Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune, February 27, 1867, Page 2

Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune dated February 27, 1867 Page 2
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(Hljicago Cribunc. DAILV, Jlil-IVErtLY Afs’D WEEKXT. Opfldß. Re. SI (tI,AKK-*T. mem »n Uire»- eaiOoM ot me TSlßCira woao. IK. Tety norotns. for crcnUt-oa earner*. •bCtbemaMt. td. The Tk-Winnow, Moodar*. ccMtv* and Fn<Uj-*, for the =*U* only; and the Wr.f*LT.onTbtirtd»ya.forU)e mala and-sals at our e.iotier acd hr newsmen. Term* or (be Cbieoae Tribune: Dm!* deliver*! to tar owy w*es)..*•> (per quarter).... 3.H3 Daliy. to cjmi ranserttwr* (per aotum, ©aya- . _ „ „ hem advance; ... ltf.oo TTi-WeeKlv.iper aatam, I'ayahlolaadvanct) 6.(10 V*'-.ri'r. <oer anonnu o*Tao-e in advance)..... S.OO iy Fractional parts ol ifte year at the aanx rates. Ijr- r»r>ci.i tcm’UraE »no ordenaa eve or cote ct-i'lcf pf eltler ihe Trl-Wcckir or Weekly edition*, rt. fc y Miin lea pcx coat at the eahscnpuon ©rice as a ccmnjtseion- Nnnesro SrsscctßEia.—in ordering tac adOreai «i rour paper* ctansv*. to -i reveal delay, be sure and ipecify vLatedition yon %at»— .. eddy, Trl-WeckJy, or Daily. Also, glveyontratsasyandfainie addicts OT Money, by Draft, Kxpm*. Money order*, ot la Registered Letter*, mar be sent atour risk. Addre**. TIUBUSK CU«. Chlcaeoi 111 WEDNESDAY, FEBUITAKY 27," 1687- REFOtm IN ENGLAND. The recent popular demonstrations in England have not been without their effect. In the speech of Her Majesty at the opening of Parliament there was an express declara tion in favor of a more liberal suffrage to the people. That declaration was, ns might be expected, vague and Indefinite; ll might mean much, or it might mean little. We have nuw, however, tho speeches of the Ministry, and of tho leaders of the Oppo sition. These were xnade r upon the Address to the Queen In response to her speech. There was* great pood feeling expressed—too intu-li, we think, to give promise oi any very extended reform In either suffrage orrepre tH iitntion. There arc three parties In Eng» land upon this subject. First, the Tories, who arc In power; next, the Liberals, and thud, the Radicals. The Liberals last year proposed a Reform Bill, which failed ’lhe' Radicals supported it, not he , bn uUse it was what they wanted, but ho ciuisr it was the best they could get. The Toiles instated It; they were unwilling “to degrade the suffrage.” Some of theso callcd Liberals betrayed the bill after weeks of Mtngirio, and It felled. Since then the Radi, t ill,'have gone before the people, and the people in all parts of the Kingdom have ra- hpomb'd. But, unfortunately, tbc people are - not voters. They are, for the present, os i i.mi li-lely within the power of those who »n-rvbe au tlmoft hereditary right to office n-ii there was no such thing known as rep rerciitativc government. The Radicals make war upon two systems which, to American eyes, rauat he regarded a* abominations. The first la the represen tative-system. Representation is fixed by übitnity rule. Population, or even the number of electors, is unknown as a basis of rcpicrt-nuulon in purTiamrnt. Counlieshive u'j rvscnratites; town* aud cities, bat not ail towns mid cities, have representatives, and boroughs have representatives A borough wirii a thousand inhabitants may have rep re>er talives equal m number to a county with Its hundred thousand inhabitants. Rep rc.-entaiiou thus distributed and apportion ed is a mockery of the term- For fifty years there has been a warfare upon the borough system, and at intervals It has been slightly repressed; but tae evil is as great iu tbe small number of members awarded to lan constituencies ns in the award of representa- tives to localities where there are no const] 1 uents at all. Suffrage as It exists In England is r.-gulated by no uniform rule. Different qi:;i2ifieitions exist in different localities. The quiHOcatlcn of a voter m a borough is dif ferent from that in a city, and both differ frcin that of a voter in a county. These dte thictiors vary in England, Ireland, and Scot land, a different rule prevailing In each King dom. This leads to confusion. In the bor oughs there seems to be an effort to enlarge the number of electors, and In th** counties to restrict it. The Liberals, at the last session,in their bill proposed to increase the number of voters by reducing the qaall fk-at’on. That qmilifieatiou generally con e:-t- in the amount in which the party Is as itr-ted for county rates, the amount of runt jor land or freehold that he pays, or the amount he pays for lodgings. These rates vary from £0 in some boroughs to £SO in feme counties. The bill of last year pro posed a proportionate reduction, with excep tions for this or that locality. There was no proposition made for univereal suffrage. The via ic difference resolved itself into a ques t inn «>f how many shillings a year a man had to pay m taxes, rent, or poor rates, to entitle him t<* vi t»*. To this system both the Liber al* and the Tories seem to be wedded. Be tween them the Radicals, for the present, huve only the choice of that party which will admit the greatest number of voters. !»• the speeches made upon the Address to the Qu« en, Earl Russell, who proposed the IM jm BUI of the last session, hastened to r>-«re the Government that while advocat ing a liberal extension of the suffrage, he no sympathy with those who Jiid i.lrly put forth the cry of ** iMinhoi-d suffrage.” That he rc unrdcii us utterly out of the question. 11., however, warned the Government that a concession to the “artisans,” in the * slujo nl a reduction of the qualification, might avoid agitation of the most serious rlnrjK icr. From the tone as well as the w«jt.!* nl ibis and other speeches by “Lib eral-** uc think the two hlriierto great par tus warned by theimpo-ingdemonstratlous fii ihc Rdortners, will make common cause the Radicals, and hv a reduction of a u-w -hilling- on Ihc qualifications nf voters, will -oh to smother nil effort at further rdurm.s. *1 tiis p'dicy eon have no other effect than •(•• ihvu'c Kngtar.d into two great psrUcs— . im )<*r and (lie oilier oppt»«cd to universal , i ''iraire. The fornici m rst, of course, be In a i liiM'-i'y in Pnrlhimem, and Its efforts must I n T fitnl to sgilnllon. Bui upon that i (.-,(1 i-Mir parties ulll eventually form, and j 111 hi nl msiiM. (hough delayed anil post -1 * < i'. P uri he the same ns in all other ■m - between right and wrong, popular p t hi jir.fl justice will prevail, and nnuihood 1 the Finest bulwark of nnllotml fieu* im and i nlloliftl stability will, In the ctlil, 1 iuimli' (In' law of England. IVI t t'NM. >1 KVItM'K TAX lIIU. I 1,. i«. d I'll ('Mill) Ni’VrtlUf’TnV lilt), I'c* i i i.lit iim’Wh)h inut Mmrit CummlUH*, ; Mm- Hmit <*n .Mumliiv, li» UU« . ill I HIM- r.ilirlllß, nil U|ll Ill'll «l» M H * '■ 1.--• i,.;i j.iui i a i-n UntfV»«' ll»t a largnnum i. i 11 inliM.r hi ili'ifn, mill toai-lmin mid v«*«4* i i.: i,a mi newspaper mlwrlisimumu, |i I. M.lnc abatement of III!) lAV:i oil (')ol'l ..’h| leather in llndr various forms nls » j> i ii.iii maelmiery In »omeoi their at.ige* * .i ■. !tii:|.ii-lure. It atops some of the worai >1 ) ! . of taxes on manufactures In their •' : •r. ;ii pingt-s of ndvancemenl, but the • >;1 u-iaht have gone much further in this <!:-» •i.Kii With great advantage to the Indus lr\ < ( tin; country. The total exemptions Mil t. dilutions of taxes on manufactures fall Jm -In-rt of v hat the country expected at the •*: - niny of Congress. Hut the rapid decrease of r.\ . :iue receipts within the past four or fire th.- caused by currency contraction, iarilF, taxation and dishonest m-« 1 ii« fiicicnl revenue officers, has prevent <.«. the House from reducing internal taxa tion onc-hnlf as mucu as was previously in tended. The most Important reduction is I that on incomes, which exempts SI,OOO, and makes the rale uuifoimfivc per cent on all ] Minis above that amount. This change will 1 l vi rv g:aiifying to the public. The ex -1 cnii-Mi i* will ic a great measure clear the lain rim: clast of men from paying income tax, vhiical the same time it adds SIOO to the tAt nipiiouo of all others, and repeals the uu juil clause that fined men five per cent on ;h»-ir incomes for the offence of having made !.,• ;v than $5,000 In n year, besides paying jl\r per cent of taxation on their total profits. T la* lax on cigar*, cheroots and cigarette?- I> Ji\cd at a specific tax of $5 per thousand, or- nil Kinds. The ad valorem rate- arc abol i>}.< d, and it is simply to be a specific tax of tl «• rate named lu future. Thb M.cms to us to he an exceedingly light « to be levied on an article purely lux urii>u.-. and injurious to health. *lhc cheap* isl cigar u Mnoker can buy in this city is a •tn <-i ntcr «>r sometimes three fora quarter, hut ilie more common price is 15(320 cents. five dollars per thousand isbnt half a cent 0] icce. end will not average four per cent on the retail price of cigars. This article could " w« 11 ha'c borne a uniform tax of one cent per cigar, without' earning any Increase of r*'taii r pricc to consumers, or sensibly dimin ishing the heavy profits of the trade on the deleterious weed. A tax of a cent apiece on clears would have yielded the Government five or six millions a year more revenue than » half cent lax, and would enable Congress to place the manufacture of clothing and bouts and shoes on the free list. But wc pitsume the Senate will accept the Douse amendment, and It is of little use to object to the smallness of the tax. lu regard to whiskey, the tax remains at the uucollcctable excise of two dollars per gallon. The whiskey ilog would not sanc tion any reduction, as it might Interfere with, their gains by cheapening the article and ' having them less profits on Illicit dUtllla tions. It is essential to the prosperous prosecution of smuggling and fraudulent inaiiuiacinre that the dealers shall have a wide margin of profit to furnish the requi site money with which to bribe inspect ors and corrupt assessors and collectors, •uid Congress obligincly retains the lax at iuo dollais for that purpose—we can think of no oil er, nor has any other been given. In fiivoroflw retention. The Select Commit - tec ou Internal Revenue Frauds report that tbelr Investigations have led them to tbc belief “ I but at least of the entire spirits mauufidured uuder the pres- cnl law have escaped tax, and the committee felt wairantcd in the assertion that tear, if any, large distilleries in the United States are doing a legitimate business.” - ■ In conclusion, they assert that there may be some meritorious officers, nevertheless the frauds la the large cities are so universal and gigantic, the morals of distillers have become so tainted, and confidence in the local officers has become so shaken, It is be lieved that the law will never he executed until there shall have been a reorganisation oi the revenue force. But the exposures maOc by the commit tee were of no avail in procuring a redac tion of the excise. The House voted by CO ayes to 89 nocs against reducing the profits ofthc smugglers and swindlers, or increas ing the revenue from this source. Some so called 14 stringent” additions have been made to the excise act, which will effect nothing for the Treasury so lone as Johnson’s dishonest officials divide profits "with the rogues, and protect them In their business of chesting the Government. The proposition that gas companies shall not, after the Ist of April, ISO 7, add the tax to their bills, was carried-through by 100 ayes to 50 nocs. The proposition to ex empt colton from the three cent tax after the first of September, 1807, was rejected by 03 to CT», and the tax remains as by existing laws for two years longer, when it expires by the limitations of the act. The entire amount of reductions included In the bill arc estimated at forty millions per annum. This will be some relief to the heavily-bur dened taS-paycrs of tbc United States. A NEW bOUIIIWKSTKIIN STATE. 