legislature rbould regulate by law the maximum rate per mliccui all railroads ia the Slate for the trans portation (> l passengers and merchandise, and irat such maximum rata should be so fixed a; to tustly coropuwtuc Uxe henjiW* capital invested In • allroads, and afro protect the public from exorbi tant aud unjust burdens. jjetettaL That for the better protection of the icteit:fts of the peopleand the railroad companies, ard a proper application of such laws for the reg nlatjcnofpassctccrand freight tirift*. the Lcgls lattice should provide by law lor the election of • Board ofltallroad Commissioners. „ jlttvi p»d. That our Senator* snd Representa tives arc most earnestly requested to urge Urn pas sage ot such laws as wih dimmish the burdens imnored upon us by the railroads, and so regu late freights that the products of agrlcultow can be freighted to our principal markets aud still yield some compensation to tho producer. /VsoJrvrf. That we aro unanimously In favor of a ship canal uniting tbe watem ot lake Michigan and the Mississippi Biter, to be completed at the earliest possible day. and that our Senators aud Representatives arc hereby requested to give that measure Ihelrsnpporr. . .. . ~ Jiesoit«U That we recommend tbe bolding of meetings throughout the Stays, and theinsiruct icg of Representatives in relation to the wuhes of the cntiie people on this subject. Destructive Fire at La Crosse, (From the Milwaukee Seminal, January 10-1 Between twelve and one o’clock Monday night a fire broke out In the new wooden block at the southwest comer of Main an Fourth streets. Lt Crosse, and its progress was not arrested until the block, together with one adjoining frame building on each «trect were consumed. The principal suf ferers were Messrs. Ferguson Bros., building, Insured for $1,500; J, R. Dow cV Co., gro eerie?, fruits and provisions, insured for §5 500; Allen Overbaugh,Esq., building, in cared for $8,000; Blooks Harrington, grocery store, loss between S2.CWO and 3,OCD, no in surance ; Mr. Baker, •formerly proprietor ot the Grechman Bouse, now keeper of a bil liard saloon, Insurapec $4,203; Mr. Frey, grocery store, Insurance SI,OOO. Tbe total loss will reach $20,000. with an insurance of about $14,500. The fire originated in or un der tbo rear part af Mr. Baker’S saloon, and made such progress before Us discovery as to almost suffocate the occupants of the entire building.. EUROPE. flur Special Foreign Corres pondence. Affairs in Germany. The Movement to Secure for the People larger Ooaatitu t'onal Liberty, Outlines of the !Vew Federal Con stitntion. The Federal Connell and national Assembly, OTO HEKT.TW T.RTTEK fflfMtlns of the Plenipotentiaries of the Smaller States—Outlines of the Now Federal Constitution—lts Provisions— 'l be Federal Connell and National Assembly—The Approaching Elec tions—lndications of a IQCore Concilia tory Policy on tbe Part of the Kins. [Special Correspondence ofthe Chicago Tribune.] ■Beulpt. Prussia, December ST. A week ago to-day the attention of the af ternoon loungers on the most fashionable thoroughfare of this capital—the Unter den Linden avenue—-was arrested by the driving up of a number of carriages of state in front of the Royal Palace, each of which dis charged a load of gorgeously uniformed and decorated personages, who were received with presented arms by the military guard of the royal residence. Those that stopped long enough to count the vehicles fonnd that they numbered no less than twenty-oaor The meaning of the show 'vas, that the Plenipo tentiaries of tbc smaller States of the North German Federation bad mctln.tho Prussian capital, on tbe day mentioned, In accordance with treaty stipulations, for the purpose of devising, In conjunction with therepresoata lives of Prussia, the organic law orConstitu llun of thcFodcrallon, and were, at the hour referred to, about paying their resjccti to and dining with, King William. * It will, perhaps, bo remembered that, on the ICthof June last, simultaneously with the hostile military movements resulting in tbc actual outbreak of tbc war, the Prussian Government addressed a circular despatch to all the North-German Stales, with the excep tion of Ilauovor, Inviting them to Join Prus sia in an offensive and defensive alliance, and In the initiation of a political reconstruction of Germany, and offering them, as an induce ment, a guarantee of their respective territo rial Integrity. Being In the powcrafPrussia, owing to their territorial contiguity ami in herent weaknes", all but (wo—the Duchy of Ba*e-Melnlngcn and the older Principality of Itcuss—accepted the Prussian offer, though with no little reluctance on the part of sev eral. After duo negotiation, the terms wore agreed upon and mutually rntlllcd in the tot ter part of August. The result of the war added the Kingdom of Saxony and (ho north ern portion of the Grand Duchy of Ilesee, to. gulher with the two small concerns that nt first reAiscd to Join, to (lie list of the mem bers of the North-German Federation, The Iwcuty-oiie plenipotentiaries that niot here, ns staled, Inst week, represent the Kingdom of thixony, Hie three Grand Duchies of Mccklettlmrg-Hciiwcrln, Mecklenburg* btrelUr. and Oldenburg, ami Ihd portion of Hint of Hesse, shunted north of the Main; the Duvhhs of UrowwlvU, Anhalt, baxo< Melnlngcn, biixmAtteiiburg and Have (‘ohmg'Gotlia; the) Prlm'lpallllei of hippo- Dvlmold, Wuldeck, th’lmmnlmnr-Uppe, the older and younger lluu»s, and thu two Hchwiuxlnugs, and thu three free ultles of Hamburg, Lncbci’k und Bremen. Prussia, with the annexed mivmlgnllos of Hanover, llci-se-Cacse), Nassau ami Frankfort, contains litI,.VJQ,OOO luhabllanta. Thu twmity-oim sov ereignties, that will form, with her as a cen tral planet, the new constellation of the North German Bund, number fi,0110,033 more so that the whole population of Count Bis mark's citation will be no less than twenty nine millions and two hundred thousand The proportion oi the population of Prussia to that of her confederates, being as four to one, thu dependence of tbc latter upon the will of tbe rormcr would be, of course, abso lute, even if tbc articles of federation were not to reduce the petty States to a slate of unqualified political vassalage. Ibe plenipotentiaries formally began tbeir dcllbeiallous at the Foreign Office, under the Presidency of the Prussian Under-Secretary of State, M. dc Savlgny, on