Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune, January 18, 1867, Page 2

Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune dated January 18, 1867 Page 2
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Cljlcagcr tribune. DAILY, TRIWEEKLY AND WEEKLY. OFFICE, Me. 91 OI.SEII.ST, There are three ediuom of the Tantemr issued. Ist. JreTTmoniinr.fbr circulation by earner*, newsmen and the malt*, to. TheTai-Waxnr, Monday* Wed- Deader* and Friday* for the malla only; and the Wx*art,DaTbTuwlay*,lwthemalts and ulaatour counter and br scwksfo. Term* of the Chicago Tribune : D»«y ddlvtird in m* city (m week) 9' 93 Dally. kntllnbKribrn (per noSttm, para* ' b}Mn advasm 1*2.00 Trl-Weclly.<ppj aastno, fayahlc la advance) (T.OO weekly, (per apenm. oayab e In advance) *i.Oo OT PracUooalpart* of Um year at Urn same tau*. OT Percent remitting and ordering Ore or more ooplca of either the Tri-Weekly or Weekly edition* tnayretalnUopercenterlhofubacrtpUon price aa a comnMon. Norte* to M-JWEinnt*.— in ordertn? the «ddr<?n ol yoor papers rhnnsrd.to promt delay, bo s«r« and •redly wbatcoition r*m «*•-.. cckly, Tfl-Wcokly, or Dally. Abo. ctvoyoitrrßxmTamtraturuiidilrrai. IW* Money, by Draft, Rxprrw. Money order* on. lteaUWodl<rUpr* mw be oral at oar il»k. Address. TICinCNSCa M etilrjurr, m. FRIDAY, JANUARY is. 1&07. TUB IfIILLIRAN CA.NIJ, The extent to which the opinions of tho Supreme Court ol the United States, upon political and constitutional questions are binding upon Congress, and the people, Is well settled both by political precedent and elementary writers. The rule is thus slated by Mr. Dana In Note 81, Wheaton's International Law: •*The Court does sot formally set aside or declare void as; statute or ordinance Inconsirttut wits the Coiibtittuion. It simply decides the case be fore It according to law, and if laws are la conflict according 10 that law which has the highest au thority, that is the Connltatlun. The cfi’ect of the decree of the final Conn on the status ol th* par ties or property In that salt. Is, of coarse, abso lute. cud binds all departments of the Govern ment. The constitutional principle In the decision being ascertained Irom the opinion—lf the Coart sees lit to deliver a fail opinion—has in all future cases in courts of law, simply the effect of a Judicial precedent, whatever that may he. Upon tte political deportrnen»F of the Government, and upon citizens, the principle decided has in future esses not the binding force or a portion of the Const!; cl lon, but the moral encct doc to its in trinsic weight and to the character of the tri bunal. “ A judicial precedent on a question of const!- (utioisl politics’ la»v has no other than moral fores on the legislative department in its subsequent acts, and on citizens in tbelr votes. For m-taoce, if the Supreme Coon decides a.sta’utc to ttecou siimUonal, that does not operate ual.-jwon ihecon scieuce of a membcr.or tlie Legislature, under bis path, so as to prevent him from voting to repeal it as unconstitutional, or to prevent a citizen Irom voting at elections on that ground alone; or upon the President to prevent bis patting Li-* veto on a renewal of such a 'aw In a new ease. II tnc Su ps erne Court decides tnat It Is unconstitutional to prohibit slavery ic a Territory, Congress may stiji prohibit It In all future I'cmtoiial bill®, taking the chance of the Court not adhering to its doc trine. These ate questions ol policy and nroprl ei>, not of law. 1 * Political precedents arc equally decisive upon this point; Thus the Supreme Court of the United Slates many years ago decided that the United States Dank was constitutional, but the people taking .a different view of the qucstK-n, decided otherwise, and the charter was not renewed. ' The same Court solemnly declared as Us opinion, that the negro was not a citizen, and had no rights which the while man was bouud to'rcspect. With this opinion Val lav'digham, Jefferson Davis, James Bu chanan, and Milligan concurred, but the people not feeling bound by it, have decided otherwise, and to-day the negro, by the will of the people. Is clothed with the rlguts of a man and the privileges of a citizen. One of the leading issues io the Pros!- • dentiul campaign of 1804 was the constitu- < tiorality ol military arrests, tria's ami con victions. The people, by overwhelming majorities, decided the question in the affirm ative, sod they will maintain the position thus taken, live Judges of the Supreme Court cl the United Stoles to the contrary notwith standing. Judge Davis well remarks In the opinion delivered by him, that no graver question than the one 'discussed by him was ever considered by that Court, but ns ing very far towards determining the mor al effect which the opinion Is entitled to iH-tl, ni.d Its Intrinsic merit, U Is important t<> notice that he declare that “ the decision of this question doesnot depend on argu ment or judicial precedent, numerous and highly illiMrntlvc ns they arc.” This an iionnioinent is certainly u mo.-t extraordi nary one. We had always supposed that the decision of questions prop.mmlnl to C ourts for their adjudication depended very much upon argument and precedent. For It would went clear enough tl at if It could he ih monslrated by argument, tint In time of war the powerlonmku military nr* rots and to l»y and punlrii by military tri hi.mils ctUnccK against the military power of the Government weto absolutely neces sary for the nutbnml safely, the decision of any questions as to the legality ol such ar rests trials and punishments ««»//«/ at least to depend upon, and he very greatly In fluenced by such argument. Ami so, roo, if slien arrests, trials, and punishments were Justified and sustained bj judicial precedent, the decision of any piutlcnhir cans ought to depend somewhat, at lea.-I, on Mich precedents. H is certain that* so soon as it becomes geiurally understood that the decisions of the cupreine Court of the United States de pend neither upon argument nor precedent, It \ull L’Cjfell to abolish lu that tribunal, at least. both these essential aids to the forma tion o! correct conclusions. The services of the bar will be no longer requited, for the decisions of the Court will not depend upon argument, and the use of law books will be unnecessary, lor tbo prece dents which they furnish cauu’jt lufincucc the decision of that Court. It will col he Very difficult to determine the intrinsic merits of the decisions of a tri bunal which depend neither upon reason nor precedent. The annul effector such adjudi cation., will be nothing, for there can lie no intrinsic merits to suj jiort them, and lack ing these essential elements, the decisions of tlie Supreme Court of the United Stiles upon political and constitutional questions will have u» greater weight with the people than the speeches, of any private partisans upon the same subjects. Ofoi.c Unns we may be certain: That, although live Judges of the Supreme Court of the United States are ready to decide with out argument or precedent, that the arrest, trial and conviction of fomentors of rchelli-m and plotters against the national safety by military tribunals in lime of war is illegal, t/.<- 1 this country will nut come to ei.i-li a conclusion without requiring much Mjjnmes'.t and a great deal of precedent* The question was decided by the people in 3>* A. They gave their deeWon alter hearing Ihi. argument uj*on both sides, and tire dc cL'irn which they rendered was influenced by, :.t d depended upon, the arguments which were uddtcsM-dlu them and the numerous pm-c duds, historical and judicial, with which they were made familiar. That they are not hound to reverse that de cision is obvious. That they will not feel Inclined to do so, by reason of an adverse opinion entertained by five gentlemen who are Judges, is quite certain, when U Is ascer- tained that such adverse opinion depended neither upon argument nor precedent, both of which a free people deem indispensable to the proper decision of any political ques tion. After advising us upon what the decision of this great, question does not depend, the opinion, referring to the fact that our fath ers “secured in a written Constitution every right which the people had wrested from power during a contest of ages," says that 11 By that Constitution and the laws author ized by it this question must be determin ed.’* Precisely. But as the question hap pens to be whether the Constitution author izes such arrests and trials or not. It deesnot seem to be making very rapid progress in its solution, to answer it by saying that the question murl be determined by the Consti tution. On the one baud it is insisted that the Constitution, properly construed, docs authorize such arrests and trials; on the other that'll does not.- And the Court, gravely advises both parties that whether llic Constitution docs or docs not authorize Rich aneals and trials, depends not upon ar gument nor precedent, but upon the Constitu tion. In this respect, the opinion is a reflex of that eminently respectable aud conservative piece of emptiness, Uioßcll-Everctt platform of wo— 1 14 The Union, the Constitution, and the Enforcement of the Laws.” The Oues tion then was, whether the Constitution, of Its own force, carried slavery into the Ter riiories, which Mr. and his party answered by solemnly assuring they were “ /or the Constitution.” If this question Is to be determined \,y u, c Commotion, U Is a constitutional question. But does the Supreme Court decide constitu tional questions without argument? From the opinion of Judge Davis it would seem so. Do they decide them without reference to judicial precedent? They so declare; for they ray that the decision of this question docs not depend upon “judicial precedents, numerous and highly illustrative os they arc.” The people will, in the action which they take upon constitutional questions, be con trolled by argument and governed by prece dent. Five Judges of the Snpreme Court of the United Slates have declared, In one ease nt least, that theirs will not be. But as strong an evidence of the want of intrinsic merit, In the opiaiuta under discus sion, as could be furnished* is found in tho extraordinary misconception which it exhib its of the grounds upon which tho legality of military arrests and trials lias been placed by* the advocates of that position. Judge Davis sajs: “No doctrine involving more ** pernicious copscqucncca was over invented “ by the wit of man, than that ony of its * ** (tho provision* can be bus -14 peuded during any of the great cxogcuclcs “ of Government.” Kow we undertake to soy, that no party In this country has ever upheld anv such theory its Judge Davit* here denouuccs. The Repub' . Bean party certainly never has. No such doc trine has ever been declared by. Us Conven tions, nor maintained by Us leaders. Indeed It has held precisely opposite grounds, and Insisted that, military, .arrests and trials in limes of worwcrc Justified not liy suspending any portion of the Constitution, bul by call, ing aft Uspoterrs ipto exercise. • . Where, and hyVbom, did Judge Davis ever hear the doctrine advocated f Ho has evi dently been poorly educated' fa the tenets of the Republican party, If he suspects that this • pernicious doctrine is, or bver bis been, one of them, . - - *• i The Ohio Vollandlglmm Committee sought to fasten this “ pernicious doctrine** upon Mr. Lincoln In their letter of Jane 20, 1903, addressed to him, In which they say: “The undersigned are unable to agree with von In the opinion you have expressed, ttiat the Con dilution Is ulflcrent In time of insurrection or In .VMtonlromwbatltis tnlluicof peace or public security.*’ * j In answer to this letter, Mr. Lincoln, after referring to the fact that it was in position and argument mainly the name as the reso lutions of the Democratic meeting at Albany, New York, and referring them to his re spouse to those resolutions, says: “This response you evidently mud In propJr- Inc year remarks, and 1 desire no mine than that it lie used with accuracy, in a single reading of your remarks, 1 on y discovered ono Inaccuracy In matter which 1 suppose yon took- from that pa jkt. it is when; you say. (Here follows the para graph above quoted. I A rcctirroocu to the paper will show you ths* 1 have not expriwod the opin ion yon suppose. J expressed the opinion that the Constitution is dlOerunt la its application la casus or rebellionorlnvssion involving tfio our>l(csafe ty, from wbtt Ula in time of profound peace and public security. And this opinion I adhere to, simply because by the Cotj-lliutlon Itself' tutors may be done tn the one case which may not be done in the other.** In his letter of June 12,1803, In answer to the Albany committee, Mr. Lincoln, In speaking of the clause In the Constitution relating to the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus , says: “It is the provision which specially applies to our present case. This provision plainly attests the understanding of (hose who made the Consti tution. that ordinary courts of Justice are Inade quate to cases of rebellion—attests their purpose that in such eases men may bo held in custody whom courts acting on ordinary rales would dis charge.ll And again, referring to the resolutions of tho Democratic meeting, which bad been enclosed to him, he says; “By the third resolution the meeting indicated their opinion that military arrests may be coustl tmionalin localities where rebellion actually ex ists, but that such arrests are unconstitutional in localities where rebellion or insurrection does 1 otacuially exist. They insist thut aneb arrests riiall iiot be made outride of the line* of necessary military occupation, and the feenes of Insurrec tion. Constitution itself wires no sveh distinction, 1 am unable to bdiete that there is any such constitutional dls'A*ctlon. J concede that the class of arecets complained of ran be constitutional only when in cases of rebel lion or Invasion tbe public safety may require it. .