Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune, March 1, 1867, Page 2

Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune dated March 1, 1867 Page 2
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€l)kago tribune. DaTT.Y, TEI-WEiKLY *HD WEEKLY. «F F ICB. »•* ai FUIIH^T. Ttien are tem editions or TbtTtiamrmtMasd. m. er«ry moroinx, for circulation or earners* oewsmen aod metnatls. S*. ThrT*j-W***i.T, Monday*. Wed* 'h**Oa'V»‘aufi Fnftayi, tor Yh» mslli only; sad th« Wxxxi.T|Oa Thursdays, (Dr U>e walls and salsa*oar bonnier and or newsmen- Terms wf ike Oklcsut* Trlkaaes DuiYddimatatb# aty tftCAV, rebscrtb** <t*« **- f<l nft SgiSsSE SSB p«» o* u» re** s** o * rem'ttia* ana oweniut tire or more copiet of either the Trt-Weeklr or Wre«y ediOoiiv oi«r rotate tec per •■at of the labicrtpuoo price as a commission- Jionc* to in oroertag tae address at resriwptfs cbtased.-eo prevent delay, be sure and iptctfr wbat edition roa ute—«<eefcly, Trl-Woekly, orDaUV. five roar r**s*>.T*Lodfttinreaddre*« XW~ Money, by Draft, Express, Money orders, orin BecUteredLeaere.niarbeNatatoortUk. Address, TRIBUNE CO_ Chleu*. 11l FRIDAY, MARCH 1,15C7. INSURANCE AND FIRES. The frequency ol fires, accompanied by as frequent Insurance to the fall or even greater amount than the loss, is creating a painful impression that there is a strong relation, like that .of cause and effect, between the two frets; and It has crcated'alao, and in many cases, a well-founded impression that an Insurance against the bankruptcy ot insurance companies may not bo unnecessary. The time baa come when there most be a reform in the manner of insurance, or honest men will abandon it as a protection from loss, and leave tbe insurance companies and tbe rharpers to fight the battle ont alone. There arc certain radical defects in the pret- est system which must be remedied. These detects are 1. Insurance to the full value of the prop erty. 2. Insurance to a sum greater the valne ot the property. 3. The absence of all discrimination in rates proportioned to the comparative value of the risk. 4. The rates of Insurance. A man who owns a very large amount of property, situated in several 1 oca 1 ities re mote from each other, may, supposing his neighbors to be reasonably honest,be his own insurer. That is, in a period of twenty years, the premiums that he would have paid upon an Insurance of all his property, will cover any loss that he might sustain by the ordinary occurrences by fire. But when tbe owners of all the property adjoining his, and the owners of all the goods, wares and merchandise in all tbe buildings contiguous to his, ate insured to tbe full value of their property, he cannot afford to be his own insurer, because so person bat himself Is interested particularly in avoiding a fire, and, it may be, and is too often the case, that a large proportion of these insured parlies would make a decided pecuniary gain by having a good rousing fire, from which nothing could be saved. Can there be a profitable insurance business done by any company when it Is to the pecuniary advan tage of the insured to have as many and as destructive fires os possible? If not, of what advantage Is it to a company to do as insurance business, that Is a certain loss to the company, unless It Is tbe intention of the company to repu- diate the claims npon it for losses ? A company that insures property for its full valne, and takes that risk npon property surrounded by other property similarly in- sured, is not doing on honest or legitimate bufincss, and no man who does not intend to be burned ont if he can prevent it will take a policy from a company doing ous ress In that way. The amodnt of insuranc asked for npon a holloing or a stock of good . Is not, or ought not to be the only Inquir y by a prudent insurance company. Th - amount of other insurance in that buildin or on the other stock therein, and upon a « the adjoining buildings and contents is full* as important. An inquiry governing th issue of a policy and the talcs, should be, s U to the advantage of the occupants of th s particular neighborhood to have a fire or not ? If It is, then the rates shall be increase according to the absence of all interestin preventing a fire. Wc know that a man purposing to bum his bouse, or to set fire to his store with a view of escaping financial embarrassment by re alizing at once in cash, the whole valne of LU property, will not object to paying what ever rate of insurance may be demanded; if he be, as Is the role now, permitted to pile policy upon policy, he can very readily pro- tect himself from the Increased rate of in- suranee. If when the fire takes place that fire could be confined to his premises alone, the insurance companies might be able to unmask his fraud. But when the fire once Is kindled, it may consume the property of twenty others Innocent of ail complicity la his crime, bat all of them as heavily Insured as he Is, and all of them as directly benefit ted pecuniarily - by the fire, where is the protection to the insurance com panies? Insurance against fire. Is prac tically, in man y cases, an insurance agslnst losses by a falling market. A stock of goods purchased on a falling market b a dead weight from which relief even in the sbaoc of compensation upon a fire insurance policy may be acceptable; and when everybody holding such stocks is insured against any possible loss, the risk of fire b increased above the ordinary standard in the propor tion of one multiplied by the whole number of persons insured. Insurance to be henest must be profitable. That Is, the public have no right to assume 1 that capitalists will club their money and I pay it ont pro bvno pullleo , to every person whose property Is destroyed by fire. The business of insurance companies is to make money; to Insure against losses by fire at such rates that the annual premiums will ex ceed the annual losses, and pay os large a dividend os possible to the stockholders. ■When a company does business upon any other basis, when it insures so recklessly both as to amount and rate, that its annual business is necessarily an annual loss, then the public have the right to ossnme that that company Is tending to insolvency, and must ultimately repudiate its obligations. Insurance companies must discontinue this practice, or must adopt a new basis of rates. An Insurance to one-third of the value of the property should- be the standard; and for every additional proportion, the rate should be advanced. Thus a company Insuring to onc-third the volnc, and charging one per cent, should charge two per cent for one half, and increase the rates in like progres sion for all additional sums. No company should insure without a knowledge ol previous policies upon the satn<' property, and all insurance policies shoul l become void, when additional Insutanc Is effected without the knowledge and con sent ol the first insurer. Insurance upon one-third, one-hall, or two-thirds of the value of property. Is quite a different thing from an insurance upon the whole value. lu the one esse the party insnred shares the risk with the company; in the other he has nothing to lose, and In most cases, much to galu by a fire. Taking a risk upon one-third of the value as a standard, the rates ought to advance progressively with the absence of all risk by the owner. The rapid multiplication of Insurance com panies has called Into existence a multitude of insubstantial organizations, and the com petition for business has begat a recklessness in taking risks which now exhibits Its inevitable consequences la the rain of companies hitherto the safest and soundest. The man who bnysgoodsand expects to pay for them out of the proceeds of their sale, cannot afford to sell at os low prices as can the man who never Intends to pay and seeks to convert his goods into cash before pay-day arrives. Insurance com panies who propose to pay all losses, and, to be better able to do so. make annual profits out of their busi ness, cannot afford to do business at the rates or according to the reckless practices adopted by the ephemeral institutions which rue up, nourish and expire in a day. If business will flow to those companies that arc willing to insure anybody forany amount, at any rate their customers may offer, then let it do so; time wlllaoon write the story of tht Ir folly In the ruin both of the insurer and the Insoicd- No man Insuring his property with an honest purpose will object to paying socta rates as a responsible company will convince him arc necessary to protect the company from the average and ordinary losses ot the year; acd he will pay those rales more cheerfully to, and see* Industriously to find, that company which docs not offer premiums for fires by taking risks at ordinary rates upon the whole value of property. To charge one man two per cent upon an In surance for one third the value of his prop erty, and to Insure another at the same rate for the whole value. Is an Injustice to the first party,-because he is compelled to pay an exccas of premium on a standard risk which onght to be paid by the holder of the policy upon an extraordinary value. Insurance has become a business second In many respects only to that of banking. It shold be surrounded by local stipulations for the protection of the public and bona fide Institutions, from the ahystcre and bogus affaire. There ought to be a monthly or quarterly exhibit of the financial condition of each company, with a statem’-nt of the character of the risks. There should be In Chicago a Board ofUnderwritere, with authority like that of a Clearing Bouse; admission to a recognition by that Board should be gov erned by the solvency of the companies, and the integrity of Its business, as ebown by iU quarterly statements. No company should be lecognizedthatis ccgagedjna scalping nr dishonest business. This protection Is needed by the public, hot It Is mho needed hy those Insurance companies doing and reposing to do a legitimate business. The nubile would then get nd o b.n. insur ance' and honest and responsible companies could put sn end 10 the present dento vus and rn’nous practice or offering ■ remlums for Ores, Instead of exciting an Interest, par ncularly among the insured, to prevent them. A WIDE DIFFERENCE, Tbe New York Tribvnt finding Iteolf badly beaten In tbe tariff controversy with tbe Chicago Teidcnk, turned a abort corner, dodged the arguments which It coaid not meet, and eroded the points In Issne by ask ing ns the following questions: “Wherein docs ihese notions'of O. G. differ from lb* doctrines aud views which Impelled sod justified the patsage oi the Tariff of ibtSandthe ►npnort or Uenry Clar for the President In ISUI Wherein do they essentially dlfftr from ihe doc tnnea tnalnt ined by Abraham Lincoln in can vassing lllinoia lor Olay in that contest * And wherein does the line offlWwwnr now held by oar chlctro ramcsaVe differ bom that of Mr. Clay's Illinois opponents In the canvass afore ealdV* • This was so manifestly a trick to get ont ofa tight place and withal so. contemptible ananswer to our arguments, that we treated it very summarily as follows: *• If this means anylhlne.Htneins that If Henry Clsv, II G and Mr. Lincoln committed an error in and cot overwhelmingly beaten In New Yura and Illinos, and also in the OnlkdSUlw, the; ought to do the same thing again. What is the next question r* This would be deemed a sufficient answer by any candid opponent, to so puerile a ques tion. Bnt H. O. finding it much easier to quibble and pettifog and take refuge in the mazes and marshes of the party questions of a quarter century ago, than to defend his prohibition crotchets and absurdities of 1807, and talks back in this silly sort of way: “ITjc Chicago Tbjbchb thus admits that tbe Pro tectionist views of U. 6. in ISC7 ore substantially, if sot precisely, those held by him in 1611. In com mon with Henry Clay and Abraham Lincoln. We bee those who honor the memory of Clay and Lincoln to bear tins in mind.