Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune, February 17, 1867, Page 2

Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune dated February 17, 1867 Page 2
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tribune. SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 17. IW7. CMVKUiiAIi SCt'l-'UiGE. The Congress seems to be in perplexity, and the various means and measures resorted to. in order to reach the desired end, by an indirect road, serve only to render that per plexity the more embarrassing. Is l£ possi ble that Congress docs' not nuderataud that the country demands universal suffrage? that nothing Jess tbau that will satisfy U? To establish universal suffrage, Is to settle all questions at one blow. Establish univer sal suffrage, and make no exceptions, not even of rebels. Let Congress abandon all Us short-cut propositions aud conditional bar gains, and propose directly and distinctly, in the form of an amendment to the Consti tution of the United States, «h*»t suf frage for nil elective offices un der the United Stales, and tho States, or in muuicipal corporations, shall bo free to all male adults over the age of twenty-ono years, of sound mind and nucmvlcted of crime, born In the United States or natural feed under the laws thereof. This proposition will dispose of ail questions of rcconetrncton. It is preposterous to sup pore that the rebels will ever grant suffrage to the loyalists as long as they are permit ted, under any form of government, to con- Irol their respective States. It Is equally preposterous to suppose that any State Gov ernment can be organized and successfully maintained with one-half or a majority of the people excluded from the polls upon a general cbaigc of crime lor which they have been pardoned without trial or arrest. There cnti and ought to be no Slate Government which shall exclude the loyal men from the polls; there ought to ho no Slate Govern in'nl which excludes any man from the polls tinier* lor crime of which the person has bc.u convicted. As tongas it remains a cou lot between the two classes, tho rebels should I e excluded; hut for any lasting Goicrt-iucnt. Hie general suffrage to nil free* n-cn isabmc consistent with Justice on I sale -I>. Let Congress, even now, before it ad* Joiiins, p.oj ore nn amendment (o |ho Con slHnib'tt making suffrage free in all public eh ctions for National orßtulc officer* I let that xmm nUtiK iit be submitted without deity to Hie Mate Legislatures, mid tl« ratifhatiun in cut; foyalblalu Is beyond nil pcralvcnlnro. The President snecrlngly rails the attention ol (he country to (ho (net that Congress has no at ml pulley. Hu has sumo warrant (or H.O nsM'riiuii. But Hie moment Gongrra* lakes tlm hromi, plain nod uninUtaknhfo pionnd Iliit 1 every adult mnlu In tho United Mnl«*. nut convicted of crime, shill lie a voter, then Congrats will have 0 policy nnd Hu 1 only policy In which the poo* pie will huvo any abiding faith, (h. (hut irsuo Congress can go before tlio (oiii'liy at the next election, confident of the N'ullotmi iippreva). That ii a living and sub. Iw-ne, wlilebeverybody understands, nml upon which the mind of Hie country la «b l« iiiiluml. Until this suffrage bo eslab .is Hie National rule, there cannot bo any nspcelublc Government in atiyofiha rebel fiiulcs. When It is criublUhud thuro, wllh suffrage to protect them, HlO loyal ! •n, Mark and white, will taka enre of I 111 lOM'lVi'S. I lim'iiro those who do not wish tho m»!o» iHiliio of |ho Colon on any term*. We arc i»«.l oniiln mtinbcr; nor will I he country *u*- luln tluil policy one day longertlmn t* nucca fcury to hurl It* mlvocmc* from power ami plucc. The country waul* universal siidruge, ami iccoimtnirtiun on thtt !m«l* Let iu have, then, tin amendment propos'd, making unlvcrral the general rule, and leave tho re rult to the American jtouplu. Anything short of that rule I* Idle ; with that, all othtr Ihliu;* will he pained inure speedily, more wisely, more safely than in uoy other way. PRIVATIi CUUPoIIAXIOMS, The Legislature bus been in session about six weeks, and as yet tbe only measure of great public importance It bus pissed to a law U tbe Warehouse BUI, For ibis tbe peo ple are duly thankful; but they will scarcely consent that the Legislature shall now fall back on the laurels won in this single victory over the monopolists. The truth is, the timed our Legislature Is almost wholly absorbed In tbe creation of private corpora* Hues. The truth also is that the Legislature ought to erect no private corportions what ever. It is contrary to the spirit of our Con elilnUon. though uulortunately not to its words, and is a fruitful source ofmlschicf and corruption. Tbe most apparent evil result ing from such legislation is, that it is done at the expense of the public business; that tbe Interests and welfare of the people are almost entirely neglected to promote It. But behind this Is the still greater evil of “rings,” bargain and sale—ln a word, the whole system of legislative bribery. Wit* ness the attempt lately made to incorporate* li e Chicago Dock Company and the Skating Park Company. We say that ( flic Legislature ought to charter no private co-poratlons other than those prescribed la Article X. of the Stale 'Constitution, which declares that “corporations not possessing banking “ powers or privileges, may he formed under “ general laws, but shall not he created by “ fpecial acts, except for municipal purposes, “ and In cases where, in the judgment of the “General Assembly, the objects of the cor “poratlda cauuol he attained uuder general “lane.” 1 he purpose of this article of our Constl tutiou is clear. It was, that the Legislature should at once proceed to make a general law under which private corporations can organize for nmst of the legitimate branches of hrsimss without a special act from the Legislature. Unfortunately it left the Legis lature a technical excuse for neuiccHug to perform this duty, and although the Con stitution of Illinois has been in operation ever Mnee 1843, no general law on the subject has yet been formed of such a character Hint corporations will organize under U, except in anticipation of getting a special charter from the Legislature at Us lu st t-cssiou. This is all wrong. No duty was more Imperative on the Judiciary Com iniUce* ol the two branches tliau la agree 1 pon md report a general law on Hie subject m cnri*orniions, which would render unneccs- Hit y nil Hits private legislation. In the States ct Indiana, Ohio, lowa and Minnesota, near ly every railroad has been built by corpora tions chartered under the general laws. By tbc constitutions of Indhns, Minnesota and and, we believe, of scvcrulothorßtates, Hie • r- v 'Hon of corporations |>y the Legisla ture frobrelntely prohibited—all corporations 1111111**081010? must be formed under gen <l nl laws. The result Is Hist Hm business of u* c-grluding and and of promoting corporate privileges is poor in those (Rules. If A. and B. want to get Incorporated into a Hknllng Berk (;* iiij any, or any other Company, they only oignnlzc under (he general law, nnd If that (toea not authorize such n corpora Hon, their only remedy Is lo procure n gou cial taw under which U.aim I), nml K. nnd F. and G. and 11., and ns many more nn choose lodo so can organize ns veil sstliem • ‘•lies, and so down goes the monopoly of the Hl.allng Bulk, tl Brown and Jques or ganize to r.dleet lolls and levy taxes on the e< mini reiMif n elty, It must be under n fn» by übnb 8111HI1 nml Johnson, nmi Tiiump smi, and Hnipsoti and over.vtmdy ( ,| ‘-c inny do the snmo tiring. The eluuse tu onr Constitution wlileb wu ha'e quoit d was intended lo procure Just sueh 11 suit *> ms 1 lieso 5 but its spirit and In i' ntloii tiu\e been altogether disregarded. It nn. ini, iidcd t« do away with special prlvi* h-k* r nml pmleel Hm general welfare, and a grave resp.insUdllly rests upon the Chnlrmmi ol the Judiciary Committees,ln this nutter. The); should have sect) to it, that Hm sub- J* cl wn« taken hold of In Hum to procure some Mluinrr action; Iml u* yd Hm subject bn* ii"l been touched, and the brief scmioii fooli i * to IU conclusion. In fuH, m> coinmtltco ot tho legislature l n<) mmv Imjairlnnt iilrAnii'cs (a MDaldur, nr gumr rc»pon*lblll|Jos on ft> bund", llici Judiciary Comuilltcn* or ijillicr ltou«n. Tito Law. Inal I ttilc bf thla city, after much deliberation, j n jmrrd a number of bills, embracing many salutary miicl crcally-mcdoil reform* In the la»’and pr»ctl<‘uoi lift" State. Not having «ci;n tboc bills, weave not prepared to say their details were unobjectionable; but we have sufficient knowledge of their general character to know that the reform* pro posed arc highly necessary and comm-uds- Lie, uud lluit the system of practice now in vogue In the State will remain a disgrace null! these or similar measures are adopted The Statutes need revising, and a commis sion of competent members of the proles- Sion should Lave been appointed to perform this work prior. The distinction be tween law and equity should have been abolished. A more efficient system for col lecting debt* should have been devised. The garnishee law should have been amended. Uut what has the Leglslalnrc done, or what has the Judiciary Committee proposed ? The otdr inca-ure, sh for as we are informed, which they have brought forward as a legal reform •' is the bill to j»crtnit parties to salts to testify Jr, th< Ir ow n Itchslf. This passed the House revere! day* ago. hat It has not yet become a law. Wr have already expressed oar views In favor of the passage ol this law, and in our judgment it should have passed long »£o. It It goes through, Illinois wilt take «U|> In the right direction, but it will be oi.l ? a abort step where a long Journey fcf.M.p] Lave Ur*u |avfomicd. Wedonotat tbi« nrglcct |« sn ahsoiutn lodltfer \j. n,«: ptibjb: welfare, hut we do a’trlb *,** I*. \j> ibn pi*: occupation of members In •.),* »-f grlnd'irg at':*, Isborioz 1 1, »/t op private corporations m * woid l)*n anvlrm In >.*(/*■:'4 i<; I'jrj. It will t.riji. uMlil w«: 4 livucrml law ou the subject of corporation*. protecting the j-«oj-lc and the corporator* alike. New England Is alinod covered with private cor* IN-iatWns; bnt they arc organized under rmcral law.:. Why cannot Illinois have ruebalaw? Let the Judiciary -Committee = nd the Legislature answer the quc-tlon, If jrom -the scramble for special .privileges which is now going on, they save breath • nongh to answer anything. PBOTI.OTIO2V. That a high tariff do** not exclude or even reduce importation of foreign good is proven by the fret th«t under the highest « ne that over existed In this country, there were Imported last year on a gold valuation, H37,C35.PC6 worth of foreign products, while n the fiscal year ISGO-1, the whole Importa • lon was only $550,775,8*15, under the lowoil tariff we hare had for fifty years. Does not this test of the operation of a high tariff prove the fallacy of the Idea that protection to American Industry can be found in In creased taxation ? But why are so many people deceived id their expectation of “protection” from In creased duties? Multitudes have sincerely believed that a high tariff would protect homo manufactures against foreign com petition. Many persons still think so, and denounce those os “free-traders” and ene mies of home Industry who deny the truth of their dogma. We can easily explain the reason of the failure of an increase of tho tariff to “pro tect” domestic manufactures against foreign competition, or to reduce importation, or to benefit American laborers In any respect. And Hour high tariff friends, who think that (axntlou gives “prelection,” will lay aside their assumptions aud theories for a few mo ments, we shall furnish them with a rccclpo that will cure them of their hallucination. Suppose that, under the present rales of duty a certain grade ol foreign cloth can he Imported and sold in this country at three dollars per yard, and a ton of railroad Iron cl eighty dollars whnt Is tho price of domestic cloth and Iron of ilinllnr quality? Answer, just nbi.tit Hie same. If Hie latter were matcrl i.Hy lower than the furmcrcvorybodr would rairchnscthu home made, and nobody would ny Hie foreign articles, If tho domestic 1 '>(•(!• coutj bo had. It Is only when the do ■iMStle goods nro of Inferior quality, or of • iuher price (hat people give (ho preference o imported products. Hiipposo, tiuxl, that he Inrltl simM he raised so ns to mskothu .■ oreiAld foreign cloth sell at four ’.