Monday evening, and have since held dally evening sessions. According to an official revelation In Count Bismark’a recognized organ, they have made rapid progress, and already agreed upon tbc outlines of tbc Federal Constitution. These tic article in question defines. Prussia, of course, Is to be the controlling. Executive bead of tbc Bund, llcr Sovereign Is to be Commander-in-Chief of alt tholanaaud naval forces, and lias absolute authority as such. All the military establishments are to be made to conform exactly to the Prussian, so as to insure uniformity in organization, ar mament. command and every other respect. The Federal Government is to consist of Judicial, Executive and Legislative branches. The first will be represented by a Federal High Court, the second by a Federal Coun cil, ci mposcd of representatives of tbc Gov crnmcnUof all tbe members of tbc Bund, which is to have the right to declare war, conclude treaties, and regulate diplo matic representation. Tbc Legislative branch Is to bo represented by a Natl. nal Assembly, consisting of popular representatives, elected by direct vote and ballot nt tbe rate of one to every one hundred thousand inhabitants. The legislative power of the National Assembly is to comprise the regulation of all industrial and commercial relations; of custom matters; of the rights of domicile; copyrights of patents for useful inventions; of the monetary and banking systems ; of weights and measures ; of inter nal und foreign navigation ; of the consular system ; of Inter-communication by rail, tel egraph and moil; of Judicial procedure in civil matters, together with the right of enacting uniform bankrupt and general com mercial laws. As In the Federal Connell as well as in tbe Notional Assembly, everything is to be decided by votes the nnmeircal pre ponderance o< Prussia will secure to her, of course, an overwhelmingly decisive influence in both bodies. It appears from the official publication that the Federal Connell and National Assembly will not form together a Diet or Parliament, as an Upper and Lower House, but be independent of each other; (hat is, each will exercise its respective functions, without the concurrence of the other being necessary to give validity to any measnres either may resolve upon. As the character • of the elements that are, to compose the ' Council will naturally impart to that body a ncDscrvative or reactionary tendency, which would Inevitably hinder or chock the doubt less progressive legislation ofthe Assembly, it is well that tbeir relations arc to be of the described nature. From what has been made public iu regard to the general features of the Federal Constitution, it is evident that the elaborate proposition for a reformation of tbe old Frankfort Bnnd, embodied In Count Bismork’s famous circular despatch of June lOtli, has been made the basis for tbc deliberations of the Convention of Plenipo tentiaries. There has been, as yet, no official intlma lion as to whether the Constitution for the new Federation, to be framed by •ho rep resentatives of the Governments of the sev eral States, will be submitted directly or in diicctly to tbe people for approval. It 1 seems probable, I regret to say, that the 1 principle of making the mode of govern ment depend upon tbe will of tbe governed, Is not likely to be acted upon bv the rnlcrs ofthe leading member of the Federation ; but that, on the contrary, the people ofthe Federal Slates will have to V content with what the representative meeting, now assem bled here, will agree to recognize ns the or ganic law of the North German Bund. The press organs ofthe Berlin Government have glvtn out that tbc racrtlog ofthe First National Assembly of the new Federation will probably not take place before the mid dle of February The time for holding the | elections has notyetbcennnd will apparent i lv not be fixed until after the convention of I plenipotentiaries w : ll have finished Us labors. Meantime an active preliminary agitation has already been inaugurated all over North ern Gtnuanv. Candidates and programmes arc already proposed and discussed by the several parlies. The Liberal party Is bestir ring itself everywhere. In order to make sure of a majority in the National Assembly. There is every indication that the canvass previous to the actual elections will be very animated. • Tbc successful opposition to certain im proper demands of the Government In con nection with tbo annual budget, made In tbc Lower House of the Prussian Parliament, (I referred to this at length in my last), has had a very solntory effect. U has taught the Government that It will not do to pre sume too much on the strength of Its late diplomatic and military triumphs by asking tbe reprceentat Ives of tbc people to concede blindly' all it chooses to ask of them. Before the war the rejection of any of Us demands through the efforts of the Liberals of tbe House, would have been visited without fall upon Parliament by an immediate dissolu tion. Bnt realizing, no nonbt, that the still critical cnoracterof tbe political situation renders it necessary, on its part, to win and keep tbc confidence and good will of tbe people and its legislative representatives, it has wiselydetermined to assent to the ac tion of the ’House upon the bndget question os conclusive, ned rest satisfied with the conditional granting of- some, and the absolute refusal of other appropria tions it had asked. In pursuance of this resolution, Count Bismarck made a very important declaration to the House from the ilinistcr’s bench, In the session of Tuesday lost. He spoke to a motion of one ofthe Liberal members to pass tbc General Appropriation Bill, after Us full considera tion In the Committee ofthe Whole, without further discussion. He said, that if tbe pend ing motion prevailed, it would result la giv ing the Government a budget fixed and rail- I 1 Gcd according to law, for the first time in | five years. The budget as now fixed, left some essential demands for appropriations, -which tbe Government bad made, unfulfilled. They were demands, upon the grant ! lug -of which, to be sore, the suc cessful management of public affairs 1 did not absolutely depend, but the re fusal of which nevertheless embarrassed the administration of certain branches and mate* riallv Injured, In ihc opinion of the Govern ment, certain important interests. Ho ‘deemed It necessary to