1 The people of El Paso County, Texas, and I ot ]Dona Ana County, New Mexico, have pc- , tltioncd Congress to be set off as a separate , Territory, and to have a Territorial Govern ment creeled for their benefit. It may seem rather ambitious la tbc people of two coun ties to aspire to tbs position of a sopatalu State of the Union; but the two counties in question have an area considerably larger than the State of Illinois. They join each other on the Upper Rio Grande, north of (lie Mexican State of Chihuahua, and have tit present a population of about tixleoa thou sand, three fourth* of whom arc Mexicans, engaged in slock raising, mining and agri culture. A of El l*a«o County, writing to the Sun Antonio AVprr**, m favor of the movement, glvus a glowing account of the resources and prospects of the country. Ho ..tales that the table lands uro covered with .’ii.vnrlant grass, which will subsist hummer ■ hie herds of cuttle uad sheep; that the valleys of the Rio Grande and other rivers, when irrigated by water brought In ditches •rum the stream?, produce abundant crops ot earn, wheat, barley, rye, oats ami fruits, and vegetables of nearly all varieties, and un doubtedly the best grapes and wine on the Continent; that rich mines of gold, silver, ron, lead, coal and salt abound, and I hat tbc climate is beautiful and delightful. He com plain* that, notwithstanding these great natural advantages, tho country docs not rosper, and this want of prosperity he at . ributes to tbe remoteness of Government and •o the political situation. El Paso County is separated from tbe soi led portion of Texas by a desert five hun dred miles in extent, whichjs infested with hostile Indians. “For all State purposes,” uTs the writer above rclerrcdto, ** we might as we. 1 be attached to the State of Indiana as io Texas. We pay talcs to the State of Texas, hut we derive no benefit to return; we have no court house, no jail, no school houses, or iiuhlic buildings of any kind. Besides this, having always supported the United States Government, we have little sympathy with our present State Government, which appears to recognize ns only to punish us for our loyalty. Onr District Court was abolished by the last Leg islature, for no other imaginable reason than that we elected a loyal Judge ; and we bare been attached to a district 500 miles distant.” We should thiuk that with the Court House 'CO miles off, and a section of country to i ruverse that is infested with hostile savages, ibc prospect of obtaining speedy justice would be quite dubious. Imagine a party litigant making such a journey to the court with his witnesses, only to see bli case ad journed over to the next term! Thccountr i«l Dona Anna, in New Mexico, is In n similar situation, with reference to tbe administra tion of justice. “The Jourmvlo del Jfurrfn, ourney of death, intervening between her and that Territory, a change of venue from either of these counties invariably kills a criminal prosecution, because witnesses will not travel so great a distance, and malcfac. tors escape punishment, and life aud prop erty arc insecure.” If these statements arc correct, the people uf£l Faso and-Dona Ana certainly have a , pretty strong case to present to Congress. So far as Dona Ana Is concerned, there can be no question, of course, regarding tbc power of Congress over it, as it la part of a Territory. But in regard to El Paso County, a very interesting question arises, 1 whether in ease of the refusal ol the existing Government (so-called) of Texas to couscut -o its severance, Congre-s would anil have • lie power to detach it from the State; whether it is necessary* to ask consent of any existing Government; whether. In a word. Tolas is as absolutely a Territory under the control ol Congress, as New Mexico or Dako ta. The Reconstruction Bill that ha* passed Coogiess, by more than a two-thirds vote, c« rtuinly recognizes the Territorial con dition of the lalu insurrectionary Stales; and 1 ifthi-ir condition U Territorial, Congress has •lie undoubted right to partition off El Paso Oumly or any other county, iu Us discretion, u v limit asking the consent of any Govern > .nents now existing In the South. I*lls (iliOnliltTOWA ki^kction. A immiclual election hi the city ofDcnrgc mwn, under ordinary circumstances, Is a matter of very email public Importance: but *bo one which occurred there on Monday met possesses hMorlcul Interest. It was the first election within the District ol Columbia under the new fninehlse law or Congress, riiere, tor the first lime In the history or Mils • oiiutiy, was witnessed the gratifying spec tacle ol black and while irolntz to the Iml tot-box ns peers, In a community where the black and white population ure nearly equal, .Several New England Btalcs make no distinction on account of color; but there are very lew negroes hi those Blalcs; and the enemies of universal suitingc hive denied that Its ckMctico there was n Tali* test ol ths prhielple, or proof that It could he ratoly applied In a community where the negroes arc numerically strong. Hut these ob >t eeliohicit(iu"( be urged In lticca«e of (tie <<ci>igc(owu rleeilon. Wu had llture utltlr »csl of ihc prlnetplo of universal sniVraire. While (here is a preponderaneo of Dm a Idle population, the registry showed Dm uhicka to be auillelcntly numerous to turn he scale, unload the whiled Dumb) cote nearly solid; and the result shows 'hat Iho negro vote actually did settle the lection of Mayor. There wore 1,1150 whites c.d 071 blacks registered ; and this moat In t creeling of all recent elections settled several points satisfactorily. In the first place there was no disturbance, (lood order prevailed; all was as quiet on | the Potomac oa when McClellan’s army was 1 held In check by the wooden guns of Manas sas. This disposes of the oft-rcpcated pre diction that any attempt of the negroes to I vote In a Southern community would result in bloodshed; that it would be resisted to the death. It also disposes of another osscr- lon, namely, that the white men of the ,-outh would never consent to exercise the • lective franchise side by side with negroes; .hat if reduced to such a state of degrada ion by the North they would leave the conn ry, rather than live under a government in which tbc negro should have equal political rights. So (ar from bringing about such a late of things, tbc experiment of negro suf -jge lu Georgetown seems to have resulted in u unusually large white vote. Tbc dc •patch tells ns that great efforts were made «y both parties to bring out the voters. The tliivalry engaged in a fair political conics', i itli the white and black Radicals, i d they were beaten ; bnt we have no idea hat one of them will commit suicide or em grote because of his humiliation. The result of this clcctiou Is highly signi .leant. Before the passage of the franchise -ct, it was not supposed there were a hun i ired Rat leal white men In Georgetown, j rbcic was, in fact, no Radical n&rty there I —at none that possessed either influ 1 tcc or weight. Bnt the adoption of negro 1 uflrnuc developed a white Rauicalstrength .»t about two hundred and fifty. An analy sis of the vote, founded on the registration tte Radical majority, and allowing hat twenty negro voles were rejected, wilt how that it stood about as (ollows: .lack Republicans S’* Ahllc Republic*!!? 2th Total Republican vote, 'opperb-ad “white rata”. Radical majority. This is a surprising development of white Republican strength; and that in the face of •he fiercest appeals to tbc pride of race, and against the bitter scoffs and taunts and so cial ostracism inflicted on those who might vote the “nigger ticket.” It required con-- ►iderablc nerve and love of principle to withstand these persecuting Influences. This election is very significant of the fu lure and indicates that the white Radicals and black loyalists of the South will act to gether against the secessionists, and it shows the incalculable value of the colored vote to the Union cause south of Mason & Dixon’s line- The, Georgetown election Is the first reconstruction gun for the Union in the South. It proves that the experi ment of Impartial manhood suffrage works well, and Is perfectly safe in practice; and demonstrates, alto, that the colored c : tzcns possess sufficient intelligence and patriotism to vote on the side ol law, loyalty and the Union, which is more than can be said of most while Southerners. In June next, the municipal election lor Washington takes place, and we predict that the while and colored Radicals will sweep the city, and vanquish the Copper-rebel control of the municipal Government which has so long disgraced the Federal capital- Henry Addison, the defeated candidate tor Mayor, has held that office for a great many years. He must now give way for Mr. Welch, who represents the party of freedom and progress. The negroes hare succeeded as well in their first conteit with'the Cop perheads at the polls as they did in their en counters with the rebels on the battle-field They still fight on the fame side. Tin; stax i; ii on si; oonnis- SIOMIKS. A great pother Is made over the political complexion of the Board of State House Commissioners. It is alleged that the Dem ocrats have a majority of the Board, or will have, unless Colonel J. J. S. Wilson, of Quincy, induced to resign. We trust that Colonel Wilson’ will not resign. We regard U as a filling climax to the whole performance that the work should have been thrown into the hands of the opponents of the Republican party. Colonel Wilson, wo believe, is an old line Whig, who rotes the Democratic ticket occasionally, and the Re publican ticket scml-bccaslonally. There are no charges against his moral character. He probably considers bis political health good, and may he unwilling to admit the contrary by resigning his -office. He may even consider that his politics have nothing to do with his fitness to superintend the erection of a new State House. in tbc month of April, 1801, while the State was In the midst of hurry and preoara- Hun for war, the Legislature attempted to pass a hill “to create a war fund and to pro ** vide for auditing ail accounts and dis “ hnrsements arising under the call for voi “untccre.” ‘The auditing commissioners were named In the bill, and It passed both houses In that shape. Governor Yates told the members that the appointment of these offi cers was vested In him by the Constitution, and That while they might insult him by past-lug a bill which took this power away from him, he would not add to the insult by signing it. A (druggie ensued, which at one time teemed likelv to defeat the hill entirely. It ended In tho Legislature lucking doun fiom their untenable position, and striking out the namesoftboCominlsdonor*. The struggle on the State lloujo Bill would have ended in the same way if Governor Oglesby had pursued the satno course. If It shall turn cut that tho Democrats have a majority of the Board, we shall es teem it a fortunate thing for the Republican party. The chances arc ten to one that there will be a great deal oi odium growing out of the building of the State House on the three million plan. It hear desire that os much of this odium os possible may be put upon the shoulders of the opposite party. ITIIZ. WHNTIVOUTiPN SHELLING CO-HiTIITTGB. The Hon. John "Wentworth, of this Dis trict, had himself appointed a smelling com mhee, 1o Investigate the newspaper gossip that there had been secret meetings at tbc in&tigntion of the President wheie members of Congress were corruptly manipulated- The House appointed the committee at his request, but no one supposed at ihe time that the Investigation would amount to any thing. The result has justified popular ex pectation. Onr Representative went off too soon; he exploded prematurely, and instead ofheing the central hero of n sensation, he has had to present bimsclt before the House and that he had been una'do to ois eovrr a word of evidence to sustain the alle gation. I* ib unfortunate that the commit tee was ever raised; but it is more unfortu nate that the closing hours of the official ex istence ot a representative of a great com mercial city should be marked by a discom tilure su overwhelming that his coufesslon of Inability to prove his charges must have been painfully humiliating even to himself. The committee lias been discharged, and Us dis tinguished Chairman will in a few days lay aside his robes of office. JST* Mr. Morrill, chairman of the Ways aud Means Committee, offered a resolution in the House, on Monday, that “ the rules he suspended so that the Committee of the Whole on the stale of the Union he dis charged from the further consideration ol the Tariff BUI, that the House noii-concur in the Senate amendments, and ask a Commiltccof Conference.” The object of this resolution was to stop further debate and get the bill out of the Committee of the Whole, pass it through the House under the previous question, with the “M additions made to it, and then trust to a Conference Committee to fix up the points of dispute between the two Houses. Jlc ex pmined to the House that tbc defeat of his motion would certainly kill the hill, as the session would close in a few days. Ii requires a two-thirds vote to suspend the rules. The vote on the resolution was: Yeas, 84; nays, BG. Tims, instead of securing a two-thiids majority, the resolution failed to command even a majority of the House. This test exhibits a very heavy opposition to the hill in its present shape. Many of the New England members dislike tbc dollar mid n half tax on coal, the twenty-five dollar tax on jute, the high tax on coarse wool, the increased Impost on Iron, the 250 per cent tax on salt, the high duties on Canadian worsted wool, lumber and •itbcr raw products cssentialto their raauu- faclurcs—all of which must tend to crippli nnd injure the industry oftheir section. And •»c presume It was their votes, added to '.hose ofthe anti-pruhlliillunlsls of the West, that defeated Morrill’s resolution. But wo are nut sanguine that the bill of abominations will fall to pass. There Is a powerful lobby of speculators urging U forward, and it may tel he mslicd through daring the closing hours cf I’omiress. The Pennsylvania and New England speculators may compromise their differences, agree to quit trying to gouge each other, and hitch teams to (duck the We c t and other sections of the Union. We shall not derm the danger passed until the morning of the 4lh of March. But even If the bill he defeated this session, It may bo taken up by the next Congress, made still more oppressive and damaging to the Inter ests ofthe people, and (hen be fastened upon (he public Cut a season. U will work Haown overthrow in the end, hut (he country will first have to suiter hundreds of millions of spoliation before tiro vampires entt be shaken oil the body politic. (.