■Uidl insist tfuttlu such eases they are constUu • • loral tclurettr the public safely does require f/iem." Tims it Is seen that.Mr- Lincoln justified the arrest, trial, conviction and banishment of Vallandiglmra, not upon the “pernicious doctrine” of a suspension of the Constitu livn or any of its parts, but by the Consti tution itself. He claimed and argued that the authority was derived from and existed by force of the Constitution, and never placed it upon the ground of its suspension. Nor was the “pernicious doctrine” of sus pension urged in argument by the counsel for Genoa! Burnside upon Vullaadlghatn’s petition to be discharged upon a writ of hahta* corpus The theory of suspension was indeed broached by Mr, I’ugh, the counsel for the petitioner, and distinctly repudiated 03* the counsel for the relator, who declared that the “rights so carefully enumerated In “the Constitution, and so often referred to “by leanicd counsel, arcliable to be abridged “ under certain circumstances. The Con “stitution contemplates and provides “ fur such abridgment. The abridgment “ Is especially provided for in lime of war.” And In assigning his reasons for refusing the prayer of the petition, Judge Leavitt nowhere justifies Uls action upon the “per* I'lcioua doctrine” of a suspension of the Constitution, but says: “In time of war the •‘President is not above the Constitution, but “derives his power expressly from the pro* “virion ofthnt Instrument declaring that he “shall be Commander-In-Chief of the Army “and Navy,” The first resolution of the Republican platform adopted at Baltimore In 18ffl do •-hires “that it is the highest duty of every “American dll/.cn to maintain against all “ 1 heir enemies the Integrity of the Union “mid the paramount authority of the “ Constitution and laws of the United “Stales.” Yet still, with a perversity ol nilMcprofniulitiii which is only equalled hy the inlx’onccptlon displayed In this opinion, lie Democratic Convention by Us second rc-olntiou test IvcU that *• After four years of “ l.illuru to restore the Union by tin* expert* “mi ni of war, during which, under the pre sence ofu military necessity or war power “ higher than the Constitution the. Cunslltu “tlun itself had been disregarded in its “every part, etc.” The charge that the-war had been prose* ruled under any pretence ofu military msecs i.ity or war power higher than the Consritn* tlnn, was as deliberately false as was Us ac* rotnpnnjing declaration that the war had been an experiment and a failure. The ex istence of any such “ pernicious doctrine*’ a-* • he suspension ol the Constitution was solely In the lively imaginations of Copperhead ora tors and Conventions. The doctrine never existed In fact, and the charge that it was .'literlain d Is one among the many of the -lule aid worn-out slanders of the opponents i»f the war, which the country will be grieved ami Indignant to see repeated in an opinion •fftlic Supreme Court of the United States. Of wlml relevancy, then, Is Ihc discussion ifa theory, however pernicious U maybe, > lilcli no one entertains nor bus entertained. ,j was, dntinc the dark year* o| the rebellion, ihe prinelual stuck in trade ot rebel sympa ihirers at the North to charge upon the Ad* rnim.'lration of Mr. Lincoln vlolall ms ofthc Constitution. Unable to meet and answer the positions which he did take, and the reasons which he urged to the country for the course which they charged upon him positions which be never assumed, and attributed to him arguments which he never employed. Prominent among these was the “ pernicious doctrine of a suspension of the Repudiating that ijoctrlnc as often as it was attributed to him, and justifying the legality of military arrests and trials upon constitutional grounds, he satisfied the country which Ips policy saved, aid be secured from the people their em phatic aud overwhelming endorsement. Long before the war had closed, Seymour, n.d Pugh, and Wood, aud Yailandigham had ••eased their clamors about the suspension of the Constitution, and it would tuve been permitted to rust out, as apart of the dis ■:ccd arnioiy of Copperhead warfare, had It not been again Seriously revived, aud -criously combated by five Judges of the •vprcnic Court of the United Slates. If it .illoids them any amusement to combat that theory, well nod good. Perhaps, so far. at 'east as they engage in the discussion of i-olitical questions, they cannot be more harmlessly employed. But when they Ultimate or suggest that the administration of Abraham Lincoln, and the country which .supported and sustained it, justified the arrest, trial and conviction of the alders aud abettors of treason in our midst upon any such ground, and base judicial action upon any such assumption, they arc (unintCLtionally no doubt) guilty of a misrepn mentation of facts, which the peo* ! pic will not he slow to detect and to resent. | Nor was this pernicious doctrine urged in •notification of the arrest, trial and convlc- : :lon of Milligan. For, in the opinion from 1 .vliich we quote. Judge Davis says: "But it said that the jurisdiction is complete under the laws and usages of war.” There is no suspension of the Constitution about this, for it can hardly be denied that In time •f war the laws and usages of war arc con -UluUunal. If it is not constitutional to wage war according to the laws and usages of war, it cannot be constitutional to wage war'at all, unless Indeed it be to wage war awfont and contrary to iff latrr anti ftf<ige«, and that we respectfully submit is a more per nicious doctrine than that of a suspension of {be Constitution. The usages of war are in time ot war constitutional. The laws of war are In time of war consti tutional. * And hence In order to determine whether u particular act, done in time of war, is or Is uot constitutional. It becomes necessary to ascertain whether such act is or is not justi fied by the laws and usages of war. But lu ibis, immediate connection Judge Davis de clares, "Jt can feryc no useful purport to in quire ichat thott. lav* and u*<ige* are, whence ‘ ihnj originated, tr here found, and on irhom “they operate; they can never be applied to “ citizens in Stales which have upheld the “ authority of the Government, and where “ the Courts are open and their process un obstructed.” The laws and usages of war arc either con tUtuUonal, or they are not. If they are not constitutional it is unimportant to ascertain what they are. If they are constitutional in .such a cause oa of Milligan’s, where it is claimed that L\» arrest, trial and convic tion were: iu accordance with those laws and usages it Is extremely to tequ | ro u-lmt U.ey arc for If Ibo triaUud conviction were Justified by them, tbe constitutional question is settled. The dilemma Is this: The laws and usagei of war arc either unconstitutional, or the constitutionality of Milligan’s trial and con viction must bo determined by them. We deem it unnecessary to argue the prop osition that the Government ol tho United §tatca being at war muy constitutionally wogc war according to Its laws and usage.*, and j> direct decision either way by the Su premo Court would not practically have any .very sc non* effect upon thb qhefrion. Inoulrics as to the origin of those laws and usages,and where they maybe found, are 'Accessary, In order accurately to determine what those laws and usages are. Such In quiries answer tho same end, In the discus riou of tho laws and usages of war, as In tbo discussion of any branch .of law, and arc essentially important in either case. There arc many rules of the common law, which can bo neither clearly understood nor correctly applied without a knowledge oftheir origin, the reasons which gave rise to them, and the esses to which they were originally applied. These rules. are found Id elementary treatises and In books of reports, and their binding force is ver/r much affected; by the character of the writer, the standing of the Court, ond tho reliability of the reporter; and hence In deciding what the law. <*, in- qttlrics as to where what Is alleged to he law is lound arc of the utmost Importance. This Is equally true with regard to Inqui ries in relation to the laws and usages of war. If it be claimed that a particular act Is Justi fied by those laws and usages, th'o origin of the .alleged rule is vitally Important, In order -to determine its real mean ing and application. • And so, too,~U It equally important to Inquire where Uls found. Tho five Judges of tho Supreme Court do not probably Intend to deny that there arc “ laws and usages of warthat volumes have been written upon tho subject, of voriotis degrees of merit as authority; Unit they Jjnvo from time to time been de clared by treaties and recognized by the practice of civilized cations. To allege that thoj*c laws aud usages have been changed, and their rigor softened as civilization has advanced, proves nothing to tho point, for year by year the barbarities of the common low have been either annulled or modified. Thu trial by wager of battfc, and hanging for larceny, were among Its earlier features. But in addition to oil thU, It is stated In the opinion that It can serve no useful purpose to Inquire on whorn those laWe and usages operate. If upon a careful study of the subject It should be found that In time of war Us laws and usages operated on just such men as Milligan, the Inquiry would seem to bo very Important. How arc we to ascertain on whom those laws and usages operate, except from the laws and usages themselves? If it be truotbat they arc in time of war consti tutional, then the coses in which they ope rate must all be determined by those tawv, It would be absurd to say that IntimeofwaY its laws and usages might be called into ex ercise, and yet at the same time their na ture, the extent of their application, the times when, the places where, and the per sons over whom (bey might be made to ope rate should be determined by civil laws . Whether these laws and usages applied to such a ease os Milligan’s, can only be de termined by those laws and usages. If they did apply to such a ease as this, then his arrest, trial and conviction’ were constitu tional, unless as we have already said, the 'laws and usages of war arc unconstitutional. If that be so, we arc the most helpless nation on the face of the earth. The reason assigned by Judge Davis for holding that “ It can serve no useful purpose to inquire what those laws aud usages arc,” <)cc., is that “ they can never he applied to citizens In States which have upheld the au thority of the Government, and where the ouits ore open,land their process, unob structed.” It-Is difficult to perceive how the Court could decide that the laws and usages of war could not be applied to certain classes of people, unless some inquiry were made concerning those laws and usages, and some knowledge had of them. For we can only ascertain to what eases certain laws arc applicable by an cxamlna- 1 tion of those laws. We would not, for ex ample, consult the law with reference to promissory notes In order to determine whether the laws regulating divorces bad application to auy particular individual or iiiclvldu.-iK Nor would we examine the low* of real estate In order to determine whether Ihe statutes against larceny applied to a purti'-aiar person charged with and on trial lor the commission of that offence. In order to determine whether a capias cou*d issue tor the anesl of a person charged with ibe commission of u fraud, we would not be very likely to derive much lolorma lion by examining the laws and wages »< wm, and If the question happened to be, whether a person In lime of war had made binisclfninetiablu to military trial ami pun ishment. we would not In nil probability seek Us solution from (hose laws which re late simply and atone to times of profound pence. A decision that the laws and usages of war do not apply to particular persons, If made without any examination or knowledge of those law’s atid usages, Is absolutely worth less. Five Judge* of the Supremo Court declare thaltliey did not apply to Milligan, and at the Minus time say that It can serve no useful pm pose to. Inquire on whom they opwtM. H'Uicy opt mint on Milligan, It Is pericctly eetlumlUai they apjtUnt to him. The opin ion holds, however, that they did not apply to him; and also holds (hat it Is unimportant to inquire whether they (//</ apply to him or not. Deeming the Inquiry unimportant It is to piesiintcd that they never made any, and if they never .inquired how happens It that wfi-yknow? *■ Ti c knowledge is not derived from argu ment, Irr tire decision of the question docs not depend upon argument. Nor front precedent, for it docs not de pend upon precedents. Nor irom inquiry, and examination ol the subject, fur the inquiry is unimportant. JCor from knowledge, because without at/rmni'iil, precedent, inquiry or cxi'nlna ion they could have no knowledge, U Jh u clear case of Instinct I The Ijwr and tisaecs as affecting the question loimlify of Mllllcan’s trial being thus «Undi)y Ignored lu the opinion, we will un. diTl’ike to show in u future article, the legality of military trials under the Consti tution* TIIIC ACKK'I't.TTIIiAL COLUIUK FUND. The Stale Senate, on Wednesday, by a vole of seventeen to eight, declared In favor of the indivisibility of the Agricultural Col lege Vund. We hope tUU vote is indicative of the purpose of the Legislature to apply that fund in the only way in which It can be legitimately and properly applied, namely, to the establishment of a single Institution, which w ill be worthy of Illinois, and a fit ting acknowledgment of the bounty of the Government. The idea is entertained by some tlml under the act ot Congress two or more Institutions might be founded, in one of which should be taught agriculture, in an other the mechanic ads, or some particular mechanic arts, while still other kindred blanches could be taught in the other institutions. Bat we do not thmk the net of Congress will bear any such construction. It provides that the pro ctcds arising from the sale of the douated lauds shall ho invested in stocks of the United States, or of the State, or some other safe stocks, yielding not less than five per centum upon the par value ol said slocks; and the money so invested shall constitute a perpetual fund, and the interest shall be inviolably appropriated “to the endowment, “ support and maintenance of at Uast one cob “ tege where the leading object shall be * * * “fo (each such branches of learning as are re tllatei!to agriculture axd the mechanic arte." If words can convey a definite meaning, this