repeat that the Gov ernment demanded nothing It did not con sider necessary fur the promotion of certain Interests. If «he Government bad ondear ored, nevertheless, to manage public - affaire with the budget as It cow stands, It would do to only In order to manifest Its regard lor the opinion of the House, os welt as Us earn est purpose to submit to the exercise of the right of the National Legislature to determine the use of thepubllc money. The Government accepted the budget in order to give the House a formal pledge of Us good lalth and henect Intentions, and declared herewith that ll would try to get along for the current year with the uppropriatous granted, re serving, however, us right of an appeal to the next Parliament for-the amounts the present one had refused to vote. The Minister-President’s declaration was received with great satisfaction by all sides of the House, and it will doubtless do much toward the reconciliation of the Prussian people at large, whose sense of right was so long and so deeply shocked by the uncon stitutional usurpations of its rulers, with the Government. To the subjects of King 'William, the words spoken on his behalf by Count Biemark arc more Important than even the victoryjof Konlggratz. For the lat ter gave it only unsubstantial glory, while the former assure it of larger political lib erty under royal rule in accordance with the Constitution. Few of y our readers will probably remem ber that the Grand Duke of Oldenburg was one of the several princely personages who put forth claims to the sovereignty ot Schles wig-Holstein lu the course of the long dip lomatic squabble over those Duchies. His claims, insignificant in themselves, attained some strength from the countenance of Rus sia, which power backed him at the late Diet as against Prince Frederick, of. Angus tenburg. In view of his faithful services as a Prussian ally, during the late war, the Prus sian Government considered it best, since the annexation ’of the Duchies by force of arms, to make him forego his pretensions by the payment of a million ot thalers as compensation in full for the lost chance to make good his claims through the support ol Russia. A bill, appropriating the neces sary amountof public money, was introduced in the Lower House some days since. It was referred to the Finance Committee, which ut first looked upon it In tbe light of a propo sition for an utterly uncallcd-for waste of public money and was disposed to recom mend its rejection. But certain confidential statements made to the committee by the Minister President, (the newspapers say that he urged the grautiug of the money as u means of conciliating Russia), produced a tndical change of opinion, and It seems now certain that the Prussian exchequer will have to bleed forthc benefit ofthe Oldenburg pre tender. * Berlin bus hod two very unwilling visitors within the last eight days. A more reluctant pilgrimage for purposes of humble worship ut the shrine ofsuccess than that of the most bitterly humbled ot the new vassals of the Prussian King—old King John and the Prince Royal of Saxony, from Dresden to the Prus sian capital—has seldom been undertaken. Though tbe royal penitents did not actually come in sackcloth and ashes, tbo trip and four days’ stay must have bccnawfnUy trying to them, when every face they saw teminded them of their profound humilia tion and abject dependence upon the filcflsure of their new masters. Their Kingly lost, to bis credit be it said, with genuine generosity, did everything in his power to make the swallowing of the bitter cup easy for them. But tbe thought that they wore the guests of the man, who caused them from ihoKlbo to the Austrian capital; and who, but for French interference in thdr favor, would have treated them as lie did the Kingofllauovcr, cannot lioro left them for an instant, while they remained under his roof, and made them foci no doubt like men escaped from the rack, when they turned their hacks again to the great city on the Bprec. CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION. Letter from lion* Joint A, Jimioson. I'ntCAoo, January* is, 1607, To Ihe Editor ofthe tbteagu Trlbuoet Were my letter to Judge Lnwroncc. to gether with your comments upon it, which appeared in your issue of tills morning, to bo passed upon by a jury of lawyers, 1 should bo content lu loav'c thorn without further ro- iimrk. Mul there* nro, 1 think, fullieloj lit your cnmmuniß wtiteli tiro likely lo do Imitn, nml 1 hog yon will penult mo to occupy n mile ijmcd In un nllempl to expove I hem. Yon contend Hint the pmpo>>uhm to call n Convention hy (ho ncthm of the (Ji-m-nU Ag> Bcmhly, iu n alnifle M-nvlmi only, foltmved hy n vote of the people, Instead oflty the lethm ol'tlmt hmly at two consecutive aevslons, with a vote of the people intervening, a* the Coiißlllulum prcseriheß, la merely n prnpo. Mtlon to vary the time of calling such Convention from that laid down In that Instrument, end that It, therefore, comes within the panlew of the two prece dents cited iu my letter In which Conven -1 lions, iiuthurlzed to ho ca'led in particular years, Merc, in Massachusetts and Indiana, called IndlllcrcDt years Horn those specified in the existing Constitutions ofthosc States. In reply to this—admitting that those pre cedents arc sound ones, which is, in my judgment mono than doubimi—lt Issulllclent to deny that The proposition under discus sion relates to the time of calling a conven tion at all. It relates to the mode of calling It. Our Constitution provides that a Con ventlou may be called, not in any particular year, but whenever th; want of oue shall he generally felt, by taking three separate steps: First, a vole of two-thirds of all the members elected to each branch ot the Gen eral Assembly, submitting the question lo the people; second, a vote of the people fa voring a Convention; and, third, a vote of the General Assembly at Us next session, calling the Convention. It Is trae, the time required to take these three steps, and then to elect the delegates and assemble the Con vention cannot he much less than two years and a half, and, therefore, it seems erroneous to say that a Convention may, uudcronr Con stitution, be called for any year that the people may choose. Gut it is true, never theless, although, to Insure tbo necessary de liberation, the intention to call ouc must have so far ripened, two years