‘hti'ituo Thiira nltouCM llmi we Imvo muni (‘oMtfrccH to |iup<* ConiintMlunur Wi'iv Tumi Milt. Wo Imvo ilonu mulling of iltolamt. Wvlwvvtwd CmqjrrMtu ii "Mil Iniaoil upon (ho prlm'lplon B "| forlh Id Wolln 1 Hojiorl," which print*)* [•'•Ohio rimj'ly Uml 111" ImliMry of tho omiiilry umU relief IV*»m uverdaxaUuu, ami that u iu\y per v«wt lariffU a ftfty per eeui tax upon Hie liulualry ortho country. Mr. Wcilh' 'lailll' HIM w«i predicateu upon the Idea thru Congress was about to increase the tax on import* t« seventy per cent, ami that nothin/; which looked like a reduction of taxes would ho entertained for a moment, w hile a bill which changed the burdens of taxation Irom articles of necessity to articles ol luxury, and placed upon the free list a large number of articles which ore necessary to manufacturing Industry, might have some chance of being accepted by Congress. In this be was entirely mistaken. Congress wanted the heaviest possible burdens put upon everything—such as 300 per cent on salt, $1.50 per ton on coal, and so forth. They wanted tbc crushing-out policy adopted In everything. ST* A Copperhead paper, speaking of the Loyal Suffrage Law of Tennessee, says: “A firm m Raphvlile, one of tbc larges' and most respectable n.ercaciilo booses in the State, paying annually many thousand dollars of taxes, has, including clerks, six person? employed m :be concern besides rhu porter, wbo Is a negro. TUe tatter is now the only one or tne whole concern wbo !s allowed a vote under tbe present Brownlow CoesUtnnon. Tbc point of tbe joke is, that the • egro was the Wildest rebel of all, and was on officer's servant In tbelate rebel army, and when lighting by bis master's ?td" be was tbc third man over ibe ramparts or Fort Pillow, where bo f It Ilk.- an avcrpi.g thunderbolt upon the negroes— who »o gallantly sunendtied that stronghold.** This story, if true, proves three things at least: 1. That the “whole firm of sir persons” arc Involved in the guilt of treason and re bellion, and have forfeited thtir right of suf frage. 3. That it if possible f.*r a “nigger” to tall so low as to become a rebel by compul sion, in the capacity of au officer’s servant. 3. Thai ** uigge s ” tnM tight—will “ storm rumpaiis like avenging thunderbolts.” Bnt we arc willing to wager a bat that the alorc -aid darkey supports the Radical ticket In Nashville, and that he casts bis vote for Governor Brownlow, What Cop. takes the bet ? CsT - Ex-Governor Sharkey having pre rented tlie Johnson-Dixon plan of rccoa btruction to Governor Humphreys, of Mis sissippi, the Governor submitted it to the Lcgislatuic. That body referred it to a com mittee, and the committee reported two resolutions for adoption, instead oftbe John son-Dixon scheme of reconstruction, and the Legislature adopted the resolutions. Tue substance of these resolutions was that Con gress be requested to submit to tbc Slate of Mississippi a final plan of adjustment, the adoption whereof would secure the repre sentation of the State- Congress has prompt ly responded to this reqnest, and the Missis ripplans need remain in doubt no longer. It was, however, a pretty severe cut at the President, when. In lien of adopting the plan he recommended to them, the Legislature applied to Congress as the only branch of the Government worth noticing. C*?”The press of Mlsslsslnpt favor Hie re clcclion of General Humphreys to the Guber natorial chair. TbcMlsslsslpplans had better hurry If they want to rc-inanguratc the Gen eral ; fur, under tbc new Reconstruction Law, he will be disqualified from holding any office under the Slate Government, except by con sent of two-thirds of each House of Congress. EUROPE. Our Special Foreign Corre spondence. * Progress of the Straggle for British'Reform, The Contestants. Sketches of tlie Government and Liberal Leaders in the Mouses of Parliament. {Special Correspondence of the Chicago Tribune. Lokdok, England, February 2. UEFOIIU. Although the Cabinet must have decided, at the meeting held In the Earl of Derby’s house this week, whether a Reform Bill should be introduced by the Government or cot, on Its extent and the mode ot dealing with it, the public arc unaware what that decision has been. The doubt and anxiety on the subject roust bo soon terminated, for Parliament is to meet on the sih of this month, and, if tbc Queen’s speech is silent on the all-absorbing topic of the day, the Liberal party will probably commence an Immediate onslaught on the Government by moving on amendment on the Address, or calling on the House to make a declaration of its opinion. Everyone U on the guiWt* on tin* subject, and the same everyoue has his own particular conjecture as to the prob ability of Government dealing With it. One of the best cartoons tbit has appeared in Punch for many a day is the one in this week’s number, by Tcnnlcl, called u the Gladiators Preparing for the Arena.” The persons represented arc Mr. Wal pole, the Homo Secretary; Mr. Roe buck ; Earl Russell; Sir J. Paktng ton, Flist Lord of tho Admiralty; Mr. Gladstone; Mr. Ilorsman; Lord Stan- ley. Secretary for Foreign Affairs; tho Earl of Derby, First Lord of tho Treasury; Mr. Tom Hughes ; Mr. Disraeli, Chancellor of the Exchequer; Mr. Lowo; Lord Cran bourne, Secretary of Stole for India; Mr. Bright, and Mr. J.S. Mill. The llkcDcasc<i nru very good and the expression Is admira ble. Mr. Walpole is shedding tears—he cried on the occasion ol the Hyde Park riots—and Sir .1. Paklngion, with angry frown, suggests u him more resolution. Earl Russell is practising on dumb hells, ticketed 1832, 1852,1854,1800 and IB6o—the dalflt of the va rious Reform measures Introduced by bim la tho course of his political life. Thev are evi dently too bc&vy fur the noble Lord’s muscu lar development, and bo Is evidently cha grined that he cannot wield them with more effect. Gladstone, iu antique costume, bran dishes a mighty spear, is full of resolution and ai dent for oratorical battle. Horgaun, with raised hand and shield, is only too clad to excite the parties to thefioy. Stanley is represented as calm and placid, but resolved and well knli. His father, the Earl of Derby, is turning a wheel, on which Disraeli is sharpening a short sword, the better Chan, cellor of the Exchequer being evidently anxious that the point should be as sharp as possible, Mr. Bright’s coat of mail Is ex hibited, surmounted by a Quaker’s hat; and Mr. Lowe is employed in examining the weak points of the armor of the great re former. Lord Cranboumc is pressing into the thickest of the flgbt. On the right of the caitoou Mr. Bright—perhaps the best figure of all—is practising with boxing gloves on a “dummy,” representing aristoc racy, and surmounted by a coronet, while by his side stands Mr. J- S. Mill, ready with a bowl of “icglc,” anticipating that his friend Bright may require a strengthening glass of that cordial. Accompanying the cartoon, there is an explanatory ba'lad, in imitation of Lord Macaulay’s “Lays oi Ancidut Rome.” Gladstone is “McrripebulnsLowe is “ Ilu millsßright, “Lncidus Radlcclls Crau hournc, “Crenbornius Actdulus;” Disraeli is a man of many names. And—mystery ot the Arena— One shape of many names— VUienu?, Conning boas, Sidoi.lus, who claims, Bni io ludi and Vauierae, A* Uizzhu far-rcBO iucd. Yourreaders need not be told that Dis raeli is the author of “Vivian Grey,” “Conlngsby,” “Sidouius,” and other works of fiction, but they ore not, I suppose, aware that he is familiarly known to the British conversational public as u Dizze.” This is tbc form which his name generally assumes, when spoken of almost everywhere out of the House of Commons. GLADSTONE. Mr. Gladstone has only just returned from the Continent. His last public appearance was i-i the Grand Hotel of Paris, where a banquet was given In his honor by the po litico-economical society cf the French Capi tal. Mr. Tcnidel very properly clothes him in a robe of “ oratory,” for In the capacity of n speaker he is decidedly ibe first man in the House of Commons, i r perhaps outoflt. Mr. Horsman, who Is himself amongst tbc best oral; rs of the Hou-c of Commons, de scribed the eloquence of Mr. Gladstone, the * • tiler day, as almost divine. This praise is j erhaps exagp rated, but when Mr. Glad stone is addressing an audience on a popular topic in which he feels strongly Interested, it ■s difficult to conceive a' higher pitch of human eloquence. He U now verging to * ards his sixtieth year. The lines of his face -how great intellectual energy. Ills cheeks :nc ciow-footed beyond his years, but the forehead Is smooth, broad and blah. The i‘jcU dark, quick and deeply seated. Mr. Gladstone is of middle height and of a slight figure, which conveys anything but nnldca cl strength or of robust health. The legs :*rc badly shaped ami weak—too feeble, al most. to support the body. This Is n defect which is not seen when Mr. Gladstone stands h»-lore the table of the House of Commons. There the intellectual man nlouo is icon; nml, on those grand occasions, when great principles have to ho asserted nml defended ; when the existence of ft Government Is nl stake, nr when Ihc oratorical powers of rival politicians are in conflict, the House of Commons enjoys no greater treat than In lis tening to Us lorcmost statesman and debater pouting out, bom alter hour, a slrenm of the must polUtied eloquence, enriched by ttlu?< (rations derived Hum wide rending, support* cd by arguments founded In logic and expr. lichee, nml miUnnUul by w burning dvsbo to pininuUMbg piosperity of bis wnmUy nml the world. Of ft toUvlty «UiiVnmt stamp is UU political Oval, Mr. HUnwU. U ha* bean lhaml*thr> tni'<* of ilw lender of the Tory party In tin* Tower House, (hat the native form of JiU miiul have been prevented from expanding by the essential principle of comm at lam. lu an ago of progress a man of real intellect must feel himself terribly fettered when ho has to appear as the supporter of an an tiquated and traditional system. This Is painfully apparent la the case of Disraeli, ills Intellect would lead him on, but there is the dead weight behind him which keeps him back, lie has to put “ Church vermd llou on a Moses face," and the efl'ect Is any thing hut good. It is said that Disraeli, about the lime, I suppose, when he wrote •* the wonderful tale of Alrov,” had a hand' e-omc face, but there is little left ot it now. lie retains, however, some of the dandyism of his youtfatul days, and whenever a Parlia mentary scene is expected, the Chancellor ol the Exchequer is sure to appear in his place with some extravagant appendage of dress. As a speaker Disraeli wants the fluency of Gladstone. In fact nature never meant him to be an orator. He is an Ulus nation of the principle that tbc orator is made, not born. At a very early age be was, from instinct, a writer and a critic ; in ma ture life he wants the case and grace of the perfect speaker. His most celebrated f j-ccchrs arc those which were prompted by pcseonal spile as, forlnstance, those in which lie si* cruelly wounded the lato Sir R. Peel. Perhaps no phrase can describe him better ;h*u one which he uscdhimsclfin relercncc so Peel, namely, that of an “organized hy pocrisy.’