certainly means that at least one institution shall be endowed and supported, wherein all the branches named shall be taught. The law docs not say that one or more Institu tions shall be endowed, the leading object of which shall be to teach branches related to agriculture or the mechanic arts;- hut it explicitly requires that one shall be endowed and maintained wherein off these branches shall be taught. The words “at least” simply mean that unless one such institution Is so endowed and main tained, the Slate shall not be entitled to the benefits of the net. In this law, Con gress said to the States: “It Is desirable that yon shall establish institutions for the promotion of agriculture and the mechanic arts. We will give to you certain lands, which will be sold to aid in this work. Bnt if you do not establish one Institution at the least, in which all these branches are taught, then yon will forfeit your claims to a share of these funds/’ Congress, of course, docs not object to the establishment of two, or three, or a hundred Agricultural Colleges, or Mechanical Colleges, If a State Is able and willing to establish them. But it does Insist and require that a State shall have at least one in which all the branches mentioned la the act shall be taught. It is difficult to sec how words could be made plainer, or language employed to ex press o requirement more clearly. The evi dent purpose of the words “at least one college where the leading ob ject shall be,” Ac., was to prevent the very measure contemplated by those who* pretend that the fund may be legally divided up.among different Institu tions. It would secm*that the framers of this bill bed this very scheme In their mind, and meant effectually to prevent U. And so they said that in order to avail itself of this fund a State should endow and- maintain at least one institution In which these Interesting and useful • branches shall bo taught—an ioetilutioo whore the lead* leg object shall bo to cultivate knowledge of agriculture and the mechanic arts. We believe that such is the ooly fiilr construction of the law. That such are its spirit and purpose, there can be no doubt whatever. The only object Congress could have had In view in enacting It, was to secure In the various States the endowment, sup port and ma'ntonanco of institutions de voted to the blanches designated—institu tions where those branches should bo the great distinguishing feature.. To aay Con gress authorized a State to sup port a Professor of Agriculture In one college, and of one mechanic art In another, and still mother oao la an* other, would be to accuse it of folly. It bad no such frivolous measure In view. It sought to promote tbeso special branches of Teaming by the establishment of great and enduring institutions, that should bo made Universities of Agriculture and the Mechan ic Arts. It Is within the power .of our Legislature to lay the foundations of such an Institution in Illinois, and we do' sot be lieve It will ho turned aside from the great work by any local Influences. The action of the Senate is most gmtlfying, and, we hope, conclusive of the purpose of that body not to permit the Agricultural College Fund to ho diverted to other than Its legitimate uses. EItIANCIPATION IN BRAZIL. In a recent article on the emancipation of tho Crown slaves of Brazil, wo expressed tho hope that Don Pedro had taken this step mainly for the purpose of preparing the pub lic mind lor u general policy of emancipation throughout the Empire. A Southerner,who, very likely, Is Interested In some one of the many Brazilian emigration schemes so pop ular In the South a year ago, writes to tho Georgia Constitutionalist, Intimating that tho Emperor has not emancipated 01l lho Crown slaves, but only about two hundred and fifty, on condition that they stionld enlist In tho army, and that ho took tills step, not from any hostility to slavery, but In the hope of stimulating wealthy planter? to follow his patriotic example. The editor oftlie Cbuift- IntionalUi, In reply to the communication, states that ho was a resident of Rio Janeiro, several years ago, and that then bo was made acquainted with “ tho well-known “ hostility of the Emperor to the peculiar “ In&tltntlon.” lie further reiterates bis opin ion that the Emperor’s emancipation of bis own slaves is only the beginning of the end, on assertion 1 which, he declares, finds confir mation not only Ijj bis personal observations In Brazil, “but from the history of all conn “ tries similarly exposed to agitation at home “ and abroad.*’ He also believes that George Washington and John Randolph did more. Indirectly, to strengthen abolition in this country than is generally supposed; that ** their death-bed emancipation of bondsmen “ was a key note for Northern philanthropy, “ and that a tune was played upon It which ** bids fair to swell Into perpetual chorus.” He then inquires forcibly,- “If examples of “ this kind have borne such prolific frnlt in “ this land, how should' Brazil hope to “ escape the action of the Emperor f” It thus appears from the testimony of this Southern editor, who cannot certainly be suspected of partiality for abolition doc trines, that the Emperor of Brazil has for several years been personally aa abolitionist. Such being the fact, it Is rendered almost certain that for a long time he has been re volving in his mind some scheme of emanci pation throughout his dominions, and that he has deferred the act of justice to the slaves of his own household until the time should come for Its inauguration; Tho opinion we formerly expressed, therefore, that some great measure looking toward universal liberty might bo expected* from the Emperor, is greatly strengthened. The “perpetual chorus” of freedom in this coun try. oi which the Constitutionalist thinks Washington and Randolph struck tbe key note, has evidently been raised in the domin ions of Don Pedro, and It Is to be hoped that the imperial authority will ho exercised for the accomplishment of speedy and uncondi tional emancipation. Tllb HAS Quusnov. ' The adjourned meeting of the Common Council is to be held this evening, when the People’s Gas Bill comes up for disposition. This measure has now been before the Com mon Council more than a week, and nearly one (bird ol the session of the Legislature bus passed, aud It Is not yet disposed of. This matter Is regarded by the whole commnnity with the greatest Interest. Among the 2,500 signers to the pttltlon for the approval of the bill arc the following: Col. It. B. Jlopon. J V. Scazmaon, Hon. Thou. Drummond, Hayward, Cartlcdga A H. <; .Miller, K«q., Imnorc, W. C. Goudy, Hsq., Richards, Crumbaugh A Day, Allc** A Co., Sbaw, J. b. Rumsty, Ksq., 0.3). Henderson A Co., Larra"cc A North, -I. 11. Reed A Co.. d. D. Calhoun, Field, Ibuodlct A Co., A. J. CalUnsny, I’bclp*, Dodge A Co., . \V. F. fucker, ComlicL Woolcy-A Co., I. J. McCormick, 31. C. Stearns, C. A. Spring, Jr , J. 31. Grceocbatun, ‘ W. F. tjimie & co., S. 11. lurrcll. !?. Hum A Sons, Hnittb A Dwyer, nibbaid & Bprncer, Kidder & Co.. Mi a«s, Bates A Co., C. II Drown A Co., Cbmlcfl Randolph, Hmnl. Howe, IT. F. Wnlte, Ifcq.. H. McChrstior, It. F. Adams, D. G. Caulfield, K. K. Rogers. W. D. llnugbtoliog, W. W. Karwell, Robert Harris, Hon. F. Vonliuren, J. 11. Wicker, W. 11. iirndlcv, J. W. Wwitgbop, Robert Rae. J. A. Kmllb A Co., Joe. N. Harbor, Dnss A Hammond, J. 11. hlmy A Co., Russ A (Jossage, Hutton A Durklll, i*. Doggy, lion. W. 1). bcsles* C. H. Ifapgood, ■I. Kutio, T. c. Hoag, O. S. (iocs, Dunlop llroa,, l,ord & t-'mbb. liowon. Whitman A WUttcujore, Carter A Winslow, Uiowu, Hunt, bar hour A Halo, Maikb-y, Ailing A Co., Whitney tiros. A Co., Oeo. F. Foster, William (Tones, L. I*, niltlord, J. M. Adslt, 1), Riclgh, J- It- Dole. Arc not these gentlemen, who are among our leading citizens and largest property holders and business men, capable of form ing a Judgment upon this question, and of voting Intelligently with respect to tbo pro posed measure? Do the Common Council think the people cannot bo trusted to decide tills matter tur themselves? Will the peo ple be satisfied to have the Common Council prevent them from voting upon tills mca- Mire? We trust the matter will he acted upon to-night, and the hill approved- with out further delay. linrOKTAIVT OIiCIMON, The United States Court of Wisconsin has Just disposed of a till In equity in (he ease of the town of Beloit against Morgan, brought for the purpose of having the bonds issued by of war of ihc the town In aid of the Kaclnc Railroad dc~ dared void. The Court dismissed the bill, which, of course, affirms the validity of the bonds. Judgment for interest on these bonds had been obtained in the Supremo Court of tbe Slate several years since. The town ever since has taken care not to have a full Board of Supervisors to levy a tax to pay the interest on the bonds; and the Su preme Court of the State having decided ilmt without sdch full Board no mandamus can issue, it follows that the party's remedy at law Is exhausted, and a suit has now been commenced In the United States Court on a judgment against the town, and some ten or fifteen of its wealthiest farmers, to collect the judgment by selling the farms at public auction. If this suit is sustained, defaulting towns and cities will soon pay this kind of indebtedness and do justice to the innocent purchaser of their promises. tVe observe that a resolution has been introduced into the Minnesota Legislature calling on Mr. Norton to resign his seat In the United States Senate. If Norton had not been as thick-skinned as Doolittle, he would have taken the hint Immediately after the November election, when the people of the Stale he misrepresents called on him so loudly to make 100 m for abetter man. As it is, there Is no probability that he will re sign, even on the invitation of the Legisla ture. lie has over four years to serve yet. and he knows It is his lasi chance of holding an office—that as soon as his term expires he will sink Into the obscurity from which he never deserved to be lifted. Like Doolittle he will hang on as long as possible, and then drop forever. MISCELLANEOUS NEWS. In Manchester, N. H., a man named Uctlb, a few days ago, had a quarrel with a milliner named Miss Belle, originating in jealousy. In the height oi' his passion he drew s revolver and shot at her. The ball struck the metallic portion of her corset and glanced off without doing any harm. Robinson, the negro arrested for criminally as saulting a child ronrtcen years of age and a lady of seventy-one, in Dracut, Mass., last week, has been identified as the same person who attempted a gross crime on the person of a clergyman’s' wile (Itev. D. A. Wasson's), In Somerville, a few weeks ago. At Taunton, Mas?., a raw days elscc, some scoau drcl stabbed in the hips and sides all the horses tied atoned the city square. A “ wife agency ” is in operation at Cleveland, Ohio. It u condnctcd on the employment-agency sys’em. the prices ranglDC from $3 to $lO. (£A woman in London brained hcrliecc with a poker, because he would not bring his wages home. An association of ladles has been formed in Memphis for the purpose of raising foods to erce’ at Hemphis'or some designated spot, a magnifi cent church eolfice to (he memory of the fallen Coulcdcrale dead, whose columns and mural tab lets shall be inscribed with the names of all such which may be furnished by auxiliary societies throughout the Southern States. Thirteen thousand vessels passed eastward,' and seventeen thousand westward, through the Dela ware and Raritan Canal, during the put season. Governor Chamberlain says that Maine lost ten thousand men In the war, and bad twenty-five thousand of her sons hopelessly disabled from disease or wounds received in battle. The central ’monument at the Gettysburg Na tional Cemetery is to be a while marble shaft, for ty-seven feet high, with statues, the whole to cost nearly $50,000. Rellgiona-mindcd people will find material of Interest In the following return*: The average value of the lI,tSU Baptist churches in the United States In 18C0 was $1,700; of the 19.53 S Methodist churches, $2,000; of the 5,061 Presbyterian church cs,-$5,000; of tbo 2,311 Congrecational churches, $6,000; of the 2,250 Romish churches, of the LU3 Kppcopal churches, and ol tho 410 Dutch Reform ed churches, $10,000; of tho 9<M Unitarian cbnteb cs. $17,t00; and of the 22 Mormon churches, $41,000. . Tee excerdlaely savage name of a now Texas weekly newspaper. Intended to Instruct tho popu lation of that curious State, Is said to be the <Szr cattW ffotrlr Kn\fe. Doiine eight months orUit year steam engines to the valne of $5,082,933 In gold, were exported from Orest Britain to foreign countries, chiefly Russia, India, and Egypt- W. W. Astor, son of John J., Jr., !* a pupil of Thom, too, the sculptor. A Psycho of hts is well spoken of. Tbo bronxo status of Chief Justice Marshall, for tho Riebtflond Washington Monument, Is on jits wav from Munich. Tbs statues of Nelson Sod t«wt», and the allegories! fleares snd trophies fie sletisd ■■ ornaments Ibrlho lower portion of (no monument, will likewise soon bo shipped to this country from Munich. ; FROM SPRINGFIELD. Important Meeting at the Slate Capital. Vigorous Agitation of the Pro posed Improvements. The Enlargement ot the Illinois and Michigan Canal-Important Letter from Superintend ent Gooding. The Cost and Advantages of the Improvement. Joe Forrest on the Eimpage. [Special Correspondence of Ihr Cbtrago Trtoanc.j Svmsorieim. itl M January 10. TUo great Canal projects which have so largely occupied tho public mind in this Stnlo for tnc past year, arc receiving much attention. Intelli gent aid earnest representatives of the different projects—tho enlargement of tho illllnols and 3llchlgan Canal, the construc tion of the LaSalle and Rock Island Canal, and the improvement of tho Rock River— arc here, and display much activity and in terest In their own proposed Improvements. All of them arc laboring assiduously with the members of the General Assembly, who seem disposed to accept and act upon the views presented to them. The new Commit tee on Internal Improvement?, which is to have these projects under consideration, is a nuit in the right direction, and, if such a thing be possible, will devise the ways and means by which the State shall have the benefit of these great improvements.