and a half be fore it assembles, o» to lead to the taking o! the first step. Taking a long series of years, It is perfectly true that our Constitu tion permits the calling of a Convention in any year. Thus, to Illustrate, suppose the people discover that a Coaventiou will be needed, say, in 1860, they must take the first step in ISoi, the second in ISCS. at tde treucrel Fall Election, and the third in 1800*. when the General -Assembly again meets. The election ot delegates may be fixed by that body tor os early & day as it may deem desirable, and, by the Constitution, the Convention must meet within three months of that election. Here, the necessary delay in taking all the steps and getting the body actually assem bled does not exceed two years and a half. The friends of the proposition I am repro bating pretend-to believe that it will re quire, If the Constitution be obeyed, four years and over to call a Convention, but that I* an error arising from imagining that the election of delegates can only take place at the time fixed for the biennial election of mcmbeis of tht General Assembly. This the Constitution does not require. It merely requires the delegates “to be chosen In the same man ner, at the same place, and by the same electors, in the same districts that chose the members of the House of Representatives.” Article 12, Section 1, 111. Const. 1945. There Is no allusion whatever to the lime when cither the delegates are to be elected or when the Convention Is to be called. , This Is the principal fallacy I wish to notice. 2. The second is in, supposing, as did your correspondent “ J. Y. 5.,” quoted with approbation by you In your editorial of this moraine, that the fact that the State Legis latures have all legislative power whatever, except where restricted by cither the Fed eral or State Constitution, has any tendency to settle the question under consideration. * • There is no dispute that such is the fact. The dispute is whether our Constitution does or docs not restrict our General Assembly to the matter of calling Conventions. I think It does : yon, and vonr correspondent, **J. Y. 5.,” think it does not. Here is a legal question, to be settled, as arc all questions of the kind, not by appealing to the* inter est or passions of men, but by a statesman like application to It of legal principles and analogies. S. The third and last fallacy I shall mention I* in supposing that anything Is settled, so fur as this discussion is concerned, by the ad mission that the maxim, (rprf**U>uniu*, Ac., docs not apply to the constrnclion of Consti tutions. If tlmt maxim does apply, certainly the proposition to call a Convention by the ac tion of our General Assembly ot o single session. Is illegal. because the Constitution provides a mode of calling a Convention which Is different, and the nmxlm would es tablish the unconstltuMouallty of any other linn that provided by that Instrument. Bat, If the maxim does not apply, vhen the mean ing and construction of the Constitution would have to be determined, as indeed com mon sense dictates, by the Intention of Its framers as gathered from Its terras, with such nid ns the law rccojrnlr.cs as proper. That Is precisely what, in my letter, I at tempted todo. ~ . t , A .. . It is to my mind very evident that the question of calling a Convention, being sim ply a legal qnestlon, ought to he settled up on legal grounds and not l»y appeals to the ultimate righto! o revolution—a right winch can generally be justified only by that over mastering necessity which admit* of no de nial and no delay. To Invoke that awful right as an ordinary resource in the admlnis (ration of a Government Uas absurd as to open a battery of fifteen-inch guns to kill a fiy—the fly probably escapes, tho gunner Is likely to he killed by the recoil. Yours, respectfully, Joux A. Jamcson*. Another ttetter. Chicago, January 14. To >be Edltorof the Chicago Tribune: Having read the letter of Judge Jameson, and your comments upon it, I respectfully submit a few suggestions upon tho question at issue. It being one of great public Impor tance. To my mind,the question is entirely one of policy, as to the mode of calling the Conven tion. The strength of the argument in favor of departing from the mode pointed out In the Constitution, depends upon the necessity which exists for an early amendment of the Constitution. This is a question to be con sidered by the members of the Legislature, and it will be conceded by alt that the des ignated mode should not be departed from* unless a pressing necessity exists lor early action. Bat the question of power Is, as appears to me, entirely on one side. Ido not accede to the remarkable proposition of Judge Jame son, that a State Legislature derives from a State Constitution Hi entire power to act at off, in any capacity. The following is his lan guage: “ “ Such a doctrine would operate, potential ly at least, as a repeal of the Constitution, at the will or a body which derives from that iustrumeut Us entire power to act in any capacity.” S’ow this is entirely counter, to the whole theory of State Governments, according to : the ablest jurists in this country; which is, ■ that the State Constitutions are to be con sidered, not as grants oi power to the legis lative bodies which arc to act un£er them, but as limitations upon'that power. Limits are placed upon the power to legislate upon certain questions, while the mind is freo Irom the passion or prejudice aroused by a healed discussion of loose questions. * , « lß Oncllon , has generally been taken, between the Stite and Federal Gov this respect. While the State Constitutions have been conceded to be mere limitations of Power, the Federal Constitu tion has been held to be a grant or delega tion of specific powers, which were thus surrendered by the States for the general good; and it has been held that Contras ns no power not thus sp* clfi ca llv delegated Whether this principle is correct to tSc cx tent contended for, Is foreign to the present discussion. W’ease examining the question 0 f Stale Governments, and as to them the principle contended fur is nndcniable. - The following authorities will abundantly sustain the view here taken: The proposition is thus laid down by Chid . Justice Murray, of California : “The Constitution of cius Slate Is sotfobe cortldcrcd as a grant of power, but rather as a restriction upon the powers or the Legislature; and it Is compctentfor the Legislature to tzerctae all powers not forbidden by the Constitution of tie Slate, or delegated to the General Govern ment, or prohibited by the Constitution of the' United Stales.” And in commenting upon this principle, he fays: “By long acceptation. It has become univer sally recognized os a truism, which has rot with in our knowledge, been doubted, except perhaps by the learned counsel for the respondents.