*' U. G. then proceeds to show from “Gree ley's Almanac” of 1844, that Olay was not beaten ao badly as be might have been, and that if the abolitionists bad voted for him he might have been elected, and that but for a song sung by some “ locofocos ” in Pennsyl vania, he would surely have won the race. But the Democrats continued to carry ’bat State by constantly increasing ma jorities after the “protective” tariff of 1842 was changed Into tbe revenue tariff of 1840. The same thing happened in New York, and the "Whig party continued to get beaten worse and worse until at last it gave up the ghost. The Republican party, on tbe Anti-Slavery issue, recovered both New York and Pennsylvania from the strong grasp of the Democracy some eight or ten years ago, and have held them erersince. There is a vast difference between the tariff of 1842 and the monstrous prohibitory scheme before the House of Representatives which H. 0. is bellowing at Congress to pass. Just look at the facts: The tariff of August 30, 1842, known as the “Clay protective tariff of ’42,” imposed an average duty of thirtij’tAree per cent. It was in existence four years, and during that period tbe duti able imports of the United States amounted ;o 5295,178,131, and the gross revenue re ceived thereon was $27,109,412, which is an ivorage duty of thirty-tbree per cent. See Wells' report to Congress, page 60. The dutiable imports during the fiscal year 1869 amounted to $358,603,051, and the gross revenue received thereon was $170,040,630, or forty-tight and tico-Jl/ths per cent. On July 23, 1860, Congress added six to eight per cent to the whole range of dutiable imports, and had a few months previously abolished the Canadian free list of products under the Reciprocity Treaty, and imposed a tariff on them ranging from thirty three to sixty per cent. The present average rate of taxation on dutiable imports is fully fifty-six per cent, which is nearly twice at high ns tberates imposed by the “Clay protective tariff of *42.” Those Republican papers which oppose a further increase of tbe exist ing enormous imposts are ferociously de nounced as “British tree trade advocates.” A tariff almost double as high as the Clay la riff of’42 Is scouted at as a “free trade con trivance concocted to encourage European pauper labor at the expense of American in dustry.” The bill before Congress for the enactment of which 11. G. Is urging Congress with loud blaster and noise, raises tbe present excessive duties to rates, in many Instances, that are perfectly shocking. Tbe avowed principle of the bill is prohibition for the benefit of spec ulators, and not revenue for the support of the Government. Ifitshould pass with the 275 additions to tbe Senate bill, reported by the Ways and Means, and the 150 more additions proposed in the Committee of the Whole, it will average not much less than one hundred per cent, or three Limes the rates imposed by the Clay tariff of '42. It no more resembles the Clay tariff bill than a hawk resembles a band-saw or a wolf dees a sheep, n. G. commenced political life as a 41 revenue-protectionist” of the Clay school, bnt has climbed from revenue with incidental protection to high protection, from that to excessive duties, from that to destructive duties, from that to prohibition and direct taxation. He is uow on the door steps of the mad-house. Henry Clay, if be coaid rbs from the cerements of the tomb, would no more recog nize in his old pupil of ISI3 a revenue protectionist, than General Jackson wonld recognize in Andy Johnson a Union patriot. “My policy” of the latter b not a whit more odions to the people than the mon strous taxation programme of the editor of the New York Tribune . A fllOKAl* PUILOSOPUBU. What would have been said if Dogald Stewart or Sir William Hamilton had sud denly quitted the Chair of Moral Philosophy In the EdltgUorgh University, for the pur pose of editing a political paper in a small provincial town? The world would have turned up its eyes In wonder, and people would have asked each other whether the Professor had gone daft or his salary had failed. A thing not less remarkable has happened in this country. The great Moral Philosopher of the South, the chosen expo nent of Moral Philosophy In Dixie, In short, the Professor of Moral Philosophy in the Louisiana State Academy at Alex andria, Weat Louisiana, Raphael Semmes, has suddenly left the chair be was so admirably fitted to adorn, and now turns up as editor of the Memphis Bulletin. That paper, in its Issue of the 25th lost., contains uotonly an announcement of the Professor’s luturc connection with tbe Bulletin, as its chief editor, but also a double-leaded salutatory of tbcPrefcssor himself. Ofconrsc, ihe salutatory makes twocolumns. It is not o be expected that a Moral Philosopher, an ex-Admlral, a lawyer, a Probate Judge, and an editor all In one, and a Southerner at that, should occupy less than two columns. We can state the substance of this long •alntatory in a very brief sentence. It is, that Mr. Scmmes Is down on tho Radicals, and thinks that the only hope of the country is In the Democratic party- And bidding Moral Philosophy go to the dogs, or at least to get on tbe best way it can without his powerful assistance, he proposes to devote his energies to the noble and Christian labor of building up tbe Democratic party pre cisely as it was before the rebellion had broken out or tbe Alabama had been built. It Scmmes expects to (all as editor of the Bulletin, and wants a chance to return to his old profession of piracy, be cannot better -five tbe wav for each a step than by balld <og up the Democratic party, as be proposes. Ouce reinstate that party in power, and pub lic sentiment will be ripe for Scmmes and his new Alabama. The question Is whether Scmmes has be- come disgusted with Moral Philosophy, or whether the salary failed, or whether the Southern youth did not choose to bo instruct ed by the man who tried to save himself from drowning at the expense of . his men, by vjoutingout: “Save me! I’m the Captain !“ Perhaps they failed to sec the moral philoso phy of such conduct in the hoar of trial and InDger. Fcibaps it looked unphilosophical, not to say treacherous and cowardly. But. then, It Is possible that the great Moral Pni osopber has himself changed base. Perhaps lie has become converted to Democracy as ••xponndcd by tbe Chicago Timex, and has come up to Tennessee for the purpose of getting into a State where they have negro suffrage. But, whatever his motive. Governor Brownlow and the Legislature will ake care of him. This Is not the Professor's ilret experience as an editor. He edited tbe Mobile Gazette, which met with a fate similar to that of the Alabama—lt sank. May the Bulletin have better luck. AFItAIUOF CANADA, Mr. Raymond, member of Congress from New York city, la badly frightened about the “ Kingdom of Canada.*’ fie tried to get a resolution before Congress on Wednesday evening, declaring that “the establishment in tbe immediate proximity of the United States of & powerful monarchy, under tbe sup port of a foreign nation, cannot be regarded otherwise than as being hostile to tbe peace, and menacing to the aafety of this Republic.” He also proposed to ask the President whether any remonstrance bos been made by this Government against tbe consolidation of ail tbe Provinces under the impeilal rule of an English Prince, and whether tbe con si ntol this Government has been given in any way to the consummation of that project. This attempt of Mr. Raymond to manuiac tuie & little personal popularity, by shaking bis fist at the British Lion, is too ab surd to deceive anybody. The “ powertul monarchy” of Canada ! That is what Mr. Raj mond fears: and tbe “ establishment” of this powerful monarchy is what he objects >o. Wc are under the Impression that Cana da lias been regarded as a part of the British Empire for some time. It never has seen the day, since it has bem governed at all, that it has not been under monarchical ru!c. How the nominal blending of five Provinces into one, or the appointment of a member of the royal fatuity as Governor General, by the Imperial Government whose supremacy wis acknowledged In Canada before the United States had a separate existence, can bo regarded as the “establishment” of a monarchy, powerful or otherwise, Is more than we can see. It Is to be hoped that Mr. Johnson certainly baa not remonstrated against the project; for in such an event ho ha* unquestionably meddled with something that neither concerns hint'nor the Govern* ment. The Idea that the United States has any reason to tear Canada, is too ridiculous to llnd lodcmcnt in any sensible man's brain, and we must conclude that Mr. Raymond's resolution was pure boncombe. THIS god'ii. THE We have repeatedly said that so long as the “ Sooth” had any voice or discretion In the mailer, . she would never-willingly or voluntarily accept any scheme of recon* structiou that would be satisfactory to the loyal section of the Union; but tbat'the moment Congress.shoulddecide upon a definite and Anal plan.the, South would ac quiesce in it,not from choice, bat from neces sity, being in mo situation to offer effectual resistance to the will of the majority of the people. We have, therefore,■ steadily urged upon Congress the necessity of proceeding to adopt a final plan of reconstruction, without reference to the wishes or opinions of • the rebel party In the South—a plan that should at the same lime secure universal suffrage and open the way for the Immediate restoration of the in surrectionary States. If the dominant party In the South were to be consulted in regard to the plan, finally adopted by Congress; if they were to-say whether they would agree to It or reject It, wo have no kind of doobt they would reject It with even greater una nimity than they displayed In their oppo sition to the Constitutional Amendment. Bnt the question la not presented to them In any such form. They have no discretion la the matter. If they do not choose to go on and - organize -civil government in the manner there prescribed, the white Union population and the negroes are all ready to take bold ot the work and perform it. The only question the rebels have to de termine, therefore, is, whether they will take a hand in reconstruction themselves, or leave the business wholly to the control of the Union men, black and white. The question Is ot much Importance to them, but of very little to anybody else. As we anticipated, the reception of a measure which the South must accept whether she will or no, Is very different from that accorded to the Constitutional Amend ment, in which the rebels had a voice, and which they could accept or i eject at pleasure. Ex-Governor Brown, of Georgia, one of the fiercest of rebels in the days of rebellion, Is already out with a recommendation that Georgia shall at once proceed to organize a State Government on the new Congressional plan. The Southern papers, so far as we have read their comments on the measure, speak of it with much more respect than they ever ex hibited for the Constitutional Amendment. They do not hesitate to say that the plan commends itself as something definite— that it is, at least, an advertisement to the South ern States that on the performance of the prescribed conditions, tbclr Senators and Representatives shall bo admitted to Congress. They also declare tb&t the question is now pre sented to the Southern States, whether they will organize permanent governments on this plan, or not organize at all, since no other choice is left. In a word, the South Is convinced that the President's policy of nn conditional restoration is hopelessly defeat ed ; that they must accept whatever Con gress gives them, and that they cannot ex pect anytbingmorc congenial to their wishes or feelings than the plan embodied in the bill now awaiting the President's action. It Is true that some of the Southern papers maintain a sullen silence in regard to this measure, and some even speak of submission to sneb a law as unworthy of Soathern men, saying If they snbmit at all it will only be until they are In a condition to re sist. It will take very little reflection to convince the most chivalric disciple of last ditch principles, that the South is in no situa tion to enter upon another rebellion. Six years have wrought a great change In her resources and capacities for such a war. In 1861 she counted upon the absolute submis sion of her slaves, the unanimity of her white population, the support of foreign