•liars per yard and Hie iron at • 0 hundred dollars tier ton. The omrslb* makers of c’olh would now are an ndvanligo over (ho importer ot 0110 dollar per )bml, and tho maker of homo iron of twenty dollars pur lon. And If they will continue to tail cloth nud iron ntHm*Amnprfra*ni6</urW/i*r<i('* 0/ (Ac (urU*, they isff/ /nice the whole home market lolhfmutvu. For nobody hut,a fool would pay lour dollars for Imported cloth wh*n lie ran buy Just as good home made goods for twruty-jlre por cunt loss monoy. And no railway company would dream of Importing foreign ralla whoa they can purchase domes He rails, ofoqual quality, twenty dollars per ton cheaper. This rule of supply and price will apply equally lo a thousand other com. modllhs. U will apply to everything ol equal quality that can ho bought cheaper of Hid domestic nmnulnctiirur than of Hm Im porter. Wu think that no reader will dh Milo tho truth of propositions so sulf-uvl. duntiind palpable to tho dullest compre hension. Then why Is It tint tho homo market Is but In the exclusive possession ortho domes* (In mnuufactiiro? Blucc Ifirtl tho duly him burn quadrupled on most articles, vat mure foreign goods are Imported now when Hie tnrltr averages llfty-fivo por cent, thau when it averaged hut fifteen per cent, as was the cmmj In 1800. ThU is tho reason : After each increase of ri.o tariff, tho manufacturers put np the ! rice of their wares Just the same percent ::s the tariff has been advanced. Therefore whatever advantage has been gained over me foreign article by an advance of duties, •s instantly lost by the equal advance in the felling price of domestic products. No matter how much Is added to the tariff, iho prices of the stocks of goods on hand arc all marked up to the level of the tariff. The manufacturer goes up with the others. Not un hour is lost In doing it. It makes not the least dtficrcnce how much or how often the tariff is raised, the price of domestic fabrics and of all blocks of goods on hand, whether home made or foreign are hoisted np to a level with the latest tariff. Ten times have tho duties been Increased within six years ; and ten times have the prices of domestic articles “ prelected” by the increase of tariff, been also advanced on the purchaser. When the duty was bat fifteen per cent domestic arti cles sold at the same price as Imported arti * Ics. The same thing is true now wllh tho duty at fifty-five per cent. If the new bill bc.ore Congress passes, which raises the duty from flfty-five to icwnty per cent, onihe average, the price of domestic goods will bound up to the new ta iff icvel with the elasticity of an India :übbcr ball. Indeed, in mere anticipation . f Its probable passage, wholesalers and manufacturers have already commenced maikimrupthe prices of their stocks, to •H-rrcsj.oud with the proposed Increase of tbc la. iff on various articles. Unless all the manufacturers of the United ‘tales shall combine together, and solemnly »■'afee witli each, under heavy penult'cs, not u» raise the price of their wares, but to <-‘.ntinue lo sell them nl former rates, the • roposed Increase of the tariff will not on ;irec their home market to the extent of . t.e purchase of an additional horse shoo ;:j!1. But there will be 00 such ogreement •, utertd into. Every manufacturer will seek o gain the enhanced price caused by the 'iicrcaec of the tariff. His wares will ho held •ii the market at the same rales of similar .•uported articles. Whatever specious the- • rirs arc advanced os to tho effect of com petition to reduce the price of commodities, everybody, knows that In practical re ality, the selling price of tho domestic pro duct is the same as that of the Imported product of similar quality. Tho exceptions to this rule arc 100 trilling to mention. After the proposed seventy per cent tariff MU |*asses, foreign goods will bo sold in com petition wllh domestic manufactures Just Hie same os now. American consumers of goods will have no mure pecuniary Induce ment lo purchase a domestic fabric In prefer voce to a foreign, than now, because both riß ho off* red to him at similar prices per .(Utility of tho art icle, importations will continue to tho utmost xtent of our utility to pay for them, and ••Id ami bonds will bo cx|*ortcd in greater ».ni titles than ever. Tho increase of tho miff will not furnish employment to ono • re Workman, nor bring tbo producer nnd oi.imtir pu Inch closer together; it will not ve the fanner nn additional market fopn • triekeii. a potato, <>r a {rack of wheat; it m 111 not advance tho j*rleo of Iris preduels, < eei use that Is govi mud and fixed by tho European price currants; U will not ad vance Hie wagea of wnikmcn enough to balance tho loss from Hie Increased cost ot living. In short, It will benefit nobody but • peculators who have slocks of goods on loud, which (hey want lo force oil'rim the puldle at higher prices than the stuff is ’ nrtli. The whole thing is a shameful -wimile on the musses, under the hypocrlll • nl nnd tying prelcmu of protecting Amerl an industry. And nil oew-papura, which re* honest end Imo to Hm Interests of the eople, will expose nnd denounce it ns a • .lit’ino of pilfer and plltagc. A t)l KK UlTllOltr A OIHIIIV, The li.Hnmto cunucellon between things, mall in themselves nnd great In their comic piencos, ha* been impressed upon every oh* crvtiig mind. Tho ocean is hut nn aggro, gat on of small drop*, and Iho beach bnt nn .rrmim'oHon of separate grains of sand. I'lm story runs that Nowlon learned luo law •f gravitation from Hie failing of an apple; rimt Oatilteo discovered Iho principle of Hm pendulum from the swinging of a lamp, and that Hcmiy’a Investigation* a* to Hm clrcti* .stion of the Mood were induced by aa oc currence equally trivial nnd ordinary. Greet political events have frequently •prong from apparently trifling clreum tunc« a. Tim Intrigue* of a woman arrayed Henry VIII in onpostHon U* Home, nnd gave to Hie Reformation a puwcrlul Impetui; Hm . mites of a French demoiselle pavrd the w uy t'ortim ovcT.hrow of the Stuarts; the per renal pride of a prime minister prevented amicable relations with tho American Colo vie*, provoked tbc revolution, and culled the American Republic into existence. An ..ccidcnt decided tbc battle h*o, ond changed the dynasty of France, The delay of an hour In yielding to a popular demand, drove Louis Philippe from Fran re, opening the door for Louis Napoleon to become Emperor. A peb ble idly cast Into the water has changed the channel of mighty streams, and a spark from an illumination got up to testify the public j«*y, has laid a city in ashes and reduced the people to grief and desolation. Thus It Is that Empires, States and Individuals may find la tbc most trifling occurrences the lm. mediate causes of the most stupendous events. Of late years it has become the fashion for those Americas* who can afford it, to take a trip to Europe. In olden times, before steam had diminished space, and electricity annihi lated time, U was considered part of the education of aspiring young men in England to make a trip npon the Continent. They acre expected to come back with enlarged view* of the world and of the sciences ol government, wealth and of social statics. Whither thecas; number of American* who make the grand tour hare their minds en riched by this contact with the enter world, is more than sc can say, but it i refreshing to know that of the few in ■lances where this practical end has been pained, Chicago has at least one Illustrious example. In various parts of Europe the traveller as he passes alonp learns that he is passing through the Dueby of this man, the princ'.- T dity of that one, and the estate of aoo: her. ■*c learns that Instead of. tho m idoin-denri • eratlc mlc ot permitting the public general; 'y and Individuallyacquire and hold the -oil they culrivat&aij'd Hie’ homes they live In, and enjoy the pohHcal.‘f.»nc!iLcß'’of fre:- "im, which prevails at home, there la the < id comfortable »t>lu of having the cju-.try apportioned ontamong Dukes, Counts,and IMuccs, who own whole cities aud towns, : nd sometimes are owners of districts In cluding several cities -«nd towns. Over the people residing on these estates, the lord ox crcitcs a gentle s*ay, except in the matter of rents. In this particular he is exacting •»i d the rc-ult is that he and his family, to use a cant phrase, live like fighting cocks. The ownership of one of these little provln. ccs, slates, or duchies, Is difficult to obtain at present. They arc held by grants In per petuity ; these grants were originally made from a variety of causes. Some of them were glvcoas an acknowledgment of a present of choico wine; others were. given to the sons of morganatic wives: others to the husbands of cast-off mistresses; and others, bnt rarely, to men distinguished la letters, arms, or other creditable services. There ate two points of view from which American travellers arc apt to look at this business. One class of persona regard it as an outrage upon the rights and liberties of freemen; tbc other, and tho practical class, regard the system aa an excellent one, if they could bo tho owner*. One ol our distinguished fellow citizens travelled In Europe In 1800, and that the policy prevailing there, of subjecting entire Suites, cities, towns and districts to tho pro prietary control of one man, and such as ho might select as Lila associates, and making the people thereof his tenants and their trade ond commerce tributary to his reve nue, made a deep Impression upon his mind, Is tally demonstrated In the bill to Incorpor ate the Chicago Dock Company. Compared with tho magnificent estate votni rised within the two square miles of lend planted between Chicago and Lake Michigan, covcr.d wllh ducks, warehouses, cunuls, elevators, railroad depots and facto ries, built si tho expense of tho public, (ho potty dukedomi and principalities of tho old world would sink Into Instgiilflcanca. Bui how to ohialn lira grant ? Unfortunately, there was no single sovereign having the charter hi his gifl, and none of tho htundl-hinunts which In olden lime proved so powoifnl In mieli cure*, do available In tills* An appeal 10 tho patriotism nl lhe l.euhdntnru was re solved upon. The Inluro Unho of Chicago, or Count dc Uiilumol, (whichever he might be called,) prepared tho charter of hts prov. pice. It wna sent to the legislature with an ultimatum (hat ho would accept tho aovur egnly with the runts and profits of the now city to ho planted In Lake Michigan. The Legislature was naturally expected to pais tlio law granting baronial rights upon cur eminent (ownsiiioti, who hod ho not, as as If by acch ■lent, visited Europe, would Mover havo thought of becoming a second marquis of . Westminster. This visit lo Europe, a very trivial ciretiniNlnticu ord'i orlly,promised an 'mporinnl change In our political system. As the falltng of tho apple opened Newton’s ■ Ves, so did fhl* visit open eyes as keen lo all ri'c pi tiM'inVf* of attraction and gravitation ... N. w t.