* THE EARL OF DEIUIT- A far better ana more equal match for Mr. Gladstone would be the Earl of D.rby, but he is in the House of Peers. In bis younger day* and when a member of the House oi I'oiniLOns, Lord Derby, then Mr. Stanley, -*as considered the best debater in the Cham her. He was then culled “the Hotspur of delate.” and feared no opponent, except, r erbnps, the late Richard LalorShiel. Since* lie went into the House of Lords, Lord Derby haslost much of blsyouthful fire. Theatraos* pbere of the Upper House was too cold for the fetvid bitterness of “ Scorpion Stanley,” as O’Connell called him. When at his best there never was a better speaker. He wa* not only lineal, but most felicitous in the use of bis expression?, and, yet, few men make less preparation for their speeches than Lord Derby. LORD STANXCr. Lord Stanley, though in respect of person nl appearance very like his father, is his ve»y antithesis as a speaker. Slow, cool and de* liberate. Lord Stanley scarcely ever utters a word without due preparation and fore* thought. He measures his way cautiously. He is accordingly the perfection of good sense, hut there is little color or variety id his style. One would rather trust to the conclusions of the ton, but would infinitely prefer the rhetoric of the lather. MR. UOUSMAX belongs to the dyspeptic class of politicians. He is the nephew of a peer, and, therefore, connected with the aristocracy. He care fully prepares his speeches, which are very select and well arranged, full of per* sonal allusions and party bitterness. Mr. Horsnian was CblefSecretary for Ireland tor a short time, but resigned his post on the ground that “be had’nothing to do.” The uuiuts,hc thought he was entitled to a Beat in the Cabinet, and felt uncomfortable in tola position In Ireland—the Irish members being ofa nature tbovery opposite to that of Mr. Hojsman. Wth Mr. Lowe, bo la.the moat conspicuous member of the celebrated Cove of Adullam. UB; LOWS, now one of the most celebrated mirmfflbne* It Parliament, la ft man His per sonal appearance is peculiar, being; very much that of an Albino. Hla oyea being weak, he keeps them nil but closed. His •ace u amooth and elongated. He has but Utile hair on bis bead cod that is white. He has none at all ou bis face and that is ruddy. Uc is a man ol learning and of experience, feared In the House, dreaded lu the Tlmrs. and disliked everywhere. His oratorical gifts have become conspicuous only of late jears, and, like bis person, ther are of a peculiar kind. Ho has neither the case nor grace of the artistic I speaker nor the commonplace flow of the I ordinary one. Ho is more than fluent; ho ; rustics. There are no calmly flowing periods or ripples in his eloquence ; it is a constant gush of water /breed along in a narrow chan nel, or tumbling voluminously over some opposing rock. Mr. Lowe is a fall man—fall of thought and various reading; fall also of many prejudices and narrow views; on sub jects connected with religion and the Church, of the widest liberalism; on many subjects connected with politics, of very restricted conservatism; and Ideas, and images, and illustrations start up in such profusion to his mind that the toncue fa too slow to give them utterance. Ho does not give you time to distinguish what Is true from what is fuhe, and ho hurries you along u Ith such rapidity and force that you hive hoi time or disposi tion to resist. It was of Mr. Lowo and Mr. Horsman that Mr. Bright said, they formed a party by themselves, but Uko a Scotch ter rier, all covered with hair, you could not tell which was head and which was tail. LOUD CHANnOUUNB ts one of tho most direct and personal antag. oalalslu the House of Commons. He Is a clover muti; he Is an earnest man, and, like all men of earnest convictions, who arc at tbc same lime the sous of uoblcs, a success ful mail On Ids first appearance in Parlia ment, he took a very decided and a very Independent course, and sooq became a man (f mark. Up to the time of assuming office boeut apart fiom his party, taking his place by the side of Mr. Roebuck—the two most 111-tempered politicians in tho House thus silting ’■life by side. Of Mr. Bright I need cay nothing, os 1 have already mado a sketch Of him for the Tujuune. MR. MILL Is not a public speaker. He mu«t carefully prepare what be says; but wbat lie dues say is full of wisdom. lie yesterday made his inaugural addiess to the students of the Uni versity of St. Andrew, in Scotland. The Daily Sex cs, of this morning, gives sis columns of It, and that is only a portion of the address. Mr. Mill is one ol the most conscientious of liv ing men. ■Whatever he says or writes U the result oi patient and deliberate reflection. He bos the highest opinion of Mr. Bright and Mr. Gladstone, and they have the high cst opinion of Lis estimation of them, lie did not busitalti to tell the Scotch, in the ec clesiastical capital of the country, many things which the zealots of that hypsr-reiig ious portion of the United Kingdom will, no doubt, stigmatize as rationalistic ami dangerous; but Mr. Mill is not the man to conceal what he thinks because others may call him names. Such, then, arc the principal combatants who will be arranged on either side of the Speaker’s chair, at five o’clock on next Tues day, after Her Majesty shall have formally opened the session. The debates will be warm, and perhaps passionate. The Reform question will be the most prominent topic, and with Mr. Gladstone for its leader iu the House, ord the mas-cs for its support out* side the House, I predict Us final success. THE TAHIFF QUESTION. Our Commercial History, Chicago, February 23,15G7. To the Editor of (ho Chicago Tribune: In the third century before the Christian Era, the Chinese constructed a wall, fifteen hundred miles in length and twenty-five feet high, to exclude the outside barbarians: but this formidable work was not proof against their inroads. Our statesmen, or, rather, politicians, after the lapse of more than two thousand years, arc seeking to accomplish the same thing, and with no better success. The idea of encumbering whiskey with a tax of 1,000 per cent, acd moat other artlc’cs with au impost of 70 per cent, and prevent ing their being smuggled along a lino 3,000 miles iu extent, intersected by rivers, inlets and forests, is utterly preposterous. We should suppose that the lessons of history between the year 300 B. C. and thaycar 1807 A. D. would have influenced to some extent our legislators. While every enlightened nation under a true exposition of the laws of trade Is gradually relaxing Us commercial rcflrlctions. cnf-*rced mainly for the purposes of revenue, we arc imitating and carrying out, In ail its rigor, the 1 hlnc.e policy of two thousand years ago. Happy country; far seeing sta esnicn I Since tbc orianlza'ion of our Government we have had revenue tariffs, protective tariffs, and absolute prohibition; aud it will not he barren o> in.crest to unto the national development under these several systems of policy. It will be fotud, contrary to th opinion so Industriously propagated by the monopolists, that the nation made the greatest strides lu material prosperity when commerce was most nearly free. tariff of 17811, This was the first tariff passed. It was based on the report of Hamilton, advocated by Madison, and approved hy Washington. The country was Just emerging from the effects ol tt long and disastrous war, with exhausted resources, and with no cslulilMieil leveiiuc. This net, with some slight moililU cnt'uns, tunmlned In force until JTO, and low been appealed to ns sanctioning the principle of protection. To Judcc how far It was pro tective, compare the duties Imposed on some ol the lending articles with those of the ex* Ming t a till, gcctimv closely Just in 8. Morrill follows in the footsteps of Alexander li nn lltoii} Jamaica proof spirits, ton cents per gallon ; other distilled spirits, eight cents: molasses, two and a half cents: Madeira nine, eighteen cents : other wince, ten cents; (inwrought steel, Hitv cents per UK) pounds: upon urntmtoclurcAnr wool, culUm niidll>icn», iWn per vent ml inlnwu, me, "Under this tin Ilf," (* Hildreth, the MMmlnn, who In his lllciinm w»n on urdsnt Ifepnhlli'itn i) "Ihe revenue liimmsed from HlMlolsH irom four iuUlloiia mover six teen millions, ami the country was prosper ous, Tim export of domestic produce had tripled In value, having reached the amount oi ioitj*two mlUbmii. A trade Ij a mmrti greater nominal amount, and rapidly ncreasing, was carried on in the Import and export of foreign na tions, on which very la»go profits were made on good* paying a moderate rev enue, and vet the country advanced rap idly in material prosperity." This tariff yielded the largest per capita revenue ot any la our history, up to 1800. I'uoiunixios—lßo7. But a change was at hand which was to Lest by practical experience the effects of Pro- hibition. The Chinese Wall Policy was to be enforced, American labor to bo “protected," and home Industry to he built up—a system to which wc arc rapidly verging. In ISOG was passed the Non-Importation Act, followed in 1807 hy the Embargo. What says the his torian? ‘‘lt was an act striking a deadly blow at the National industry, arid at the means of livelihood ol great nnmbers, the real nature and Inevitable operation of which seem to have been equally misapprehended by the '.'abiset which recommended, and by the ma jority which enacted it.” This was emphatically the "American sys tem." with scope and verge enough to run and be glorified; Could the mechanic com plain of the competition of pauper labor? Did cot the manufacturer monopolize the home market f But how with the farmer 7 Let the historian speak. “ TFArot fdl fraui $2 to 70 cents.” Uow about the Let tbc historian again ans wer : ‘To a tingle moment, without warning or indemnity, multitudes bad been cat off from their accustomed occupations and ordiuary means ol livelihood, reduced to a forced anil helpless idleness more painful even than the loss of income.. * * But it did not sei-m to be the part of patriotism quietly to submit io idleness and starvation, at the pleasure ot experimental i>olliicians, whose judgment they despised and of the rectitude of whose intentions they were by no means confi dent.” Ib this not the judgment of the ikcoplc nf«5D the framers of the pending tar iff? Pm how with the cotton and tobacco planters of the South? We summon John Randolph: “ They had, by their votes in support of a scries of most nnpo-ltlc and ruinon? meas ures, utterly incomprehensible to anv ra tional or sober-minded men, succeeded in kroeUiug down cotton to seven cents and tobacco to nothing, and in adding to the price of biankcts, coarse woollens, and every article of prime necessity, three or four hun dred per cent.” Now, history repeats itself, and we may expeet the same results from the prohibi tory policy of 1567, which flowed from that of 1807. This act so disastrous to the na tional industry was repealed In 1809 by the very politicians who enacted It; hut the non-importation act was continued. In ISI2 the Embargo was re enforced. During the short interval of free importation the Treasury had been replen ished, and had a surplus of $3,030,090, and the people found some relief In an efficient system of smuggling which was carried on along the extended coastline. InlSl*3camo the warand the peace followed In 1815. Tbu«, fer a period of eight years, the country en joyed the btmlUFof the prohibitory rar as it could bo enforced by all of the ap pliances of the Government. But hjw lured the nation? Let the historian again answer : “The Treasury was bankrupt.” Its Secretaiy* Dallas, “was struggling with the suspended banks, for the privilege of supply ing the country with irrodoemable paper.*' "With a population of 11,000,000. from a popular loan of 10,000,000 only one-halfway taken at eighty per cent." "A new debt had been created of $03,000,000." The debt, however, was nothing "compared to that policy which had - for seven years, interrupted and destroyed the foreign trade, which, in spite of all bel ligerent encroachments and interferences, might, bad the merchants been left to them selves, have produced nearly as ample com mercial returns as during the seven years preceding, not only paying off tiit entire J Yattonal dtbt % but accumulating a great mat* of capital in the hands of individuals,” The Nation came ont of the- war with every branch oflndustry prostrated, “the business mep with capitals dilapidated, ves sels captured by tho enemy or half Gotten at the wharves, warehouses empty and ralooas, grass growing in the streets of many once busy marts, and the currency In a complete state of derangement.” TARIFF of 1816. In 1810 was enacted the first tariff In which tbc protective feature was • carried out; and among Us most sealous advocates was John Q. Calhoun, whilst amongits strongest oppo nents was Daniel Webster. The 'representa- tives of the mercantile Interest denounced it ” os a continuation of that scheme of com mercial restrictions and Government Inter ferences which had already Involved thj, country in so many calamities.” The du»y on woollens and cottons was fixed at 35 per cent, to be reduced at the end of three years to twenty per cent; on rolled and bar Iron, S3O per ton; steel S3O per ton; and spirits from S 3 cents to 75 cents per gallon, accord ing to proof. The main features of this tariff, mado more prohibitory by the act of 1824, continued la force until 1833. As a revenue measure, It was not os effective as the Hamiltonian tariff, which at tho outset yielded $1 to each inhabitant, but gradually rose to $2.50; while tbc Calhoun tariff showed marked flue tuations in the amount of revenue, starting off with $30,000,000, and dropping os low os $13,000,000; and, with regard to the ratio of Income, compared with population, it In no oco year went above the ratio of 1908, while, in Its lowest fluctuation, It only yielded sev enty-five cents per caplin. Under the one tariff- *c had tho equilibrium which Indicates calm weather and commer cial prosperity; under tho other, abrupt fluctuations, which Indicate foul weather and commercial distress. The Protectionists, not content with the tariff of 1810, clamored for more, which was given them by the amendatory act of 1834. Still not appeased, Mr. Clay brought forth what was known as the 14 Tariff of Abomina tions,” which was so nauseating that tbc n ore moderate Protectionists ware disposed to bolt tbe food set before them; but, finally, »Uh many grimaces and contortions, they gulped il down. CLAY AND JACKSON. That this system was obnoxious to a vast