- A meeting of the friends of the canals was held at the Leland- House last night. The attendance was very large end the speeches of &>character to convey the greatest amount of Information. Every speaker talked In earnest, and pledged the cordial support of the community which he represented in fit vor of the proposed improvements. Major Allen, of-Gcneseo, presided, and Captain T.- J. Robinson acted as Secretary. The first speaker was J. D. Whiting, Esq., of Bureau-- He spoke at some length, and very mtith to the point.- The pith of his views are embodied In the following sug gestions for future action: 1. A two mill tax. 2. Application to Congress* for ao appro priation or dollars-to enlarge tUc ' Illinois and Michigan Canal, and extend the same to the 'Mississippi at or near Rock Island, and to improve the navigation of the Illinois and Rock rivers. Tto grant shall hcaskedlrom Congress on the express con dP.km that the State shall accept the trust, and pledge herself to add enough to con struct the works, and to give the Federal Government tree use or them forever for mil itary purposes. 8. The Lcglslatnreto pass an act allowing the State to make a loan of six millions of dollars,—whlclf loan must he submitted to the people of the State for their rntlllcatiou, in accordance with section 37 of article 3- of the Constitution of the State—this submis sion to lie contingent on the appropriation by Congress of the six millions oi dollars, us indicated above. 4. The appointment of two Commissioners —say Governor Oglesby* and a good man from Chicago—to proceed to Washington and solicit the favorable action of Congress, a sufllclent sum to he appropriated to pay the necessary expenses of this Commission. 5. Prompt action bo taken to stimulate Western States Legislatures to urge upon Congress iavoruble action* Mr. Whiting was followed by Mr. Q. W. Mlnicr, of- Tazewell; Mr. Billings; L. L. Bond. Representative from Cook; W. C. Sta cey, Representative from Bureau, and Chair man of the Coumflttecon Internal Improve ments; 11.. M. Singer, Representative from Cook ; B. N. Stevens, vfho mil a letter from William Gooding. Superintendent ol the ll lltiikois and Michigan Canal, and universally acknowledged us the father of the canal sys tem iu this State. Thu following is * MU. OoOUINO’fi I.BTTflll Canai Orncr, Lockpout, Jan. 3, ISTiT. B. N. Htru-cs. Ksq.t liCAti Fin; Your letter of yesterday has this mo ment reached me, and, although I am by no means well, and may not make myself Intulllgibl". 1 hasten to respond at utice, tint you may sec that 1 feel an undlmlnlshed Interest in the subject of your loiter. Rut Orel Jet me say. dial my business as an en gineer lias been to fxjwiU moauy,.nnd not to pro vide the ways and moans. 1 have had but little to du wilh financiering, and my siiffgodions, there loro, la this direction will bo not worth much. I will venture, ImwoveMo make sumo suggestion', ai d will express toe opinion very decidedly, that uls not necessary to wsH until our Stale Consti tution Is changed holme wn can do anything, If wo will make “-a long pull, a strong pull, and a pull together." In order lo accomplish anything ih're rnvif be a comOina'ion of vtfer*tt§, and enough mas; lie undertaken to command t/m ii'Cfitavy influences, but only Jnal enough to cUcctuar object,. I think (lint the works which will have to ho urdettakcD to combine the ueceasarv influence will be about aa follows : I. Thu Improvement ofllic Illinois lllvor In-low InSallc. Bov. ....... ; ...f 1,500,000 •2. Deepening tha iHinotn and Michigan Canal Irom Chicago to Lockpart, en larging In 100 feu' wMe ind walling... 0,800,000 8. Your 111lno»« nor! Mlrel-elppt Cana), v an fccdoT r»om Dixon . 1,000,000 I. Toward# KockKlvcr Improvement,‘ay S,O W,u(W Total fiuftMMi Now io obtain ttita money, 1 would auirgeat ibo following sources, 10-wU: I. A donation from Govcrnmcnl of not ItHS ttian 2. Amomit ofbonds lo be issued bribe cny of Chicago 0,000,(KO 3. r«o mill lax for four year?, soy Total. Jtli* nlnioto* enough that additional faxa'ton would not be popular, though wo might be able to demonstrate that the wealth of the State would ul timately bclarc ty Inca cared hylL Butcanuotwc eh HQt the form or our Statu debt without any vio lation of (he present Constitution, by Issuing long imnths and taking tin thoro that h.vo matured, or will soon ma’utv. We should then bare another class of creditor*, to whom our present constitu tional tax of two mill* on the do'lnr would no* be pledged, and we could n«o it as above suggested in (bis wav wo could defer the payment of the pslnclpal of our debt, until it could be fully paid bv the revenues arising from the Imniovemcuts which wo propose to mauo. and which, immediately upon c their complnUon, would doubtless add more than sloo,ooo,onn to th-* taxable property o> (be State. But 11 mouoy analog from taxes cannot bo ap propriated as 1 have suggested, why not authorize the counties, cities and towns mot-l directly bene fited, to issue their bonds, and lay taxes to pay the interest thereon, unitl the revenue analog from the Improvements made shall bo snfilcieuc for that object? This, to.be sure, vroula be a less reliable mode of taking money, but might bo bit ter than none. Ton will see that I have sot suggested making any‘of these improvements by companies, as 1 consider n r cry d. eirablc that tuey should be con trolled by the state, so that transportation should be placed at the lowest rates practicable. I know that the most of onr pcop’o are begin ning lo despair of retting anv assistance from the 'General Government, but 1 don’t believe In civ- Ingitnp so. in iSdl.wtcnwc were still in the midst of a war, the end ot which no one could de termine, Mr. Arnold succeeded in getting a bill p ested in the llausc, appropriating £B,O >O,OOO lo wan'e the enlargement of the Illinois and Michi gan Canal, and improvement of the Illinois lilvcr. The Mil wag not pressed In the Senate, and had It been, would probably have been defeated, because many of the Senators ■ who were m favor of the measnre, and, under other circumstances, would have voted tor It, were un willing then to nsc the resource® of the country for any other purpose than putting down the re bellion. Unt tlve dicumstancei of the country arc now entire’? different* We are at peace with all the world, but have an immense national debt npon onr shoulders, and to pay that, or make it least burdensome to onr people, our resources must be developed. Is it not palpable that the expenditure or 58,000,000 by the Government would come bark to tt tenfold, within a few years after the completion of the improvements open which the money would be expended ? The Gov ernment could not make on investment of anconal amount within its limit'* that wonld pay os well in dollars and cents, to say nothing ot other ad vantages. But to get Congress to act promptly, no time should bo lost in bringing every legitimate Influ ence to bear on the members. Uliere arc those who are posted in these matters. 1 am not. Let those who know how, commence action at once, nor cease their efforts until the object bo accom plished. 1 bare no doubt that the city of Chicago coaid readily taruo i>s bonds tor SS,OuO,(W) to secure rack n Ci'cfn as I have mentioned, t) wit: 100 feet wide on the bottom, and 7 feet below standard low wa ter in Lake Michigan. I'be thorough cleansing of. Chicago Biver would be accomplished by each an improvement. The very life ot the city depends npon a thorough drainage, and this 11 deep cat” is unquestionably the be*t mode of doing U. If Congress will mike a liberal appropriation to the Stale for the purpose of improving the Illinois Ihver, enlarging onr canal and constructing yours, I have no“aonbt about the action ot the cU> of Chicago* Bit tats Government appropriation is really the most important matter, because the oth er tuiids to be obtained from the Stale, city, Ac., dtpend npon (hat. It appears to me tbat the construction of year canal will'greatly aid in securing an appropria tion by Congress, and this Is an additions' arun ment fc favor of the donation. It really ought to be Sin.Coo.otA) instead ot six. I hare not embraced the enlarged Improvement between fame and in my present calcula tion, because 1 thought that It eonld wait until the other improvements suggested were completed. A little improvement of onr present canal wonld enable ns to meet the wants of commerce for a few vein. itJB part of tbe work, to adapt It to large steam* boat navigation. would cost, say H,OCO,CJO or *4,500,000, • • • • * • 1 am aware tbat tbe suggestions made are liable to some, perhaps to man?, objection*, ilj object baa been not bo ranch to point out any particular plan as to glvcbintaof a general cnaractcr. and if tbty wilt be of any service in shaping Jour plana of operation 1 shall bchigblymtmed. i I have failed to make (be righ* ktndofsoggcs tlons, it has not been tbrongb neglect to ?lve tac subject proper crmslderauon, bm from tbe dim* cnluce which snrronnd It Very truly, youn, (Signed) Va.Goomso. Speeches were also made by Mr. Pretty* man, of Pekin; Win. H. Van Epps, Esq., of Dixon; Major Allen, ofGcneseo: Mayor Bowen, of Joliet, and Joseph ITtley, of Dixon. Each ono ol these speeches, as I have before said, enunciated some new and very important information upon tbe ques tion. Every man scouted the idea that the works could not he accomplished, oven if the General Government should lall to recog nize them as proper ones for encouragement. At the same time, all regard it os the posi tive duty of the Government to afford the aid which will be asked. Continuous meetings upon this subject f be held here, and all information which will be necessary for the Internal Improvement Comnillleotoforma correct judgment, wm be afforded. . , . , Mr. Joseph nilojr. In hl» speech, produced some flcurcs which will prove of deep Inter cst. Mr. Utley Is Irnm Dixon, and, while strongly In fovor of nil tho projects coolant plated, more particularly represents the hirer Improvement interest. According to his Stnlcincnt, there ere In the counties bordering on tho Bock Elver—v U.. Bock Island, Henry. Whiteside, Leo, Oglo oml Wlnnc\uigo—ß7o,sßl ncroa of Improvinl land, and <5.1,M1 aorea nolmprovcd. On tho nn proved acrea In WOO there worn pro;UicoJ 10,788,054 buahela of irralo. Tho popnlallon In 18C&WU 189,433; In 1903 It had Inorealcd 159,000—b pra>n of 30,057, or 37 per cent in live years. Tlic same ratio ol gala to the grain product would be 2,890,330, or an ag- f repute product, In 1805, of 13.0i0.010 usbcls. The valuation in 1301, in the elx counties, was $31,212,523, and in 1905, $22,595,005; pain in one year, $1,3?3,477. There arc 170 nrflcs of river front between the State Hue and the month of the rlter. Taking a width of elx miles on each side of tho river, wuuld embrace 1,320,000 acres.' l!bo most moder ate estimate gives an ■ addltlovtal value of $3 to each acre, if thesecootcmpU’tedironrovo mcnlsaro carried Into effect. This would give an increased valuation to tCw counties named of $3,078,000. The Increased valua tion tbot they wm.ld give to the products of the counties would be in a greater rati o than the increase in the valuation of the .land. The products In these counties during .the year IBCS, loot up $35,440,133. Ten per cent at least would be added to these products 1/ the Hock Hirer Improvements were carried Into effect. - o. job ronnesT on tub hambaok. ’Joe Forrest is writing letters to the Chi* cage principally devoted to pulling Joe Forrest. Nevertheless, Joo has made one <>r tvo dlercssioos tVoni the tnala busi ness of his corrcsnoitdencc, which have been amusing. For Instance, he scalped Charley Wilson during the Senatorial light—not much ora feat, lobe mire, hut still it was done with Pawnee dcxlo ity. Joo says that he was political editor of the Jourrutf In HM-5, wnilo Chmlcy was "local.” This reminds me of u story which the tbnnor editor ol the Journal, Ulck Wilson, used to tell. Dick said that one d iy he wanted to go out shoot ing ducks, and he left particular instructions with Joe how to manage the Journal during his nhec-nec. Ho told Joe not to meddle with i* titles. but- to write one editorial on thesub feet of the Pork Trade of Chicago, Its growing Importance, etc. Hiebard returned from his shooting sooner than he expected—Just in time to stop the paper from_golDg to pre?s with a long editorial on “Tuc Deleterious Effects of Fat Fork on the Human System.” Dick said that Joe bad got hold of a number of the Dublin Unlvtrsity Magazine, in Which this subject was treated pathologically, chemically and historically, and he had adapted it to the columns of the Journal, os being the nearest thing to the Pork Trade of Chicago, concerning which he coaid find any authoritative data. Nevertheless, Joe I* a gooff fellow, albeit rather giddy and ndlsy. He worked bard for Trumbull, and, in so doing, exposed him* self to an attack of the big head. Hu will get over this by-and-bv, and be ready lor the next rough-and-tumble that comes off. TREATMENT OF THE INSANE. An Argument for the Repeal of an> Un wise and Unjust Statute. Letter from Hon. E. S« Williams* to Lieutenant Governor Uross. The following letter, urging a repeal of the statute In relation to the Insane and the man-- ncr of their commitment to the Asylum, has been addressed to Lieutenant Governor Bross by Hon. £. S- Williams, Judge oi the Circuit Court of Cook County: Chicago, January 17, 1357. HorvWnxiAM Bitoss, Lieutenant Governor. Ac.: Dcau Sir : Allow mo to invite yuur atten- tion to a law passed by our last Legislature, upon the ICtU of February, 1805, in relation to the insane, and the process by which they arc committed to the Asylum. I am co fully convlnccd’of the desyc-of our legislators to extend human rights, and al leviate human miseries, that I believe it will only be necessary to call their attention to this act to secure Its prompt- repeal. In an age when so much Is done by legislation in favor of oppressed und distressed humanity. can hardly conceive how au act so cruel lu