-nV ever were. It suggested a prln. clvulhy wl'iro Lake Michigan now heals 1 ',.uu the shore ; It suggested the fame of founding a now city where none now oxUU 5 It Migrated a commercial mart exceeding unyon this continent; It suggested a popu. lulioii of n million of souls, rendering a prompt fealty and rent to tho protection of all this e«tato for permission to dwell upon his land. It suggested a princely rev enue for the present, and a treasury fuller and ftilicr to the remotest goueratlon of Fullers. All that was wanted was to get a majority of eighty-five men, and a majority of twenty, five men, to vote !n favor of establishing the Dnkedom of tho Lakes, and make tho hero, poet, patriot and statesman the lord propri etor ond ruling prince thereof. The Lcglsia ture with a stnbborncsa equal to that of the men of Rannymede, refused the Ducal char ter, and Chicago after nil is without a Duke, PItICES IN KCaOPE. We publish an interesting letter this morning from our correspondent at Munich, Bavaria, on the cost ol living ana tho general scale of prices in Europe. The letter sets out with the remarkable statement that not less than twenty-five thousand Americans are residing on the' Continent at the present lime —not trading, but making their perma nent abode there—and that by lar ihc larger number of these have been attracted thither by the cheapness of living. It Is added that the number Is increasing every day, and that the Consular offices sro filled with letters irom persons In this country making inquiries wUh a view to residence abroad. In other words, the enormous prices prevailing hi this country havo turned a tide of emigre :lon from America to Europe. * A dwelling-house which rents for $1,300 In an average American city can be had in Paris, the centre of fashion and extravagance •*f the world, for S4OO to SCOO. A suite of lour rooms at a first-class hotel in Munich can he had for $1.40 per day. A similar suite In a similar hotel In America costs sls per day. A pair or dress boots costing SIG In this country, can there be tail for $3, and a broadcloth suit coiling SIOO here, can there ho had for $34; and so on. The only Urines which can be had in (trie country as cheaply os In Europe arc ag ricultural products. What 1« tbc cause of this stupendous dif ference In prices, which renders it more economical, for n man who has acenmulalcd money, to live in Europe than to live at home? Our correspondent affirms, aud we entirely agree with him, that after making all allowaucc for a higher rate of wages, ond for a somewhat Inflated currency, the barbarous fifty-eight per cent tariff of the United Slates is mainly re sponsible for this difference. Tho national debts of most of these European coun tries arc as great per capita as the debt of the United Slates. The national debt of Great Britain per capita is $13. , 5; of Holland, $131; ot Franco, $53; and of the United States. $74.28. Hence there is no ex planation ot Hits extraordinary difference In Hie cost of living to bo found in our national debt. It must bo sought elsewhere. U must ho found In that system of political economy which Imposes a fine of filly-eight per cent upon every man who seeks to avail himself, Hiiongh the avenues of commerce, ofthend tnntugcs which Providence lias bestowed upon other countries. One hundred dollars’ worth of broadcloth from Germany costs Hie American Consumer, under Hits system, throe hundred dollars In gold, thus: Hint to Germany larlltou this class ufueods, eu por cent (HI Imputfrr’s prnfli, W per cent. Jobber’s profit, S 3 per cent. tfclallrr’s profit, Sfi per cnt. txn Thus Hie apparent duty ol (H) per cent comes to the consumer multiplied by the profits of at least three dealers; so that when 1 lie consumer lias got ills goods, ho has paid not only Hie tariff, hut 70 per coni of Hint tariff tu addition. If tho goods nro imidetn this country they are fUrnUhed by the manufacturer nt exactly tho Importer's price, SIW2, or lUcqulvAieul In currency,and then tlio Jobber's and retailer's profits carry Iho cost lo tho con seiner to the same figure ns Hm •inported Article. 80, whether tlio consumer buys Hm Imported or tho domesile article, he pays the tsx multiplied by three profit* on the lor. The manufacturer alleges that he liarrtlj make* a Jiving profit by suiting tho good* nt sitrj, and I* always lies cglng Con. cress to rain* Hie price lor him *HII higher, I Inis U appears that though tho consumer lias lost Hm dlfluioiu'o Iho manufacturer has nut enlrnd it. Alt nation*, tn their turn, have gone Hirongli Hm horrible jilt and miry clay of •axing Ihemiselvc* la this manner to increase mitlonal wealth. Each man ha* imagined, while grinning and hearing It, that though be wuk gelling poor the nation was net on the point of becoming ■ icb. After chasing Hie ignii fatuu* a lew centuries, more or less, and losing incredible -urns of mom y, they have Invariably reached ‘he conclusion that what U good for each man in tbc nation Is good for the wholo na non,and that the only class really “ protect ed” and renmnently benefited by a high tariff arc the smugglers. In tho end they have unanimously agreed that laws which give each roan a license to rob, and require him lo tbrow half that he takes Into tbc sea, arc cu the whole unprofitable to the commu nity. Even poor, old, fendal Austria is get ting her eyes open to the truth on this sub ject, and Is discaidlngthc notion that wealth can be created by multiplying taxes upon the people. MODERN CRITICISM. Tnlner Carlyle: Ruskin. Among llvlne critics, using the term in the widest sense, Taine is probably the great est. In literature no one ont of Germany excels Pr« ftssor Arnold, of Oxford. Mr, Ruekin is critic, poet, philosopher, mor* nlist, preacher, and he considers himself a poll* leal economist. Carlyle is hater, croak er, historic word-painter, pessimist. Pagan, Christian, the greatest of humorists and no mean critic. M. Taine maintains that all the mental fa culties are regulated and governed by a •irvdonii! alir.g tendency ; and that if ibis principle be discovered. It is possible to ex plain why a writer selected certain subjects and treated them after a particular fashion. The idea Is not now. It has long “been a remara of the atadeola of hnmai nv* tnre... If we recollect rightly, Lavater has It, Combe mentions It. Every phrenologist talks learnedly about It. The controlling tondeu cy of clerks lean Item in the practical wla , dom of business men. Jt mattcra very little to us whether the principle bo new dr old; it is useful. Tho French essayist values It as the apple of his eye. and his enthusiasm U very admirable; but tho critic of tho twen tieth century, will look upon It ns a very .-•moll portion of a very preat whole. Pro fessor Arnold thiuks it the critic’s duty-to correct the world’s blunders and fix the world’s ideals. Ho is fully imbued with the spirit of L!s times, and his views are broad and liberal. He classifies authors In the most swozpiap manner, and measures them by their adtqwiey to represent their age. Kashin pats a hand some young gentleman Into tho cast-off clothing of a mediaeval knight, and solemnly declares all things bcantlfol to look like him. Ills principle of criticism is this: I, Raskin, hate this, and I, Rnaklo, love that; go thou and do likewise. He seems to bo unable to appreciate his own times, while ho so charmingly reproduces the narrow but in teresting life of our ancestors. Carlyle tries to wear the cloak of Goethe, whom he worships as the Northman would worship Thor. Byt ho docs not belong to any age. He Is like a mastodon that has lost his way and pot upon the wrong world. His fellows are extinct; and he goes up and down this unfruitful earth In a rape at the little folk who blink up to him aa he himself says During and other mortals blluk up to Richter and other demigods. HI. Tn!nc asserts that bis method sets aside the personality of the critic aud reduces criticism to demonstration. But neither proposition is true. The young Frenchman differs nowise hut In degree from Macaulay or Addison. Ho has done more toward fix ing the method of Judging literature and art than any othcrwrllcr known to us; and for this we award him no stinted praise. But ho will not claim that It Is his method of controlling tendency that nut borlxcs him to label Livy an orator, Cons- In an orator, Milton a painter of sub llmliy. It Is the rather Ids own net ofjttdg meld, founded upon a mure critical oxatnltm linn of tie author’s tdrthplnceenvironments, the climate, soil, food, scenery ; the pocii- Itarlltus of thought In Ids generation an 1 district, the characteristics of Ids men ; Ids fcdlgice, the temperament of Ids mother, the early Induing, the schooling, tho hooks he lead, tho Ideas which slick to him. It Is tho confidence which M. Talon has In hU vast capacity and the stores ol malarial which tiu appears always to have ready that lend Idm to single out the con trolling lot deucy, and maintain It with such power. Lord Macaulay did much the same thing. Jt was Ida overweening confidence In his personal Judgment that made him laud Milton to the skies, and put upon him the robes of Milton’s own grand and noblo £«tnn, fltccl with the poet's sublimity nml the I’urUnn’s republicanism; while ho sol bln heel upon tho neck of poor Montgomery, osd exhausted tho vocabulary o( English denunciation in too endeavor to cunt him out ol tho synagogue of letters. The distinction between tho meri torious and that which Is not worthy of notice depends sometimes upon the critic's whim, us In the case ot Johnson; sometimes upon Ids passion, ns In tho ease ol Macaulay; sometimes upon ids model, as In tho eaio of AddUon ; and sometimes upon ids Judgment, os wltnesa Talno and Arnold. It Is not M. Talno's method which renders Ids decisions id it out Irreversible, but Ids sur passing power of analysis, his suro Judg ment, Ids refined laslo, Ids vast knowledge, hid fresh and effective stylo, his strong sense. Professor Arnold Is bold and confident, but not self-willed or fond of paradox. A true child of the nineteenth century, he does not turn progress round and point the way back toward the darkness of the Middle Ages. Hu docs not expect pop ularity. The writer whose function I 5 to “ correct the world’s blunders,” cannot look for applause. Of this quality of tho cntlc, the -Professor says; “Tho world is Impa tlent; it chafes against It, rails at it, Insults It, hales It; It ends by receiving its Influ ence, and by obeying Us laws.” Ho has dared to tell Englishmen that tho literature of their country takes the third Instead of the first place. So likewise he shows his countrymen that there is avast body of mod ern literature of the highest order, about which they know nothing. In his biography of Heine, ho has cleverly discussed the “moral deliverance” and tho “Intellectual deliverance,” as well as the “Philistinism,” of literature. The first subordinates pas sion to reason, harmonizes the Impulses with the higher will. Of the “ intellectual deliverance,” tho Professor says, “ Modern times find themselves with an Immense sys tem of Institutions, established facts, accred ited dogmas, customs, rules, which have come to them from times not modern. In this system their lives have to be carried forward, yet they have a sense that this sys tem is not of their own creation ; that it by no means corresponds with tho wants of ibelr actual life; that, for them, It is customary, not actual. The awakening of this sense Is the awakening of the modern spirit. To remove this want of correspond ence is beginning to be the settled endeavor of most persons ol good sense.” The Ger man sobriquet “Philistine” is taken to mean a strong, dogged, unenlightened oppo nent of the chosen people, the children of • he light, the patty of the movement. Carlyle prostrates himself at the feet of Goethe. Arnold is the disciple of all Ger many. Ruskin is an agitator In (esthetics as Bright Is In politics. He Is an original, spite ful, womanly gentleman of exquisite taste. Talno finds a Gamaliel In Hegel, who, he declares, Is Spinoza multiplied by Aristotle. Ruskin hints his own aptitude for metaphysics, and teaches public morals while he thinks hlmsulflccturlng on Politi cal Economy. He seldom says much upon the subject he started out to treat upon. He writes readily, and willingly wanders from a topic of which he is lenorant to one he knows well, osd throws out right anl left the random clippings of his fine genius. Carlyle transports us to a world where everything is topsy-turvy. Paradoxes for principles. Good sense is absurdity. New Ideas, now style, new lone, now vocabulary, new religion; government of the despot; right Is might; no virtue but obedience, no sentiment but respect; no gods but heroes, no men but Cromwells; a descendant ol the Vt-klcgs, grim, coarse, powerful. M. Talno thus eels him over against Macsnlay: “He probably possesses more genius than Macau lay; but when wo have been nourished for n time on his exaggerated and demoniacal stylo, his extraordinary and morbid phtloMi. pliy, his sinister and frantic political views, we willingly return to the sustained eloquence, vigorous reasoning, the hounded foresight, tho demonstrated theories of the generous and compact mind of him wln»»« recent loss Europe has deplored, who was an honor to England, and whom no one will replace.” And now wo 111119! express the belief Hint M. Tahir will fall to reduce criticism to a science, simply because such a science Is Im possible, and In nmeh Hie same senau and (or about the same reason (hat a srlcneo of history Is Impassible. Ho has found a method fil'd not a system. If his science were real, other men could produce like re suits with his own. Hut In very (ruth n writer of tits genius might adopt his method and bring out dla tneirleslly opposite conclusions. Criticism, like most other sets of rule which retulo I • Hie human will, finds llsoll tuft behind in HlO « imnrd march, before it has well underla i.rn to proclaim the divinity of Us decrees; and Hie results of the critic's oplntonlztng are to l*o taken for whst they arc worth. MV shall not think the loss of Homer because Senllgtr puts him below Virgil; norsliall our regard for that pout tin anywise Increased because Gladstone places him on Hie highest pinnacle of fame. We stall admlic Shah, spture with an admiration somewhat nklu to worship, If the petulant Byron did think him Inferior to Pope; neither shall we be come ecstatic over tho Jingling lines of Hie latter because Byron thought them per feel. Wo shall not believe that the Cynic of Cmtgenputtoch is the foremost thinker of these times because Ruskin rays he Is; nor shall wo adopt the one blun der ol M. Tulnc, UiatDlckcus is a po-rt. Bnt this talk must be broken off, for the subject is endless. We cannot, hnwfcver. re frain from giving our readers a foretaste of the style of the French erßte who has been the central llguro of tbU paper, and who will cro long bo popular in American homes. M. Tune thus moralizes on the swiftly passing life of roan: “What Is our life, bounded by the experience of a few years and the memory of a few centuries? What arc we but passing cxcrcssenccs, composed ofa little fixed air, growing by chance In the cleft of the cvcrlas Ing rock? What is our thought, so lofty In dignity and low la power? The true possessors and rightful masters of the globe are tho mineral sub stance and Its forces. Plcfee the crust of tbc earth on which we dwell, os far os the crucible of lava which tolerates us: it Is there that mighty powers contend and are developed; heat and the affinities which have produced the soil, formed the rock, which maintain cur life, have fashioned for It a cradle and prepared Its tomb.” Tux Ijlrrkst Rons m the World.