Powers, the division of sentiment in the North, and the cowardice ot Northern sol diers in the field. Bat now there is a loyal negro trained iu the use of arms, and ready to fight for the Union, wherever there Is a rebel who Is willing to take up arms in behalf of the "lost cause.” The resources of the South arc exhausted, and the bitter experiences of the unsuccessful strife arc too fresh in the minds of the people to permit any general desire for war. The idea of Northern cow- ardice is exploded. The North b united as she never was before; even the sensible por tion of tbe Conservative or Copperhead party do not hesitate to urge upon the President the necessity of signing the Reconstruction Bill. In tbe event of another war there would be no Southern party In the North, in a word, the idea of armed re sistance to the reconstruction scheme of Congress is simply absurd. The South will accept It, not of Its own free will or choice, hut from necessity. Loyal and stable gov ernments will be established under it. Pre judice and passion will speedily die out, capital and labor will flow In upou the South, carrying new civilization and enter prise In their path, and gradually but cer tainly extinguishing the traces that still sur vive the barbarous system of slavery. UVITOBNEi (MILL. The Legislature, ftt Itslort cession, estab lished the office or Attorney General of the State—an act that ought to have been done many years ago. The Governor has shown a proper appreciation of tho talents requisite Tor such an Important office, by appointing Colonel Robert G. Ingersoll. A better ap pointment could hardly have been made In any respect. Colonel Ingersoll is a gentle man of ripe experience, an able speaker, a well-read lawyer, a patriot, and a man uni versally respected by the people of HU nols. The Interests of this State have long needed the services of-an Attorney General. The State has not bad one for nearly twenty years. The abolition of that office was the result of tbe same Idea of economy that fixed the pay of members of the Legislature at two dollars per day. In establishing tbe office the Legislature has supplied a long standing want, and the wise purposes of the law have been admlrablly fulfilled by tbe selection of Colonel Ingervoll. Governor Oglesby might have searched the State over and not found another person whose appointment would give such universal satisfaction. The Journal asd Post.—Our evening cotemporaries have locked horns on the tar iff question. Tbe Radical paper argues in favor of a revenue tariff with considerable incidental “protection.** The Conservative concern advocates a prohibitory system, destructive of both revenue and commerce. The Pott thinks that the present scale of im posts, averaging as they do fifty-six per cent, high enough in all conscience, while the Journal stoutly contends for the passage of the lobby bill, which raises tho tax on im posts to eighty or ninety per cent, and on some of the necessaries of life, such as salt, to 250 per cent. The Post, thus far, has de cidedly the best of tbe argument, and evi dently carries more guns and throws heavier shot than itsopporent^^^^_^ KT - The despatch of our Washington cor respondent In regard to the position of Gen eral Grant on tbe Reconstruction Bill, is con firmed by other despatches not less explicit- In pursuance of the views expressed to tbe Secretary of the Treasury, the Central called on the President, and labored with him a long time to convince him that he bad better Approve the measure. Gcueral Grant has been so often misrepresented by his enemies, that his outspoken position on this great question is gratifying to his friends. He bos been restrained from expressing his political views, by the exalted military station which be fills; but those who know him have all the time been aware that ho Is a man of very decided political opinions, and that hts sym pathies have always been on the right side EST’Thc Nashville Union, a conservative Johnson paper, contains a long editorial de nunciation of Governor Brownlow, for bis pioclamatioo, in which he ano -uncos that he shall call ont as many loyal militia, under tho new law, as may be necessary to preserve peace and order. The fair Inference is that the Johnson tarty do not want peace and order preserved. They do not want a stop put to the assassination of Union white men or tbs oppression of negroes, and. hence, they are violent opiKJDcn'ts of the enforcement of the new Militia Law. They can rest assured that their wishes will have very little weight with Governor Brownlow. t3f*Thc telegraph brings the gratifying intelligence that the Tariff BUI received its quietus for the session, iu the House of Rcpicsentativcs, yesterday. Mr. Morrill moved to discharge the Committee of the Whole from Its further consideration. It re quired a two-thirds vote to carry this motion, and it fail* d. Mr, Stevens then moved to concur in theamendments of the Senate, and this motion was lost. This seals the fate of this bill of abominations, so far as the Thir ty-ninth Congress is conccrrcd. tSTThc citizens of Augusta, Georgia, arc discussing the subject of building a first-class Opera House la that city. Whether It is in tended to organize an Art Association and put it up In a lottery, Is not statei. Doubt less those who Invested In Mr. Crosby's tick ets arc anxiously awaiting another oppor tunity. Why might not the Opera House h? drawn first and built afterwards ? EUROPE. Oar Special Foreign Com- spondence. Italian Belatdbna to the,.Papal 'Power, The Hew imperial Policy in Austria. Proposed Permanent Abrogation of tlte Law of the Land. Determined r Opposition -to the Schemes of the Emperor, PX.OBSNCB. Tbe Church Property Question—Papal Persecution of Liberal Prlests-Hefu fal ot GaxthalitiaxL Officers to Wear the Bing’s Decorations— Oleailiur Ont (he Papal Prisons* [Special Correspondence of the Chicaeo Tribune.] Flobxjici, Italy, Jaimsry ». The financial plana of Signor Sclaloja, Minister of Finance, are soon to be discussed. What these plans are yon.already know. The Minghelll bubble project about the church property is revived, modified and presented as the cure for the present “ cheat disease” of Italy.- If-lUly can get air bun dred mlllionsof francs from the Church, and be free of the salaries of the clergy, it will doubtless work well so far as the financial question Is concerned. There are. however, some ifr and bats, which will come ont as the discussion proceeds. The ;evil la that the plan does not atop the great hole In the treasury, that even with Increased tax ation. Sclaloja himself looks forward to 18S0 for the first clean balance abcet. Bnt, even to balance in that distant year, be must put on more taxes, descry a large In crease of taxable property In the more imme diate future, and hope for a number of cir cumstances to arise which only a powerful imagination coaid even dream of. Mean while he proposes to kill in 18C7 the goose which be expects to go on laying more and more golden eggs all through the years be tween this and 18S0. A largo number of dep uties do not believe the limit of retrench ment has been reached, and they will insist upon an effort to cat down expenses to in come of once . They will insist in vain; but they arc defending the future policy of the nation—the only policy that can save Italian finance from utter ruin. Liberal journals declare that the Bourbon , propaganda .in Naples are working like beavers for a new reaction. The old nobility and the restored clergy head tbe movement, it is also stated that the Liberal priests are being subjected to bitter persecution by Archbishop Rlaaio. The worst feature of the scheme for giving full liberty to the Church is, that by this course the Government aban dons itself to tbe rage of men whom It lately banished. Tbe power vested in the Pope, by the recent verbal agreement between Home and Florence, to appoint bishops without any check by the Government, will place a third of the priests, who have been openly Liberal, in a painful strait betwixt recanta tion and starvation. An incident connected with the return of Rlasio Sforza to his Archbishop, by the gen erous action of Baron RlcasoU illustrates the situation. The Church of Gtm had belonged to Jesuits. Garibaldi scut them about their business in other regions and gave the church to a few Liberal priests who conducted in It a strictly Catholic worship, but celebrated ft/tarns on national festivals. The people flocked to the services and it had become the most popular church In Naples. The first act of Sforza was to demand this church and Its property os belonging to the Arch-Episcopal Court, and the Government >icldcd, sending the Liberal priests adrift. Then the Archbishop ordered the temple to he reconsecrated, to wash ont the stain of revolution. Nor is this all; the Prefect of the province attended the ceremony and ordered a detachment of the National Gnards to honor the service by parading under arms. Many of the Garlbaldian officers have re fused the decorations offered them by the King. Some say that os republicans they cannot pat on the badges of the monarchy; that they hare fought for the nation with ont committing themselves to a form of gov ernment which they disapprove. Others say frankly : “We did nothing to entitle ns to the honors of the nation. It was not onr fault nor that of our leader, bnt the fact re mains that we did not distinguish onrseivea in the late campaign.” It would be difficult to decide which class is entitled to the great er honor (or these refusals, but no one will esteem either the less (or making them. I note another remarkable case of self-ab negation. Cavalier Rossi is on the Italian Committee ofPrizes for the Paris Exhibition, and has refused to take the pay allotted by the Ministry for bis time and services. 1 fear you will not find in your exchanges any mention of aa incident which yesterday occupied the attention of Parliament. It was a petition presented, asking the action of the Government to secure the release from Papal prisons of twelve Italians belong* Ing to the cx-PontiQcal Provinces. Ton may remember that, a little more than a year ago, the Pope turned over to Italy the prisoners, convicts, or political offenders, who bad been sentenced by Papal Courts before the annexation of these provinces to Italy. It was very nastily done. The Papal officers turned them over in a herd—crnvicts, thieves, burglars, assassins, and political prisoners jumbled together—leavics Italy to find out as she best could what crimes each bad committed. Many of them had been arrested on suspicion of Itallanlsm, and, of course, condemned for being unable to re move the suspicion—some to twenty years* bard labor. The Italian Government had to select these men from the moss by a slow and painful collection of original evidence. I remember taking my Sunday walks past a prison where a number of unfortunate gen tlemen, who bad been five years in Papal prisons on suspicion of wishing well to Vic tor Emanuel, were confined by Italy on sus picion of being horse thieves or murderers. In short, it was a most painful incident, and some of the most worthy Italians remained six months in Italian prisons before they could show wbat the Pope shut them up for. Kow It appears that the Pope kept back some of these gentlemen, perhaps because be wished to seem to be even from bis prison lists, the King of Ancona and the Marches. He had turned over the most of them to save the expense of their mainte nance; a dozen would, serve as a protest against the dominion of Italy. He clings ob stinately to bis point, and the Minister of Foreign Affairs staled, In reply to the peti tion, that, though his predecessor and himself bad availed themselves of tbe intercessions of France, no success bad attended their efforts. He promised to keep on trying; but be holdout little hope of success. The sub ject was dropped, probably because every one hoped that Italian bayonets would ere long liberate the unfortunate victims of Pa pal tyranny. Tho doctrine of toleration ought to have two sides; 11 Is very hard to tolerate a fellow who will not tolerate yun—to keep on bless ing him through his chorus of cursing. And yet that Is just what Italy proposes to do with Rome. I