*’— [Teople r«. Cotcmau,4th Cal. Rep., p. 49. See also Thompson vt. Williams. 6 Cal. 89. and many sub sequent rates in that State.) Also the following in other States; ** All subjects of legislation, not a dieted by mandate nor by prohibition, are within the dbcrc lico of the General Assembly(Commonwealth vt. Diewry. 15 Grail. (Va.)H In McMillcn ra. Lee, 6th Clarke (Iowa) Re ! Jorts, p. 804, Chief Justice TVright uses the following language: “It Is also urged that the curative act is not a law, but a legislative sentence, and that the Con* eil-.uiim cowers no power »o thus legislate. The fine Irqtriy, however. Is. whether the exercise of the power is Inherited. In ascertaining the power of tbo Legislature, under the Consutution, we look, not to what the instrument authorizes to be done, but to what la prohibited.” The doctrine is thus laid down In Wlscon sin. almost hi the language already quoted of C. J. Murray: “Wo suppose it to be a well-settled principle, that the ConidtuUou of the Sjatc Is to be regarded, not as a grant of pow er, bat rather as a limitation upon the powers of the legislature. and that it la competent for the Legislature to exi-rcisc all legislative power not forbidden by the Constitution, or delegated to the Gtneial Government, or prohibited by the Con stitution of tbe Unites states.—fßnshuell vs. Be loit, 10 Wie. Kep., p. 225. In New York: “Where the Constitution, expressly, or by ne cessary consequence l:om us express provisions, either requires or forbids an act, tb-ro cantio no beei'slioti In enforcing its mandate. Bat for myself, at least, 1 cannot agree to the dociioi. wbicfa was urged upon us, ofan Implied prohibition of legislative action. * * The pcop eof the State in their sovereign capacity, possess an absolute aud uncontrolled power of legislation.” Tbe language of tbe Supreme Court of Illi nois is equally explicit: “ the Constitution ot tbis State is cot to be re garded as a grant of powur, but t alUcr as a resit te non ol tbo cower* ot ibe Legislature, and it is com petent far Hie Legislature to exercise ail power* not forbidden hy the Constitution ot tbe State, nor delegated to (bo General Government, nor pro hibited In tbe State by ibe Constitution of the Unl'cd Slates.”—(Sawyer vs. The City of Alton, 2d Scammou's Reports, p. IW. Treat, Chief Jus tice. “A JrcHntlvoart I-* the will ortho Legislature; and U tins been said (list the Constitution Is thuir commission, and they must net w iUun the pate of their authority. Hal. however. It must be retn?m beicd,lh«inUhou»h ibe Cunstltnliunotn Hiate Is n llimiutiou upon the puw>ra of the legislative depot went, still that iieimrl uunt, unless restricted by thn Constitution, possesses every power not deleuvted to some other department ol Government,'ullhnuah. ns lu othci dfjjnritm.’'. to. It is lu the iiuttirc of a geue>nl smut of powers” jt*mUb'* Cummcninrics on Mnttilcnmt Constitutional Ijv>, p.U S.J Tlu* principle being established, that a Constitution is tint (lie otilv source of power of the Legislature, but u mere limitation upon that power, \vc have only to apply the other maxim, that the expression of one inode of doing nti act does noj necessarily exclude other modes when (ho net in question relates to change* in the organic law, and the whole argument ngnhisl the power of Hie people to hold a Convention, wUUltt a year, hills to thegrtumd. If, again, we refer to I lie nature of Hlnto Constltutlm s, and the principles upon which they fest for their binding force, the sound* tiers of (he position taken will hu cuimUy manifest. „ Wlmt pro those principles, and what U a BtiUv Constitution y ft la merely, a- void before, an expression of the nill of tlmpeoppt upon certain quea tlona, xvlillo llio mind I* not particularly ex cited upon tliOK) qucßtiona. Ami It U he cause experience has shown that when thus five in m excitement, the Judgment arrives at more correct conclusions, that Constitu tions arc recognized ns having binding force. Not because the people at one time have a right lo legislate for those living at another and distant period of time, ana surrounded by circumstances entirely dltVcrem. They have no such right. A Legislature has no right to bind the action of subsequent Legis latures, cases of contract being the only ex ception. Neither has a Convention of the people called to tmumd the organic an the right to E revent the people to come after them Irom uvlng other Conventions for the same pur pose. The amendment in this instance Is not sought during any popular excitement. A calm aud dispassionate discussion of certain questions is all that Is desired. The manner iu which the Convention Is to be called. Is merc'yone of detail, established fur the supposed commune* of the people. If the existing Constitqlloa goes inrthcr, and undcitakcs to prevent the people from obtaining a fair expression, within a reason able time, concerning the organic law, the power of the Constitution to incomorate sucii a provision, and makclt blnding/might well be questioned. The Convention ofl*4S was called to frame a Constitution, and not to prevent other Constitutions from being framed. Ihit the Convention did not undertake to do this. They merely provided that under a certain statu nl facts a Convention should beheld. The Constitution docs not cither expressly, or by necessary implication, pro hibit the holding of a Convention under other circumstances, nor would such a pro hibition, df It existed, have any binding force, as law, upon the people. It is for toem to decide how far a respect for established forms and usages shall influence them to adhere to the method pointed out, or whether any and how much necessity exists for earlier action. tv*. AS iSrOKTAST DECISION. Skip Owners and Ship Chandlers. ViKdsnotSnbjcctto t.Sea for Supplies Fm ukucd In tho IStgclar Course of Business. The following important decision was re cently delivered in the District Conrt of the United States for