Us workings,- could have Sound a place among our statutes: and lam glad to be in formed that such a law exists jiowhcrc else. When, however, I call to mind the greet pressure of public business during the closing/ days of the last session, I can readily believe that tin net was passed through in advertence, and l Its objectionable feature escaped notice. By referring to the act, you will you perceive that, under It, no In suite person can he committed to the Asylum, without having been brought In person Into court, and compelled to remuiu there while a Jury la empanelled, witnesses sworn and examined, the ioiniulltlus of a trial gouo hrongli with, and a verdict rendered iu heir presence. No matter whutthocharnc er of the Insanity, or the sex or condition hi lie of the insane; uo matter whether tic person demented be sick la toJy, ns well as dnensed mentally; no matter whether keenly scn.iitlvu and excitable, or singularly Insensate and obtuse—only one course can he pursued. The pocr innnlno, sick or well, shrieking with frenzy or shivering with fear, must ho arrested ns a felon, must be forced to come Into a public court room, before n Judge and a Jury; must be constantly attended by n Sheriff; must bo confronted with witness and subjected to a trial, often protracted, and conducted, pci Imps, In the presence of a cuilous ami gaping crowd ot uiisymtutblz )ng spectators. In a large class of eases such a proceeding Is the greatest nosdhiu inhu manity, not only to the pour demented vic tim, hut to the nlUictcu relatives. In an , other large ula&s of eases the Insanity, though lulpublu to friends and to the . nudicul piactllloncr, cannot so eas ily ho detected by n stranger, and the demented person has sullleluut cunning to Impose upon a jury. Or, perhaps, an as tute lawyer succeeds in procuring a disa greement of the Jury. In either event, no commitment can be had, and the lunatic per son Is thrown lno*u upon the community, perhaps to commit homicide In the first par oxism of mania. My own experience, in reference to a near relative, who was recently rDDimiltcd to the Asylum at Jacksonville, bus led me keenly to appreciate the cruelty of Me fair ; while 1 have treason to feel the most sincere gratitude to the Judge, jury, Sheriff and friends who so kindly and couitc ously assisted me in enforcing it. But the experience of others may be very different from my Individual experience.. I am told that where the examination U protracted more than one day, the poor ma niac is sometimes obliged to nais the inter vening night in the county Jail. What else could the Sheriff do In such a case but .f 0,0^,000 SIVWO.«iUJ to Incarcerate the prisoner, whether male or female ? No language of my own cun so dearly depict the evils of this law, as they have been pre sented in the following extract from the last. able report of Dr. McFarland, the learned and experienced Superintendent of the Asy lum at Jacksonville. Feaiing that in the press of their public labors that report may not have received from our legislators the HIU-ntlun which Us merit demands, I beg leave to quote trom It ns follows: “ When it I* reflected hy any thinking person in how vast a majority of instances it must he that those scut here arc sustaining the tender relations of brothers, sUfers, sons, daughters, parents, hatbands, and wives of those who. in the nature of the ease, appear as yuael prosecutors—what antagonisms ol tno most painful and lasting klrd ore wantonly engendered—waat violations of del-. Icacy, and often of decency—what outrage noon mental and physical suffering, must be the result while Ibis enactment exists, it will ho agreed that no terms of reprobation are too strong to* be applied to it. Fancy the daugutcr, whose check, while reason held swny, .would crimson at tuc least impropriety, compelled to conft out father, mother and sisters in public court, while the words and acts of her chamber seclusion a«e recited, in perhaps their literal indecency, to make out a case aeamst her—she, all the while. In her bewildering conceptions, regaling the tVhole transaction a conspiracy to defame her in the minds of ibecapln? erm d of a court room—and we hare only a single Instance of the wrongs of which this act will t>e tbo prolific stock. “From what supposed necessity such an act originated Uls not easy to coccclvc. The law of ISSB, unuer uulcb mne-temhe of all (he patients ever admitted have been received, is more , strin gent In Its protection ot tho rights of tbe individ ual than any similar code ot any State In this country having an Institution of this nature- A wrong under it Is as nearly a moral impossibility as can well exist. In nearly three thousand ad mbslons here, a question was never seriously raised, in a single Instance. Under that law. abundant medical evidence, selected by the court, as well as testimony of other wit* nesses to any extent, is accepted in hen of ibc presence or the alleged Insane person, who may, however, be brought into court, at its discretion.* These safeguards will sorely be deemed sufficient. when it U renumbered that, to iboc cor tcn-platltig such a conceivable trim*', there Is the easiest and cheapen way to do it in the removal or the victim to those institutions, abounding within a lew hundred miles, where ad mission la Instant on the presenting cf a medical certificate. ‘•Arc the Judges of onr Coanty Courts so wanting in a knowledge of their duty, or so negligent In its exercise, that a citizen shall fall of His rights in a proceeding so open as removal from bis resi dence to a State Hospital? Docs!ercry neighbor hood abound la physicians r* ady to be suborned In couples to favor a high ctlmc, the conse quence of whoso discovery wonld be cer tain loss of professional reputation! Is tho Hospital itselt ever likely to become so greedy of juUients as to bind together, in commoncollusion. trustees, physicians, nones and servants of aU description*, to aid a set ol criminals in so neta nous a project a* the abduction and condoned im prisonment of a sane person* The voice which »honld niter a negative to one of these questions conld bo a voice for the summary repeal of the act in question, to protest against the existence of wh’ch la 'be plain duty of this report.” lam confident that you will sympathize with those poor unfortunates who have lost the light of reason, and will aid me in the effort to secure u repeal of a law so odlons in Its provisions. I trust that it will not be long that Illinois shall retain the had dis tinction of belng*tho only State which has such a law upon its statute books. Hoping that yon and many of our Senators end Representatives may sec it, your duty to aid in scenting the repeal of the law of IS'o. and that success mav attend journal led efforts, I remain. E. S. 'Williams, Destructive Conflagration. [Marshall (Mich.) Correspondence (Jan. 24) of the - Detroit Free Press.) A terrible and destructive conflagration occurred in this city last night, consuming the extensive and valuable steam flouring mills of H. J. Perrin, Esq., located on Kala mazoo River, In this cltv. The Arc was first discovered about mid night, but owing to the distance of the mills from the center of the city, about three quarters of a mile, and the delay in giving the alarm, the the had been In progress for a considerable time before any available, at which time the flames had attained such ad vantage tbat. salvation was ont of the qnes tion. Tha fire engines were badly ont of re pair, and for more than half an hoar after their arrival were entirely useless, so that the devouring element had everything' its own way throughout. A large amount of grain and feed was stored lu the mill, and a considerable amount of flour, all of which Isa total loss. The cause of the Are is wrapped in tbedocpestroystery,os tho flames were first seen in that part of tho mill farthest from any machinery, in the second Bl Thc total loss will not fall short of $30,000, on wh’ch there was a partial insurance la the following companies : Underwriters’, Metro -1 polilan, Home, North American, Manhattan, and International, of New Yorkj Etna and City Fire of Hartford ; Lumberman’s of Chi cago ; and tho Liverpool and London and Globe insurance companies. Mr. Perrin bad ‘■just icarfpd the property to parties from lowa, who were to, commence operations this wook. A largo number of workmen arc thrown out of employment by this disaster, which U one •s well to the community at largo, as UMW ownst. , EUROPE. Address or the ItaUan Senate to the Throne. Napoleon's and Tiotor.Emanuol’s Speeches at their New Year’s Eeoeptions. The Eastern Question. Letter from Garibaldi on Turkish Despotism. The Great Fire at the - London Crystal Palace. ITALY.] Adilrftf* o.ftlie Italian Senate to Victor Cmannel. Tito foltowli'K l« tlio oJJrcM, la reply to the sncocb ffm.'i the throne, voted by the Itnlluk ISnoti on the 2Sllf ultimo : suit: Ksiitao vwrincci. magaaiiimoai Jo in.h «■■ Mjly I ft. * CODtCiOUßCl't'* Of flf-Ut #0(1 ‘.lie firm wilf toSukf »t prorall could ln?m«e, have gulden Italy to tbp plv '' QQ " ° f bcrdcutmlOßaWbJeh has k,e V.? nl laiued,thanlwio two noble and dlßVicnt Horn those - Met* .bnmau easadtv coiiiil foresee. Italy flrrt n lari ' B Wanks for tin# rc?n!t to Frond* D ”, to the King, who }* aa ii!2 ,« u ?2* cnided her, to tho land and sea *!}l Intrepid volunteers who shed llv\ r _*?;_“® country, to the co-operation of t** CB t notionf, ro the moral support and tho «ym£* JK”! ae< l by other#. Autrueated, by tho e* nc *“f A ot praec, hy illustrious provinces e£u> < d creatiy ce aired, and hy formidable defences.lU around your throne while awaiting U'tween Church and State of which yotfi has spoken, and which Is the wish ana fit ° ,?„K® sot only of tbs Italians, bat of all ther €k world, and which most be carrictT oat I* a ®~,® maimer that the Church, truly free rod Indcja ect tc its t ohlimc «pberc,doca no 1 atforu any fao> ea ’ Idh'DCto tbebiStefnthtcxcrdseof itesovereV .» jlphte and In the development ot its legitimate I .* pirations. This will be the seal or our ertataesv and the starting point of a revival of rclkPtms leoi ing, in case, possibly owing to the ardor of pa«f-. ett egples, it may any where nave fallen otC With accustomed wisdom yoarilajesty has correctly an nonreed that Italy being now completed* It is time (e organize her definitively hy providing for Interior affairs, mil -tvy» economic, and adminis trative- Tie t-e».ato entirely agrees with your Majesty tn the idea of so conttltating the military forces tbsc. witnont too heavy outlay, Italy may keep the place appertaining to her amoeg great rations. Bui it hopes that in ic-arranging the ml.hnry institutions tho problem will hr difimUvcly settled, for frequent modifica tions in tuirrespect area sconrgc' to finance. Re trenchment upon a luge sefile is indispensable to le-csrablhh the position ofthc public treasury. The Senate hopes yotrr filsJcstyV Government. *hich bss already entered u£on this course, wilt cooragec uely pursue its task. One consideration that cannot Lave escaped Its perspicuity Is that a . souice ot retrenchment worthy ot attention will : be found in caution to avoid tbat system of inces sant chances in the* staff' of provincial function ' ;incs, which entAiis even more- lamentable coose qurnccs upon administrative order and In isle leal of the provinces than ip cnecnn oaiic point of u*w. Patriotism enables citi zens to cr.dure Ihe tare?, although very heavy, but it i- more difficult to tolerate the vexa tious method of their levy, their unequal dfstnbn lion,-uncertain of the bases of their assessment, w txieti give cause to disagreements, both frequent and ros'ly to tho rate-payers. The Senate has heaift wlrhjoy from your Majesty's august month (t-e promise of hills to remove these serious Incon vrnicnccs. in ttn; examination of those bills the senate will display alt that uiligeoee and mu tmiiy of mind yonr Majesty and Italy have a right tr> expect hire, the Senate ccnnot omit to do homage to another great' principle proclaimed hy your filajesty- All the solicitude of the Slug and of his Government to revivo the economic cobdltions of Italy would be far from proving snfflclent, if it were not cecondctf auu rlpcne-1 hy individual activity and Initiative. '1 he iumiVr uco of the Gove'umcnl In those cco- nomic under takings u useful certain ca;es, bat more frequently v. Is pernicious. Agriculture, trade and commerce ofll rtocxhcustlble sonrses of prosperity to individual iuiclPtrcncoand perse vering labor; to the collective sfforts of private coropnr.Ji s. armed with enffleh-nt ■ capita) amb ttao • requisite kaowkdge. The Senate, with your ilujcsty, detfrosibat our courageous and luiclli sent youths should nut forget that It was not by luoetant discussion, bai by that our no ccntora enriched their country and made is illustri ous. Public education in its various branches, and especially in technical knowledge. claims the rate oi the Government and ihcaileaUeu oi tao berate. Up to tbo present time, there have been too many disastrous experiments upon various eyt tune which have only produced very HUits fruit. Let ns hope that tbo lima has armed for d>‘tl-d --tire icorcatiiraUoo established on bettor bases. Since the ate Is iwrsnadcd that Italy fuels pro foundly Uio great respoiiitiiihty loot w. igb' upon her: that the nation will know how to nso boery without abns'mrJt r that the Government. by tnu sagacity and maturity oflis views, tlic stability of ha plans, thovnluoof th'* men U employs, will ncqnirc that authority " bSch it requires to admin ister propel ly, and-ILnl the omplro of tbo law will bo complete, evident, abeoluto, mid i>crpctunl over the govunorsas wollnsihe governed. A Itcvotutlonary manifesto. The Italian paper* publish the following manifesto, copica of which, printed bv the Republican press, covered the walls of Romo on December 10 r. Homans:’l ho French banner la furled; the french army has quilted Italy. The shield that for seventeen jtqio bos ptotcclod our ferocious and Incapable Uorernmont, is withdrawn A lew Pnpnl braves and a rabble rout of foreigners cau run hold In chock the people which repulsed the nimy of Oudlnot troui their walls on the autli of Anrli. IMP. All (me Liberals tod the necessity of luuylng our torccs for the purpose of uniting in one sni remo unanimous i-trorl. We tiro on the v. tell for lh>- oppmtmio moment for InsnrrccUon, and preponng the dements of victor t, Until that moment arrives, be npon your gna>d against ail unknown agitators, and avoid all tnmiilt or dis order, which might he a snare laid for you by your i-n-mlo*. In. the meantime prepare calmly and resolutely for battle; when the hour of de liverance sound*, we will rail yon to arms. Long live free Rome, Uia capital of Italy. ■i uk Committee or Action. December IC. igfid. Victor Emaimci’s Speech at bis Now Wnr’n Krccptlon. At a reception given on New Tear’s Day by Hint; Victor Emanuel to a deputation Irom tbo Italian Parliament, la Florence, bis Majesty thanked tbo Senators and Deputies far the sentiments of perfect dcvotvducss which they expressed in their name, and, In the name of tbo country, the Kins said: • Thu new year reminds Italians that they have now secorcn iho independence of (heir country, and with it an Improvement In the civil adminis tration, sue increased public prosperity. Darius the peiiod of peace upon wblcn wo are entering we shall uotceaae lo derate oar attention to the array. Hie army Is not only necessary for the prCfC'Tonon of that Independence which it so gres'ly contributed to acquire, bat Is In itself a ►olid gca«aittee for Interns! security and an ele ment of moral unity and ot that civil training which renders dkciplincd cations strong and ca pable of accomplishing great deeds. THE CEYSTAX PAXACE WEE. 