hope she may keep her tem per. Italians take a deep Interest in the Can* dlan revolution. Many or Garibaldi's men arc fighting there. Tbe Government is both c-red by the French diplomats, who want this revolution pot down—who have, in fact, had more than enough of “ nationality” abroad. We arc Jost informed, for tbe fif teenth time, that the revolt is suppressed. Of course w« do not believe it. It the Can diates can bold ont until spring, Europe will be forced for very shame to hear tholr ago* nized prayer and grant them annexation to Greece. Tbe martyrdoms of Arkadi have deserved lloerty. There has been in our day no more heroic struggle than that which is going on In the Candlan hills. TXSVNA. rtie New Imperial Policy—Opposition to tlir Knluor’a Decree-Proposed Per* tnoDt-m Abrogation of the Lawoftbe Land—Frnucts Jnteph CalUTallnjj mt imilke «*f iiln Subjects. [Special Correspondence of the Chicago Tribune.) Viexks, Austria, January 33. Events of great importance and vital bear* Inc upon the late of the Austrian Empire have transpired since I wrote yon last on the eve ot the new year. As I predicted at the time, the Government inaugurated the new year by a formal attempt at a solution of tbe most perplexing question It has to deal with, viz: the definite regulation of the po>ltlcat relations of the various parts of the Empire to each other and to the central Imperial authority. On the Sd instant, the official Gazette contained an Imperial Decree or Patent, as It Is officially styled, declaring the functions of the several Assemblies of all tbe Provinces, excepting Hungary, Croatia, Sla vonla and Tracsylvanla, at an end ; ordering new elections to be held In the same Provinces withouttfaelcast delay,and direct* ing the newly elected Assemblies to meet in the several provincial capitals on tbe 11th of February, lor the purpose of electing the members of an “ Extraordinary Council of the Empire'*—l know no better way of translating the German JieiehtmUt, meaning the General Legislative Assembly of the Em pire at large, wblch Is to assemble at Vienna on the 25th proximo—for the exclusive, con sideration of the single subject of constitu tional reorganization. Some preliminary explanations are neces sary to enable your readers to understand the purport of this Imperial mandate. After rations experiments in State-craft, the Em peror, in Ft-bruaxy, 1861, proclaimed a sort of organic law or Constitution, ftr the whole monarchy, which defined the relations of the several Provinces to each other *, fixed the basu for ft common, representation of all ’thh-Ahatrian peoples la a Qenenri Assembly, (Btic7ixnUi), tDii regulated the mode of their .equal putlclpatlon,through legislative au thority, iotbc administration.©! public af lairs. The General Assembly was to consist of bb tjpper kud LowerHouso. - The former, or House of Lords, was to consist of repre sentatives of the most influential landed no- billty; of certain ecclesiastical dignitaries, and other members appointed by the Gov ernment. -Tho-membera of the latter were' to “be elected __ thn)agh~ various modes by I the Assemblies (Land(a&) ol the several Provinces. The mode of elec tion-presented for the Provinces, secured to the several.national elements a representa tion In the General Assembly Ip -proportion to their respective numerical strength—the object being to cheek Jealousies of race, and prevent the oppression of the weaker by the stronger. The first General Assem bly met In the latter part of April, 1861. The Emperor, in * the throne speech with which ho opened the first ses sion, formally rowed not only that he would himself faithfully observe the new Constitu tion, but also that he would obligate his successors to take and observe the same vow. His declaration being followed by corre sponding acts, such as the practical recogni tion of the right of the National Legislature to regulate the use of the people's money, by tbe submission ol the annual • budget to the General Assembly, the joy of the most of ihq Austrian peoples was great. But It was destined to be short-lived. The Assemblies of Hungary .Croatia and Slavonia had refused to respond to the original summons of the Emperor to elect members to the General Assembly, on the ground that the provisions of the new National Constitution did violence to their own ancient organic laws and threat ened to destroy their autonomy, and per sisted in their refusal, notwithstanding the strenuous efforts of the Government to Induce them to send representatives to the RticAstag. The peoples of the restive Provinces, repre senting 13,000,000 of inhabitants, were so unanimous in their opposition to the new Constitution for the Empire atlarge that any attempt to enforce the acts ot the General Assembly among them would have involved the risk of exciting another general insur rection, more formidable even than that of 1849. To their persistent refusal came the crowing political liberalism of the German majority of the Melefutag, which so fright ened tbe Emperor that npon tbe pretext of the impossibility of effecting a political re organization under the Constitution of 1861, he suspended, notwithstanding his positive pit dee to defeud it against all aggression • with (he whole of bis Imperial “ power, and to exact obedience to it from each and every one of his subjects,” the functions of the General Assembly, and with it the Con stitution, in September, 1865, ad infinitum, and ruled from that time until the present day with the former absolutism, and without the least constitutional restraint Now the Imperial edict of the Sd instant docs not propose to revive the old General Assembly, or Relcharath, suspended sixteen months ago, with the fnl) prerogatives guar anteed to it by the Constitution of ISOI, bnt to call into existence a deliberative rather than a legislative body, consisting of repre sentatives of little more than one-half of the present population of the Empire, whose functions shall he limited to the considera tion of the question how the Constitution of IS6I Is to be modified In order to bring about its recognition by the schismatic Provinces. Moreover the decree does not require the elections for this “ extraordinary assembly ” to be held by the Provincial Assemblies in ac cordance with the provisions of the Consti tution, but leaves the mode of election to the option ol the latter. Ever since the suspension of the Constitn : tloo, the progressive leaders of the German element in all the Western and Sonthwestern Provinces have worked incessantly for Us rest< ration. They cannot be blamed, there -1 fore, for receiving the Patent of the 3d instant with the most emphatic disapprobation. They look upon it as a deliberate attempt on the part of the Government to substitute permanent abrogation for the suspension of the organic | law of the land, solemnly pronounced sacred and inviolable, in the most formal manner, 'by the sovereign himself. They do not dis rate the right of the Government to dissolve the Provincial Assemblies and order new elections, such a proceeding being distinct ly authorized by the Constitution. But they justly contend that the Constitution docs notcrcatca Kcichsrath for parts,but only one for the whole of the Empire, and that hence the convocation of an Assembly, in which only the cls-Lellhldn Provinces arc to he rep. resented, is a direct violation of it. They arc also iluht In holding that the limitation, of the constitutional powers of the "extra ordinary General Assembly,” by the decree, is another flagrant usurpation. And again, tney arc full; justified In denying the right of the Government to transgress the limits prescribed by tbc Constitution in regard to tbe elections for the General Assembly by tbc Provincial Assemblies, by leaving the mode of election to the option of the latter. The decree contains an assurance that the Government is determined to secure const!- tulional liberties to every people and Pro vince, and that it calls the extraordinary Assembly only in order to bring about a final settlement of the constitutional rela tions of tbe several parts of the Empire, which past experience had taught to be un attainable under tbe old Constitution. But it cannot be surprising that the Government is Judged more by its acts than by its words, and that there is a strong popular inclina tion to cling to the Constitution of IS6I, rather than to engage In new constitutional experiments, the result of which cannot now be foreseen. Since the promulgation of the decree, a new political parly, comprising all those In favor of preserving the old Constitution In all Its parts, has been formed with a rapidity without parallel in the history of Austrian politics. The movement resulting in its or ganization was started here. From the capital It quickly extended through all the purely German Provinces, as well as through Bohemia, Moravia, and other parts of the Empire, In which the German element Is large enough to make its influence felt polit ically. The decree had no sooner appeared, than the leading German papers in the capi tal and throughout the Provinces, with re markable unanimity, advocated passive re sistance to it; that is, non-participation in tbe extraordinary Assembly for thecls-Leitblan Provinces. They counselled their readers to adhere steadfastly to that only guarantee ot what limited constitutional liberty they had possessed, and to defeat the object of the Pat ent by preventing the election of members to tbe extraordinary Assembly. They were ad vised to participate in the elections for the Provincial Assemblies, which had been or dered according to law, bnt to support only candidates for them that were true to tbe Constitution and would pledge themselves not to elect any members to the body convoked by the Patent. Their arguments and suggestions found uni versal favor with the great body of the re flecting German public and seemed to reflect the sentiments ot all the prominent political leaders. Twenty of the latter, all members of tbe Reichsratb, representing Upper and Lower Austria, Styria, Camiola, Silesia, Salz burg, as well as the Germans of Moravia and Bohemia, and including such men as the Governor of Lower Austria, Priucc Collor cdo; Baron Pratobeoera, Privy Counsellor of the Emperor sod cx-Mlnlster of Justice: Messrs. Von Losscr and Von Plcncr, also ex Ministers ; Counts Hogos and Anersperg, Baron Llnte, borides Messrs. Knranda, Schin dler, Berger,Kalserfeld, Recbbaner.and other well-known champions ot constitutional liberty, met according to appointment, on Sunday last, and, after a fall discussion of the question of tbe day. nnanimoosiy re solved that their respective constituencies be recommended to use all lawful means to prevert the election by tbe Provincial As semblies of members to tbe extraordinary General Assembly, convoked by the decree ofthe 2Sd lost., and to resort instead to the election of members for the regular General Assembly, as provided by the Constitution ofisei. Dearborn. The effect of this movement has been ex traordinary. With lew exceptions all the leaders certain of being elected to the vari ous Provincial Assemblies by German votes have already signified their adherence to the resolutions of the meeting. The public standing of the participants in the latter has, indeed, made it a most formidable dem onstration against the present political pro jects of the Government. Hardly a voice of any weight has as yet been beard in support ot‘ the Patent. Tbc Germans of Austria hare never before manifested so much harmony upon any political issue, and it may be con sidered absolutely certain that tbov will not be represented in the extraordinary Rcicbs rath, and that, as they form nearly two thirds of the cls-Lcithian Provinces,the body lu question wilt not be competent to assume the task of providing a basis for a compro mise with Hungary, assigned to it by the Government. The Czechs of Bohemia and Moravia, the Poles of Galicia, the Staves of Carlnthia. and the motley nationalities of the Provinces and districts washed by the Adriatic, will be the only elements likely to be represented. Ax Ou> Bell.