body of the American people is evidenced by the fact 1 bat, w hen four y ears after. Clay, as Us avowed champion, entered the Presidential lists ocainst Andrew Jackson, he was beaten out of sight. Although Clay by his imperiousness and dictation had forced this system on the country, be was first to bring forward the “compromise scheme” of 1832. There may be surviving relics of the old Whig party who regard Henry Clay as a gnat statesman. He was bold, arrogant, and overbearing, up to a certain point; but when the crisis came, he proved to he of the willow rather than the oak. His whole ca- recr is marked by political expedients of the shallowest Kind. What his admirers call patriotism, the world will call make-shifts. ‘Representing a constituency whose maritime knowledge did not extend bey o the navi gat ion of a canoe or flat-boat, he forced Madison iuto a war ostensibly for the pro tection of sailors’ rights, under the pain of the failure of a renomination. After a series of humiliating defeats of onr army on the land, but of glorious triumphs of onrnavy on the ocean, be became the negotiator of peace, In which he gave the go-by to every principle to maintain which the war was inaugurated. His panacea for the cure of slavery was to spread it, ns the quack would suppress small* pox by diffusing it through a neighborhood. When the “American System” was repudi- ated by the people, he was ready to com promise at twenty per cent. When Jackson, backed by a majority of tbc nation, was ready to hang the arch-traltor, Calhoun, for treason, Clay was ready with another com promise ; and the last political act ol his life was an attempt to patch up the dilapidated ruins of slavery through which the winds of heaven howled with dirge-likc notes, pro- phetic ofits utter overthrow. That the issue of the support or rejection of the “ American system ” wa* clearly made in this contest is undeniable; for, in the veto of the Bank Bill, General Jackson held the following language, plain, direct and incapable of mislutcrprclatlon: “Many of our rich men have not been con tent with equal protection and equal bene fit®, but have besought us to make them nciter bj acts of Congress. By attempting to g aliiy their dc.-ire.s we bare, in the re sults of our legislation, arrayed section against faction, interest against Interest, aud man against man, in a tearful commotion, winch threatens to shake the foundations of our Union. It Is time to pause in our career, to review our principles. * * If we can not at once, in justice to interests vested un der l/n/.rwh/ent make our Govern ment what it ought to be, wo can ot least tike a stand n gainet oil new grant* of monopo li(* ntul reclusive privilege*, ogaintt tiny prosti tution of onr (Government to the advancement of the few tit the eijicnne of the many.” TUC CRASU OP 1837. The monopolists point to this revulsion as the resultuf alow tariff. Apart from tho fact that wc did not haven low tariff then, It is diteeily tmccableioafardilferent cause. In ISJ‘J, Jackson vetoed the bill to re-elnirtor (In-Unitui States Unnk. Thu people hav ing triumphantly sustained the veto by re fleeting him, ho proceeded to remove the Government deposits from Its vaults, and trni’Plcr tl-cin to the State Hanks. No soon er hud Old Hickory lunched the hank “(down np wltti high conceits*’ with Ids Ithnrlcl spear of truth, than II "squat like n toad." This tneusmu, though justified by euW* 'incut revelations, as to the utter Insolvency of the Hank, could not but result In dlsnslePi The withdrawn! of S:tt,OOJ,iKX) with the enormous loans and discounts pre dicated on this capital, and extending to every section of the Union, and the neecssi* i,v ol Vailing in tlm sanm, could hot hut re* suit in A trenietMliiiis shock to commercial credit#. To guard against this, tho Bluto bank!, selected as tho depodioric! of tho Government land!, were mlmuUiwl to In nate tlm currency and thus afford tnrllMle* Cot a career of wild and rockleasapeoiilntlon. The consequence was a collapse of tho most diMistorous character. In recurring to tho dlfcnoslonfiof liml period, wo tlnO that (ho tarllf was deemed a subject of no Importance. TUC Wlllrt TARIFF OP 1542. Tho Whigs, coming into power, revised the tariff and raised the duties from twenty per cent np to forty per cent. Under Its se ductive inilticnees, capital was inveigled into manufactures, particularly that of iron, so that when the Walker tariff of IS4C was en acted, many were irretrievably ruined. THE WALKER TARIFF. This tariff reduced tho duties to the stand ard of ISC3, bnt, unlike that tarilf, discrimi nated lu lavor ot home productions, and was prolifloio revenue far beyond the wants of the Government, yielding os high as $04,000,000 in 1854. In ISST, this tariff was modified by ieducing the duties somewhat. Increasing the free list, with a view of diminishing (die revenue to the mere wants of the Govern ment. That year came the financial crash, and il came without any premonition. On the S4th of August, the Ohio Life and Trust Company failed. The banks suspended spe cie payments, and at cnee came a fearful c-entiaclion, producing such scenes of com mercial min as have seldom been witnessed. Tfce New York banks. In less than sixty days, contracted their loans more than $35,000,000, and the Massachusetts banks more than $10,000,000. Stocks were thrown upon a feverish market acd eold at an Immense de preciation ; and capitalists, not knowing whom to trust, locked up their treasure, which Increased the stringency. We had at that time an inflated cur rency, which always brings about spec ulation and produces fearful fluctuations in value. The power of issuing and con tiolHnu the currency resided in some fifteen hundred Slate banks, having no unity of ac •lon and pledged to no fixed policy. While Et eland carried on her immense commerce upli a bank note circulation of less than $200,000,000. and a specie reserve of fifty per cent, wc had a bank note circulation still greater, with a specie reserve of one-eleventh In New England, and still less in other sec tions. It is not to be wondeicd at that so vast a-superstmeture, reared on so alen Jer a base, should topple at the first breath of alarm. The crash of 1857 was due to the in- Qition of the currency, rather than the Walker tariff, communicating to everything a fictitious value, and producing a spirit of reckless speculation. In the history of that period there cannot be found a public man or journal which attributed the catastrophe to the low tariff. The New York Tribune at tributed it to the undue inflation and expan sion of mercantile credits. THE TARIFF OF 1561. The Morrill tariff, with its several addi tions, has an average range of duties equal to 56 per cent. The “ Protectionists.” not con tent with that, seek to raise them to 70 per cent. As a financial measure, it Is open to the severest criticism, as one-third of the im ports are on the free-list, and the duties on many of the others arc sb high as to amount almost to prohibition. The country needs revenue, and by decreasing the duties on many articles and imposing a moderate duty on many in the fiee list, the aggregate of revenue could he much Increased. The prac tical effects of this tariff are to throw the burden of supporting the Government on the agricultural interest, by cutting-the former off from a foreign market, and .Imposing a tax of 50 per cent upon everything which be consumes, to inveigle capital into unproductive pursuits, to rob theUovcm roent of revenue and confer jibe sums thus fllched''frcm the treasury upon a favored class,. Oar people thusfar have submitted ' patiently to ibis Iniquitous legislation, their attention- having been directed to the all absorbing question of the preservation of the Union, but that question being disposed of, they will Inquire why it is that particu lar industries should be pensioned out of tbelr own bjvd earnings; why it is that, while they find it difficult at the close of the year to make both ends meet, these pensioners ’return' Incomes ranging from $30,000 to $500,000, and are still clamoring for in creased protection. PROGRESS 13? NATIONAL WEALTH, Between 1840 and ISSO, with six years of revenue tariff, and four years .of protection, while population increased 85 per cent, the national wealth Increased SO per cent. Between 1850 and 1800, under the Walker tariff, while population increased 35)<f per cent, tbc national wealth Increased 120 per cent. Iron manufactures increased 42 per cent; cottons, 76 per cent, and woollens 53 per cent; and the total value of domestic manufactures Increased SO per cent. This Is tbc touchstone by which to test tho effects of a revenue tariff. Particular in terests were more prosperous under tho Whig tariff of 1842-0; bat tbc combined in dustry of the country under the Walker tariff was Increased In value in the ratio of 60 to 120, A nation which makes such tre mendous strides iu wealth, under a revenue tariff, where industry is untrammelled, has little cause to Interfere and force that In dustry, by bounties and prohibitions, Into unnatural channels. From 1801 to 1807, under the hot-bed legis- latlon of tho Morrill tariff, manulacturliur In dustry bus either declined or remained stationary, showing that what has been gained In tbc way of bounties has been more than lost in the increased cost of production and the diminished demand for manufactures consequent upon tbe excessive prices. DEDUCTIONS. From tho fitets embraced In this historical survey vre make the following deductions: 1. That a tariff with moderate duties yields a greater revenue than one where tbe duties ate high. 3 That there Is no surer way of Impover ishing the nation than to destroy Us foreign trade, as evidenced by tho operation of the embargo; and that the principle of protec tion Is toward a restraint of foreign trade. If It docs not accomplish this, U falls of Its purpose. 3. That the combined industry of the country has been more prosperous, and tbc accumulation of wealth greater, under a moderate tariff, than under one which em bodies the principle of prohibition. 4. That the commercial revulsion df 1817 was the result of the embargo and non ktercoursc produced by the war; that of 1837, of the destruction of the UnltcekStatca Bank; and that of 1557, of an inflated paper currency and Us rapid contraction, by which all mercantile credit was overthrown. Anti-Prohibition. CFSEEAL THOMAS PERRONET THOMPSON. Tlio Soldier, Statesman* Essayist and Kefonuer. The London TVbrMnpmin, of a recent date, publishes a biographical sketch of Lieuten ant General Thomas Perronet Thompson, author of the “Catechism on the Corn Laws,” (probably the most trenchant and effective document in its influence upon the masses ol the English people, that was ever put in print,) ex-member of Parliament, sol dier in many campaigns in India, Spain, South America and the West Indies, former editor of the BVsftm'rwhr the protege and co-laborer of Wilberforce in the cause of negro emancipation, and also of Catholic emancipation, the colleague ofJoscpb Hume in the Radical Reform party of IS3I, the forerunner and instructor of Richard Cobden in free trade, the earnest and consistent advo cate of universal suffrage and the ballot for the English people, and the Arm friend of the United States during our recent struggle. General Thompson Is one of those unfortu nate men whe arc always half a century iu advance of their age, but, unlike most of these men, he has lived to sec the age over take him in many things, and to see the promise that It will soon overtake him in other things. He is now cightv-four years of age. He commenced his series of brilliant attacks upon the Corn Laws in the ITestintn tier Jtevkxc in 1820, and after seventeen years of persistent labor and undaunted courage, during which lime he was elected to Parlia ment by his native town of Hull, be bad the satisfaction of seeing those odious and op pressive laws, which prohibited the English laborer from exchanging the products of his lndustry*Tnr food without first paying a flue, erased forever from the statute book. In response to a letter which wc recently addressed to this veteran reformer, request ing a f«w copies of his celebrated Corn Law Catechism, wc have received the following Utter: Eliot Vale, Blackukvtit, I l.oNn.ox. S. K., February 2, !So7. | To the Fdtlorot the Chicago Tribune; Sit:: Ti e friendly reception you bare given to some coplea or a work which Is ceacrahy consid ered as btvloir bad a me cflc.t noon th<* struggle foi FreeTimh; In England, enttlcd "Catechism np the Tom Laws," indites mo to express-the pleartirel should have In opening an occasional correspondence with an Amerlcm jjurcal on sub jects' Interesting to boA countries. Yon arc perfectly right In tbo Idea intimated In yonr letter acknowledging the receipt of the (jfptce above mentioned, that a war with America is, or wn«, the darl'ns hope of what I will call the , Absolutist parly in KmtlnuU. Taat hope Is undo itinbJy beaten down at tho present; and the trans aciKim In Jamaica have had a crcal effect in rous