the Northern District of Illinois: DjfTWcr Cocut or toe Uxtted States, Nonrn niN DianncTor Illinois : LijOiit eft J'lnnty vs Prcp-ller Lady Fi-anklln This was a libel upon a claim of Lyons £ Fin ney for supplies, mateiial and repairs fan ished to ihe Propeller Lady Franklin In ibe summer of 16W. at Oswego, NY. It was admitted that the supplies famished were each as were proper, usual and necessary for each a vessel to have uod use in Ihe business In "Llch sfe was engaged, and iaclndcd also various needftri repairs made to her, both In dry dock and otherwise, during me season. But It was limber aomired that off of said re pairs art! material* were imnished to said vessel when the was running regularly between the said port of Oswego and Ihepoitof Toronto, Canada, aud were all furnish d ntsaldnortol Oswego from time to time upon her successive trips between duly, ISW, and S< ptember, 1564, as the same were o:dcred lor the arc ar.d benefit ol said ve-scl upon such trips made between said potts In her usual and regular course o! bo-loess. Jt fnrthcr appeared that said propeller was run l.y oco Kirkland, who held the same under an asrrcuncr.t of nurchaa** with one A. E. Goodrich, which bad only been m part fulfilled, and under which, in the following year, she reverted to ibe laid Goodrich, who la now the owner and the claimant in these proceedings. Saia Kirkland resided in Sheboygan, Wisconsin —said Goodrich Jn Chicago—and the vessel was registered in Chicago. The said propeller wo* ran during the time at which Iba supplies and repairs in question »*ero furnished, by the said Iriiklund. under n charter partv between hiai and iho Oiacd Trunk Railway Company of Canada from lie nort of Toron.o, tn Canada to ice port of Oswego, howtoric; that •he was running regular tripe between those two ports two cr three times during ctvr} week, car rying iruchi and passengers, and Ihcsewcie her regular established ports for receiving amt dts chcrgtPg freight and passengers. Ihe libellant* mew that Kirkland was running the vessel finch ebarer paity was upon the payment ot so much for each trip, the vc.-scl to pay her own expem w. A pail of trls charier mom-y wan received t»y Iho captain. but the greater part was collected by KJrklano. It docs not appear that the liodlants ki pw Che terms of 'h contract ot charter between Kirkland and the railroad company. Itc supplies and repairs in question were charged by the partle* furnishing iho same di rectly to the vessel. It seeming to have been taken for grantee by such parties that they constituted a lien upon tile vessel, but no express agreement to hypothecate the vessel for their paywcul was incdo. It was claimed br the libellants that neither the said Kliblavd, nor (be master of the vessel, had any personal credit at Oswego, and that the ma terials and repairs furnished could not have been obtained upon the personal credit of either at that place. There was t.o evidence as to the actu al responsibility ot (be owner Kirkland. All ibat appeared to evidence upon this point was that (he parties furnishing these repairs and supplies bad thtsiselves no knowledge of bis having iny credit tn Oswego or elsewhere, hat u docs not vppt-ar that any inquiry was made as to Jsls responsibility, or any attempt made to pro cure ihe supplies upon tho credit of the said whkland. It did not appear that Kirkland wa.l notified iLatthcteparuesticrefaruishtu'-rsupplris on an express or implied hypotbeealioa ol the vesuri os their security, or that any attempt was made to advise or communicate with blm upon the sub ject, or that there was any'difficulty In bavin? communication uiMi blm. It appeared that ho was in Oswego severs! times donog the course of Ce summer. The original understanding upon which the sup plies were furnished, ai.a which seems to have been tho only one. la thus stated In the evidence of the master, and there Is no ctputs upon this point.. That on or about the Bth of July be applied to T.yon <t Finney for credit, and faM to Ihem; “Wc “ have cot things fur the boa*- lor which the boat “owed them, and that we would pay as soon as “the boat earned the money. Lyons said he •■would wall till tie boat came baric, until she “tad maoea trip. Be thinks this was all that * waxenldattbo time. Upon that they went on “■and msdo bins for the boat with Lyons «fc Co. “That he did not apply to them foe credit upon “ the personal responsibility ol the owner or him “self, and that the bills were for ordinary supplies “famishedwhen she was making her tegular “ trips.” Lyons states that “be had no knowledge of tbo “responsibility ol the master or owner. That ar “ tides col before July iS were paid for, and after “ that she traded on credit.” Upcn this state of facts, the question to be de cided was, whethei the llbellanta had a maritime Urn for seen snppUes and repairs, or any of them, which conld be enforced against this pro peller In Ibe bands of the claimant Goodrich. The case was submitted to Bis Honor Judge Davis, who held. Thai the case was within the Stindple of the decision of Pratt vs., Reed, 111 toward, £39. That he understood that cose to decide (hat. In order lo a valid maritime Hen upon a vessel for snppUes and repairs it must appear cot only that such repairs and snppUes were needful to the vessel when famished, but that the existence of tom* unforeseen and : unex ptcUdtmerff'ncy maXing Uneceeeaty to procure cveh cvpiilus cud rfpeir* at time vpontns or the veieelt must alto ft* e&men ; acd that tie circumstances under which such and repairs are fon-Übsd, must be andr as would, un oer the maritime law, have Justified and sustain ed the giving at such time a bottomry bond, fbr the same repairs sad nppues, the only differ* e»aj belngthat lnJbet«*ol ry bend It must farther appear foal tbcroiwa* a teecmpr foe. paylnc.ttu. extra Qjtllaary-In!fcre»t trclden* to thstsecrirUy. Thai Uvm farther ruled In ibi t ease *• lost having been for tdthed at a fixed place acvortfa'** i 0 Uie account cortrnt and apparenil j aoder e»aj e general under flaxdmg and arrangement ihcßejQjQption l.i that there coaid be no necessity fo>tha Implied hy pothecation of the vessel, intre coud be no arex pccied or nniorwt-eu exigency to require it. and that for aogbt that appeared, the sujallea coaid have been procured on the personal o e dit of the owner.” Applying the (principles of that d»dtion. oC which Judge Pavia expressed bis entire approval, the claim dr the libellants could not be smufaed. There was nothin? in the rare which established such a esse of marsilme cccessll v tor a credit upon the vessel os wou:dalozra.su*fam the lien which the libel seeks to maictain.