'Jlic Alltombra and A*»yrlanOourta.De* Mruyed-Lora Estimated at One trail* Ilnu Dollar*. The fire at the Crystal Palace in. London outheSOiii ult. was briefly announced in a despatch by the Cable. The London jour nals received by the steamer Manhattan brine full partlcnlars of the disaster. The loss was very serious. The tropical depart ment was destroyed, including the Indian, Egyptian. Alhambra, Assyrian and art courts, with nearly all their contents. The damage is estimated at a million dollars. i The; Daily Astes and Times describe' the scene: THE FIRE. “At 1:20 p. m. a policeman walked round the courts at the tropical end of the police, and everythin? seemed to be quite safe, and there was not the slightest smell of fire no ticeable. At two o’clock, or a few minutes before that hour, a fire was found to be ra ping in the neighborhood of the lecture room. The flames spread with astonishing rapidity to the reading room and to the adjacent courts, and dense masses of smoko soon filled the whole of the tropical depart ment, which isseparated from the rest of the building by an immense canvas screen. The inhabitants of the neighborhood soon saw* that something was amiss in the palace. Several gentlemen left their houses and has tened to the building, but for at least balfau hour those Inside would not admit anv one— perhaps they did not hear the shouts and calls at the entrance doors. w “At length, however, a little before three o’clock, some dozen gentlemen got in. When they entered they found the fire making' ter rific progress ; flame and smoke filled, nearly the whole of the tropical wing, and began to enter the rest of the building by means of the galleries. The roof of tho end where the fire raged had become red hot, and threatened to fall in every* moment. We are informed by some of those who had gained admittance at the boor stated that they found only three persons In the palace—a gardener, a policeman, and the attendant on the birds and monkeys. The palace firs engine was jnst being cot ready to work ; tho hose wus being shaken out. None of the chief officers were on the spot; it being Sunday, they were at their own homes. The gentle men at oncotook it upon themselves to act with a view to save the building from de struction. They went outside and Invited some eighteen or twenty navvies who were loitering about to come in and work. The men readily agreed, and in a few minutes the whole bodv of volunteers had provided themselves with crowbars ,and other imple ments from the tool house, and they at 'once set to work to tear .up the flooring of the palace outside the screen, so as to prevent the flames rushing along the screen, which was scorched, catching fire, and settling the Handel orchestra and the theatre in a blaze. “The gigantic Christmas tree wad cut down ana removed. A number of the stalls were demolished, and everything of a de scription likely to barn was removed as far as possible from tbe screen. The panels of deal which formed the hack of the gallery facing the road were' smoshedaway as last as the men conld ply their crowbars, but the flames set them on fire so fast, that the men had a long time to keep retreating and de molishing es they went. At half-past three o’clock tbe end of tbe building gate tyay; therooffellln as far as the north transept, and the flames shot upin a mass. The effect of this was very serious, and if the wind had not been blowing away from the central transept, nothing conld have saved. the whole palace from Immediate destruction. As It was, so great was the body of flame that the ioily water tower was Ignited, and continued to born until after eight o’clock last night. THE AKTMALS. “The appcorance of tho burning end of the palace at this moment was Indescribably beautiful. The flames played along the red hot girders in fantastic wreaths, and sud denly the whole moss dissolved as if by magic, and gradually sinking, fell with a terrific crash. The main girders of the transept remained standing, and In the midst of their circling arches coaid be seed tho colossal statues of the Egyptian Court with the flames leaping and playing abound them. On the floor of this wing, the aviary and the collection of monkeys, Ac., was kept. Efforts were made to rescue aa many of these creatures as possible; one gentle man took ont fifteen canaries, and let them loose in the nave; a man seized on eagle and carried It away under his arm; others made a dnrii at tho owlcry and saved some of Its. occapauts, but tho unhappy chimpanzee foil a victim to tho fire. He was seen frantic and tearing at tho bars of his cage in his wild (error, but no ono could venture near the spot, and ho was burnt to death. Tho poor creature’s shrieks and cries wore painful to boor. 1 TUB I.OSSBS. ■*» . “The havoc earned In tho AlhsijMga and Assyrian Courts Is most complete and scarce ly lets so in the Byzantine, immediately op* . prsltc. AH three are diununifcdpund pro- - scuta deplorable eight. Of the Court, erected and euitiellUhud under the' ' eoperiMi cdeocc of Mr. Oweorj.«nes,’ and with which thousands must be familiar, lit llojcmoios litit tlic glided walls, and those are blackened In places by the action of the tire and otherwise defaced. As will bo re*, membered, it was a reproduction on a email scale of the lar-famcd Court of Lions, • the Tribunal of Justice, the Hall of tho Abcnccrragca. and the Dlvun oi the of the Alhambra, situated on a hill above the city of (irenaits, in the south of Spain, tho capital of tho Moorish kingdom of that name. Pass ing through the central archway a fountain was seen supported by the lions that garo name to the court, and through the archway opposite the stalactite roof of the Uall of tho Abcoccrnigcs, coil posed In tho original of Innumerable pieces. Tho Court of Lions, in Mr. Owen Jones’ reproduction, was seventy llvolcoilong, or two-tirirdsortholeugth of the original. Tho columns were of the same height ond sUc os those of which they were restorations, and tho arches that sprang from them were also of the actual elzu of the originals. ‘•The Assyrian court was one hundred and twenty feet long, fifty feet wide, and had an elevation of forty feet. Its, chief Interest lay In ha Illustrating a stylo of art of which no specimen had, It is said, been before pre sented in Europe, and It was erected from designs by Mr. James Fergnusoo, assisted by Mr. Layurd. The Byzantine court, on the opposite side of tho nave, was a restored copy of a cloister of the Church of Santa Matla at Cologne, of the date of the close of the tenth century. Tho roof was beautifully decorated with Byzantine ornaments, and at one end was a recumbent flgurc of Ulclmrd Cocur de Lion, from Rouen, which baa been but comparatively little In lured by tbc fire. In the centre stood a mar ble fountain, an exact copy of oncat Hclster bach. on the Rhine. That, too, has been but slightly damaged, as have also the recum bent etflgies of Henry H. and his Queen, Eleonora*, Richard 1. and Isabella, wife of King John, copied from those of Fontervrault Abbey, the bnrylng-place of the Haulage nets, and which are said to be the only copies Id existence. The greater part of the court Itself, however, with all its characteristic architecture and elaborate decoration, has been irreparably injured. “With the library and reading-room per ished a copy of tbc New Testament printed in ISSI, for tbc then King of Prussia, and said to be unequalled as a specimen of Goth ic typography. copies only of the book were printed Ivhen the tvpe was 'oken up. Of these five existed in England i our now. The magnificent volume was the gift of the late King to the library of the palftv’t-” THE EASTERN QUESTION. A from Garibaldi on tbo Despot- Ism of tlie Turks. Genera? C’arlbaldi has addressed the follow ing letter rrj. on the Eastern question to a friend in Lon. don : Capheha, December 13.1566. Tbatl lore with thealiccnon of a son you cannot doabU and that It Is ever the desire of my heart to tee h*«, " In 010 *«1 rank among na tions is eqnally cert ain . hot to caress the errors of lierHioietcrs—u> that 1 canno- lend myself. 1 repeat, V°or statesmen that ivhirh I have stated to oar o»v. 115 Do well and yon will re ceive praise; bat to U\ ri fh praise on those who do evil is tecvlle aduLt/lon, and I never flat ter. In the w« . of giants waged by England agalast t*^ o First Emperor, I search In iha pages-of .loose nis’onea of your count! y which noji-aiaicfb r one single expression of couacmnHtlon at the et pcndltorc of millions of Hits and millions *f mm •yy« sacrificed I. com bat ore despotism. inrU'ed, hut certainly to sus tain another not lees cxncuni* Wno, however, on the other hand, will not ct nfrss with mo, that the eemcca rendered by Engh ndto ihc etueoof human progress have Lceu l.um'nscf Ard I in failtcular hear testimony to rlu benefits received roro you by Italy In ISCU, withoni which .-.cebonld i>ot row Lo exalting in the embrace of even* member of the Italian family. But wbea 1 see tic Government cf this tot adovled country al lied wi'h Austria and wt n Turkey. 1 mu-*! tell you (be truth—namely, tfiat i Inhale the tames of a charnel house, which all (he national vitality may be unable to dispel. If Great BrluJa places herself In contact with these bad corpses. I votild rather ace her using her power sno her Influence to supu otl those oppstssvd xtatloualiue* at present going to decay m the putrid atmos-' pherc ofocvpomai; bat who, remaining constant to tlielr deslie of i‘untying tbomsalves, must cer tainly rise, one da** or anotner, to their natmal places in tbe fraternity of, free nations. Let us icave Austria, whoso Emperor onebt to receive the fate of bis brother En iperor ot Mexico, and which exists only tin on gti* the dissensions of nationalities chccka'iiilng each other's ef- forts (owsros cinaneipatioa. Let ns travel to Tutktt. cosmopolitan as 1 am. and a believer lu that God who desires not factious and difcmds, but. on the contrary, that men should love each other as brethren I which rjalrmianiion can only be possible,, however, when we rend the Denis lo the spade-aud tho Uutmsb priest to the nunlock). BcUcvJuc fully oli this, .1 can make no dilfercucu between too na tives of ilie plains of farts rv and my countrymen bom on tae sunny hills of flome. Out hive you any Idea what Hus despotism of tbo forks, pro tested osnlostbv yon ically Isf • 1 willcivt n» ex ample. uneray.Jn the port of Olivieri, lo the Island of Mityletic. 1 inquired cf a Greek peasant tbe reason why bo did not gather up the olives,- laslcad oi permitting them- to perish on tbo ground, “ikcnnrts” be answered l ’lbe I'asba buys tipall tbe olives, and w«*are com pelled lo deliver them to him at cncii a low pries ibat tl would not pay tbo expense of gathoilng (bun in." IMiom how iho Interest of tills poor rcniDtnl of i'brlsllniis is negtectad in temporal uiaif.irs; and lor thu rest, for all that concerns tbo pi ostnmlun of tie body and of the aunl. bow am 1 lo nlatu U lo yon. wno have so kind a heart, and who Law n ion and daughters t It is most hor rible. And it Ido not speak of It, oh I tmgivv uiv *. It Is ior ihu sake of decency, amt from the respect which 1 owe yen, that I cannot Uctull to yon such hniiatiilns. Well, now 1 have laid before you tbo condition ol the CbrUiluu* grounu of bumno light*. the protectress ctibo uLpnsoed. the emancipatress slave—per- MM* In upholding these fruits of a despotism the most Inhuman and <he most monatrous. In 1827, England, fiance amliUussla. in one of (hose out burslß of generosity which God sometimes ex cites in great minds, accomplished onuol those facta which In the history of nations are followed b> aidveraal gratitude. Let them compleio-lho rubllu.a*ask, let ihem spare to humanity a fresh (orreotof blood, and tnoy will receive horn her a thousand benedictions. G. Gxvuoxim. FRANCE. IN’npolcon’n New Year Becrpllonat the TuHerlc* TUo imperial Address to Iho Diplomat* and Clergy, At.the reception held la Paris oti the Ist inst.,.at the Tullerics, the Emperor address* cd Vue following spcccu to the diplomatic body.: Tbc opening of the new. year furnishes me no airiunliy of my wishes icctboala loi thrones and the prosperity of cations. I hop* that we ate entering upon a cow era or peace oi-a.eooclllatlon, and that the Universal Exhibi tion will couttlhntn towards calming passions and drawing riser the general Interest. Uy» Majesty thanked the diplomatic, body for their congratula tions, and begef a them to convey to their respec tive Governments the expression of hl| sentiments of friendship. The Emperor, addressing the Archbishop of Paris, said: When 1 see at 'behead of the Pails clergy a pre late fo deeply devoted to the interest of religion as wr il as that of thn btaie. one who everywhere supports by bis words and actions the great prin ciples of fnilh, charily amt conciliation. 