ing English sympathy with your contest In Amer ica, which men of plain s> use see clearly to be a sirnaele of the same kind, only with differently rotated faces In 'he sutfervrs. Uls a war against wind I see called " inbjccl races." In /'mi’rtca the "subject races " me those of African descent.; In iiticlotid (hey arc (hose who, without having dmh laces, are allowed no reptesvnlatlves la the fintninguf law*, mid suffer accordingly. The hope of war being, a* 1 said, considerably beaten down, (he next recourse of (he party and its iomim)* is to misrepresent your snuggle. They nrc awmc tltfti wills ytsssi 1 fate msrs U luvoiv* ell. atul that if rmt get thrnugli toureoiiiesl with siu-rest, uurs smtsl to n certainty Imvo a similar tesitU, Ttw |«st new thUaev I see in tludr urv'ftus is Hint you ore‘in danger from the tyranny of a PArlhmn niAi v lunjuiliy. Now tld* I- h total mid Ab‘o)nl**iuts»tnlt<im<m. the enemy is not fiuhb tug Agatml l't» pm* prof a pnrltAinentAry inijarfiy, IniliPMiispln which Ills Intended mhu receiv- 'd, hut RBUtnal a fiM-Wixf! majonty, which wm •'Ml«d by your ancestors ns the point where re«- sniiflire men, on co >l cAicutoMon, would deter* toUio that the power of the Executive should erne, Englishmen, in fee', look very oddly at yon when they think (hit to th*ir country, where the battle of freedom has been f mchi lu the most variegated style, it should have boon settled tost no sovereign power, despotically Inclined, should go an Inch beyond what Ms minister conld obtain a parliamentary majority to support, and In you* conntrr, the later born of liberty, provision should have been made which, even hy accident, conld ei.d In having appointed a desoot, and said, " rale us I Govern us I Wean; hero to be directed by your single writ Into all truth, as if yon were a superior being and we were irrationals." A sov ereign who should attempt the like In England would have to leave by the drat steamboat. If Americans will coolly compare their position with that ol any European country, which with limited Intelligence and many unfavorable chances, is struggling with some sprig of royalty on the nucrailcd hereditary principle, they can hardly fall to see that th-lr own Is the worst of -he two. The sprig of royalty knows better than to let the strength of the principle bo -esleij. He dees not come forward time after time and ear. •• I. Andrew, or Aaron, as the case may be, by the “grace of God and the exe-clscof the gilt that is “in me. do nullify the proceedings of all the as sembled intellect cf the country, as strained “ihrongh the processes of narUamentary election, “and Ibis, too, in spite of the two-fold majorities “onr fathers thought carried with them a salH “dentsccnnty.” The arrangement was pardon able at the time, because it was done when sneb a ihicgasau nc*i«e or traitorous President was thought impossible But it most be mended for the future, as a man mends his best tab when be did!- U has a hoic m the bottom. Add to ibis that Ibe man was Dover elected by anybody with a direct view to his doing what he Juiji. Be was elected pne half by choice and the other half by accident. Nobody said i o him, You are the mao in whom America trusts for keeping herriputla sofre of the bad steerage oi a two thiids majority of her Senate and House. And then be came Into office through an assassination, and found timsetf free to do the wort of assassins. At- was Inevitable, the crisis Is great All histo ry points to one result, minus the difference from the softening of modem manners. Perhaps toe will do something bio'self to case the difficulty. A son of mine, an officer m the British Legion which went to the assistance of the Spanish Con* stitmlocaUsts. was in a crowded threalre at St Sebastian when a Spanish lady, taken suddenly tmweU, threw np her aimer over hi* snow-white lower garments. J3<zcotn\do fomo’tt, said a curi ous observer of causes and their couscqtvmccs. Another Spaniard, more practically applying him self to the existing emergency, whispered in the Englishman's ear, Jteiirar te. When a mas, whether by bis own bolt or not. Is in so manifestly helpless a condition, the best advice that can he given him is Betxrar se. Yours sincerely, T. Prnr.oxxr Thoxtsok. *Zho Causes of Frequent Disastrous Fire*. An important investigation la now goiug on in New York, by a special com mittee of the New York General Assembly, appointed to inquire con ccmicg the causes of the late disastrous fire? in that city. The testimony already elicited shows that the greatest mistake of all, and that most fruitful of destruction of property by lire, is the system of reckless in surance. The Fire Commissioueraud several representatives of the Boatd of Underwriters ngiced that if property were insured foronly tbrce-fomtbs Its value, leaving the owners to run a fourth risk themselves, it would be found that the risk would bo materially decreased—so muck so that insurance com panics could afford to lesson their rates, and yet do a better, because a safer, buriucs?. Mr. McGregor, Superintendent of Buildings, attributed tho-. lacrcafled number of Area mainly to incendiarism, and thought that these acts were principally attributable to tho loose action of tbe fire insurance compa nies, who made no difficulty about insuring property irrespective' of other insurances. If, be said, I wished to Insure to-day JIOO j upon property raided only for I 1 would hare no difficulty iu e^ cl i nJ: t jj'j 3 * Judge Savage;-of Board of Under writers, was firmly 0 f u, e opinion that tho j insurance of py 0 p er ty to lls full value, and the over nrance of property as well, hare much to do with the origin of fires. Mr. Abble, of the Board of Fire Commis sioners, corroborated ■ the previous state ments. and especially confirmed thcm’where he thought the Insurance companies might materially lessen the firebynotorer i ni Htrhjg, as when goods were covered by In surance beyond their value during had trade, the temptation to destroy them was great, and led, no doubt, to a vast destruction of property. THE DUKDERBEBG. Trial Trip of the Great Iron-Clad Frig ate--description of the ntonstcr tfar Veeael—Speed of the Vessel—Ordnance Experiments. (From the New York Herald, February 21,3 At noon on Friday the great steam ram frigate Dundcrbcrg left the pier at the foot of Sixth street. Fast River, and proceeded on her ocean IrM trip, in September lost an engineer's trial trio was made by this vessel as far as the light* ship lor the purpose of testing the working of her machinery simply, but the one of Friday was In the open ocean, In order that the qualities of the frigate might be pnt to the test In every respect. The Duudetberg Is thoroughly plated with iron of four and a half inches In thickness, and, in addition to being a first-class frigate, is also a ram of tremendous power. Beyond doubt she is now tbo largest war res* eel afloat, and Is longer than any craft except* log the Great .Eastern. * In order that our readers may form an ado quato idea of the power, strength, capacity and weight of this vessel, the following fig urcs arc subjoined: Extreme length, three hundred and eighty-seven feet four Inches; extreme btnm, seventy feet ton Inches; depth of main hold, twenty-one feet seven Indies; height of casemate, seven foot nine inches; length of ram, titty feet; draught 01 water when ready for sea, t wenty-ono feel; tonnage, 11 vo thousand and ninety tons; weight of Iron armor, one thousand tons. This Immense frigate displaces seven thons- Fftnd tons of water. Her engines are two in number, each of the following capacity: cy finders, (two,) each one hundred and nine inches; stroke ol piston, forty-live inches. The diameter of her propeller is twenty-one feet, and Its weight is thlrtyfour thousand five hundred and eighty pounds She has rapacity in her coal bunkers for carrying one thousand tons of coal, and her actual horse power Is five thousand—nominally one thou* sand five hundred horse. Taking In this huge naval monster at one glance, she presents to the eye the appearance of a large fortifica tion set afl- at upon an enormous vessel; and yet, so symmetrically Is shu formed, that the angular armor oi her casemate presents no in ication of ungainlinesa whatever. The Dunderberg is pierced tor twenty-two guns, but only six are la the casemates as yet. Two of these guns arc of fifteen inch and four of eleven-inch calibre, all of the Hodman patent. After leaving the pier at Sixth street, the frigate sailed down post the Tati iry and up the North River as ur as op posite Hoboken, when she turned and stood down the bay. The Sandy Hook lightship was reached about dusk, and, passing it, the Dunderberg stood boldly out lor the upon detail, pursuing a southeasterly conr.-e during the night. A trial ol her speed was made immediately on entering the ocean, a larger steam power being put upon the en gines, and she sped along for some time at the rate of eleven knots per hour. The en gines were then ‘‘slowed,” nod the speed slackened to eight and a alf knots, which average she easily maintained daring the whole trip, increaring or lessening It as be came necessary. On the ocean wave she rode like a bird, her roll being very slight, and her dip, notwithstanding her great weight, less tb&u any one on board bad rea son to expect. It was plainly perceptible, from the manner la which she rode the sea, that she was delightfully buoyant as well as ■ immensely strong. When making eight I and a hall knots, her average revolutions were thirty-six per minute; atd at times she made forty-seven revolution when cmyingoaiy tea pounds of steam. Her consumption ot coal was forty five tons In twenty hours, or about two aud a quailer tons per hour. Her machlnerv, U must be recollected, is as yet new and ua> used. ‘When she bus been three months in use, capable judges asserted, she would make sixty revolutions per minute. The crew by which she wasmamrd war not picked, but taken on promiscuously just previous to the start, and but few of them were active sea men, When sbe shall be regularly put into ccmmhsion, and shall have the benefit of a rcuular crew of mariners, her performance will exceed evtn that of Ibis trial trip. One very noticeable teature in this vessel, was the ease with which the obeyed every motion ot her helm. Early In the morning yesterday, her facility in this re'pect was put to the test, and she made two complete circles, each within a space of half a mile, in eleven minutes. The ordnance practice when on the ocean was a feature which told excellently well for this enormous iron.clad. The guns were manned, and five rounds o! shot and shell tired from each. The concussion inside the casemate was very slight, even when the big 15 inch pieces were fired, and the jar follow ing each report was hardly perceptible in any part oi the vessel. THE KINUDO3I Of CANADA, Sin«p»tHortlin BUI Tor the C<mfrdc»a« lion of ilic BritL«li Norm American ProTltU'C** (Ftom the Toronto Globe, Feb. 21.] . We are enabled to lay before our readers this morning tbe full text of tbe Imperial measure to unite the Provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. Tbe copy of ibe bill from which we print, Is an ad vance copy—but any alterations made in the Dually revised copies, we have reason to bo> llevc, would be merely verbal. What we now publish may be safely accepted as the mcaMircat present uudei consideration by the Imperial Parliament. it will be seen from a perusal of the docu ment that all the departures trom the reso lutions of the Quebec Conference, stated In .Mr. Cordon Brown’s despatch to have been assented to by the delegatee, are found In the bill. But, unfortunately, other departures IK hi the Quebec scheme ate found In It—and some of them, we much regret to say* very fir from being in the right direction. Hut before relenlotr to these, let us nolo n tbw points timid" not entaildlsi ii'sloli And Hist—thcimtue of the United Provinces is to be the Kingdom ot •Canada, Tbo ltepK‘?entollve of Jler Majesty preidd* Inn over the uuw kingdom Is to ictalu the old title of CovcrnoiMiehurnt, ami his salary Is <o betoiUNMnor niimiiii. Tho advisers of the Crown, forming the Federal BxeeutWe, ate to be styled Privy Cutiuelllura, and tho whole body the Privy Connell. Tho tulvls- ts of the Crown In tint Provincial (iovetiiimMd'i mo to idalu the old name of Executive ('"tmelllors. The Federal l.euislatnra 1» lo be known a* the Parliament of Canada. Tim Upper liouag Is lo he stvlrd the Hena(*>, and the Lower llottso tho Mouse ot Commons. Tho Uoeal l.