— Tne lar gest room in the world, a single roof acd unbro ken by pillars or other obstructions, is at St. Petersburg, Russia. It is six hundred and flfir lee I in ieugth.and one hundred and fifty feet In breadth. By daylight It Is used for military dis plays, and a battalion can conveniently manau ne In IL In the cvenlep it is often converted intoavast ball room, when It Is w«rm*d by six teen prodigious stoves ai.d twenty thousand tii tapers are required to light it properly. Tne roof ut this great structure la a slide arch of Iron, the bar* alone on which It rest* weighing twelve mil lion eight hundred and thirty thousand pounds. LIFE IN EUROPE. The Cost of Living in Various Parts of Europe. A Comparison of European with American Prices. Housekeeping and Boarding in Paris, Munich, Berlin, Gen eva, Borne and Other Principal Cities. The Hotels and Pensions of Modern Europe. Astonishing Cheapness of Articles of Dress, [Special Correspondence of (be Chicago Tribune.] Women, Bavaria, January 3?, 13,57, Twenty five years ago American travellers were still so rare on the Continent of Eu rope, that the few representatives of the great transatlantic Republic, appearing in the continental capitals, and upon the fa vorite routes of continental travel, seemed as great curiosities to the lost generation of tho Old World, as would bo native visitors from tho South Sea Islands to the present. But of late years, a mighty stream of wan derers from transatlantic shores, steadily Increasing In volume, Is annually pouring into all parts of Western, Central and South ern Europe, making tho national peculiari ties of Anglo-Americans as well kuo*ti therein as those of tho migratory sons of Al bion. Tho fact would be capable of nume rical demonstration, that, since tho close of tho civil war In thu United States, tho Con tinent has been visited by many tlmoj mom Americans than English, instead of the hundreds of American voyagers that came aenws ilia Ocean every season, a score of tears hack, tons of thousand* now make their appearance every spring ami sumumr. So great has this, migration lately been, that not only tho great centres of European ehltlrstlon, the famous seals of arts ami learning, the abodes of mnnmmmlal anti jtn ty, and Min regions most favornd by nature, swarm, during the warm months, with American sight-seers, hut that regular eoh>. nles rri peimnnont American residents have also become u-tabllshml In Paris, Geneva, Zurich, Frankfort, Dresden, Florence, U ino, and other lirst and second class cllhs. AUIUIIOANH lIKBIIUNO IN nUItOPII ON AC« COUNT OP 111011 I'JIIORS AT IIOMIt. Accoidlng to tbu Information I have oh tnlncd Irom various consular sumeus, I deem It safe to say that there ore, at this lime, no less than twenty-live thou«ami Americans, single Individuals and families, residing on the Continent. While many of this number live abroad, either on account of their business or health, nr because they believe the opportunities for the enjoyment of lift to bo greater than at homo, pecuniary considerations conatilulu the motives of the temporary expatriation of by far the largest portion. Though the moans of not few of the latter class would ha sulllelenl to satisfy oven luxurious wants In the United Status, they prefur to stay In Kuropn, because, ow. tug to the Incomparably greater cheapness of the necessaries, ns wuilas the luxuries of Hie, they can have more for their money bore than on the other side of the Atlantic. Hat with the creator number, the Bottling down on tbo Continent Is nots matter of choice. They left their American homes ami deter* mined to remain In Europe for years, simply because of the heavy cost ofllvlng with any degree of comfort la the United Slates, In consequence of the enormous increase of prices during the last few years, whereby they follow the example of the thousands of English people—consisting of half-pay offi cers and other Government pensioners, wid ows with limited incomes, reduced men of fashion, the youngest sons of the nobility, and small rentiers and rentieres generally— that arc continually taking up their resi dence on the Continent for the sole reason that their means do not allow them to live in style at home, while they can live very comfortably, and even ctylisb, upon them abroad. TRAVEL IN EUROPE, Great as the number of these voluntary exiles already is, tho vast quantity of letters addressed to our continental consulates from all purls of the United States, for the pur pose of obtaining inlormatlon as to tho cost of living abroad, affords evidence that many more think of cscaplngtrom the land of high prices and emigrating to Europe for a longer or shorter period. For my part, I would not advise any one to abandon an American home, no matter how difficult it may be found, under existing circumstances, to make both ends meet, for a more or less pro tracted rcridcucc In Europe. I believe, sin cerely, that, In most cases, It will be found easier to practice economy at home than to seek to save money by living In foreign parts. For tho greater physical comforts and cheaper enjoyments of every descrip tion that can be commanded In the Old World by people of limited means seldom compensate tho genuine American for the absence ofan active pnhllc life, the want of a useful and profitable occupation, and, above all, for being deprived of the exercise of his political rights and being obliged to submit to the social abnormities of Europe. A visit to the Continent for purposes of pleas ure and instruction. 1 would recommend to all who can afford It; but, as-I said before, a settling down for long years or forever, to no one. As my advice Is, however, not likely to be acted upon by many, and thou sands aud teus ol thousands will, no doubt, continue to come abroad to reside, under tho pressure of the high prices ruling at home, 1 propose to write down for their benefit what 1 know of the cost ofllvlng In different parts of the Continent, ond Institute Inciden tally some comparisons between the rales of expenditure for the ordinary and extraor dinary wants ofllfe In Europe and ths corre sponding figures In the United States. COPT or LIVING IN PARIS. France, being usually the first country, and Paris the first largo city, visited by Americans hi search of temporary homes on the Continent, I shall speak first of the cost of living nml enjoying life In French latl ' tides. It Is not many years since such Inall (uttons as hoarding and lodging houses after the English and American fashion, were first iiittmlueed In the capital of France, under the Gallic name of /N-mrfons. In these, most Americans purposing to nuke nu extended 'lay, first uek reftige, upon learning, after a hnel practical experience, that living nl com! holds hi Paris, with decent aceommo dnllmis hi the way of rooms, Is hardly loss expeislvn than In the largo clUes of the Colon. Most of the numerousp'nshmi kept l*v English or Americans are little, If al alt, superior to their counterparts In the United Hlntcs, both ns lo hoarding and lodging. The low first class establishments mining them, though mmhjoclluinhlu hi the two tm ntinned respects, make such high charges, that there Is but little dllforonco between In m nml the regular hotels, tnt*olnl of cost. The pmtUtm kept by French people have usually n heller cuisine than their competi tors under English or American manage ment, hut nro, as a rule, superior to them In cleanliness aed as to what Anglo-Saxons In clude In the term ” comfort." As lo the pliers of these pru*Umt a fixed tarllf can no more ho defined lu Paris than hi New Pork .mi Chicago. They depend upon location, accommodations and other vnrlaMo cntnll 'ions. But single Individuals, contenting themselves with one room, can obtain Mard and lodging at the bettor chins of pension* for hum six to ten francs ($! uy to $2.00) a •lay. Families occupying regular suites of apartments will, nfronrso. average more per •tend. The regular fare almost Invariably -nnipilsisa French hreikfast (eolfcu, tea or chocolate, with bread and butter, ned nt h«»l ■emu boiled eggs); a lunch at no in, ai.d a bounteous dinner at five or six. The moms ore generally comfortably furnished, with the exception of carpels, which ate almost uniformly wanting In the old parti of the city, the lodging houses are nearly all badly lighted and ventilated, and po-scs* only the so-chllcd modern Improvements. The wont of baths Is universal. 1 made above a passing allusion to the fact that Americans soon find out the smalt dif ference between the prices of the leadin'* hotels In Paris and those ol the United States. At the Fifth Avcone, or any other of the great caravanscries of the Empire City, a family without children, consisting, say D f two persons, and occupying a parlor and chamber, will not be charged less than fifteen or sixteen dollars a day, including board and lodglcg. fires, etc. Tols, at the present pre mium on gotd.wonld be equal to about sixty- Xoor francs a day in Park I know, from per sonal experience, that U U utterly Impracti cable for a couple to live for less than flfiv franc a day at any of the Parisian hotels moat frequented by Americans; And this only In ease their wants, as to the number aud'ap. polniment ol their rooms and the character of their meals, arc of a simple character. The reason is, that the regular hotels do not charge a fixed amount per day, but debit their guests, like the American hotels on the European plan, with specific high charges for every item of their entertainment,’in cluding even light and attendance. Now there is a way of stopplngat first-class hotels In Paris and yet avoiding big bills, which Is practiced by not few of the experienced American travellers. It Is to occupy rooms ai hotels, but to take one's meals outside, at some one of tbo Innumerable excellent res taurants, where one can breakfast or dine cheaply or expensively, according to one's taste nod mean.-. They trill furnish a dinner wllb trine for one to two dollar*, that will cost from five to ton dollar* at Dclmonlco a. But thU way of living will only do for those that remain bat a shoft time for the solo pur nofc of slght-seclng. .Those making a pro tracted stay soon find It an Intolerable bore to alert out from their lodgings, sercial times a day, In all kinds of weather, In search of m Single individuals, especially those of yourpr vtors, blessed with simple tastes and familiar with the local opportunities, can lire In Paris as cheaply as In any other city on the Continent. I know myself a number of young Americans whoso current dally expenses, exclusive of amusements, do not exceed one dollar, and who live a great deal better than they could for the same money at home. They rent rooms for from thirty to forty francs (six to eight dollars) a month; breakfast for n franc and a half (thirty cents), and dine for two francs, for which amounts they can get a woll-cookcd plenty, at second-class 'lAtaarants. The problem of getting alohg very nicely on even less than they spend, is solved In Paris by tens of thousands of individuals belonging to the so called higher orders of society, such as. for instance, students, and the lower grades of military and civil officers. Of the many thousands of yonng men panning their studies In the French capital, not one In ten has more than fifteen hundred francs (£100) a year to lodge, board, and cloth him self with. The pay of first and second nontenants In the French army is respective