1 say to mVFolfhoaveu will hear his prayers. Those pray-- ess arc lor France a blessing, acdjor me a new Borneo of correlation and hope. PRUSSIA. Rccomtroethm In Northern Germany- Remarkable Progrczaor Pru*tia h [From the Now York Evening Post. January!!.] A Germu Parliament assembled in Berlin on the 13lh of December. This body will aid lu framing the organic law of the new North German confederation. The Soathern German Stales, with Austria os their head, may form tbelr own ccolederation ; and the mans of each may hava to be re-engravcd for our atlases. Prussia, it is well knows, made immense strides during the past year In extending her own domain. The best idea of this, as well as of the strength cf her commercial marine, | will be gained by inspecting tbc tables which follow. They have been condensed from those trustworthy sources, Dr. Pctonnann’s “Mitthcilunrren,’* and the ** Hof Kalender,” published atGotba. i.—muEEia B irons 1566. Square Territory. Mica. Fopalatlou. Prussia proper (boundaries by treaty of Vienna, 1815,) 91,310 19,100,000 Uohcnzollers (ceded In 1819).. SSO GO,OOO Jade ierrilory (bought from Hanover, 1858) 5 1,50 c Grand-Ducby of Lancnbnrg (annexed ISF2) 045 01,9?) Total area before ISGS. Prussian military forces In tho fortresses of-toe old German Confederation. Total population before ISG6 19.504.0U0 n.— TOC6BIA D. 18C6, OB SIBCS TUB ThEATI UP PUAGUX, 23n august, lE«6. Area—Square Territory. Miles. Population. Prussia as shove before 1860.. 91,970 19,304.000 Added in ISO. Hanover... IS£3O !,Di3.rOO Partof Eledorafeof Hea'e... 3.12 i 737,*.MJ0 Dnchj of Naaraa (In part)— 1,537 455,000 Free City (and tenllory) of Frankfort Schleawlc-Holstehi Slice of Havana ceded 190 Slice of Grand Duchy of Hesse 313 UM34 £8,539,000 Increase In ISG6. 5J.451. The figures are In round numbers. They arc. in some cases, less than those of oar ga zetteers, but they-are the official counts In the treaties of last year. It Is well to know that some of the smaller cessions straighten out frontiers hitherto very crooked,’ and round off some comers In the puzzling geog raphy of Germany. The Idea might be car ried out /briber with advantage and on a larger scale. Why should there ever have been petty sovereigns ruling over spaces scarcely as large as Sfonbattab Island f such, for example, as His Excellency Prince “ Reues-GreiU-Lobenstein-Ebersdorfof Lich tenstein,” whose military .quota, to be fur nished under the old German Confederation, has been calculated at one and elx-tontbs of a man? III.—THE PRUSSIAN COiIKEBCIiX MABIXB. Ship*. Tonnage. 2,665 Prussia before 1908. Ships. Tonnage. Add—Hanover fol ‘ 15S.*S Schleawl?-Qois(ein.2,oJ7 151,787 8.561 515,145 3_ --1—8,861 275.145 Prussia (1366) 5.226 C57.M0 But os she is In fact supremo in North Ger many, we may os well set down to Prussia the numbers for the confederation, or as havW7.iG7 merchant Teasels, with a ton nacc of 1,830.719, by which she stands now the second State in Europe in her commer cial marine. For In 1804 the ti.tal tonnage for Great Britain was 5,328,073, and for Fiance 985,535. . . The North German confederation has 850 miles of scscoast, with many good harbors. Kell, In Holstein, and Gecstcmnndo, near tbo mouth oriho\Vescr, arc flrst.claas harbors fur memof-war; and at least jflro or “blx others can be made l on tbo coast of Schleswig. Prussia ac cording, to a statement by the chief con structor of the British nary, has now “par ’chased the most powerful Ironclad ow built In England—tuo frigate Fallkh, Millt for tbo Turkish tyTommont, but trios, ferred for norirpaymeuU** Tho King ■of Prussia is also In treaty for tbo Island or?or mosa: and tho Chinese coasting trade Is largely Tn tho hands of Iho Hamburgers., If wo odd to this that tho North German confederation has CO,OOO good seamen on her cuß*lS| enrolled to senro fflwu called but for three years Id the navy, and to belong to a reserve liable for nine years* service In time . T* T * Wo BCO w hat the naval and commer cial power of Prussia may become now that consolidation gives the opportunity of devel opment. We close these statistics with the following historical Hems: * Sovereigns. _,, Kxtr at of territory—Bn M. prtdnlrk 1.. A. P. Itl* ra.'UO Frederick ciTocO Frederick William 11. ihoa.-cai (partition ‘ cdPalanallTVT... .••••• 63,5 M (From nblch was taken in lsur,byNapo • Icon—pesro of T11Mt........ v Frederick William 1V.,1981, »• before given 81,5^3 ** •* IM.. 102,1*1 These figures show to what a pitch of pow er and tt rength Prussia has risen at a single step. . THE SPIUIT OF HEBEIXIOS. General* Wine and lloMcr on kite Ram fr page—They I>eclare (he Cunso of lha Rebellion not a.oat—Wise Auxtou* to be Hurled in a Gray Ovoreont—The South ** Sublimely l/irconquerctl.” (Richmond (Vn jCorrMuoadencc (January II)o tto New York liers>d.| A largo assemblage of citizens at ono of the IcaUU'g churches here was addressed this evening by Generali Rosser and Henry A. Wise on tho subject of relief of the widows of Confederate soldiers. The addresses of both were warmly received and frequently applauded. General Rosser said lie was hero os tho champion ol the cause of liberty and free dom, to awako the echoes of toe country from North to South In behalf of the honored dead; to lav before yon tho claims of the widows and orphans of the numberless dead. Our* duties to them aro to do something tor these helpless sufferers. He would dccoratoaad erect mon. aments to our glorious dead: but we must rot forget the living. We are entirely at tbc mercy of the conquerors, iu whose hands is our fate, and who, instead of being magnani mous, arc bitterly oppressive. 1 would have preferred to have died ou the battle field, at the post of duty, as my worthy comrade and statesman. General Wise bos said: but if we could ask the brave mea who died for us 1 what they would require, they would say, “Give our wives and our children bread.” We must bay the charity of the world ; we must go into the lottery business and offer a certain number of prizes, the first being the mansion once occupied by our honored Presi* dent, Davis ; the second the birth place ol our chieftain, R. E. Lee, Vir ginia’s great son. Virginians look at your own State, destroyed and made a slaughter pen by the very Government whose institu tions you once admired. She is now dis honored, made desolate and left hclolcss. Tour soldiers have fought for glory aud re nown. They left home, wives and children. They had seeu the black horrors of war; but they went, inspired by God, truth aod liber ty, to fight for their country. What are our duties to them? Have they not a right to expect that we would cherish their memo ries? We should die as they have died be fore us, unblemished. The death knell of liberty was sounded at Appomattox. 1 have not been pardoned; have not asked for it: would not get it If I did. The cause lives, If notln the men In the women. The woman carried on the war. The nob’e women and children who have lost husbands and Cithers arc entitled to our leaped. We have no country, but we have some mean? to divide with tfiem. There must be a comfortable and honorable provision made for the wife and child of every Confederate soldier. Virginia Is my native Stale, thank God. "1 am proud of it. 1 have never seen the man that was ashamed of it. Maryland was trammelled, aud could not assist us during the war ; bat now she is ready to pour out her treasure to help the suffering widows and orphans of Virginia. There are only six thousand widows in the South, and our eight millions of people must at'once provide for them. The children must be educated. We know your influence and your power, and we ex- Sect you to doit. I have stopped the men caring the wewnded soldier off the battle* field and have made them lay him down to die, and go back to the tight. I have realized the bitter anguish of the wives and children for this duty. Tl.tj* call upon you now to night to give food and raiment to their wives and children. The day of retribution is com ing. ambevery man will receive his reward. General Wise ww then introduced. He said this was a touching apjx'iri made bv Gen .crnl Rosser, whom he seconded, who was ' only yosttrduy tho champion of tho cause that fell. No arm now can strike for it. We can only caw repair our loss. The appeal for aid for our widows and and orphans comes from one of Virginia’s sons. Have I been spared to see the cause die out before wo die? What evidence have we that that cnu*o has died.out ? But when rre see widows wall or hear an orphan err, I feel then tho cans* Imtrlndccd died out. If you lot one of them wall, you may veil say the enuae Id dead. It shall he to your cost. Should every man and woman hi the South give It up, I never will --never, never. I care not how much unite of twlsety may he piled upon me. It w 111 only he a moment reaching to heaven to rc.irh heaven’s ear. Von never were worthy tl« o cense U yon let It die out. Weave wall imr and In want. My God! whnt » widow Vlr glnla herself Is! Thai Is an aching agony that God knows how I endured It. Bull hav e endured It. The men whom I com* limn dod were nil my children. I looked at thcD‘l not as a Martinet would, but as citizens who were defending a noble commonwealth, and we eared not so tho victory was won. Never has there been ouch unexampled he. rolcni. When they foliowcilmothrough din aster and defeat, the glory that was In toy heart won that they knew I loved them. I would haw loved them, for that devotion and sclf-*ncrill-‘e In any cause half ns good. I have went over many of them whom I saw fall by the one* im’* bnllet'as I would over my sun. When 1 die let mo lie where I fall, wrapped In my gray overcoat. Leave the noble- memorials 1 you have begun, which are only vanity. The Confederate dead all, all sleep well, thank God. But the women—the wife that never knew want—who- could not work—who, shove all that Buffer now, arc the ones who need your charl’y. This Is what the children and widow of tho Confederate soldier now need. Tho mother will feel proud if you educate her noble child to emulate the heroism of bib father to striko for the same cause. That cnemvwho under took to conquer the Southern-people, tbreo millions-would not cover the number who were laid' htm the eombett.. Eight hundred thousand will cover the Confederate loss. We must provide an asylum for both widows and ornhaus. We can raise the- means by the plan proposed, and Ist the proceeds b<> Invof-tPdin profitahlcacoount. Lot no widow wall, no orphan want. I have never bad th c heart to we a man want when r have had \ crumb for myself. Hon’t-walt r look out for those that want, and you shall oc blessed by heaven. If you do nox you aro an Int Mel people, ond y«mr substance wlit be eaten -up. Kind out, give and Virginia slull revive and be stronger thanover. Only prove if you ore not fightings, yet you-arc still sub limely xaconquercd. VICTOR HUSO. The Exiled Poet and nb Island llodec The Annnab ClirfHtma» Fete at Guernsey—The Great Writer** Chari table H orks-J: Speeeh by Zlim. yTrom the Louden Dally News, January 2.}’ It Is now ten yaars since & protest publieh cd against a violation of the sacred right of asylum was mada- a pretext to drlvo from the Island oi Jersey the Frenchmen who had sought refuge there after the coup tTefat of December, IS-71. To that act oi expulsion the sistcrUland.of Guernsey owes to-day the immense honor of sheltering one of the mas ter minds of Europe—Victor Hugo. In this beautiful little island of the Norman- Archi ptlrgo the latest works of his imagination have been written, and it is to Guernsey, as “the rock of hospitality and of liberty,” that be baa dedicated the last of his books, the “Toilersoi the Sea.” Both.is not only in wreathing round her rocks the flowers oi his genius that Victor Hugo r tenders to his asylum thanks for her* hospitality. Guernsey gives to the exiled poet a refuge; the poet gives to the poor of Guernsey a tender and generous assistance, and his name is as well known amongst the destitute chil dren ot Porte St. Pierre, whom, he makes the sharers of bis bounty, as his fiune is familiar to the thinking portion of mankind, who know him through bis genius. “Poor chil dren are, perhaps, the most affecting objects on the earth; to them we owe benevolence and succor.” These were his words, aud they have not been the mere expressions of useless sympathy, foronce every week twen ty-two poor children assemble to a snbslan . tlal dinner in his bouse, and at the end of' December takes place the annual feast and. distribution of clothing, which may be called the Christmas number of the great writer's charitable works. There is no selection amongst these children on account of creed or country. Channel Islanders, English, French and Irish ’ (the last arc not the fewest.) are all welcome, and the sole claim to hospitality Is to want it. It is now five years siuce this little insti tution of a fottnishlly dinner was first es tablished by Mr. Hugo, and each year ho has bad tbc satisfaction of seeing hU example more widely followed in tbc diet rent parts of Europe by many who wish to benefit their suffering fellow creatures. On Thursday last, the 20th December, the annual Christmas fete took place at Hautcvillc House, in Guernsey. There were assembled some forty two poor children, varying In age from three to.twelvc years ; all looked happy and. joy ous, and seemed perfectly at home in the house, and in the presence of their host. The fete ms divided lato three parts—an excellent lunch, a distribution of clothing, and ft Christmas-tree. Previous to the dis tribution, Victor Hugo addressed his gnests and visitors in the fallowing words; rtj.tnnn JLVP GnTian! YOU STC &WSTC Of rbeobjcciofthlslltUsmeetlng. it is what, for wanlol abetter term, I call the festival of poor little children. I deeire to speak of It In the ham blest terms, and with this feeling I would barrow (be simplicity of one of those little ones who now bear me. To do good to poor children, as Car as lam able, is the object that 1 bare In view. ' Be lieve mo, there Is no merit in the act, and what J say is sincerely meant. There is no merit id do ir.g for the poor what wo can. for wbat wo can <to- It is oar duty to do. Do you know anything more sad than the aoflcrtngs of children i When we sailer—we who are men—we sailer Justly, we on dnrenomlngbntwbuwedeserve; hut children