< ufslaturtm are to he known as tbo Provincial l.egbmuuru of Ontario. Quo* bec, Nova Hcotla and Now nrimsiflok, ru rtpccdvcly 5 Upper Canada Is to have hut m o I.cfiMaiko Chamber, and It Is to he known as the I.egls'allvo Assembly of Onta rio, Tho three other Provinces are each lo have a Legislative Council amt a House of Assembly, The Speaker of the Senate ia to be appoint ed by tbo Crown. The power of the Crown, In tbo event of necessity to create Senators beyond the stipulated soventy-two, is limited to six creations. Tbe elections for tbe first House of Com mons summoned under the Act, and for the first Houses of Assembly In tbo Federal Provinces ore io be under the direction of tbe Privy Council; and the two elections in any Electoral District are to be held on the same day. The Executive Government ofOntario Dis trict is to consist of five members, namely; An Attorney-General. A Piovlnclal Secretary. A Treasurer. , , A Commissioner of Crown Lands, and A Commissioner of Public Works. The Secretary is to act also as Registrar of the Province, and tbe Commissioner of Public Works Is to discharge the duties of Minister of Agriculture. Provision is made for the admission hereaf ter into the Union of Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Rupert’s Land, the North west Territory, and British Columbia—“ on sucb terms and conditions as tbe Parliament of Canada shall deem equitable, and os shall receive tbe a sent of the Queen; and in the case of Newfoundland, Prince Edward Is land and British Colombia, as shall be agreed upon by their respective Legislatures.” SDUKATT. ails Arr&l2naiei>t Before ilie Criminal Court at WasUlxsctoii* Washington Correspondence (February 2S) of the . yc u Vurk lleiald- J John. H. Sunatt was arraigned, to-day. before the Criminal Court of tlic District of Columbia, prestdeo over by Judge Lynch. Tbe court rocm was densely thronged. Mem* uers of the legal profession and many of the leading citizens of Washington, including the Mayor, occupied the entire front por tion of the room, while outside the com mon enclosure there was a compact moss of persons of almost every class. « The Court was opened shortly after twelve o’clock, and tbe case of Siniord Conover was proceeded with. Judge Lynch then ordered that the prisoner, Sanford Conover, should ho brought Into Court to receive sentence. __ _ At tbls juncture John H. Surratt was brought into Court in irons and placed in the dock, or on tbe bench reserved for prisoners. There was considerable excitement in the Court from tbe moment ot his arrival, and. the murmuring of the spectators almost completely drowned the Crier’s repeated calls for silence, together with the usual “ bland hack” ot the policemen. Samitt walked with a slow bat steady step, and sat down with little or no emotion upon the seat to which he was led by two officials. A few moments more and Sanford Conover arrived and was placed upon the same bench by the tide of Surratt. All eyes were rivet ed upon tbe prisoners, whose past histories bad been so strangely connected, and it was thought they might possibly recognize each other, bat neither exchanged tbc slightest look of recognition. It was considered strange Indeed that both these men, formerly well known to each other, whose histories are so different and yet con nected, and whose names are associated with the darkest events in the history of the United States, should meet to-dav upon the prisoner’s bench, linked in the same fatal chain of circumstances, one to be arraigned atd the other to be sentenced. After a few u oments consultation between the Judges end counsel ifor Coroner the passing of sen tence was deferred. Tbe District Attorney, Mr. Carrington, then called the attention of the Court to the Indictment of ,T» hn H. Surratt hr the Grand v 7!,? v bought i hftt It •was proper that be should be emluned so u to give fclri an oo portnnitj of eclectic* his couustd and for the Court .to spi o»nt time f{rr his trial. . of counsel for the prisoner, taid: would suggest to the Court .that it would be scarcely consistent with the authority and dignity of this tribunal that the prisoner should be arraigned in manacles, and there fore ask that your Honor will hare (he man acles removed. ’ Judge Lynch—-Certainly. Let the mena cles be removed, and let the prisoner come forward and hear the indictment. The mausclea were then removed, and the pi isonor rose, and. accompanied by his coun sel. th* Misers. Bradley, Senior and Jnnlor, and Mr. Herrick, walked to tbo front of the Clerk’s desk, and stood while the Indictment was being read. During the reading of the indictment, which has been already -published, ample opportunity was afforded for a close inspection of Surratt. Be Is a man of about live feet nine inches In height, and of a alim figure. His hair isTery light and his eyes blue. The lines of bis profile are regular and well defined, and, although the general expression of his face is sad and almost sickly, bis rather bold fore head and prominent nose, slightly Inclined • to be aquiline, together with a firmly set mouth and prominent, round chin, speak plainly of a degree of determination and in telligence In his character which one might fail to detect without a somewhat close in spection. He was dressed in an elegantly made black frock coat, with something of a foreign cut, and dark tweed pants. Alto gether bis appearance was genteel and gen tlemanlike. At the conclusion of the reading of the in dictment the usual question was propounded by the clerk, "Are you guilty or not guilty?” To which he replied, In a firm voice, “Not et Jmlgc Lynch—Do you wish to set a day for the trial, Mr. Carrington? Mr. Carrington—l would not wish to do It now, your Honor. „ „ Judge Lynch—Tbo next term of the Coart bcuinson Slonday week. Mr. Bradley, Sr.—U would be Impossible to make any arrangement now, your Honor. Counsel up to this time have had no onpor* tunlty lo confer with the prisoner. If wo could nuke an arrangement for tbo trial wo would be exceedingly anxious to do so, and have it disposed of. I tbluk it would bo well to Lave some time to arrange It, so that at the next meeting of the Court we will be able to fix some day lor tbo bearing of the Cud*'. Nothing eau be done till then, sir. Mr. Carrington—l would ask your Honor to remand tbc prisoner. Judge Lynch—Welt, lot the prisoner bo remanded. Mnrott was tben taken from the court room aml conveyed in a carriage back to tbo lull. THE (.ALLOWS. JExccuiluu or a murderer at tliirlla* same. Kao***. f inrllnpauic (Kansas) Correspondence (Feb. SO) Of the tawreuce Trffmo-’.l Martin W. Bates to-day expiated the mur der of At el PoiUy, by Uaugiug by the neck. Bates, attended by Sheriff Cozlae, and Ucua tle«, and his spiritual adviser, Rev. Father Joseph Perrhr, priest of Lawrence, arrived he e last about nine o'clock. The p Isoncr was kept inone of the lower roams 01 u.ct oort House, his scaffold being erected in the audience room above. Ai a few minutes past 12 o’clock m. the room was cleared nf the crowd of curious g delators, who repaired to the front yard, n d h* rc, in sleet and raiu. anxiously awaited further ceremonies. After Deputy Hi..s had ncalled a few of us to wUnes> the execution, bates, arm in aim with his con lea or, made his appearance, and, with bis be >d bared, spoke at considerable length to the eager, lialenini: crowd. He opened by suing: “Dear Inends, I am about to ap pear in judgment. If I hare wronged or grievously injured any of you. 1 hope yon will forgive me, as I Ice’ that God, tor Christ's sake, bus forgiven me.” He then sddiesaed himself to the young, and with deal depth of feeling exoried them to obey their parents in all things, a*, to the disotv iheuce of hi? father, he traced all hi? sorrows and his present pending doom. In speaking of hU “dear old lather.” his voice tailored, lit- cskid forgiveness of the man (.John Pol icy) whom he had deprived of a father. Ho wound up by saying: ” I hope to meet you &]i in a belter land—in Heaven. Adieu.” The prisoner, guard*, ministers, doctors, and witnesses, then moved up stabs. The prif oner betrayed no emotion on bcholdicg the gallows, but at the request of Father Perrier, knelt near the fool ol the scaffold stairs, with cross in band, facing the insiiu meutol death. Those present quietly seated themselves around the room, while the last consolations ol religion were offered to the doomed wretch. Rev. J. B. Orwig, Protes tant, during the ceremonies read a few pasaagi-s from the Scriptures, and offered up a prayer, and was going on further when li e Rev. Father Interrupted him, ask ing Bates if it wa* his wish stiil to die in the Catholic faith- Bates’ answer was. Yes, yes,”—kissing the crucifix. The priest then out his anus around the prisoner’s neck, and with great warmth kissed him anon both cheeks. The prisoner did not per ceptibly falter in hU accent of the scaf fold: but when upon it, he again fell on his kness by one ol the chairs, remain- ' log about a minute. On taktng his seal upon •.hi* trap, tbej priest again kissed him and hade him adieu. {Sheriff C«/.ine. with the as sistance of Deputy Hills, then placed the rope about his t cck, when they both shook his bauds and bade him ’’good bye.” Cates ti-ankrcl them for all the kindness shown, aud said “he hoped to meet them in Para dise. where he soon should be.” The black cowl was thee drawn over his face, he rose to his feel, the chair was re move d, end the Sheriff moved hack. Slight ly turning his head to tho left. Bates paid : ‘ : .Jcsuß, let nu* be with thee In Paradise. Dear friends, goodbye, good bye, dear— ■’ Here sheriff touched the fatal pulley, und Martin W. Cutes was launched Into eternity —the expiation for the death of a citizen, according to law, being fully completed- In eighteen minutes he was pronounced dead In Dm?. Brown and Hart, when he was cut down. He fella distance of more than four •et, yet hU neck was not broken. THE TmUTY’JaVUI COX(JUEvSB* Ituporlaiit ntllx ihnt Imvc Uceoim Lnws. The Pn sldcnt ha’ signed the MM annropri :Uh’j:t(i) millions lur the luiynn nt of invalid pent-ions, twenty-three millions for pensions to widows, childien. imrlicr*, • fathers, brothers mol stslcis of soldiers, ami two hun dred and eighty dhoasaud dollars for navy pensions to the* same class of persons Just mentioned. The President also has approved the bill nbolNhltig the cilice of Superintendent of Public Printing, heretofore Bpjvdulcd bv the Pitsldent, by ami with the advice and con sent nf Inc Senate, and tfuvidlng for the election ol Ohgrissloiial Printer hv tho Seti 4 a ( e. Air. Decrees, who was removed to give place lo Wendell, will UhduUbtedlybuelected to that otnee. , Tho President bns tt’eo approved the tdll lo estnhtlsh and protect miltuiml edimdcflcs, Tlit'tbo hilts below were received by the President on ibehih inslunl, hut not having hieit rehirtied by him lo tbo bouse In which they originated wpbln tho ttmo bV the ronsittUMoli offtm United rtUtu*. tliey have become laws without hU tun ptovttl i Tlutl before th§ find meeting «d Dm n«xt (’ithguos, and of every subsequent Congress, tbo Clerk of the next preceding lhm*o of Representatives shall mi»ko« roll of the Hop. roßcnliiilvpa uioet, and phmy tnnrn*m the name* of all persons claiming seats as Rupro. tentative* cb-et from States whton were rep resented In lUft next preceding Congress, and of such persons ouly, »nd whoso credentials show that they wore regularly elected in ac cordance with tho laws oft heir States respect ively or thelaws of tho United states. Declaring the sense of an act restricting tho Jurisdiction of tho Court rf Claims. It provides that the law shall not be construed to authorize tho settlement of any claim tor supplies or stores taken or furnished for the use of our aimic>, or injury to property where the claim originated during the war for the gupprrssion of tbo Southern rebellion io a State declared In insurrection by procla mation of the President, or in a state which by an ordinance of secession attempted to withdraw from the United States Govern ment ; provided nothing In this law shall reneal or modify the effect of any action or joint resolution extending the provisions ol ibe act ot July. ISO 4, to the lojai citizens of Tennessee or of West Virginia- UTAU. itcmwal ot the Agitation for Admls- Sion to die Union. Great Salt Lake Citj Correspondence (Jaanary Si) of the Sew York'Tlme-.J There Is under way In this city and Terri tory a renewal of the movement for the ad mission of Utah into the Union as a State— the “State of Deseret.” This movement originated before the organization of Utah os a Territory, in the days of the Provisional State of Deseret. The name “Deseret,” though rejected by Congress for the Terri tory, is still tenaciously clung to by the peo ple here, as it is held to be Illustrative of to* dustry. and sot of the d sert nature of much of tbe Territory, aa many people erroneously imagine. After the close of the Territorial LesrWa tore. the “Legislature of the State of Dese ret” assembled in this city, as has been its wont annually tor several years; for it should be that a State organization Is care fully kept up, very probably in the strong hope of Congress one day admitting Utah intotfac Union. In this latter view the “Constitution ol the State of Deseret” was amended sons to grant ntiversal suffrage; that is, suffrage to male American citizen*, and the laws of the Territory were adopted for the State. The amendment was to strike out the words “free white.” The Territorial Legislature also adopted a memorial to Congress for tbc repeal of the Anti-Polygamy Law, which will, no doubt, be a scarce of amusement to tbe members of that body when It appears bef ire them. Nest Monday is election