ly $350 and £SOO a year, and yet by messing together and contenting tuemselvcs with’ cheap lodgings they manage to live, not withstanding their greater expenses for uni forms, os well os American offices oflhe same rank with four times more pay. And the" same Is the Case with the young men in the civil service and many professional callings. nOUHB-KRBI'INO IS PARIS. The cheapest way for families to live Is to keep house. New comers from America re sorting to housekeeping at Paris, will In most eases have at first n rather disagreeable experience, owing to their want of familiari ty with the Parisan ways. But after ac quainting themselves with them, they will soonjflnd to their snMsfictlon that they can really live more economically In the French capital than In tho larger cities at home. As everywhere In the continental cities, nine tenths of the people at Paris do not live In their own houses, hut In apartments which are rettlod fimiMicd ot titifiirnWiud. Last wilder I occupied a house in Washington, emloiiclng seven rooms, for which I paid nut at the into of thirteen hundred dollars a year. Tho mine number of rooms, with ennvMihinees for housekeeping, can bs lenlud Ina good qtinrUr ol Paris, unfurnished, for from 2,000 (o *I,OOO Iranes (SIOO to $000) a year, and furnished for from 10 to 20 percent, more, according to the ohiraeter of tho ainniblemmt, Mood servants, and especially good cooks, command good wages, lint na tive chombM maids can lie hud for SO to 25 /Wines ($1 to $5), and 50 francs nr $lO a month will secure a number one cook. As to thu immediate necessaries of life, they are, with the exception of flour, from 25 to 75 per cent cheaper than in the Atlantic cities at the present time, and, oven In the West, butter, eggs ami flour, I think are the only arltelesuf consumption (lint ran bo bought cheaper than at Pail*. Take for Instance, tho mar ket pr'co of meals In iho Pails market on the Ist lust. Though unusually high It was bull# cents a pound (of course I reduce French weights ami money to the American slaminrd);for l>mflr*li|niillty of beef; Id cents for veal ami 15 eeids (or million. Tho relative cheapness of vegnlibVs and fruits Is much greater. All kinds of groceries are likewise held at greatly lower rules. That families keeping house In Paris can live very comfortably, and oven stylishly, on what would ho considered a small income in tho United Slates, Is host sbovnbytho example of tho natives. Everybody knows that a household cannot he supported, oven In modest style, either In an Eastern or Western American city, at a less rate than about a thousand dollars a year for every grown up person. How many families be longing to the so-called fashionable society In New York or Chicago, live for loss than 15.000 a year ? In Paris there arethousmds of families whose incomes do not exceed 5.000 to 10,000 francs (#I,OOO to$2.000) a year, that enjoy all the comforts and many of the luxuries of the gay capital, going Into and receiving society. Why the annual pay of a French General of Division, or a Judge of the High Court ol Appeals, docs not exceed 10.000 francs, aud yet they do not faro any worse than men who expend SIO,OOO a year la New York. COST OP ARTICLES OP DRESS. The greatest saving effected by Americans In Paris is la their current expenditures for articles of peisonal wear. A pair of gentle men’s custom-made boots that cost from $lO to S3O In the United States, can be had there for2s to 80 francs. I have bad a very fine drcss-sult made to order for 159 francs, or less than S3O In gold, that would cost $75 or §SO on the other side of the water. A fine cloth or beaver overcoat that would cost In Chicago at least SSO, can be bought here for $25. And everything else pertaining to a gentleman’s wardrobe, with the excep tion of articles consisting In part or wholly of cotton, which are nearly as dear as In the United States, can be procured at equally low rates. Ladles, too, find most articles of dress very much cheaper than at home, the difference In favor of Paris amounting to 50 to 75 per cent. A gentle man a id his wife, If not led Into unnecessary purchases by the very cheapness of things generally, can easily save money enough on their wardrobes alone, in the course of a Tear, to make up for the cost of coming to Europe and have some hundreds of dollars left besides. THE AMUSEMENTS OF PARIS. In one respect, however, life in Paris Is dearer than in the United States. First-class amusements are very expensive. Seats that cost at American opera houses SI.OO to $1.50, nrc held at the Grind Opera at ten to fifteen francs. At the Italian Opera the price is still higher, as much as seventy francs belli* frequently charred for the parquet whenever any extra performance takes place. At the belter class of theatres, prices muse from six tocightlrancs. For flrstclass concerts as high os ten francs charged for admis sion. But It must be acknowledged that even at these higher figures one is more apt to get the worth of one’s money In Paris than In the American cities. For the operatic, theatrical and other performances are uniformly excellent, the slock companies bring unequalled by those of any other Kutopcan capital. SOME grAUPICATIONS. I have said above that a small family can keep house hi Purls, and live In good style, for $2,000 n year. This must not be under stood ns Implying that horses nml carriages, nml Inrqueys In livery, can ho afforded lor thlMiinomit, nor that It will be practicable to support n household on the same sum dmlngtlia prevent year. The great Exhi bition will make Paris, for the next twelve mouths, (ho lu’st expensive residence in Euioj e. Owing to the bad harvest Imt sum mer, (he price ol bread am! meat ii now Idklur Ilian It lias been fora number of Years, Hut the multiplication of consumers, during the time of the Exhibition, will, uo doubt, double the price of everything. Es pecially for furnished apartments In tho best pnrls of tho city enormous rents will ho nsked. and, In all probability, paid. Hence. American families Intending to make Pari* their residence In I*l7, had heller come pro pared to spend twice the amount named. tN fimvismt. rtiANdc. As n rule, Americana ore so wont to took upon Furls as the embodiment of “to Mir /‘Vmirr" llrcif. am) n« the only spot In the cmnliy worth living In, that, with tbu ex* ccptimi of the Invalids who seek the genial cUmc amt hcftUne water* of Houtliern France, very few reside outride* ol the metropolis In the Provinces. Vet It Is exactly la second orllilid-rlni-sa*lie*, ortho country proper, whne thorn coming to reside in France from noth ns ol' economy, can best attain their object*. Even In the Immediate vicinity or Fork th« cost of Urine Is twenty live per cent )«*»s thou within me precincts »f°the clly. In the provlnchl cities tho difference is *>l ill treater, and in small country towns lumUlvs could lire for one half of what it Mill require to maintain them In the cspltal. To be sure, the social attractions of* Fan* they will not find either In the former up In tin* latter, lint in the provincial cities it Is much easier for them, on the other, hand, to find their whj Into pood society, and enjoy tne advantages and plt-asnre* of friendly in. icrcoursc with natives of culture, than whom they will meet no more charming people any where on the Continent. IX OEHMAXT. Next to France, Americans In search of temporary homes arc mostly attracted to Germany, Switzerland and Italy. Those whoh&vc made the trial of a more or less ex. tended sojourn in all of these countries, will agree with me that in Germany the greatest comfort and enjoyment can be had fbr the Uast money. My personal experience, In occd, leads me to contend that It is the cheapest country in all Europe, and I think the following facts and figures will bear me out in this assertion. 1 have been living here since the latter part of October, In company with my wife and a brother-in* law. TVc arc stopping at a first-class hotel, at-d occupy four large front rooms, consist ing of two parlors and two bed-chambers. They arc cn the second floor, fronting on a fine street, and very well furnished. The parlors are even carpeted, an nnosnal thing In Germany. For the four rooms wc pay Just one dollar and forty cents a day. The same accommodations at a leading Ameri can hotel would cost at least fifteen dollars a day. For fires wc arc charged no more than two dollars, and for lights ninety cents per week. For breakfast (tea, cofieo or chocolate, with beefsteak or fried fish, or anything we may order), wc average twenty five crntMacb; lor a dinner of six coarsea forty cents; and for tea, twenty cent*, each. Wasluuc Is charged at iho mlo of abont thir ty cents a dozen. The total expenses tor all three do sot average more than ten florins, or four dollars, a day, or $l2O a month. I am convinced that the same entcrtalnin-nt would not have been furnished hr first-class American hotels lor less than S6OO a month. It is necessary to state, however, that these low prices arc obtainable at number one ho tels here ol I y duriig the winter months, when they are mostly empty, there being but little transient custom durlotr the cold season, and*thc practice of families to live permanently at hotels, so much in vogue in the United States, Is entirely unknown la Germany. In the summer mouths the charges arc from thirty to fifty per cent higher than the given figures. Yet even then they are only one-third of tbo toll the great American Bonifaces exact of their guests, notrsKKEErrxo at shrcncn. The cost of housekeeping At Munich ap pears almost Incredibly low to one accus tomed to American prices. Nineteen-twen tieths of the population live In hired apart ments, according to the universal European custom. 'Whole floors, containing the very finest suites of rooms, ten to twelve, can be rented, unfurnished, for from MOO to $l5O a year; bat $250 a year is already a high price, more than which very few families pay. Exclusive of rent, good sized families meet all their current household expenses with 123 florins or SSO a month, enjoying for this small sum all the “ delicacies of the season” the year around. A household that costs CI,OCX) a year Is already considered an expen sive one. Good cooks and chambermaids can be had for S2O to S3O a year. TAB COST OF DRCSS. Every article of wear la also surprisingly low. For cnlf-skln Eastern-made dress boots I have paid $3, and fur a pair of patent leathers $3.50, Tho best merchant tailor in the city will make tho finest beaver overcoat for sl9, and the finest broadcloth suit for $24. My wife was asked but $9 lor tho best custom-made gaiters. Tho other day she paid tho bill of a fashionable dressmaker for making four dresses and mending and alter ing several others. Tho charge for every thing was but 00 florins or sl2. She wears a winter cloak, coating $9, which could not have been bought for $35 In tho United Slates. Very good hid gloves, nmnufac hired here, can be had for 45 cents a pair. Everything OUO In the saino Hue Is propor tionately cheap. AMI'SKMCNTSi Ainupirnit'iiln of uvcrjr dtwcripllon can bo Hijoyn) at equally niodunitn rates, At ino lloyal Opera House nml Theatre, llio orclies tninml slock singer* mid aelors of whlcli am not Inferior to llioso uOnjr olhur Instllu lion* or tba kind In Grnnauv, ttio average adnihodon lor lUst-cas performances of opera* and dramas is seventy cunts flir the former and filly cents fur tlio tatter. The nibfcrlpllon prtco of tickets to llio splumlid series of classical concerts given huio ovory winter, la only thirty-two cents. Gungi, tbcfuiuonscomposor of dancing innate, gives popular concerts almost every week, with a u tine hnt'dof thirty-six perforincrs, to which the admission Is only eight cents lor onu and twelve for two persona. An elegant two* horse can Inge, with drivers, for an afiernomi drive, can be hired fur fifty cunts an hour. In the cubs, that represent the most common public conveyances hero, the authorized charge is only tun cents for every quarter of an hour. POLICE IIRMTMIUTIONS. As a emloslly, Dial will doubtless very much mdouiidi your renders, I will slate, lit this connection, that tho price of provisions In this welMuhavod city of HIO.IXX) luhahl* Unts, as well us In every other muulelpaUly oi over-governed Southern Germany, Is fixed by the police authorities. Thus the weight and price of bread is regulated once a week, ueeording to tho state of the grain market, and formally promulgated through the