—The ancient Prorioco of the Cbarollais poaecMC* the oldest hell known In Fiance. The late M. in in interesting article published In ihe Annals Arcnxlo?lqaes of Bidrrn, referred to the bell of Fontcnsillcs, near Baycnx, which dates «rom the year 1202. u buns the earliest Id France. That of bu tucho, near La-ClajrcU- (Sa.-neet-l«lre). and which formerly beloosed to iJ-ChapellCf-sotu.Dna, hears the in. ccnptton Mil vng Jt is, therefore, SOI yean old* er tbir. the bell of FomenaiUes. 188 SPRING FASHIONS. Mew York and Paris Modes n for March. • 1 lie Triumph of Short Dresses. The Spring Bonnets. A Return to Style* of the Past—The Se jinat. uid .YtmillM-Stff-Spring - ■ press .Goods- —Jnsjicr CJolbs and Jaiper of . Biotadtd. Silk*. novelties in Fashion for House and Jailor Furniture. [Special Fashions Correspondence of the shta*SQ dribane.] Hsw Yobs, February 26. Fashion Is accused of being capricious, and eccentric, and lately has well earned tbe title. The rapid revolutions, tbe bold inno vations, the entire disregard of all ideas ac cepted as proper, within the past few years, entitle her to rank with tbe most courageous of reformers, and proves her capable of achieving that which philosophers only dare to dream. THE TRIUMPH OP SHORT DRESSES. A lady of fashion five years ago, and a lady of fashion to-day, would present a contrast more striking than was ever presented by the vivid imagination of a comic newspaper artist. The wide hoops, the six-story bon nets, the long, ample cloaks, have all been swept away, and in place of them are small squares of velvet, tied fiat to the top of the head, short narrow skirts, light jackets, and a generally compact and restricted appear ance to the toilette, which can only be real ized when it Is seen. Well, what more wonld complaloers and grumblers generally have ? They denounced hooped skirts, long dresses, and declared that the most formidable barricade In the world between themselves and any sight worth seeing was a woman's bonnet. Hoop | skirts and bonnets are no longer in their way. Fashion has even gone a step forther, and boldly accomplished what the Bloomer movement failed to do, and that is, popular ized short street dresses; yet still the croak ers find employment for their tongues. They declare now that the fashions ore hideous; that they are unbecoming; that they make women look like guys ; and that tbe sooner they return to the old styles tbe better. This would be provoking if It came from a responsible source; bat as there are a cer ; tain number of people whom even tbe Al mighty tails to please, It is not to be expect ed that they will be suited by any effort of fashion or women. Seriously, however, the Intelligent press of the country, who have the good of their own wives and daughters and the health and wel fare of women at heart, should encourage by every means la their power the present tend ency towards a sensible, useful, economical style of dress. All fashions can bo made extravagant, but they are not necessarily so. If ladies like to dress quietly and plainly, they can, with out exciting attention or remark. Tbclr skirts need not sweep the streets, are unob trusive in size and arc not Injured by mud or dust. What more can be desired, especial ly when to these advantages are added plain, stout walking boots, which enable women to brave any weather. Of conrse, there are plenty of foolish yonng girls, who will exaggerate the distin guishing features ol any mode, until they make it ridiculous. The tendency of our American girls is towards exaggeration of every kind. Their conversation is hyper bolical ; their use of phrases so far beyond the ideas they have to express, as to have become a by-word and a reproach. Their dress, above all things, reveales a disposition to at tract attention by sensational effects, rather than purity and perfection ol taste. Par ex ample, If dresses arc worn long, they trail them in the dust half a yard; if sleeves are worn short, they reduce them to a simple band. When the hair was worn low, they had it hanging entirely upon the neck; now that it is massed higher, they monnt it as a monstrous cushion on the top of their heads. In the same way they will do their best to spoil the short dress; bat wo sincerely hope the common sense of the country, will not let it be spoiled, hut that it will bo added to and improved. One of the temptations to ruin it, on the part of women themselves, is tbc facility it affords for making over all sorts of old dresses, and any quantity of these striped, and figured, and checked, have been brought Into play, without any regard to the adaptation of the material to the style. Also, instead of a petticoat uniform with tbe drees, old balmoral skirts arc trimmed np with frills and braids and

heighten the generally forlorn and patchy appearance of the toilettes. A good husband said to his wife, the other day, when she announced her intention of making a short dress : "Make it, then, of handsome material, and In the best possible taste, so as to recommend a fashion which deserves to ho encouraged. I shall willingly pay tbe bill, whatever tbc amount, and con sider the sum well invested, if it assists to promote a reasonable and practical street dress for women.*’ The new short dresses for spring wear, are made In two colors—the dress of one ; the petticoat and *ac paletot, of another. A black dress, with purple petticoat and pale tot, is a good combination ; also black and dark bright bine. A green poplin dress and black silk under r-kit t and paletot arc in good style, or a fine striped dress with jacket and petticoat in the contrasting color. Care should be taken not to make the up per skirt too short. Six Inches is sufficient difference between the length of the upper skirt and the lower, measuring, of coarse, from the points of the dents, If it is cat oat in the usual way. The handsomest short dresses arc black, and trimmed with jct,wlth a pleating below; bat they are less fresh and spring-like in their appearance than the contrasting styles mentioned above. SPRING BONNETS. This Is a very interesting question. All femlnincdom arc ansions to know what new surprise the milliners arc preparing, and whether they will have to sacrifice their lost new chignon*. The milliners, on the contra ry, are as anxiously Inquiring how they can invent a small bonnet which will be piquant, which will not interfere with the hair, and which enterprising young ladies and econom ical persons cannot make for themselves. The result of their labor is not as yet very clearly defined. “Opening day” is still too far off, but the Indicat lons areall In favor of a re turn to the complete bonnet, the regular or thodox combination of crown, brim and cape which preceded the fancy little “saucers” worn during the past nine months. Among the advanced styles that we have seen, the “Srrfjoe” is the most decided novelty. The brim tarns up in front, like the rim of a turban, with the difference that it ascends instead of lying flat to the crown, and forms a tiara over the forehead. Anar row cape at the back surmounts tbe chignon and forms a comb. This is quite new and rather di*tinque % but it can be becoming to very few women. Other styles in fancy straw approach more nearly to tbe bonnets of several years ago. The btim Is narrow bnt somewhat pointed and elevated in front; the cape small and snrmonnts tbe chignon. Toe crown !s tbe most important part of the bon net, and fils to tbe top of the head, instead of at the back, leaving the cape and brim to serve as ornamental appendages, rather than indispensable parts of the mam structure. A new and pretty toguet has an elevated brim. like the “ Sevlque.’* This tapers off at tbc back, where the crown descends In a point. Some beautiful “ Sevique” straws had the standing brim and cape faced with bine or preen satin, and finished on the npper edge with jet or crystal fringe. The outside trim ming was simple, and corresponded in color with the lacing. Easter comes late this year, and os Easter Sunday is the first occasion upon which it Is proper to display new spring bonnets, the appearance of tbc best styles will be dis played somewhat liter than usual. Very quaint botnets are made In satin, with low, round crowns, and brim extending all the way round. They are made in satin, and have been named, properly, on account of their rococo style, tbc “ Versillles.” We have seen one made in green satin, the brim edged with jet beads, the crown snrronnded by small crimson roses mixed with black lace. Another was of bine satin, and this was or namented with a wreath of small feather Ups and an edging of crystal fringe. Small feather flowers are used for decorating the earlier spring bonnets, and Jet is still largely employed upon black or green silk bonnets. Birds made of satin or silk, embroidered or fringed with beads, arc a novelty In orna ments lor bonnets or head-dresses. SEW SPRING DRESS GOODS. There is not meeb that Is new as yet to an nounce In dress goods. A great display is already made in the windows of onr large establishments, bat it generally consists of last season’s poplins and showy cambrics. Everybody has a pel weakness, perhaps more, hot certainly one. One of ours was for the prefty, delicate, fine-striped and small-figured cambrics and pcrsales, which always made their appearance like the cuckoo, as the herald of spring. We never lirrd of them any more than of the green freshness of the grass, or the welcome song of the birds. But, alas, wc see them no more. There are cambric*, but ther are 1 gaudy, flaunting things, printed In large , patterns and dreadful barter*, with, per*, tape, a body of dlffercnttcolor from the skirt—bold, shameful, tawdy fabrics, which desecrate tbelc.namf, and v more like our modest cambrics of 'year# ago than the dandelion is like the crocus of the violet. , •, 3loch better than these are'the plain cam* b’rics, which can be tastefhlly trimmed with bland* - In' a contrasting color ? stitched on 'with the sewing maclilne, white upon bine, for Instance, green upon gray, and bine upon pale buff. For those who can afford It*how ever, white makes the prettiest monring dress—fine white corded muslin, or plain India, and we recommend all ladles to count 'two of this description M 'lndispensable *,o their preparation t jj o fltt mmer season. Our bwn choice In color-woold- be white or black-all the year round, but always white . muslin, with the addition In cold weather of ■ a blue or scarlet sac or Jacket for jnornlng wear. .“.Jasper” cloths and “jasper” silks are offered as , spring novelties, although there .is nothing particularly novel about them. They are simply fine ehene goods In dark colors, with a little bright intermixture. They make up Into handsome spring suits —the silk trimmed with cross-cat bands of satin, with a jot head ing running through tbe centre ; i tbe cloths —poplins they are sometimes called—orna mented with jet gimp or braid. “Poplins” contribute now tbe generic term by which all mixed goods are known, and it is not best to buy them withont being well assured of their quality. Common mixtures are rarely worth the cost aud -trouble of making up, and it Is much better to have only a few dresses of pure material—cotton, wool, or silk, or linen—and warranted manu facture, than a large number made of cheap stuff, which answers no really good or useful purpose and shrink or dissolve in the first shower of rain. Pure alpaca or mohair cloth Is an excellent, durable, and always lady-like material, but It should bd lined, or it soon looks wrinkled and shabby. Rich black silks are greatly in rogue, and very hondsomc patterns are embroidered in narrow but very thick stripes upon the seams, In silk and jet. The very latest styles In black silk, how ever, are much more elaborate tbau this. They arc embroidered in butterfly and insect patterns, with bright dark silk and gold threod. The cost of them la two hundred and fifty dollars tbe dress, and they form grand toilettes for dowagers, who like silks Lbat “rustle” and that can “stand alone." Tbe revival of brocaded silks is Raining ground slowly. The toilettes displayed at the latest and most brilliant entertainments of the season have, very many of them, been composed of heavy -white silk or satin bro caded in various colors a* d magnificent de signs. But the beauty is not unfrequently wholly lost in the incongruous