day, when a dele gate to Congress for the Territory will be chosen ; also a Representative for the “State of Deseret.” The amended State Constitu tion will be presented to the people for their action. The Deseret iVhcs and Telegraph hoist the name of W. H. Hooper (the present Incumbent) for delegate to Congress, Terri torial ticket, and the same name for Repre sentative, State ticket. The “Gentiles”bad a caucus ibe other day, and nominated Wil liam HcGrorty for delegate to Congress. There is a rumor, however, that Mr. Mc- Grorty will decline tbe honor before the de cisive dav comes round. Any way, as the Gentiles have but a very small minority, and os tbc Mormons are in the habit of voting all one way, there is the Greatest probability that Mr. Hooper will remain delegate. Symplons ofAnotUer Great UcvoJnrion In France. (Paris Corrc3pocaecc<MF£bfriat7S) of tbs 2?e* Yotk'World.j" Theta is a very uisfiulet spirit abroad ia Paris at this time—a sort of trouble m the air ■which seems to weigh upon The public cannot feel assured that the Em peror is sic cere in bis proposals of reform, and there is a widespread conviction that U be is not—if the late imperial manifesto should prove to be one of the theatrical mys (ideations so frequently indulged in by Na- I poleonlli-, that a fearful crisis is at hand The Government relies upon the Great sition fir keening the* people* of Pans quiet until the time shall arrive for s foreign ■war; but iLc enormous rise in the price of provisions of all kinds attendant upon the areal Influx of strangers will be rather cal culated to Irritate than to appease the class which are the principal actors in French revolutions. Large sums of money will be spent hi re, but they will not find th*-ir way into the bauds of the working people. Great ftdminUiratkus and great enterprises of all sorts will coin money, but the working ctaters and men occupying offices at small salaries will find themselves worse off llan ever. The price of bread has been Increased three times since the month of October, and the Faubourg St. An toine is even now to clamor. Yesterday morning, early hoar, the po-ice of that quarter fonnd placards, which baft-beer posted on the walls in th® night, containing these words; "LatcUde Tfina pereur, ou lepain a mcllleur marche {•* The Emperor s bead, or. cheaper bread/’) Of course these seditions demonstrations were soon put out of ucht, bat the evil spirit Is roused and It will be difficult to lay Itl This Is one ol the evil effects of a parental Gov ernment like that of the Empire. If a Gov ernment takes charge of a people it Is natural enough that the people should insist upon being fed, by It. The BothMlillik of Rome. [Rome Correspondence of the London News.] Who. whether he has set foot in the Eter nal City or no, has not beard ofjthe Torlo nms—the Rothschilds of Rome? In the course of Inst summer, when the monetary crisis here was at Its height, Don Alessandro Torlonln—thc acting head of the house— won extraordinary popularity by writing a letter to the Pope, In which he offered to buy up lteuncouvcrUblc(iOvcrumeulp»per, and substituting* a metal currency In Us place, providing, that the existing managers of the Roman Bank, with Cardinal Anto nelil’s brother al their head, were sent about their business, and the direction coullded to Mtueclf, At that time It was qulto Impossible to pet notes contorted into coin at any price, for the simple reason that there whs no coin In the hank. Even now, when thhips have improved somewhat, Ills with the utmost dllilculty that you can pot change for a scudl note, even at shops In the Coran, and there b not a hotel keeper or a tradesman In Rome who would even look at a Are scmll note If you wore sulll cleully Ignorant of the stile of thins;* hern to present it In pa> mi nt In the expectation of gelling any change out. Of the small pieces ol silver, which you obt.Ju nilh no little dllilculty, many me so worn and I bln that they seem In a sort of transition state between silver and paper, and have loop slice lost all trace of any imago or super scription whatever. S-o rolling in wealth is Don AlessandroTor lonia that his riches are admitted to bo lit* ersily ttSuiia, flhd only this mii.’u \Z nimva certain, tliat cverythinp in Rome worth bar ing. except the Pooe :»nd St. Bctcr's, already belongs to him. No wonder then that at the Vatican Don Alessandro should be looked upon os t\ hard!} lots dangerous character than Victor Emanuel hhiisclt, and that tho insulting offer which he made last summer to buy up the Holy Father, ami add him to hie possesions, should bare been decidedly rejected, though it bad not entailed the re moval ol an AntonelU iron a lucrative place. On bis first appearance in public after making the abovc-rnentlum'd pat riotic oiler, Don Alessandro n c ivtdstxchan ovation as has not been witnessed in Koine since those of which Pius IX. was himself the object, when he cave the first impulse to the Italian Revolution In l&ld. This Don Alessandro U the same Torlonia who risked h!s whole fortune on the gigantic enterprise ol draining the Fnclne Lake, the issue of which struggle with nature was so long doubtful that It became a common saying In Rome, ‘‘Either Torioula will d>arn the Fucine Lake, or the Fucfr.e will dtaiu Torloma.” lu the ccd, however, Torlonia got the better «f the lake, and rcccemed a boat one huceroj thomaod acre-'r Hand for .cultivation. Over wbot was a law years ago a barren waste of waters, flouncing crops mav now be seen waving every harvest ’time, and with last year’s produce Don Alessandro hnd a scheme of feeding the now almost starving Roman people by selling them bread of his own baking at a reduced rate. Such, at least, was tae account of the story given me by a pairioic ana exceedingly liberal Roman, who made a severe case against the Government out ol the stoppage of Torloma’a extensive bread bakina-hy-ina chiucty Murks, whica threw same two bun dud workmen out of employment just a fortnight ago. 1 am bound, however, to add that, «*n proceeding to the so t and making inquiries, I learned quite a different version of tbw afiair, entirely exculpating the Uov en-mi nt from any direct iuicth.renee in the matter. Only this much Is certain, that the works are .-topped, and Hut the Human ©to pic stand little chance, at present, of getting their bread at reduced raus. TUe Qtuttrol Bituccu the qnocn of Spain and filer I2u~baud. From the New Vo;k Commercial Advertiser, February 2a. j The cable despatches announced that the King : Consort ol £paln had been exiled, and now wo bare the cause of tins strange action by steamer. It appears that Don Francisco, . the King-Consort 01 Spa*n, has taken a great tancy to a certain tenor of the opera at .Madrid, and has made vehement eiforti to get him created Duke and (iiandoc ol Spain. At the last Council of State the matter wax* brought forward tor the third time, when the Ministry pcremptaiily refused to comply with the wish of Dun Fruuclsco. and the ' Queen showed by her silence that she fully agreed with ihetr (KcMoo. (.in this the King-Consort broke out Into the roost violent rage, and “apostrophised It* the roasLotlVnstvu terms M the character* of Marshal Narvaez. Senor Marlori. the Civil Government ol .Madrid, mid another Minu ter, accusing them of the groi-e-t public and private Immorality. Tlie Minisi* rs retaliat ed, a» d tin; Qu« tn sat by utmmvi.d while iho character of li*t hustiaml wa» torn to latter*. 'I he end of the mailer wn* Hint he was or dered to retire to the Castle ol Prado, thorn to rnualn under aircsl fur tlm present, while hisprub'/eand Intimate filend was marched ..If to I lie frontier by a tile of gendarmes. This is u summary wav of ending matri tuonhi] quarrels that Is peculiar to royalty. Quetii 1.-nbt llu rules by her own rigid, and her husband can only cxcreLu as much im ti o*lty os she choose* to extend to him. It is a mutter of policy us w<dl as affection for him to conciliate ills wife as much ns possi ble. Rut the truth is, the royal pair arc ill as-orted, and llulr marriage a most unluppy one. Ir Is u Imrcl, sad story. When vurv ji.nng Queen Dnbeils was induced to wed hcrcomiP Di li Francisco, through I lie uiucti n ntlnm* of her mother. Queen Christina, and old King Louis Cliblppc. of France. Thu marriage was nn unsuitable one In rveiy tesj cel. U wu? known lu all Madrid that Don Fruuclseo was a verv rircmlnale ct.iUMvlor luevtry respect* tt» d it wv» hinted that there never could bo any progeny hu thch»tlie royal pair* Until, seem? (hat this was Die myjCMsou Why thu hmrrlsgt* was mrnt enl. Fur King bonis Fidlltqu* had m»iHod om? of Ids sons, the Duho do Mont, pettier, to n yoiiliget sl*l»T of iim Uneuh of Hfntn, and Ihu miseritpulous old Kfitf was dnr.r.led h.v Iho Idea of his dpfceiihtnU lib liiHlll'ullie throne of Pjmlu In iluMittt ill eh idled by llio Qitico, As for Qiiseii Iw* beda, shews* young, only fifteen nrsPHeen years ofaue, ami had nooptiiiod apirl from her wiehe<) mother anitllm mereuimry* lug* utrd priesls who surrounded her. NM'li a nißiringu coiihl hardly rad Mhenn> happy, Tim Qm eu has miver loved low low* bamti to respect Him was out or tlmqima* ' (ion. Him has a numherof children, hut it M , whispered that they aro m»i her hudMiid's, ami this suspicion, uppuenlly well rouudod, (a an element o| irouhloln ppaiosu politics, fora largo party Is opposed to tlm sueoea ainn of the Prince of Anurias, Quuun Isabel.' | In’s oldest eon, and entertain the Idea of (jonsierni'g the crown to the Queen of I’orlu . gnl, thus ellectinv the Jong cherished dream ol .‘Spanish ambition, to nolle the Kingdoms ofSpaiiMtud Portugal once more under ouo head. t American la<lie» at tbo Tnllerlca* (Parts Coircapondcoco (Feb. 6) of tbo.New York World.) Tito ball at the Tullories mght before last was ratner more animated than the previous one, more persons bens present, bat not really guy and brilliant- Thu Americans pre sented were Mrs. Murray Smith and Miss Smith of Mobile; Miss Carey and ML» Love, of Buffalo; Miss Matteson and Miss Cobb, of Chicago; Mr, and Mrs. Clift, Mrs. Field, Philadelphia ; Mrs. and Miss Ellis, Baltimore; Mrs- Gold, Mr. and Mrs. Clark, Mr. and Mrs. Perry, Mr. and Mrs. Phelps. Mr. Dix, Mr; Tuckexman, New York. The Empress wore a dress ranch more suit able to her Imperial dignity and to, it moat be admitted with regret, her waning: youth folness, than the light tissuesahe has usually chosen. It'woe of a straw-colored satin* trimmed at the edge ofthesklrtwitba Anted bounce of the same, above which were pollings of straw-colored tnlle, finished at the bead by folds of white satin. The front or the dress was looped by wreaths of brown and green leaves, which, extending round to the back, descended to the edge ot the skirt and caught up the train, over a white petti coat. The corsage and waist were literally blazing with diamonds —fringes of diamonds from the belt and from the berthe, tbc former almost a quarter of a yard in depth, entirely concealing the material of which the dress was made. A splendid diadem of diamonds, among which at the back were a few leaves like tnose on the dress, and a brown satin ribbon, the same tint as that of the darkest leaves.'upon which large diamonds.were setred, encircled the throat and formed streamers behind,* .diamond bracelets and ear-rings—a right re gal tcilette! Among the American ladles, the dresses of Mrs. Clift, Misses Mattesouand Cobb were the most elecant and becoming. Mrs. Clift wore a tnllo dress with a rose-colored tunic looped up with roses. Misses Malteson and Cobb were both in white tulle dresses, of TVorth’s artistic de sign. Miss M. wore no ornaments, the dress telng trimmed with white talln. MiasC.’s dress was looped with wreaths of rose bad*. The scries offetes to Mr. J. G. Bennett, Jr-, In honor of his triumph, which is churned as a notional chs, were concluded by a mag nificent dinner, given to him last evening by Mr. E. G. Teackle, of California; Mr. T. dis played his art os a host by nulling the best possible elements lor post-prandial enjoy ments, and witty speeches—music and songs kept the guests uatU daylight did appear. There were several ladies present in the latter part of the evening, and Mrs. states, ot California (now encaged at tho_ Italian . opera), sang a song cuttposed in honor of ‘• The Henrietta.” which was received with Immense enthusiasm. A Beuc or Bosap Aim's Vtaua—-The skele tons of a horse and tie rider, and a long rust-ealen lance, lying close by, have been discovered la iho midst of a tu£l ot bushes of extraordinary thick ness, la a forest near Caen, in France. Aa exaa inatlcuhaelcdto tic concluslan that the remama ore these of a Cossack and bss steed The suppo sition is ihst the anlronl, being •■»ouad**d, fell with Its rider into the IhlckcL a Writ it-* low, and that they were unable to cstriciis ttemselves, atfd their remains have been there for mote than balf a cei-lnry. b m SomiEna* Bose Bni —The hill orantlns to IhQ Solafos’ Some of mu city trow the Sum Treasu ry the exun of 510.000 per annum (hr two JM»% passed the House of anemone, Bed only requires tho Biar.ata.e M w- Gown'll to TDako U a utr» »