~ There was no unex pected or unforeseen emergency. The vessel was m her regular course of business, at one of ner es tablished rorl* of arrival and departure. She was running between Toronto and Oswego, upon a charter party v itb the Crank Trnnk Railway, and Jwwego was cine of her regular ports for procuring and needfaPrepaira r and supplies which •nASl®?® her from »i»e to tune upon the ffcsF”*^ e «rtpcpCTfonDedbT her. It l»obviou» 9bon,d be made hy those Xo ™eel soch running ex money earned upon the char- Z fKnTO?. fnpp,ied hcr "*"> tois (lent to tnotejuj-nittijr.g iri/A Aer vtuul tup. jilift on AttrecvloTMp § (gig d Aty usual portt of iMry and «ucA trip# -tcould be u!- jurioutto theOetlrn~ertttt cf commnc*. Ifthts were to he pcrmltb d, Ihe lnt?res!s of the parties having mortgages neon vea*c\> ar .d of owners let ime vc BSeJi upon charters would he greatly Jeon ard-xed and the vessel practical]* could be rnnatiheir cost. In addition to .the absence in tils c'aoofaar evidence of any sneb unforeseen and nccxoecled emergency as would Justify a maritime Ilcnuoon tbe ve-fvl? for tbe repairs and snnplics famished even in a case where it satisfactorily appeared that tbe owner cf the vessel bad no personal credit la, tbe port of supply, the proof in this case fails to tnrrbjh Mifliclent evidence of Ihe Inability to pro enre such supplies and repairs noon the credit of tbe owner, it is not snOTclcctto show that the parties fnm!«bJrgsncb ermnlies did notkoowlhat tbeowncrbftdarrcdft. They are bound to proper and rrasonab'e diligence in making inquiries as to such credit, and tbe IrabUhy to obtain sack tuppMe* upon such credit ought to appear by showing proper efforts so to obtain them. In this case (be supplies and repairs were charged at once to the vessel. No Inquiries were made as to tbe owner’s responsibility, nor does it appear thsltbe owner was without credit at tbe port of supply. It appears that the vessel was inn upon a charter, and was to receive so mneb for each trip, and that these earnings were receiv ed by tbe master and owner, and these tacts would rather furnish ground for the presumption that they had the means either »p pa* tor needed supplies, or to obtain a personal credit for tbe amount of them, and as no attempt was made by communicating with the owndr, or otherwise, to raise the needed amount in this way, the tau-uasrc oflboSnpmnu Court. In Pratt vs. Ifcvdlmarbe appropriately applied to this care, that “far aught that appears tbe supplies canid bare been procured on the personal credit of the owner ” The libel was accordingly dlsmlsc! wUb costa, n. F. Malle and R. Rac for libellants. Gcod win £ Lamed for respondent. GENERAL VALUER’S SPEECH. Tito Date of His Letter to Jndgo Tram* ball* How lie Kxplalne the Alteration or llio Male. We copy from llio Joumnl of lust orenlnir Hint rorllim of (icnoral I’aliucr'n spcccli wlitctl relates to llio change of dole or Ids letter to dodge Trnmbull: I Imve not sooi.rn ar Ihe honesty or slalesmsn slilpot Jutlge Tniuitodl, hot 1 now sn* that he has oilemiuii). or permitted hi* Mends to st tt"i||l, 111 neslrpr me, ll.sl he mi, Inmre his cUctloo to llio timed Mates Menale. 1 m.deis aeo II use stated, list nlaM, alhls toctu In tlilp cllv, n* a ttmiu* of cnuviciitu tni* of an Infamoii* Him*'. “ Why. look bore, (Uln but os* •Yiliciiitci'il oti llio Bill day or dnntiiff. tint ornl Jnltm-tB letter piujitm* id bo tnlKott in Urctmlior. BiuljtUic mjb in tits Icl'ori * I j'ttd pern leletfinfb.e icMetu-e. ymir bill,* nutl how fVn , . , s l *V? j'?? reroremv id llio bill in yvf‘fh,6»Mv|ili , ln»ni not iniioilucptl until *tnntmry) It ma* tint Ibeit n* l imVe fj o*n sou m>peir. Him ieleumiililc ref.-retice* u* iho ini mnr t>e famul by lookup tnu» noy of Hie daily pupum benr Onto on Ibe SOlli of ‘December, It wall M'l rßlil. bn! *a« left id be inrenml, that tliolillt wn. in ter heanlof no'll It , V a* Neiuaily oileM-iUn tin.*ei,ab.. You wlllmi-t. by r< hue"™ to 'ln* ti-ht,!rttutwl (thifir, \Uv jifli*,. i t'annoi now (IMhirily recollect. ilint ituiluo I min bull gave no tice flflikWH on ifm mitt onipenntber. I.V voice 'nue l;l» "I Thank you. I h.ivo »bown you by the lllliioln Jouimilut Mid VUibof DucombT llmt (lie notice mb* reported nml teloeißphiHl over ilu» eonniry. 111-on page?!. OmC* l:i|H day of lu-ceinlier J ni'fi' 1 1 inn hull e«lil, **| re to give m-uci' ibai i >lmu, to-morrow. 01 on •mm) wu rly Uty Ibeieufter, n*k to Introduce a iilll to en- Ureothe powura of (bo Freedniwa’a Human. •«> as to venire freedom to All person* wliiiln tbo linked Stale*,” The»o aru tbo Biulemeujs.raadu by (j|oi.o( f the contents of ibe bill. tiio fact Hmunl* no tice wua siren la contained lit the papers of U«. ccmbertUlh. Having already collected iao au thorities and prepared Ihoarguneqfii.mibdramially ar. in t» e prticnt form—for aooihcrpmiioic-ttcy were reduced to the torm ot o letter to Judga iniDibull—opeD to everybody—ana yel the anra m< di uud egnlDst me u Miat recause the bill it*df mbs not unreduced until tbo MU ot January.tbere loro my dme, “December.” must have been a falsehood and a fraud. 1 bat Is the paint. 1 have shown you that the Idler trua writUn In Decem ber. Mr. Kimball mailed a fair copy to Jadce Inimbnll, bom Cortinnlle. On mv rctam to Jxmiavllle I attempted to get a copy, and i took up the original draft ana it was catered un my book nythe c>rk. I bavo efcown you th- history of this by the certificate of Henry M. Kimball, of CarlliiTllle— au honorable man—tba* ibis was Erfntcd trom my letter-book. Ot wbat importance i it to anybouy»bd» eribc tetter \»Ui dated in donnary or in December? Ibc ceecmlai point, if there is any essentia! point at all, ta this, that Jcojre Trumbull iook from my letter the amend ment found on page 474 of the Comrearionat Gfc6',andma«!cu«.pa»tof UU bill. TnaUsthe alb ranoii, end Judge Trumbull, in bis letter to ue, admits it to be true. Ttien if the leucr was written la lime for him to receive it ana n«e it, of wsal particular im portance is the dare? laskanybody? Is it not a quibble? AUihatnir friends ever prmlea wo» • tnaufcf* was taken from nr letter by him arrt Jncwporartd into his blit, and he mralU that to be true; but liecuosci*. is loaud that (be date of the original Ut’er does not correspond ♦Mibtte copy seal to him, or that it \ s d ate i be . lore ihe dale of Iho bill—l have batm golltr of a sMlcdlc usd a band. That ta crciedmgi/ email bj.ccial pleacllng—shaip soeclal pleading— and a ’ lawyer Mho would resort to that would protuolr not be kicked oat of tbo pro icselon, because some very m'an men have got to be lawyers, but still that would not be regarded as either very fair or very honor able practice. 