nature of the ornaments. Point lace or point applique eponld alone be employed to trim them, and the jewels should be diamonds or nothing. Instead of these we see white gimp and even coarse cluny lace need as decorations, and massive gold breastpins and bracelets displayed as Jewelry; and we sigh to think how much money is spent to make people look hideous. house pubnishixo. Ladies who ore about refurnishing, or go- Ing to housekeeping for the first time, may be glad for a few hints on fashions in furni ture. The day of large-patterned, bright flowered carpets Is gone by, and they are succeeded by plain Grounds or a small unde fined figure. Plain gionnd tints on walls and In carpets ore discovered to be infinitely better for throwing up fhrnltnre, pictures and ornaments. The bright tints of ladies* dresses also show off to much better advan tage. When the prevailing tone la neptral, color may, of course, and should be Intro duced, but it must bo In the ornaments, not in the furniture; in the mats, fans, boxes, vases, and banging boskets of flowers—not in tbc carpet, tbe chairs, or on the walls, ex cepting, of course, pictures. "pearl” cards Is the name given to the latest style of visit ing cards. They are very pretty in the style of "mother of pearl,” but soon be come defaced, and arc altogether too effem inate for gentlemen. HANGING SLEEVES arc made to many of tbe spring tae* and poplin paletots, revealing the coat s’ccvc of the drees. A SPRING CLOAK. A handsome and quite new spring cloak is made of marine blue cloth, In the short cir cular style, embroidered at the back la a palm leaf with black silk and steel. A long pointed bood extends down the top of the leaf at the back, and Is ornamented with cordelicre®. Jennie June. THE FORTIETH CONGRESS. List of Senators and Representatives. Tbe Fortieth Congress, which will assem hie on the 4lb of March next, according to a law passed by the present Congress, will be competed as lollows *. SENATE. CALIFORNIA. MINNESOTA. John Conte**, H. Alexander Ramsay. It. Cornelias Cole. IL Daniel Norton, O. CONNECTICUT. NEVADA. James Dixon, I). William M. Stewart, R. Urns s. Ferry, IL Janies W. M re. IL DELAWARE. NEW RANTSIHBB. George Read Huddle. D. Aaron B Cragin. IL Willard Sanlsbnry, D. James W. P«itcr*on, E. ILLINOIS. HEW JERSEY. Richard Yates, R. A. G. Cjttcll. IL Lyman Trumbali, R. F. r.Frellncbuyaen, R. INDIANA. NEW TOUR. T. A. Hendricks, D. Edwin D. Morgan, R. Oliver P. Morton, R. lioscoe Cookllng, IL io»a. onto. JamvflW. Grimes, R. Benjamin F. Wade, R. James Darlao. it. John Sbermao, R. KANSAS. OREGON. Fdward G. It jbs, R. ueorre 11. Williams, R. Samuel C. Pomeroy, R. Henry W. Corbitt, It. KENTUCKY. PENNSYLVANIA. James Gntbrie. D. Charles R. Bnckalew.D. Garret Daws, D. Simon Cameron, R. Maine. ruodb island. To’MMorrlll. R. William Sprague, R. Wm. P. Fessenden, It. Dcitry B Anthony, IL MASBACUCSETTS. TENNESSEE. Charles *>nmner, R. D. T. Patterson, D. Henry Wilson, R. J. S. Fowler R. MARYLAND. VEBUONT. Revcrdy Johnson, D. Geo. P. Edmond®, R. Thomas Swan. D. Justin S. .Morrill, IL MItSOCBI. WE«T VTUOtNIA. John B. Henderson. IL Peler G. VaoWlnkle. R. Charles D. Drake, IL Wailman T. Willey. B. MICUIOAN WISCONSIN. Zacharlah chandler, IL James K. Doollitic, D. Jacob M. Howard, IL Timothy O. Howe, IL Radicals, 4G; Democrats, 13. BOUSE OP REPRESENTATIVES. The Jloneeof Representatives will be com posed as follows: cautounia. xzw Tons, [Three members to be I. Stcpn<*n Taber, D. deep <1 In September.] 2, Dcua* Barnes, D. CONNECTICUT. 3. W. E. Roblcsoo. D. [Fonr members to be -1. Jobs Fox, D. elect, il In April.] 5. John Morrissey, B. SELAwana. 6 T. E. Stenarl, 1). John A. Nicholson, D. 7. JonnW Cbanler, D. nxisou. 8. James Brook*, D, 1. N. B. Judd. R. 9 Fernando Wood, D. 2. J. F. Farnsworth, R. 10. W. H. Robert«oa, R. 8. E. B. Washburne, K. 11. C. 11. Van Wyck, tt. 4. Aaron C. Baromg,R- 12. John H. Ketebam, B. 5. EbmrC.luccrsoll.R. 13. Thomas Cornell, K. 6. Bur*on C. Cook. B. 14. J. V. U Pniyn, D. 7. U. P. U.Bromwell,R. 15. J. A. Griswold. R. 8. S. M. Cnilom, R. 16. Orange Ferris, R. 9. Leo Is W. Roes, I>. 17. C. T.un.burd, R. 10. A. G. Burr. D. 18. Jamea M. Mamn, R. 11. S. S. Marshall, R. 19. Wm. C.Fields. R. 12. Jebn Baker, R. 90. A. B. L*flln, B. is. G. B. Ranm, R. 21. Bosroc CoskUng, R. At large, J. A. 1-ogao, R. 22. J. C. Chnrchlll, It. Indiana. 23. Dennis McCartbjr.R. 1. Wm. E. Nlblack. P. 24. T. M. Pomeroy, R. 2. Michael C.Eerr, D. 25. Wm. M. Kelsey, R. 3. m. C. Banter, R. 96. Wm. 8. Lincoln, K. 4. Wm. S. Uolman, P. 97. Uamllton Ward, K. 5. Geo. W. Julian, R. 98.1-ewU belye. D. 6. John Cobntn. R. 29. Cm t Van Horn, R. 7. U. D. Wasbbnrn,R. 30. J. M.Bnmpnrey, D. 8. GodloveS. Oith, B. SI. H. Van Aernam, R. 9. Bcboyler Colfax. R. onto. 10. Wm. Williams. K. 1. Beni. Eggleston, R. 11. j. F. C. Shanks, R- 2. RB. Bayes, R. iowa. 3. Robe. C. Sebenck, R, 1. James F. Wilson. R. 4. V» m. 1 awrence, IL 2. Hiram Price, R. 5. Wm. Mqng*n, D. 3. W’m. B. Aldson, B. 6. Reader W.CUrke,R, 4. W. M. Loncbridge,K. T. S. Sbeilabarger, R. 5. G. M. Dodge, R. 6. G 8, Hamilton, R. 6. A. W. Bnobard, B. 9. R. P. Bockland, R. Kansas. 10. James M. Ashley, R. Sidney Clarke, R. It. John I. Wilson, R. kentcart. 12. P. Van Tramp. D. (Mue members to be 13, O.W, Morgan,D.(C.) elected in May.] 14. Martin Welker, B, kaetc. IS. Tobias A. Plan's, R. 1. John Lynch, R, 16. JobnA.Blosbam,R. 2. Sidney Perham, R. 17. Ephraim U.EckK-y,R 3 James O Blame. R. IS. R. P. SpaMlne, R. 4. John A. Peters, R. 19. Jamea A. Gatfleld. 5. Frederick A Pike, R. obxoon. jJiCTLAXD. Rnfas Mallory, D. 1. niramMcCnllon£h,D pejck»ti.tania. 2. a. Archer. D. I. Samael«l.RaodalL.U. 3C. A. Phelps, D. (C.) 2. Charles O’XdiL R. L brands Thomas, B. 3. i-eonard Mjew. R. 5. Frederick Stone, D. 4. Wtn. D. Kelley, R, XASBACUUSETTB. 5. Caleb If. Taylor, R. 1. Thomas D. Eliot, R. 6. Benj. M. Boyer, D. 2 OakesAnue, R. 7.JohnM-BroomalUß. : 3. Ginei? Twitched, R. 8, J. Lawrence o«tz,D 4. tamcl Hooper. R. V. TbaddcosSiereiu,R. 5. Ben). P. Butler, R. 10. Henry L. Cake. R 6. Nathaniel P.Baobt.R 11. D. iL VaaAnkcn, D. 7. Ct< o. s. Boatvrell, K. 12. Charles Denison, D. S. John D. Baldwin, R. 13. OjyaseaF.Mercar, R. 9, W. B. Washtmm. R. 14. GeorreF. MUI-r, R. 10. He* ry L. Dawes, B. is. A-J.Gloesbreuser.D. xiasorui. IG. Wn. 11. Koontz, R. 1. Wm. A, Vila. R. (C.) 17. Darnel J. Morrell, R. 2. C. A. Newcomb, 1L 18. Stephen F.Wilsss,R -. 3. Thomas E. Nuell, D. 19. G. \V. Scofield, U. 4 j.J Giavelly, R. 90. Darwin A. Fmne/.R. 5. j. W. >lcClnrr. R. 31 John Corode. R. C. R. r.Vaullorn,H.(C.) 22. J. K. Morefaead, R. 7. CeiJ. F. Loan, R. S 3. Thomas Wlllitms.R. 8. J. F. Benjamin, R. 2L G. V. Lawrence, R, 9. G.W. Anderson. H(C) roods isuuid. xxemaas. [Two members to be 1. Per. C. Desman, R elected In April.] 2. Charles Dp*on, R. TESSD4SBS. 3. Aosnn Blair, IL [Eight membets to be 4. Tbos. "W, Ferry, B. elected lo August.] 5. R. B.Trowbrldae.R. _ vrnwfNT. _ C. John P. Drlegs, B. 1, F.K.Woodhrldge, R« juxwssoza. 2. 1 Aike P. Poland, R. 1. Wm. Windom, R. 3. W. C. Smith. B. 2. InatlasDonnellx.R. west tiuoisia. xotadA. 1. C. D , Hubbard. R. Delos R Ashley. R. 2. Benj. M. Kitchen, R. htw nasramoK. 3. Daniel PoUey, K. rihiee members tn be wiscosenr. dieted is March.] 1. Halbert E. Paine, R. jnew jzuset. 2. Sen] F.Qookuu, R, 1. William Moore. IL 3. Amasa Cobb. B. S. Charles Haight. D. 4 Cba4.A.E«drldge, D. 3. Chas. bl'greavei, D 5. Phlletos Sawyer, R. 4. John Uilt, R. 6. C. C. Wa*hbarne,R. 5. G. A. Halsey, R. Radicals, 12S; Democrats, 33. What Is Done with the JTatUated National Currency, (Washington Correspondence ot the Springfield (iiaa-'j Republican.] The system o( redeeming the soiled and mutilated currency is one of great interest. This old money Is sent first to the redemp tion division of the Treasurer’s olßce, where U Is counted by the women, who rcoort any counterfeits they may find, and the amount contained in the package. A mistake in thb has the same penalty as In the new money. Three who bate to touch these notes while in circulation, even with gloves, and arc disgusted with their odor, can read ily imagine what must be the atmosphere of a room In which they are counted by mil lions. There Is certainly no mure disagree- bio duty. After the counting, holra ure; punched In Iho notes to prercnltholrbclnu .Issued nKoin, mnd they are cut In bairfrom, top to bottom. Those hslvci “re oat up In packages,' each package containing otguv. thousand Dotes, and are sent to tbo redemp-■ tlon divisions of the Secretary’s and Register s ; . offices, where they are agala_ punched ana, •gain coomed. .If a right half Is fop°“* among the left ones, or r lce versa. It must be. reported, al»6 a report Is made If the small: bundles are found to contain one note over, or less than a hundred. The accounts of |he : heads of each ' of these bu’caua must agree; exactly ■with each other and with ot; the Treasurer, Should the hMf,°* e .® i cent note ho misting, a thorough search is, made, so necessary la ftccuraoy. A. tier the final conotingj the poles arc macerated i reconverted into paper. .. , jihe go Jhron.u & longer process. After being car.-joto upper ana lower halves,* they are "Bent In lots to the named, and they are arrange* by Iho -women according to letter. - Then the I numbers are made to run as consecutively as 1 possible, no attention having been paid to I this when redeeming them, and the notes are cbnnted off into hundreds. This done, the numbers are registered on sheets of paper, and the results Irotn both offices compared, to see if they correspond exactly. This work. Is called checking. In both bureaus there I are hooks containing the numbers of all the I notes of each letter and denomination, with i the date of Issue. That of redemption is to he found on the registered sheets. This date shows at what time the notes therein repre sented by their numbers were destroyed, and It is transferred to the books, opposite the same numbers. THE REVENUE FRAUDS. Report of the Special Con gressional Investigat ing Committee. Disclosure of Stupendous Frauds on the Government. Illicit Distillation of Spirits. The Special House Committee, consisting of Representatives Darling, Beaman, Myers, and Eggleston, appointed to Investigate frauds In the payment of the excise on dis tilled spirits, tobacco and cigars, reported on Monday lost. Tbe following extracts pre sent the most important conclusions of tbe committee: lnde«Q. U Is believed that at least seven-eighths of the entire amount of spirits manufactured coder the pretent law have escaped taxation. Yoar committee led warranted io the assertion that lew, If any, of the large distilleries in the Untied in operation, are domes Iceiluntte business. Tbe conclusion, tbonrh t weening ana apparently censorious in its terms, seems justified i.