local papers. Tho pi Ice of beef Is ilxcd oucc a month. It Is uow eleven cents a pound, and 1 am told It has not varied u cent within the last twelve months. AH the bakers’ aud butchers’ shops are regularly visited by the police, and their owners severely punished if found to have acted in violation ol existing regulations. The Government always takes care to keep prices down as much os possi ble, by providing for tho regular supply of the markctln seasons of scarcity. This It can easily do as it owns all the railroads In the Kingdom. IN OTHER GERMAN CITIES. What I have stated in regard to tho cost of living in Munich, will, with slight varia tions, hold good lor the cities of Southern and Central Germany generally. At Stutt gart aud Hehlclocrg prices are a little lower, at Irankfort-ou-the-Muin and in the several watering places iu the vicinity, somewhat higher. At Dresden, a favorite resort of Americans, the ordinary expenses will .he found to be about the same, while amuse ments arc more expensive. In Northern Ger many, the prevailing ptlces are from ten to twenty-five per cent higher. Iq the seaports us Hamburg, Bremen and Lucheck, the differ ence Is the greatest. At Berlin meats are comparatively high; but prices are generally very moderate for a large city, lying In the midst of an unproductive district. Tdo ho tel charges In the Russian capital arc far less than in Paris. The most expensive city in Gcimany Is Vienna, where, as in the Uulted States, prices Lave been very much Inilated in consequence of the increased volume of currency now afloat in Austria. Neverthe less, although rents and provisions arc high er than either at Munich, Dresden or Berlin, clothing, foot-wear and the like can he pur chased there os cheaply as anywhere. The Viennese hotel keepers know how to figure up big hills for their guests as well as tbclr Paris colleagues. Americans entering Aus tria tor a long or short stay, can make up for the difference between prices at Vienna and those of the rest of Germany by exchanging their coin for Austrian currency. At present the premium on specie in Vicuna was 31 per cent—almost as much as In New York/ IN SWITZERLAND. No portion of Europe Is more generally vis ited by Americans thamlbc great focus of Eu ropean pleasure travel—beautiful Switzer land. A good authority upon the subject told me lust July at Zurich, that of late years the American visitors represented fully fifty per cent of the myriads that come every sea son from all parts of the globe to behold the sublimity of the Swiss Alps. Lost summer, especially, the Influx of transatlantic travel U-rs wbs Immense. Thousands of these,after making the tour of the Alpine regions and the several lakes, settled down for weeksand months at Geneva, Lausanne, Vovey, Berne, Interlftchen, Lucerne, Zurich, and a score of other fnvoittc resting places, where the en joyment of all the comforts of llfi* can he combined with a quiet contemplation of no* lure In Hi* grandest and most charming man. IfVslntlotis. WithMiocloseof Uio3*tsitrav elling season, In the latter part of fieplemhcr, most of the injotirncr* wend their way to It aly or the cities of Franco aid Germany. But some always remain, and more or less extensive circles of American society can he found In the winter nl Geneva, Lunatine, Be me and Zuilcli. I’urtleulnrly tho first mentioned city Is much frequented all the year round, owing (o the relative mildness of lls winter climate and the opportunity U aft fords to Antilles to have Iholr children edu cated In the numerous and excellent private educational citahllshmcnts In and ahdul the place. Both to transient visitors and regular soJniirtH n,llie unrivalled hotels ami hoarding and lodging houses (called a* In France) with which Hwlticrhiml fairly ■hounds, afford the means of living very com foitabty and, at the same time, cheaply. Ihirlng (lie height of summer travel,say from June until October, hotels proper of the first class will n»k from 10 lo 15 francs, (I'J to $J> a dny for board ami lodging. But In tlm nu mcrous pensions, found In all the principal towns, on the ImrdcrsofUio lakes nmt at tlm most Interesting points | n the valleys and upon the mountains, very good neemnoda- Hons, Including board and lodging, can be had fop five lo seven francs ($1 tosUo) iwr day a perton. In the fall, and through the wliter and spring, oven the leading hotels arc willing and eager l« receive regular lodg cr* and boarders on (bo same terms. This Is, no doubt, the ehe«pc#t way of living lo Swill xerlord. I know a numherof American fam ilies that have gone to housekeeping, not so much In order to save money as to be able lo fashion their temporary Swiss homes as ther liked. They find tho expense no greater thin In southern Germany. Ti e Swiss prices for all articles of wear and consumption are. In deed, almost Identical with those of the lat ter country. k LIFE IX ITALY. Every fall, a strong tide of humanity. In search of pleasure, Instruction, qaictudeaod health, pours through the various passes of the Alps Into the “Garden of Europe”— glo rions, classic Italy—and flows into her every part distinguished for natural attractions or historic interest. Among the thousands and tens of thousands that constitute this autnm nal influx, the American element Is always very numerously represented. Allured by the mild climate, and held fast by glowing beauties of scenery, unrivalled treasures o*r art, monumental wonders of antiquity, and historical associations generally, a nnra btr of tians-AUantic wanderers, after making the tonr of the Peninsula, are in the habit of settling down for a prolonged stay In one or the other of'the Targe cities or the favorite points of resort on the northern lakes and Northern and Southern Mediterranean coast. Not few Angjo-Amerlcansare also att raci cd to Italian latitudes by the snppo-cd cheapness cf living on. the Peninsula. But they s;>on become satisfied that they were mistaken !□ their calculation of finding life anywhere in Italy relatively cheaper than north of the Alps. Twelve or more years ago, Italy was really the cheapest country on tbe Continent lor foreign residents; but Ibis was not so mcch In consequence of aa Inherent genera! lowness ot prices, as owing to the tact that, In those days, many, ff not most, of the ex pensive modern comforts (especial pertaining to the Interior .appointment of hotels and private residences), to .which foreign visitors were accustomed at home, wero not yet introduced on the Peninsula. Travellers and sojoamers from abroad then paid ices, for the reason that their entertain* went was comparatively poorer. Now they pay very much more, because they fare near* ly as well in Italy as iu mure northerly conn tries. During the last decade, prices gener ally throughout Europe hive increased from seventy-five to one hundred per cent, and Italy has simply not remained behind in the universal upward movement. Even now, the mass of the Italian people live, from no* ccsslly, in as inexpensive style os of yore. But how many Americans would ho willing, for the sake of economy, to submit to the frugality ot food and general domestic dis comforts that all but the richest classes of the natives still share in ? It can be safely asserted that an equal amount of money will secure more comforts and luxuries In either Franco, Germany or Switzerland, than in Italy. To give an idea 'of tbe cost of living In various parts of tbe Peninsula, I will state the current prices in the places most resorted to both by tran sient visitors and temporary and permanent residents from abroad. These are Nlzza, Florence, Venice, Borne and Naples. In the first mentioned place, as much frequented in the winter by people from all quarters of the world, on account of the salubrity of its cli mate, as the most celebrated German water ing places in the summer, prices have been steadily growing higher from year to year ever since its annexation to Franco. At the leading hotels the prices rango from three to six dollars a day for single persons, accord ing to the location of rooms, and for families in the same proportion. At the perutoiu board and lodging (one room) can be had at six to ten francs a day. Bents are enormous. A Atrnlsbcd house of good size cannot be bad for less than 1,200 to 1,500 francs (SIOO to $500) a month. -Furnished suites of apart ments fur families, soy five to clibt rooms, 1,000 to 2,000 francs (SIOO to S9XI) n mouth. Provisions, groceries, Ac., Ac., are also held high, so that nothing will bo saved by going to housekeeping. Fcr amalosutvant sixteen for a cook the same, and for a chain, bernmid eight dollars a month nod board. Is paid. rr.oiiK.Ncn, fhrtnerly llio cheapest residence la Ml Italy, ha* become a very expensive plaee since the UoyiiKlovernmonleslabllsbed Us permanent rcstd.'iH'c there. HUH, It Is not so dear as Nl/ra, At the best hotels a single pm on niii live for fifteen to twcuiy-ilvu framm (three to five dollar*) a day. In the prnihnn Iho price Is seven lo twelve franc* a d-iy. Decent furnished apartinsiits (nr single Indi viduals (two rooms) oust from sls to $lO, for families from $75 to $125, a month. For a woU-furnlahod villa In the vicinity of the city, frem SIOO (o $l5O per month U asked. Housekeeping In the capital of Italy now a day* Is generally fnued mure expensive to foreigners limn hoarding at hotels and pen and is tried by hut few Americans. in noun tlio hotel price* aroubiuMlio Bimo a* lu Florence. Tlio charges of tlio first-class hotels for lodging, breukfu-t. iptmor, supper and fires nml lights, for a single Individual, In the winter, I* not teen i-» $). F., m . Hie*, requiring cx’cunlvo aeeommod.U)ons hi thu way ol room*, will uvuiitk'u tlio latter flume per person. In tlio summer much cheaper terms can ho obtained. Good prh vale lodgings for slnulo persons can ho bail lorsllos2. A suite of apartments for it small family, nay three to live rooms, on thu first lloor, will cost In tlio winter frll to fV) it month ; larger suite* to fK). in most of the lodging house-* meal* nro fnrnlihml at fixed rates, at ft) emits to $1 pur moil. Out as a rule It Is cheaper to tuao one's menu outside at restaurants, when they can bo hud In better stylo fur the sumo price. At some hotels persons lodging outride can dlno by the week or month at reduced rates. House* keeping In the Eternal City ought to be cheap, (It Is seldom tried by Americana), from the low prices ruling in the markets. Good beef can be bought for 10 cents ; veal for 15 to 20, and mutton 13 cents a pouud. Pigeons and chickens are usually held higher, (from 20 to 40 cents apiece,) bat a great variety of game and fi?h can be bought very low in the season. Vegetables and fruit arc also very cheap and good. NAPLES Is not only the largest but the dearest city in Italy. As everywhere else on tnc Penin sula, foreign visitors arc charged twice as much in the wiutcr as in the summer. During the lorruer the better class of the hotels proper, as well the hotels janiw, charge from $1 to $1.50 a day for each room with attendance, without meals. Including meals the daily expense is not less than from $4 to $6- Well-furnished apartments command higher prices than at Rome. There are some good pension* in which board and lodging can be had for $1 50 to $2. In tho best res taurants the charges are as high os at Psris. Bat for tho great Influx of strangers In tho winter months, the prevailing prievs would seem inexplicable in view of the cheap local markets. All through Italy good clothing and foot wear for both sexes is much dearer than north of the Alps. The same Is true of most Industrial productions, notwithstanding the fact that the price of l.