are innocent, and sutfeittg Innocence, Is It nottbo saddest thing tn nature? Here Providence en trusts ns «lib a portion of Ua own functions. God save lo man. I confide (o thee thu child. And ho does not confide to ns oar own children alone, for It la eimply narnrnl that we shoald have care of them, and tbc brole obeys thalaws of nature, bet ter sometimes than man himself. God entrusts ns with all the children that sailer. To ba the faiher, the mother, of poor children—this Is oar blghfct mission. To have towards Item the pa trols! feeling Is to have a ftalornal feeling towards humanity.” M. Hugo explained the idea which first led him to establish this fortnightly dinner, an Idea, ho said, which had its origin in a report upon the diet of poor children made eight een years ago by the Medical Academy of 1 Paris. , “But,'* continued M. Hugo, “cnarotsod, when i In France, by the bnnocss or public life, 1 bad no i Unto lor establishing dinners for poor children. . Profiting, however, by the leisure watch exllo.Ua* given me In Gnernrey, 1 have carried the Idea Id-. ‘ to execution. ' BoMetlng that If a good dinner once a booth coalirdo so much good, a good din seronee a fortnight would do still more, I bars > fed forty-two children, iwcnly-ono of whom cams • tome every week. Moreover, when the end of • the tear arrive# I wl«n to cite (hem the lUUo pica* aura which the children of ltd rich find la their own homes; 1 wUh that they also may bavo tbolr 1 CbfUUnM 1 bis Ilttle/rf* is composed of Urea . parts—a luncheon, a distribution of cloiMag.aad I adltlrilmtloa of toys, for joy Is on element nt • children's health. Thcrclore Uls that I dedicate ; (o then icnoaby a Christmas tree. This U tqo 43,700 25.500 2 r oo,ax) 5,900 950,000 ”5,100 4,3*3,600 fifth celebration of the fete. And now why do I say all this t The ot 1y merit ica aood action (If tiara be a gna*t velcro) is to say nothing about it. 1 should. In toe*, be sUeot If 1 thought only of ■elf. Ltu my oblcf.i* not nirrelr do good if rortr children. - M» outset above all ta to «Ota useful example. This umy sole rxcasc.” in support of this beneficial effects attend* log tbc adoption of this system In other countries, M. Hugo read extracts from two newspapers—-the Petit Jeutnai and the 77m% The Treasurer of tho Ragged Children’s Din nor Fund, writing to the last-oamed paper, hsd slated that during the late epidemic in Lend) n n<>t one death from cholera bad Intern place among two hundred poor chil dren who hud thus been nourished. Upon this fact the speaker laid great Importance, and, after expressing a 'hope that tbc “mournfhl ond deplorable word • ragged*” would soon dhapptar from tho noble English* language, he thus concluded: “Tbi*. ladles and gentlemen, Ismyr*cn«e for ue-eritiiag to yon wrm takes place here. This Is *b»l iiutlfte* ihv publicity clv< n to the dinner to «b« forty chl drrn. It I* that hom this humble oi lain there arises a considerable amelioration in Ibe cruulUlcn of suffering innocence. To relieve chl.orcn—to train them Into men—soch Is onr duly. 1 will add bnt uno word more. There mo two ways of biiilclng chnrchr*. They may he hallt of stone*—they may he built of Uoab and bones. The poor whom von have succored are a church that von bavd* built TVota whence prayer and gratitude ascend to God.” Many know the marvels of Victor Hugo’s pen; few arc acquainted with the magic of Iris voice, and only those who have heard him speak In public enu realize to Its (uU# extent an utterance which vibratos in singu lar unison with every thought which It ex- Eroscs. In Ilautcvulo House, on Thursday at, oil stood upon the same level of equal* Ity, no Invitations were issued, the doors were open to thought fit to cuter, and tho only reserved places were for the poor. It seemed a place where class distinctions were for a time at least forgotten, and all met together, without surprise or embarrassment, on the neutral ground of a great mao’s humanity. A 5 EIOmiEST ASD ITS RESULT. Energetic Conduct on the Part or the Lady’s Relatives. (Fiozn tte Washington Star, January 12-1 About four weeks ago a young gentleman, who gave his name as Nye, appeared at the board.ng house of Mr. Park, on C street, be. „ tween Second and Third streets, with a young lady who he represented as his wife, and asked to see tbe rooms. The keeper of the house - showed the pair several rooms, and finally they chose the back Dirior, into which the young man had a piano placed for the lady, and soon they were living comfortably. The yvung man, as also the lady, informed the ether occupants of the house that they had* recently been married, and tbat be being a mail agent, couldn’t be home during the day. He appeared to be very “regu lar In his habits, and was at home * every cvcnirg, ami in a short lime they were looked upon by tbclrtellow-boardcrs as quite an acquisition. Christmas times came, and thr conplc mixed with the others in the amusements gotten up la tbe house, ami seemed to enjoy the fun amazinglv, but on New Year’s eve there came a change. The occupants of the house had mo-tlv retired about ten o’clock, not feeling inclined “ to watch the New Tear in;” but were dusth.cd to bar? precious little sleep. About eleven o’clock the jingling of the’ dcor-b-11 awoke* some of the occupants, and the servant :u;.n J at the door a stout, middle-aged lady, ac companied by an able-bodied young man. They informed the servant that the hniv was the ■ mother, and the gentleman wa* the brother of Mrs. Nyc. whom they wished to see, and asked which was the room of the conplc. The servant des iccated the room in question, aud started up stairs, but had not gone raanv steps before screams of “murder* irom the room awoke the house. The proprietor. Mr. Turk, sprang out of led. and hastily attempted to change his nightshirt for thicker apparel; hut Urn frcqtxncy of the cries ond the din from the ’room, induced him to disregard all lawso?- etiquette. and down stairs he went to the room fa question, followed by some of the boarders. Here they found that Mr. ami Mrs. Nyc hud been hauled trout bed. the fo*- .mer by flic big brother, find the latter bv tin mother of thS'lady. The voutv- m*u' w.\* ' walking Into Mr. Nyc with n -•‘tout stick, 1 which lie need mostly on his victim's head, ami he, Unding discretion the bettor part of ralor. mode a break for the window rarrylcg the greater portion of the win don-sash with mm* and took nfnge In the stable. While this was gtdng on ‘he mother h.nl her daughter over her knee ami was ap plying raw-bldc to row hide, civlng her, in tin* language ofn witness. “Hal! Coimu-» Ida.” Thu spectators thinking that there should bo moderation lr>al! things, interpos ed oud stopped tills castigation, amt heard the cxplanntlon>of the parties. from which it appearrd that tbo daughter had lin-n re cently married to a gentleman In New York, and had run away from Mm and come ln-e. taking up with Mb. Nyo, who had been a former lover. The mother and son were induced to leave tlie lionsc, and the daughter retired toi.nl, suffering smartly from the effects nf thecow. hiding; and Mr. Nyc came out of hU hiding place in the sluhlo after the const was clear. The trouble was not ail over yet, however, and, In about an* hoar, there was another# rligtd the door-hall. The servant re ml monished to bo careful whom she let in. and openeiptbc door ejar, when the former \islt nrs pushed forcibly.past her. and ImmedlaH ly went to the room of Mr. and Mrs. Nye, when the brother dragged the tfrm.-r from tbo bed, and gave him another tremendous whacking, continuing to apply the .stick un til ho was slopped by tho proprietor of the house and hoarders, who went to the rescue. At this visit thh mother did not use I ho hide. but, while tbo son was attacking Nye, gave the daughter u terrible tongue-lash ing. Ah before, the boarders requested them to leave the house, which invitation they dually compiled with. On turning th-Irat- - tontion to the Injured roan, they found lie-' was badly cut, and took Lina to a neighbor ing drug btorc where liU wounds were dressed. Tlx* following morning, the young couple, doubtless thinking that their quarter* were getting too hot for them, quietly lull the lioOBC, and the following duy their hugg igc wo3cent for by the porter of a hotel": the piano being IcfLas security for the hoard bill. THE BASBAEL BILL. Pioposcd Cliongea In the Natiunnl Uauklng Lniv. Our "Washington despetebes'state Hint the House Committee on Banking arc favorably disposed toward the adoption of the scheme known as the Randall Bill, which substitutes legal lender notes Sir National Bank noti*. and requires the banks to give up their bonds ,and their notes and reclaim In return therefor greenbacks. • We publish below a copy of a bill which was IntrodnccdJpto the House of Repp*?*-ut ' atives by Mr. S. 1. Randall, of Pennsylvania, on the 7th January, and referred to the Com mittee on Backlog ftfld Commerce; Be it enacted hy the Senate and -Honse of Repre sentatives of the United States o) America in Con gress assembled,. That the Secretary of (he Treas ury is hereby authorized lo I«»ne, on the credit of the United statcs v snch sums as may be neemcary for the porpoeca act forth tn this ace, not exceed ing in tkc aggregate amount three hundred mil lions of dollars, of Treasury notes, not bearing in terest, or such denominations as be may deem ex pedient, not less than five dollars each, which said notes shall be lawful money and a legal tenaer for debts in like manner as provided In the first sec tion of an act entitled u An act to authorize the is sue of United States notes, ana for the redemp tion or fnt.dlng thereof, and for funding the floating debt of the United States,** passed February 25, ISGi. And the provision* of the sixth, and seventh sections of. said act are B hereby re-enacted and applied to tho-notes herein authorised,. brc 2 And be |£ further enacted, That the amount at said notes issued in anr onefUc.ll year gtall cot exceed one hundred niDßons of dollars, and tho same shall be need only in exchange tor nobs issued by the National tianks under the authority of the United States, in conformity vsir. Ibc l*ws refrnlalin? the same, and for the purchase ofecch portions of the National indebtedness as may be necessary to carryout the true intent of this act. Sec. 3. And be Itfur/fitr enacted. That the said National Bank notes so received in exchange lor the Treasury note* antnorlsed by Ibis act. shall be by the Secretary of the Treasury forthwith can celled in like manner as though they had been retained for cancellation;by the bank* respec tively isstttn? them, and the certificates of Na-* tiocal mdebtedn es, and bonds on deposit for the security of said notes, ahaU be transferred to Commissioners ol the Sinking Fund, which is berem established, at market prices, to the amount and extent «hab the several banks whose notes hove been thus returned would be entitled to receive the securities therefor. Sec. I. And be if further enacted* That the Sec retary of Ibo Treasury, the Attorney Genera], the Secretary of the Interior, the Treasurer of the United Slates, and tho Comptroller of the Cur rency. shall be the Commissioners of the Sinking Fund, who, or a majority of whom, shall receive the evidences, ot debt and bonds pircbastd in ac cordance nilb tho provisions of this act,&ndfarth with stamp upon each, so as to make it unfit for further nae,“belonging to the Sinking Fund of tbc United Slates,*' and shall cancel the-signaturc , thereon. Tber shall hold said cvid-nces of debt and bonds until their respective ma turities, and nnOl all accruing interest ►hall he paid and ta hereby appropriated to the said Commissioners, who aboil purchase o'ber evidence* of debt and bonds, to be used and held as herein provided lor. and so from lime to time as moeey may be received from such sources. Szc. 5. shdbe it enacted. That Immedi ately alter the close of each fiscal year, the Secre tary of the Treasury shall publish on account of the condition of the said Sinking Fund in at least one newspaper published in the cities of Wa*h incton, Baltimore, Pbiladclphl*, Boston, and N*w York, aod be shall, at the ®r.-t meeting of Con cress thereafter, report the same to each branch thereof Ssc. 6. And be it further enacted. That so much of at r law or laws as are inconsistent herewith* shall he, and the same are hereby repealed. ISDIAXA. ll c-Districting: or tlie State. Mr. Mason has Introduced a bill tn the lu- dlana Legislature providing** Districts as foltmra : Sseriox 3. Tbe counties ol Posey, Yandeibrrs. TVarrict. Spencer, Dubois. PiJro, Gibson, Kaor and Davie stall constitute ’ho First DUtrict. Sxc. 4. The counties of Perry, Oranee, Craw ford, Martin, Lawrence, WasbiPCtou, Utrrison. Floyd, Clark and S colt, shall consulate the Second.* District, ’ Szc. 5. The counties of Jackson. Bartholomew, Jennings, Jtficrron, Ripley, Dearborn. Ohio and Switzerland, shall constitute iho Third District- Sec. 6. Tbo counties of Sullivan, Green, Mon roe. Brown, Owen, Clay, Vlso. Partes and Ver million shall constitute the Fourth District. hKC,7. The counties of Putnam, uennricks, Boone. Hamilton and Marlon shall constitute the Fifth District. ' „ , w . . Sec. 8. The counties of Morgan, oohn»on. Shel by. Hancock, Hush. Decatur. Franklin, Union and IV cite iholl constitute the Sixth Disdnct, foe. 9. The counties ol .Wayne, Randolph. Jay, Delaware, Henry. Madison and Grant shall con- Biitnlo the Seventh DislikL brc. Jh. The counties of Fouoiain, warren, Tip pecacoc, Carro K Howard. Tipton, CTlnlou and alcnlcomery shall conetitulo Iho Eighth District. Hec. 11, The counties of Ben'on, White, Ca**, Fnbon.Mamhall, Sleikc. taporlc, Uke. Potter, Newton, Jasper and Pulaski shall construe the Ninth District. M _ . „„ t Sec. IS. The counties of fit. Jownh, BlteKirt, Isctamre, Slcnheu, Noble, DeKelbacd Ko*cl nako. constitute the Tenth Ol'trlcL otc. 13. The counties of Miami, Woha.«h, WbH lor. Alien, HunilDstou, Weils, Adams and Disc** lord shall constitute tho Klevanth District. The Methodist Centenary collection now mote np over fV«UW, and It Is not all yet In. It undoubtedly reach S»,(*»,OCO. Of this inn, Drew, of Now York, gave 9500,COO? Mr. DaWw\v w ofOhto,?IC0,000: Mr. Rich, of Doeloo, 175,000 ; and many others ftooi|to,ooo to fOO,OOO. ■ #