* the tacts. Tbe (ax on distilled spirits la s3per gallon, while (hat article u sold openly in market at prices ranging from $1.50 to f I.S) per gallon. It is impossible, therefoie, to see Low whiskey, the first cost of which U from thirty to forty cenn and tbe tax upon which Is (2, can be msaufactm ed and sold lor toe prices above named, they, providing the 'ax has been paid, constituting oal> about two-thirds of the actual coeU These bets are ap palling, and they excite apprehension, at well in reference to the morals of the people as la regard to their hearing upon the public treasury, nud if the present condition of affairs Is to be continued, tbst which has peen regarded as one of the princi pal sources of internal revenue may now be deemed s übstaatlally exhausted. The lax on dhs tided spirits itself is very onerous, a< d ctSm great temptaaons for the evasion ol Its payment. The Iranortls now at least five hun dred per cent ad valorem. Too many of oar peo ple do not regard it as a crime to avoid 'axajoii, and hence tbe temptation to delrand :he Govern ment, in view ol large gains, too frequently Be come irresistible. Whatever view we may take ot tbe wisdom of the step by which the tax <va* raised to its present rate, we can see that tjere are objections to reducing it at the present time, one 01 winch is that iheic are spirits on band al leged to have nald an Import duty, and yet per haps this difficulty is more spidoos than icsl. because it is evident tnat a large portion of It has virtually paid no tax, and the holders would suf fer but little by a reduction in the price. She laws have been brought into contempt be cause they have not been rigidly emorced lu the orofccnuon of cases of detected frauds. Anion*' all the seixurtfs and prosecutions in the ciliea of Kuw York. Philadelphia, and Brooklyn, and they have been numerous, your committee cannot as certain that a single one has been pursued to the extreme limit provided bylaw, it is true that propeuy has been confiscated and penalties have been collected, but not a single man has felt tbe mines! rigor of tbe law. Tbe parr of your statute which makes Uinbuons to cheat the Govern ment, and awards imprisonment, has been a dead letter. Even in care of forfeiture and sale of prop erty by order of tbe court for illegal practices, the same has In many instances been appraised at much less than ns actual value, bid In by the vio lator of tbe law, and again used lor defrauding tbe Government. Your committee also suggest for the consider ation of tbe Rouse whether or not it is wise to aontinne in the Treasury Department the cower to compromise and settle cases of seizure fur vi olations of the law. It Is obviously difflc.tlt, if not quite impossible, for the Secretary of the Treasury or tne Commissioner of internal Heve une to acquire sufficient knowledge or real fhets iu any given case to make a ptopee delcrminailon and final disposition of It, Under tbe present system, tbe illicit distiller goes to work, not without deliberate calculation. Be looks over the whole ground, and weighs the probabilities. Tbe chances are, nine out ul ten, perhaps nineteen out ol twenty, that be Is not disturbed nor ca led loanaccoaU atali. If, un fortunately. be is delected and ee'zed, what is the con-eqnencef Certainly nothing very alarming Be sees no Impifeonmenr, no very rigorous prosecution before him Be has manufactured end disposed of sav five thousand barrels, noon which be has paid no tax Be la eeiz-d with filly bands on aand. The case goes to Washington and is compromised by the payment of the taxes on the nfty barrels, with or without the penally as tbe case may be. in Uio ou« snpposca. estima ting tbe article at ?1.30, though he Pas tost me fifty barrels, be h-s put into bis pocket |I3O,UW. Your committee also suggest that tbe present hondcd-warctonsc vybtem needs carelul revision ai.j radical alteration. It would appear from tbo evidence that to Ibis system Is due a very large portion of tbe fraud by which spirits escape the payments of lax. It is a source of corruption to noth officer and tnanofactnrt r. Spirits arc taken out ot the bonded warehouse and others made to -opply their places. Spirits aretransported from one district to another, until a pliant officer is lonnd. Barrels are fraudulently branded -‘tax paid," by the connivance of the officer; and '(imelimes forged stencil plates are used. Barrels are relieved of their contents, and then replen ished with water. On the subject of bonded warehouses, tbe following extract Irom the sug gestion of Mr. J. <). Horton, will be fonod perti nent ano instructive: ** ldc following will Illustrate bow readily a fraud can bo commltttd (branch ibis medium: Suppose a distiller in the West desires to se-id bands of whlskeyto this iNew York) city; be haa only to give the Collector ol bis district a tsamportation bond, say for I,<*oo barrels. Upon ibit- a permit to ship 1,000 barrel* is granted. Now, under this permit be will ship lour lots of l.coy barrels each, each lot corresponding in marks, numbers. «tc. One lot be will ship rid Ba-timore. one via Philadelphia, one lot rta Erie Undrotd, and the other via New York Central Italircad. ’ihcfonr lots are by these means kept separate, and in the erect of the seizure of either lot, the production of the permit wlil at oncein -nte Its release, unless the several corresponding l»t* conld be traced, which would be purely acci dental. they being hundreds of mii-s apart. This, however, fa but one way to perpetrate fraud through this medium. Alter wnlskey has been placed in bond it may be withdrawn for redlstllla tion, rectification. for change ot package, forex port or transhipment. and, nnder these various pretences, thousands of barrels arc covered up and lost sight of! Singular practices spring up under permits for exportation. Fiom mfotmation derived from tbe Treasury Beparmnd, u appears that of the 11,04MJbU gallons of spirits “on band and re moved on bona." there were on the 31st oi Decem ber. t866,5,(00,2M gallons unaccounted for, which shonld pay into the rreasory over *10.500,000. It is rot alleged that the entire amount unaccounted for has been fraudulently disposed of, but it Is fair to ptesnme that a considerable portion of it bos been on tbe market, and baa contributed in no small dtgree to tbe redaction of tbe price of whiskey to the rate of 11.50 per gallon. A reference to s atistlcs will show that the policy of encouraging the manufacture of (be article un der consideration for I'xpoxtauon Is entitled to small consideration. We have not the means of knowing precisely tbe extent of thn manufacture ot liqnor last yesr. In IHSO the quantity manofac torcu was estimated at about 91,000.000 gallons. During tbe fiscal year ending Juno 30,1503, tbe total amount ot exports of distilled spirits made from gram, molasses and all other materials, was 2.606,679 gallons—less than two and a half per cent of the enure production, assuming the amount to be tbe same as that produced in 1860. TbU state ment. of course, gives (he apparent amount of ex portation ; but now many of the barrels purport ing to contain übUkev bad been relieved o* their contents and replenished wlihjwater before they were put on shipboard does not appear. Tour committee cannot too forcibly condemn that part of the law which authorizes tbe ap- t ointment of inspectors of disttlietlcs to be paid y the (iutiller. Some bets may be stated indicating that frauds must have been perpetrated to o large extent wtth the connivance of Inspectors. Tbe capacity of ot ebondreu and seventj-oce distilleries licensed since September 1, ISC*. m First, Second. Third, Fount, FUib, Sixth. Seventh, Eighth, Ninth and Thirty-second Districts of the state of Sew York, as returned to the committee by the Assessors of the several district*, amounts to 43,968 gallons. By capacity is understood the quantity with which tbe still may be charged at a single time, (sixteen charges may be run off in twenty-four hours. With these stills kept constantly running for three month*, estimating t«enty-four day* to the month, they would produce gallons, sto revenue to the amount of * ne observed that this statement include* so part of the manufactures of tbe numcroa 4 distil leries operating m the same district* without license. Yet the amount of tax paid by those distilleries in three months ending .November 80. 1566, was |29t,6»L'9. Now U is not pretended that those distilleries hive been run op to their full capacity, though there has b?en lately con siderable activity tp that branch of manufactures. It ts known that there were in bonded warehouses from all sources. December 31, 1668, 8,716,096 gal lons. and 5,'£03,993 gallons made In different parts of tbe country, have been •‘removed in bond" and remain unaccounted for. Your committee submit that with proper modi fications of the law, with Judicious care in the se l ctlon of honest sud capable officers, and with it.a aid that would be derived from honest mans* tsetnrers—when the taw shall have been so en- trad that honest men can engage in business— the revenue can be collected without the demoral izing practice of giving moieties to reckless. wuitbUts and infamous characters in the capaa'j it* loforro-re, but it u behaved that a modification of the law, so as >o loj the tax on distilled spirits on the capacity of the distillery, wonld be found ■tt once simple, easy and effective, and that it wonld operate grca-ly to reduce the expense of collection; ana until seme automatic contrivance can bdi-vcuied to trdlca:e unerringly the eiac* quantity of proofaplritprodoced. we are of the opinion that the tax should be laid upon the ca pacity of the distillery as above suggested. An expert could rtadily determine very nearly the actual capacity ; and adopting this plan, yon se cure the collection of the revenue, and remove all the various temptations and opportunities for fraud to which allusion has already been made, and »tucb mod ever exist under a system so com plicated as the present Some reasonaole deduc tion might be made from the actual ascertained capacity to provide for contingencies, stoppage. Ac. It it be said that by each deduction some spirits might escape tax. It is ans wered that It would operate rnly as a redaction of tie tax, now confi-BScdU large, bat it would preclude the illicit dleUUftlion, and would operate equally upon ail engaged in the business. The evidence takea by the committee touching the manufacture ano sale of tobacco and cigars is not voluminous; but it shows much evasion of the tax on dgarv. It appears that the authorized practice of stamping cigars without the actual pavment of the tax Is a means of fraud: and it ts believed that the eril might be remedied by re qatrirg stamps representing the actual amount of tax to be procured from the treasury and placed on the cigars before they arc subject to removal or sale. The near approach of: the dissolution of the Thirty-ninth Congress does not warrant yonr committee In attempting to embody their conclu sions in the form ot a bill, nor would It be of prac tical use ro to do, as it is quite too late to hope for such radical legislation fa reference to the rev enue sv-tem as is deemed necessary; but It is hope d that a perusal of the testimony herewith re perted may lead to sttcb changes la the law as will dilute to the Government the collection of Its Tevenue. : In doting this report yonr committee feel im relied to aud, that they ao not donM that there may be some mtrttortona revenue officers in New York, Philadelphia and Brooklyn, nc*ertheie«f the liaudeiu those cities axe so universal aad gi gai ttet, the morals of manofacinrera have becota* ’ eo tallied, confidence In the local officers of irjit* nal mnnehaa become Bojmakeo, that It t* • llevkO that thalaaa w» i never be einclenur- De * cn ted until there at aQ hare been a rop* , txe tion ortberevepneturce InthosoclUea- .vamza bas h tn taken rending lo some deg* Evideoe cate certain ofioetacf be Gov-raw eo to imyll practices. Colors have also o* -entln Improper deferce. Your committee - -eu br*aid in their toccbii ff aoca cases, with' -efer to tbe testimony eloiicfopinion. Bntw jatcommenior expre*- uarlicnlar tndlvldoav aWing all carees against cannot be piaeilos z la manlfait that frauds without either r * so generally and so openly the part of a>• •' naivnsce or gross Inefficiency on Wm. a. Daslzso, I F. C. UIAMAJI, I LXORAUO Htxbs, I B. Eqqlmtqm. BECONSTBUCTIOtf. Bow tbe Southern Suieii art U> Be Hc« baslllMteds [From the Richmond (Vs.) Times, (Rebel) Fab. JTEORO SUFFRAGE INEVITABLE IF SHERMAN'S BILL BECOMES A LAW. The “ Retorts’ruciion BUT* it framed with such inaentous malignancy, that whether we adopt the Constitutional AmendmetU orpre/er to continue in our present unrepresented condi tion, we cannot avoid negro tujfraqe. The “Provisional Governments,” os the present State Governments arc called, can*, not be continoed unless we throw open the ballot-box to every male negro in Virginia wbo is over tbe age of twenty-one. No elec tion can be held in May unless the negro is given all the political privileges of the woite man. Nothing can be clearer than that (his is the intention of the bill. The sixth section of the bill provides that “until the people of the said rebel States shall be, by Jaw, admitted to representation in the Congress of tbe United Stales, any civil government that may exist therein' shall be deemed provisional only, and In all respects subject to tbe paramount authority of the United States, ut any time to abolish, modify, control or supersede tbe same; and in ail elections to any office' under such pro visional governments, all persons shall be entitled to vote under the fifth section of ibis act. And no person shall be eligible to any office under such provisional government, who would he disfranchised from holding office under tbe provisions of the third article of said Constitutional Amendment.” The fifth section of the above act extends tbe tight of suffrage to “ tbe male citizens of said State, twenty-one years old and up wards. of whatever race, color or previous condition, who have been resident in said State for one year previous to the day of such election, except such as may be dis franchised for participation in the rebellion, or for felony at common law.” If this bill becomes a law, at the Virginia elections in May next, for Governor, Lieuten ant Governor, Attorney General and mem bers of the General Assembly, every male negro in Virginia above tbe age of twenty one yca.