«bor is comparatively lower. The reason Is, that skilled workmen In the various trades are very scarce and command very hhrh wages. In the lust few years great progress has been made in tho development of many branches of indusi»y, hut a lone lime will yet elaoso before the Italians will produce things* generally as cheaply, perfectly and abundantly as the northern countries. the cause or nton prices ix tue united STATES. In all probability the tacts and figures em bodied In the foregoing, will make many of your renders utter the wUh that the cost of living might boos low at homo as abroid. The current prices in the United States of everything needed to satisfy the multiform wants of man, arc, without question, un naturally high, and those they oppress arc fttlly justified in growling at and sighing for relief fivm them. But in considering this subject, It should be borne in mind that In very cheap countries, labor hardly ever fieds a proper reward. The price of labor depends everywhere npon the value of the produc tion, and when the latter is low th» former cannot be high. But for the fact that in the United States all classes of producers find belter rcntimcrnllon for their labor than In any part of Europe, we would not year alter year witness the transfer of hundreds of thousands of stout arms from the Old to the New World. That every kind of physical labor bears richer fruits on the other side of the Atlantic than In overpopulated Europe, tins been the main source of the unparalleled prosperity of the United Slates, and It U owing to this fict that higher prices, or what amounts to the same thing, a htgher value of the productions of skilled and unskilled labor are not an abnormal phenomenon, but a nuiuml outgrowth of the existing social order of things, for the development of which every American ought to he thankful. Hut while I consider the general ranges of American prices above the European standard a real blessing to tho United Hlates, I hold that the exorbitant rales prevailing at tho present time aro nhnoimnl, entirely unwarrant ed by anything In the material condition of the Ilcpnhllc, nod a great drawback to its general progress. And It Is well known that tho Increase in the rate of wsgos In America has not kept pace with the Increase of prices generally. When gold was nl iV>, and the fiile of the country still undecided, Ihcr.* wrs cause for the enormous lultatlon of tho vahieofall productions. But with gold bo. low IfiO, nearly a million of producers added to the producing power ol the country since tno close oflho war, and an Immigration of n* arly half a million of souls within tho last thirty months, there Is no reason wliy tho general price current of ISOI should continue with Imt slight modifications m ISdT. Why should, for Instance, a pair of custom.nude bools that cost 818 In New York la the summer of 18M. still command the same price this winter, when the bootmaker now Imports his French calfskins, owing, to the tall of the premium on gold, for forty per cent less than then ; when his Internal tuxes are also lets than before, and the wages of bis journeymen rather lower than higher f Like questions might be asked In regard to almost everything worn or consumed by the people of the United Stales. The winding /o-oterf/i* tariff system, to the barbarian of xthlch the “most intelligent nation in the world” an we love to call ourselves, mill cllnjs. although even sluttish, backward old Auiiru i is now tumihg her back to U,it no doubt responsible to a \- f f* f or ie anomalies of current prices. i et allowing for everything tending to make prices higher with yon, as high dalles, high internal taxes and high wages, there is still eo reason for the §normoaa difference be tween the respective value of the same pro unctions In the United Stales and Europe. uy should clothing be worth three and four times more in New York and Chicago than in Paris and Vienna, when the normal en. bancement of the prices of the American ar ticle over the European through duties, taxes M cd greater cost of production amounts, as can be demonstrated, to less than one hun dred per cent ? Why should a pair of boots that costa $3 in Vienna, where there Is al to great Inflation in consequence of the Im mense volume of currency in circulation, and where taxes are as oppressive as in the Unl ted States, cost six times more in New York? It looks indeed very much as though our people were tho victims of a vast conspiracy, on t oo part of the manafucturingandlmport irg interests, lor keeping np the abnormal w»r prices, npon tne falsest pretences. How long is the imposition yet to bo borne t EST The Colored Suffrage BUI having passed the Tennessee House of Representatives, the negroes have already manifested their Inter. est in political affairs by holding a large and orderly meeting in Blount County. They passed a series of resolutions, In which they pledged themselves to support the Radical Republican party, and unanimously noml* nated Governor Brownlow for re*cloctioD. Thus the predictions of the Copperheads that if the negro is allowed to vote, he will follow his old “massa.” is likely tocomo to naught. The rebel press of Tennessee is intensely dis gusted with the passage of this act. Well it may be, for it is the death-knell of rebel sway in that etate. THE WOEID OP AMUSEMENT. A Bellow of Iho Season. Tfic'insnla for Balia and Parties—A Gay Winter— Pluo Toilette*— I The .vill- Ilnrrs In Clover—Bev. Mr. Hatfield and tbe Theatres—Sill* and bla Suit - Tbe Pbilbarmonie Posthomon Con cert— OnrCburcb Choir*—Verdi** New Opera—musical and Literary Items. Chicago, February 10,15(77. To tbe Editor oflhe Chicago Tribune: The backbone of the winter Is broken. Tbe carnival Is about over. The lights are going out and tbe curtain Is about to be rangdown. The spring will soon slowly come up this way and then Lent. We shall take oil our masks, be good children and moralize on the routs, the follies and frivolities of December, January and February, and moralizing, wo shall pronounce the winter the gayest, wild est, meet dashing and smashing Chicago has ever known since the time when G. B—s first knew her as an infant sleeping In a swamp bole, unconscious of the great future la store for her and of the great names like dills, Stewart acd McGinnis which would embla zon her annals. The winter has been one perpetual ball and party. Private amusement baa usurped the place of public, and as a conse quence, concerts and opera have suffered. The poor Philharmonic has withered like a leaf under this neglect, and Slrakosch lost money at a frightful rate. Soiree, ball and party have succcdcd each other with won* derful rapidity, amt the holies have been lit erally kept whirling, until they are worn out and pining for the grateful Lent ap proaching, when they can rest and gel ready for the watering places, . The milliners, inabtammakors, dress-mak ers. Imlr-drrsiors, and other* who make such exquisite tits and tremendous hills, Imre been In clover. The young ladle* some times, after a season ofouly one night, eomo homo so smashed that them Is little lull of theh light fabrics ami heavy waterfall*, and pupa** scowling and reluctant purse has hied Ircily ; while minima, who will wcara train and try lo rcllpsn her daughter, gets trodden on mid handed up, and Ims lo go Into Hie Ini'otlo dry-dock (hr repair* quite ofitui. Till* la the reason why the milliner el ut, high-priced Individuals have been happy, and old (hmnybag* has staid away from availing meetings, and growled nl (lie fire screen, and made an Ursa Major of himself. The toilettes this winter luve boon superb, rmif/of/tyur. At a *olroo (ho oth'T evening, given by one of the olllcurs of the North western Hoad, the toilette* for richness und taste, equalled anything Now York or Bos ton can honst, embracing some novelties In design which some GollmeUei who were present fell In love with and carried home, and some of the Avenue parties hare h.-on perfectly stunning. Ho wo go. Young Hooray and Aurelia earn little for tho tarllf, recoiHtrucllon, high church lax hills or U'ffUtattvo stealings. Theynroopllmlsts. Tlioywuntlho best, and thry want it now while thu purse holds out. They have had a guy winter, will dandle along through the spring and leave us Just lu time to e»e*pe tho hut weather and the cholera, olid we shall miss them as we miss the hutortllcs, end hail their return in the fall as they come back for another whiter campaign. I do not know that they bulM many houses, endow many colleges, teach many Sunday School classes or consume much calico and cold water, but then the streets would be very monotonous, and tho counter-jumpers would grow lazy, and life would bo tinted with oshies ol roses without them. Brother Hatfield has mounted his war-horse again and made another raid on the theatres. As a watchman on the walls of Zion, I do not blame him for pitching into that French Spy. A zealous watchman will always be on the lookont for spies. With the periodical raids of the pulpit upon the drama, I have, no sympathy, because, all other thlngsoqual, I have seen tome dramas which were much more Interesting than some sermons, bat when a first class, hearty, muscular Christian pngullst gets after such au abomination as tho French Spy and strikes out from tho shoulder every lime and hits good orthodox blows, I am on tho tide of the preacher, and I am willing to bo his second, and stay in bis .comer and enjoy the fight. There Is a whole- Bomencsa about Brother H.’s fighting which I like. He never hits lonl blows, but strikes right between the eyes and makes the splin ters fly. Therefore, while I hope he will keep his maulers off the respectable plays, I sympathize most heartily with his raids on the abominations, and I advise him to get on a good ready when the Black Crook comes, and atrlpoll his cost. In fighting the Spy ho was simply dealing with disgusting nastiness, hut In fighting the Black Crook he Is fighting the Sirens. The childlike Sills, who didn’t draw the Opera House and then wanted hU five dol lars back, lias become a martyr. He brought suit for his V., brought forward his witness es, and triumphantly rested his case, and his case is still resting, /or the defence made no appearance, aud the Court, like a good natured Court, rendered judgment for the defence, and made the martyr pay the costs ; so that poor Sills is out five dollars lor hU ticket, out for the costs, and oat for his lawyer’s fees, which 1 call rubbing It into Sills. In the meantime the great Leo has got his picture Into Harper'* Wttldy, and ts down to Prairie du P.ochcr counting his du cats, building churches and endowing col leges, and otherwise acting like a good boy, no more to tremble in bis long-tallcd night-shirt at fleet horses, and no more to be exposed tA. the temptations of Chicago and Crosby and Kinsley. Tims really meritorious individuals like I.ce ami McCracken and McGinnis prosper, and the poor devils like Sills aad Stewart go to the wall. I knew that the Philharmonic would go and do It ami give that posthumous concert. 1 have warned them of the folly of It, and now they must boar the responsibility them selves. I shall go to that concert wBU very solemn feelings, as one “whotreads some banquet hall deserted, ’» and shall call up reminiscences of tho diys when the riillhar monic concerts were the things to do. £ shall sec thu fiddle bows saw npnttd down, and tho venerable doublu-huss strum, and thu bu sr-s blow themselves red In tho face, and somebody will sing, and Mr. Bnlatka "IB wave Ills baton, and I shall feel very sad over all thu pnutomlmory. 1 know an eco nomical )>arcnt who bought somo castor oil lor bis sick children, ami. finding hu had too much, took tho Imlaneu hlmsolr to saw it. Of inch aru thu llckot holders who wanted the concerts finished, and I hopo thu concerts alt) ngreo with them huttur than tho oil did wllh my economical acquaintance. Talking of miisle, thu Germania Manner ehor ore going to glvo a very hamlsomu con cert March hi at tho Concordia Hall for thu benefit of Iho.Towlsh Asylum. Bo no lady singers will help them, and as tho Society hsa now o very strong and well organised chorus, I am looking forward to n vary pleasant coueerl. Talking of music again, that Musical He t frieof Higgins* is after the church choirs in this city. They need It. Cry aloud and i|nronot. There Is no reason why church ehoha should ho exempt from good whole* some public criticism. Talking nr music fur thu third time, “ Dan Carina,” thu last work of Signer Verdi, Is now nearly ready for perlormnnco. “Bptrl dh'ji,” In thu Boston SaturxUty JCvenhg (At- stttr, says of It; “ There am nlno cumnMo s<its of scenes to he Iliads. To make th<’?n thievwoik-hons havo huen ltiCO»ramly at work tborafour moaifts; tneearpou lets, blactsmhUs and snUrs rave labored hard. Tlk d six hui drtdcosfußiP* houto be drawn. Awed and made. *lhetmi»lebad to he copied lur (be Mccumpanierai.d tbearl»is. Tbo choras had to h-arn, Qrrt (b«* scon*, aad next the words ol their tinrl. Tbc unots, batscs, and lower-hasres smil ed their parts separately, aodinea all robtraroed locoihcr. When all luero rehearsals ware n:r feci, tb'-n tb<- renrarsals or the leading actor# and orcbertia commecct-d (It became oecesaary to copy ibe several pails of the orcbesi-a). next oi the cbomces, afterwards of inu croap.