1 ask aeain. what could I cam by iTavo as to dates, whtn Judge lYumhulladmits thattc received >ho letter aad used it as was in tended by me. Judge Trumbull took mvldea of citizenship, and made U a parf of bis bill. Mid he admits that be did do that, but says that the letttfwas not dated right. IWi, anpp.tse It was not; was it an > « orse because It was not dated right? Did not yon extract that flromlj which af fernatds became the soul of jonrblll; and did (bo date hurt (bat? 1 could give yon some very icdicrocs illn.-trafions of rbat Ktnd of practice, for lawyers are familiar with If. Weil, I won’t trouble Ycnwirn illustrations. [Cries or “Go on. ’] No, fellow-citizens, there are -omo auWecta,which canrot be lllastrab d In all crowds. f, Now ibis Is tie essential fact. I cs!l yoncMicn tiou to It again, because J am fhrhliugthisjnotaa a candidate, but as a man. as a hnsbrn&aaa father, os a eon, acd as a citizen. While 3 am xilliigto compromise wlm politicians, on ibis point i submit to nothin?. 1 battle It Inch by inch. Now, this letter of mine was prepared as is • shown by the certificate ot Captain Lercriosr, and will be t-bo*D ?y Colonel Harlow, and a copy of my letter was tak<t. to iuy room ana taken home—then It was submitted to my friends, and mailed to Judge Trumbull, as be says, on the ICtb of January. Judcc Trumbull rccclred It aid used the suggestions, *’• and he got Ihe benefit of them, v And 1 will here say—notM-Uhstanalnc the charge of vartty—that when the American Congress adopted the principle contained In that letter,and summoned these dead men, called fteednieu. into ■ cluzcntbio and manhood and life, they added four millions of men to the American nation, and that this central figure of the Civil it’ghes BIH constitutes a noble znuuiimcrt of Amencm lat tice ) Bat that is not all. Have yon read *• this hnfor lonate letter*" U may have been a erea. mbfor tens to me, bat It was not to some other people. To them it was a God-send. [Applause.] If yon have not, 1 recommend yon to read it, you young politicians who have been tinkering with these and other momrnlons subjects—you who have been finding 'some way to compromise between prejudice and principle. Bead ill It goes to the heart of the matter. Judge TrambnU ears its suggestions were the basis of the bill. And m the discussion Id the Senate the arguments took rare ol themselves. Let too see what they did. When Judge Trnmonll offered Ibat amend ment. a man named Van Winkle—a Rip Van Winkle from the news be expressed, or an older brother perhaps, who bad slept even lunger than be, (Itngbferl— raid: "if the gentleman will per mit me before he pass-a from this subject, I sounld like blm to explain, if these freodmeo are cot now criizcns ot tee United htatea, where u the authority by law for Corgrcas to xnaxo them . citizens *’» 1 HO3I HOCK ISLAND. Terrific Boiler Explosion on Saturday Tho Senatorial Question Tho TVcatlier—Bcltclou* Revival. [Special Correspondence of Iho Chicago Trioane-1 Hoes. Islahu, I 1 January 12. About three o’clock this morning a terrific explosion of one of the boilers in the “ Warner 3liils” cccUrred, causing the total destruction of tho eeginc bouse, making a great opening In -the west end of the mill, and scattering brick and pieces of the boiler .in all directions. Four pifsons were in the mill at the time of the explosion, but for tunately no one was Injured. Mr.!,. C. Har well, the proprietor, is at present absent In Michigan. The damage cannot be less than $3,000. The Inllera had been considered un safe fur some time, and new ones about com pleted to take the place of those suddenly destroyed, in consequence of which the mill will ogniu be in operation In a few days. An investigation will be had os to the cause of the explosion. Judge Trumbull is the almost unanimous choice of the people of this county for his own successor In the United States Senate, and they will be sadly disappointed if he U not nominated by onr Legislature on Tnes dovr.cxt. lie is considered here 44 the right man in the rich! place,” and certainly we - want him in the Senate (with his varied ex perience with rebels) long enough to help reconstruct our treacherous President. Therefore, for United States Senator, we say Tmubull first, last and all ihe time. This is one of the most unpleasant days of : the season. It has been blowing and snow ing and growing quite cold since morning, with a prospect of making more firm the Ice bridee across the Mississippi, and with a promise of sJelgh’ug, of which we have had none this winter in ibis latitude. Quite a religions awakening is manifesting itself in the Baptist church, under the charge of KeV. E. C. M. Burnham, a young man of great promise, formttly from Pike County, in. this State. M. Ordnance Used Oaring: tbcTfar. -* From the report of Major General A. B- Dvcr, Chief of Ordnance, U appears that dur- Ibjj the period from January I, 3801, to June COT 18C6, there were provided for the mili tary service 7,592 cannon; 11,787 artillery . carriages; 6,3&L2to artillery projectllcs.shot and shell; 0/>30,999 rounds ol crape and. canister shot; 2,862,177 rounds of fixed ar lilleiv ammunition;.3,4*4,6ss small arms— * runlets, rifles, carbines and pistols; 544 475 -swords, sabres and lances; 2 1-m5,175 complete sets ol artillery accoutre ments; 330.371 complete sets of cavalry ac coutrements; 509,544 complete sets of horse equipments; 2S,lC4sets of Ivra-horse artil lery harness; 782.320 horse blankets; 1,023,170,474 cartridges f“r small anna; 1 ,*220,555.435 percussion caps for small arms; 10,231,803 cannon nrimere ; 4,223,317. fusees 'forshell- 50440.054 pounds ot gunpowder; 6,895,152 pounds of nitre; and 90,416,295 ronrds of lead* in pigs and* ballets, -besides Immense quantities of parts for re pairing .and making good the comnlota arti. eles which were damaged, lost 0? destroyed te amice.