<, lastly of all irgetoer; low of all together and tbeskelchod t-cecerv, then cf tho scenery itselt At the Fame time there are the dances to be arranaea and studied. Tbo rehearsals with Ihuo'chestra Li-gbi with the qoataor, sod afterrards with all It e insiromcnts. Tbo of the ra&cbtnv ry aad scenes are no light aQalra. A wbo> t*- fomeitnics spent In arrarglne the Hemliar*ol one slnglp scere, to nat it Into proper position ai.d give U tbe light necessary to prodrice^ ihc re qmred effect. J-nmellmcs >bo whole nhrnt Is rj>rnt with no other result bnt to order back the scenes to the stndlo, to be repaired frotnbagin muc to end. when all these rehearsals have twin comp ctea, theo the genera) rehearsals take place. They are herd only at night fat the Grand opera, rehearsals of the orch'.-stra never take p.ece tbc day) and cooseqnennr csnnoi be above l«o a week, for the musicians and artists who play most be allowed some rcpcsc. There ate cot two rehearsals a week on an average, for tbe artists are unwell, or they sang )mt Light, or are to sing 10-monow nlgot: bes:des, the whole • number of people connected with tbe Grand Opera exceeds twelve hundred, and It ts no easy matter to get them all together at the apnointed time and in p-.rfect hcal b. It Is said that Signor Verdi extern- Derived the lastrcmentailon of “ Don Caflos ” When the characters were distribated to tbe ar ♦jfjj he bad not urltieu one whit more of bis fcoreiban the parts of tbe voices. He bas s'nce the rehearsals breae writing fa extenso tbe scores of the voices and tbs orchestra. It is said there is a finale at d a soliloquy tn the opera as noble as any’htog Vc»di ha* yei written.” ArroDg tbe musical news of tbe week the following Items are of special Interest: August Relssmann, the biographer of Schumann, has published a “ Life of Jfen dehsobn,” which is distinguished by good feeling and good taste, though it is largely made up of his letters, which are such ad mirablo specimens of self-history as to cast Mendelssohn’s would-be biographers in the shade. Fucpa, Brlgnoli mil Wehli concert tonr through Canada. ** Signor Mora, a young Italian of u,, v baa turned impresario, and u 1,:',1., 11 York -with Miss Philips 1,/ tuna. Miller! and Signora Giudiila ?c Gran ia in New Orleans with i'.;,;. ; ] *"' trying to got the lease of a new 0n,«'? ! trbicli the Now Orleannaia a... build. 1 » 0lt ; Mr. Bateman, the well-known m .. f prcajrlo will leave for Europe ncis, ~ order to complete Ua new en™. n ,"‘•a the neat eeaaon. Dta [ r GotUchalk Is concerting ma » n :, In Valparaiso. A 1 cLtnr -a\. : ” J;ta 'Jj “An orchestra, consistin'- of On*,. i,*.,, formers,baa been omnfzea at GoUßcbalk. as follows: SJr rtrslvioiin. i?.* I ' o 4 violins, two violas, two conDa b a ,.i 'Tm Antes in K flat, four first Antes, two two oboes, two clarinets id a, seven h,.? B flat, seven clarinets In c. ttm- ~ort* h first cornets, two second comets t. tft sharp, eight horns In F. tiro sofo ° r comet In E Cat, eight first comci? comets, two Irnmoets, two first tnim™,*?* second tmmpeis. eight first bom- S U> fi — boras, eight E fist claiir.e»H.cleht aecoLdci.-V* l I**ui first bogles, four eccoml baide* ,i * bones, eight first trombones, tlx V of .r*3 tr "°- bones, Iwerlj comets, six baa-o immwt ’i 5 * first baritones, < Icbt second ha,|?S, ,£*£! baritones, eight first Inbas. cM,i f .. P ‘^ e, »hl tr*o flrstlmsle.*. two second bii-ks Ides in C flat, eight ophicleidp* In F. u„ F. two I.cities drains, twcair-five aV ‘ l<ia base drams, two nese gorgs. " - Ll '-hi- The Paris Opera Las lately acq-dred a «„ basso In one Louis Wagner, a yn>m. ** doctor, who has thrown physic i<» ,i7 ia on the strength of n good and piva«an:'vS He is very favorably spoken of * i?t Signor Lucca, the pnMidu r of Mil,™ • making a rapid fortune bv “ L’Afrlcalne.” He charge's the tii J* 10,000 francs (£400) for the loan of tli-? and parts for the season. The following are the now book* „r »,,* week: ITon. George Lnnfs “ Origin of th? 1 41 . War;” ‘ Cavalry and Virginia,’* a poems by Laughton Osborn; Dr. n IW “Open Polar Sea;” “Tide TohlcV n the Coast Survey OHlco; Felton*' —Ancient and Modern nraeoGn ‘‘ltccordsof Five Years;” “Thu Captivity at AndersonvUle,” by Werrnil.. (loss; ‘‘Thoughts of Hornes “Mcthomanln,” by Albert Day, M. p. The next dfAinffe will contain » i’..ntir, arlleto by Carl Hchnr*, and an Chicago by Jamoi I‘nrtun. l’i im-uos* HimtllMN. A Tliunderlioli nt (test Tlio Waiklnglmi ~r u l4 Wormier (MhmjicliuMl*) >),;/ fni* .1? scrlbi'a tlio llii’ldunl* til’(li'iirrul f . T M| ltl| ' 4 recent visit totbn Ibnum of !(<• , Tim Umisu this morning |tn>i'ii|. l | ,|i, toiestlng siievUele tlmrilr alter iln (■I lilt) SVISIoU. IWlllg t<MVlll'll till' .'■rliutit 'ring. I noticed an umisnul exolMm-nt ,m,i liiiinltlint Grant ntnl HlktSilhii wi*rc i’i n, e Hi’Oblp Chamber. Of course, I n*i*» tha cal cry to look. but the dlsthuul •lied vi-u-.r, had loft for tlio House. Arriving tlii-n* I found Speaker Colfax Introducing in tiU iuubl happy mtinncr, to tlio iipri.lii hly, the hero of tho rliln from \Vmcli.-*u.f Tlio cheating »m oxlmncly hearty i t „ stalwart little fiutiro In Major Gem nil's ml form, wliu stood mill nu air of m-nict fiirli li upon Hid H/ieaker'a stand. hmvcl tilt thanks to tlio members, and, to n von- i.rb r but happy manner, roturiioil Hunks /or in.* lionur done liltn. 1 bo live minutes’ recess nras made (ho diuinoi a ( tvring tribute. cd around the (loners! and obtained lii'io. dnctlMiP. The greetings w<-te dccl.n.iiy In artier than lias as yet been extruded u any one of the distinguished soldier* aiu lime lieictofore been picketed to the M..uv Obtaining admission to tho flour, I ui.ut-.i myself or tlio opportunity to study "iho points” of the youngest but most bnlli.uii soldier In the regular army. 1 have headed these paragraphs “A Tim.,, dirbolt at Neat,” and yet Ills hardly uviuate to say—at rest. Sheridan, hi figure, t.i.vanj iraiiccr, is alert. Power,allont!iC7/ii ,i,-r „ the total of fits expression. U was my u .»od fortune to have seen the hero when, early in tho wa', lie was u Captain and Acting oiur lerniasicr. I should hardly have ku.i\v» tdm again. The expression of bole figure and face has changed. The general made by Stierioan was ot a most /uvuivle character. He looks thu lighter in evc.-v mi., of his scant inches, lu every fibre of ImVurl dy frame, and every feature of hi a fi.,nd f ltf . and comiact, powerlul-luoking head. Ye tbeie was more than the iu2re figliier-look’ The head and lacs wear an unmistakable re pression of intellectual vigor. Sheri i.m l like a rultr ol meo ; like tho man who coaid as he did, make a scattered army cohere into a victorious phalanx, and throw it like aa avalatche on a flying foe. General Sheridan wore a Major General's uniform, which was neallv buttoned, and displayed his stalwart, sturdy form to great advantage. He is not more than liv.- feet six inches In height, while tho breath of uU shoulders and depth of his chest is vert great. Ills hands and feet are small—” natty’" a* sa Englishman would siv. The light, ivorv bandied riding-whip, -which Is Sheridan's in. separable companion, was in hU hand. Sbeildan’s Cice is unmUlakablv Irish in c\. pression. Tne face is slightly oval in •■in line, well knit and compact m feature. The lower jaw is long and powertul, coming down on each side to a square, firm cLiii. The mouth, draped by a moustache of mod erate size, is a strong, straight am! rubier mobile feature. The nose Isonc of t he Jighthg sort, fmalt at the root, wide at the and slightly aquiline in form. The head of “Cavalry Sheridan” is quite up to ht.- rep utalhm. It is long, moderately hWh. quite brood, very compact, with a good lurk u- .d and ha>e brain—the large proport’oc of It f.-rward of the ears, though. Yousectlut this is a man of rerources. not ovtrcoafi dent, hut quite selfpossessed, linn to i lu- U-t degree, with convictions that once taken last a lifetime. Sheridan’s eyes are am mg Inc beat, If not the ve»y best, mature-* of liis rem&rkitblc face. These are of a warm, grar hue, which boflen with a wonderml kwi uess, or Ouch with a cousamiug Ur-. The wrath ot ibis man must be itrrillo. while hnranr is, on the other band, as tniifli a nurt oi Ms nature. The lorehead is gnod-hn ad. not bigh—with the pcrceptlves well d-vel oped and the eyebrows arched into tie shape which is seen in amique sculptiir.-, nut so seldom visible in modern countenan ces. Ihc i'lciurr, of (Jimllva, [From tho New York Evening Ga*me.J . T** e 5 e a certain satisfaction to be «Ic livcu from looking at this picture : h i.« ;hc satisfaction of being able to pro:-nn« c a positive opinion in an ago nmluostt w.htu so many pictures are neither one thing nor another. Air. Lculzu’a Godlva t* -.-itlrHy bad, the only pleasure it gives being a feel *kat ideture Is no larger. If It had been made life-size, for Instance, it would have been hideous. Perhaps (mold legend and no old poem ofXcon.vsoti 1« better known ; but this picture reproduce* iiintfuT the simple facts of the story, nor the •-h.i-ne refinement of the poem, although there is a jtudied attempt at prominence In •umr dc !?. * The “three tall spires,” mul tire doors shut and windows barred,” are vr* tnmlv there; “Die harking cur”—a «retell* cdly unhappy animat he look*—-run* in ad vance of the horse, hut wu do not -re tint the dng makes “her cheek ilame.” Tier (lodivft of the picture la not that of the If genii and thu noun, but simply n unde woman of marvellous flesh itml uh.imMnt vH low hair, riding a horse whoso Pair nmU'ln* her own, and showing a rd .rperln htrf*> e, rather limn any glow of noble shame. nyMMi rays she rMe from pillar to pillar like a creeping s'illm.'iiiii ;»* “then rode mhi forih, clothed on with chastity.” But .Mr. I.eulzc has rutted, either In nndertunemg "w'•torv, or Interpreting If; be bai aliowa lipltjier Inn spirit of IhtHJodlvaV ucllim r thu ideal ol uodlvu herself. The Old *iory. I was « wotniu, mil |'d a bean, And 1 rated ol into and or rmMnncy, AMI he raw the Uara la my epifl.u marl, Pot ho was tbo wotid lu tuul lln whispered low whru l ho ■priu'i-llnt»ftrw, (Jt lh> tamrlrd pallia In uhlrh m>>n «liay, Ami srtniml me all Ins nun* he throw, Ills *jcs wera on flto llml day. W« parted 1 yes I bnt t clang to him, Atm toil uo my im» to hu l«i«n-d egidn; Uitilhu laanld'itf eytie of the'n grew dim And w*re swollen black with non. They cams to mo whan my love was gone, Arm said be was >oor ami tolled fur bread: i'hoy lalkM of Mint and mars alone. And ary heart waa dull as lead. And then they laid (heir bribe at my f n«i, *J " as Ida same old laio (hat is ofion mid: Tory play’d on ibasirlugi of toy heart's cuw"li • Aud oaxzlcd my iyo» with gold. I rold mvralf to a loveless thing, Ami i walk'd to tbo abar and there 1 Mod: For my h. art was away with iho pntuiose anrlos And 1 by my husband's side. And bow yon a»k mo what of the Mo * I've paid mil dear (or my trlrlUb creed: Turn- better, 1 (blab, for a noiwaa to dtr. Than lu trie tbe life 1 load. 1 am alone, but ailil I can ring. Ana nray lor the min of winter's rain. *orjn'o scent of tbt prlmrose-crowa of snrltn . Will rctnm to mo again. —Lchdon Society •.< Sweets with AdmonUlons. Kiss me softly nr.d speak lome low; JJnllce has ever a vigilant ear. What If Alallce wera lurking near? Kirs me, dear! Kirs mo softly and speak tu me low. KUs mo softly and «poak tn me low; Envy, 100. batb a watchful ear; Wbai if Envy eboaid chance to near! Ktsa me, dear. Kiss me softly and speak to me low. Kiss me softly and speak to me low Tr,*t me, darling, the time ts near When lovers may love witfl nerera lear; ~ Elea me. dear, KU* mcßOftly and speak to me low. A Qcmt Fisn^— A remarkable amphibious ani mal of the seal kind, wnlcb was captured at Gil lespie’s Beach, abaut 100 mites south of Uoslrl ka. New Zealand, by Hr. Ktlmartln, Is now being exhibited in ileloonrne. In it pfe eentaa mixmre of the dug aad thcfhh. Its fired resembles >hai of an English twricr, except that the ears are merely ntllmenfarj. The b-»dy like a seal's and the animal propels upon lard or in the water by mean* of two large dip pers In the forepart ol tbe bodv, and two smaller ot.ra behind. Its tall U about t*o and a bslf iccbea long. The animal shuffles prellr qnirkly npon tbe ground, and Its motion la the water is produced by roiling over and over, and propel J n j; fotward alter ite mar.ucr ofa screw. Us cry is something like the Lark of a do** ha; pecti liatly aorill. •.A Romano Scicidi.—TLo sabide of two joqpj: lovers aiSanctl-tfpktiae. Cat*, na« cjo--**! a great sensation. A young nun, tendered dri petate at being reia edihe hand of bu* adorn! one on acconntof Lis povert*, proposed to «bc fatal which Hamlet ahruat each i'-i-eded. looser ted, ace 10-nlag her head on the flu,nicer of received from him that death nhlcb was welcome in hn company;* eecondabolCrom tus revolver and the pair were united tn death. •s*l