-s will be entitled to vote. Nor are «e permitted to allow this election to go by default, for the Alexandria Constitution pro vides that these elections shall take place In May next. We ate denied the privilege ol seeking refuge In a purely military despot ism by the abolition of this provisional gov ernment, for It rests with the Fed eral Government, and not with oursclvc-, to determine whether this State Government shall be continued or abolished. Whether, therefore, we adopt the “Const 5 - tntional Amendment,” with negro suffrage and Congressional representation “annexed,’ or preier to continue as wc arc, we cannot, If Sherman’s bill becomes a law. avoid al most immediate negro equality at the ballot box. Thc Alexandria Constitution says wc stall have certain elections in the spring, and tbe Sherman bill says that, at those elections, all male negroes twenty-one years of age shall he allowed to vote. We lose no time In pointing out to our readers the horns of the alumina upon which inis bill impales ns. It allows no refuge from negro suffrage, and there is no escape except through the agency of the Supreme Court. Speech of Senator Johnson. The following is tbe speech of lion. Rev ctdy Johnson, Senator in Congress from Mary laid, delivered in the Senate Fcbiuarv 20, on the bill to provide for the mure ellf clett government of the rebel States, which passed the Senate that night: Mr. Jointrox. Mr. president—l have felt a so- Uclmdc for the eouuUior. ot the cjuutry. cause qnentnponthe exclusion of the Southern States from ibeir ngbt of representation in this body, that 1 want woids to express- The view that 1 have entertained is. that In tbclr. pre-ect condi tion. they arc entitled to be represented. But the Congress ol tbe United Slates, from tbe termina tion of (he rebellion to tbe present time, bare taken a different view, and 1 bare 10.-t all hope of seeing them at an early date. If at any date, with tbe consent of Uoitgtcsa, reinstated in their origi nal condition. Besides, the Interest, the vital Interest, which tbe people ot the South necessarily hare in tbe present elate of things, the interest of the other States Is almost as great. As tong as it continues, more or levs will the reputation of the country surfer. 1 have been, therefore. Irom the firs*, ready to agree to any proposition whlcn I belicv co would result In bringing the Southern times bvck, however much 1 may be oupo-ei to toe conditions which might ire exacted of them. Nothing can be worse than tbe stale in which they are now placed, Desolation around them, all rights denied them of a political character, and on tne tloor of the Senate, to ray uuibtng ol an other branch of tbe Government, their character as men has been expressed iu terms which have caused me nothing but the deepest regret. 1 know that they arc not deserving of sden asper sion. 1 think I boon that th arscendants of the menotihe tiomn who upon so manv occasions ball ed on the field for me honor add glory o the country and contributed so much to tbe success ol our civil Government, cannot be such men os some of the Members ot Congress have designated :him. 1 wish them to be he:c in on.* mM-l to show by their presence that in ail para titulars, moral and political, intellectual an. Cbiiatlao, they arc our equals. Tbe very battle SSl' ‘i 1 -"™ 1 *'"" Koine la her proudest dsy mitral have boasted. U l bad my owe way 1 would receive them at once in this Chamber, with* bean lull of convic tion that they would be true to ibtr duty to their cuuuttj.aud that they would promote its perma nent mierect. But I have soi my way. I am obliged, thcrc tore, to acquiesce In the decision of lac majority ol t'tng m, however erroneous or unjust 1 may (relieve that decision to be, provided 1 believe that it mil end in a compara tively ebon time la restoring the Southern spurs to the brotherhood ot States. 1 am enw tiling t&at this v-'ong.Ofs shall adjourn with out the adoption or tooic measure that holds oat a hope, however d stant, ihat this may me re sult ol our deliberations, ana believing that Ibis will be done by the adootlon of the measure as It now stands before yon, I snail now it my vote, not because J approve of ir m the abstract or in the particular, but because 1 think I see iu it a mode of rescuing the country from the perilous predicament iu uluch I Is now plared. Mr President, If there be a feeling which should animate the heart oi every American, It should bo one of generosity, magnanimity and chanty for the nien who, although they sought to break aan*i oerlhecordfof the Union, arc now looking with sulicltmie to their being reinstated If there be a feeling which should animate every American <Mir.ef, it is that we should ce, ai the earliest period, a pcvpte one and Icdlrfelble, detronstranug to the world that however alarm ing the few last years mar have been, and how ever tbev wire calculated to cause the lovers of constitutional fre-i-aom to despond, the time has come, or the time will speedily come, when the f. elinc* consequent upon that effort will have snhtlutd. and we shall be broegbt together again and be seen in the undisturbed exercise of duties Imposed upon ua, and oxhlbiing to tbe worn! a people great In war, and a people capable of being m the cod. the war terminated, as great la peace. THE DEAD PABTY. Significant Letter from One of the Old Lndris. Hon. George S. Hillard hating been solici ted by some Democratic politicians of Ohio, to give an opinion as to the policy of a Dem ocratic Convention of all the States, replied as follows: Boston, January 23. 13&7.H Mr Dean Sm: I have received your letter lit regard To the proposed Democratic Convection, and will ear in rtply, with enure frankness, mat 1 am not In favor of tbe proposed Convention, and 1 will state here some of my reasons: In the first place. I think the Democratic party has not the confidence of the country; whether rightfully or wronefnily, Ido not say; but of the fact there can be no question. Second. 1 have no faith In Conventions, They arc gcnetailv controlled by the least wise among their body. They are excitable mobs, and In ev ery Convention there aro a few men who are wiser than all the rest, out these men are cont-olled.and do not conttot. The course of the Democratic convention In 18G4, to my lodgment, lost Mc- Clellan bia election. The Convention last summer at Philadelphia did no good at all to say tbe least. And the dangers of Convections arc increased in times so excitable and electrical a* oars. “Non tall aoxilts, non defensoribus is Us, lernpus egvt.” What wc need now is patience. Inflexible, invin cible patience, that euduresand waits. The coun try is sick with the disease of Kadicnllsm; and this 1* what tbe locally call a self-limited dis-ase. and moat run its course, and cannot be checked by medicaments. My tile upon It. should this Convention meet. It win not part without doing or saying something to give aid and comfort to the enemy. Tbe country row Is too prosperous for any charge ic its policy. Niue men oatoftes hare no other test ol the wisdom of nay act of public measures than its effect upea their pockets. When (he tide shall have turned from flood to ebb; when the seven years of plenty shall have been succeed ed by seven years ol famine, we may hop* - better day, but rot till then. Yours, faithfully, (Signed) O. S. Hrtranp. Terrible Kenconmer to Knoxville, Xenncmeo. (From the Louisville Journal, February 27.] We are Informed that on Friday night last a terrible fight with Colt’s revolvers took place between two men In Knoxville, Ten nessee. The particulars of the unfortunate affair are related to ns as follows : Towards dark on Friday evening Mr. M. Bridwell, As sistant Chief of Police ofthat etty, metaman at the saloon o» Henry Smith, near the Post Office, by the name of Joseph Williams, from Kouersville. Williams a abort time before bad seen Bridwell and took exceptions to the manner that Bridwell looked at him, and made the remark in a barber shop that if BHd well ever looked at him in that way again uc would kill biro. Bridwell was Informed of the threat, and soon after met Williams at the saloon, where words passed, and at the request of the proprietor the two stepped into the back yard to talk the matter over. They soon returned, when words were again angrily passed, and Williams drew a revolver and shot Bridwell in the left eye, with two successive shots, whereupon Bridwell drew bis revolver and shot Williams through the abdomen. Each fired four shots, but only two took effect on Bridwell and two oo Williams. Williams is mortally wounded and cannot recover, Bridwell had oue eye shot out, the ball entering the eye and cotnlna> out behind the car. He is at this time in a critical situation. The wboie affair grew ont of worse than nothing, and should prove a warning to all young men to avoid getting Into a passion. A [GbMt Sensation at Jacksonville* Illinois. [From the Jacksonville Journal, February 23. J Since the passage by the Legislature of our city charter, our population has been increased by the addition of a countless company of real ghosts. The Second IVard has the honor or containing the house in which our invisible citizens play their pranks. The house Isa small one-story and a half frame building in the extreme northwestern portion of the place, almost beyond the city limits. The present occupants. Mr. Mullens and h!s family, have of late been very much annovedm toe still hours of the night by unaccountable occurrences, rapid rappiaea, icotrteps on the stairs, opening of doors. «£c. Dillgcut search was made, bat no human agency could be discovered Might «!ter night have these uninvited guests ot the shadowy woild disturbed toe slnmbcrs, paled the cheeks and ostonbheJ the mlnos of the rightful occupants of the dwelltae One of the rtranccst r t ., v ' lhc.-e unknown and .unseen” irollers Is to remove the cnnrin .!' 1,1 the beds of the ,leepers I causin;r e rrar.,[£ Jcl h g liom cold. The rumor of these pelformances soon spread ah. nl country relehlmrs; of course nr... skeptical, believed It was all Imacln?L„’" r '’ the like, but the honeat, truthful si? ''l the spirit-ridden parlies were rVee.o !'■ the unearthly vWtalions conlinut-d a party of six young mm well • ‘"7 throughout the county, dctertni^J 1 "" Investigate the matter and .S 1 b nlght wlth the afflleled f,iSf|° 4 “* from these young men we have Ica„s,i particulars of what occurred li e ' b lug last week they met at Mr. Ma'lm--"'"- nothing was seen or heard to disr.Vof' serenity of their minds until mldnl"l,i 't 11 ' skeptics had began to crow and lln~ir T:i< ; some proposed to go home and not time in such a foolish manner hut an ule prevailed upon to stay. The boys and th? host were in one room and Mr. r and tbe children In another. Soon* eiu o’clock a series of raps were heard in .Sr succession, apparently coming ladies’ room ; a licit was procured and .2* apartment entered, but the knocking ceased. It soon, however, was heard a-Mi proceeding from the bed where theWrn lay—a muflltd sound as if from between tk . beds. But the manifestations were not<*r« fined to raps. The candle moa th table leaped /rom its socket aild iSS to the floor—steps were distinctly heaM descending the stair?, but no shape of m , or beast was visible. The most skeptical were convinced and bccan to feel siuny u, the most unaccountable antic was vet to v sern. Tbe host called their attention to « closet door.ln tbe room which shut xtn tightly. but which, he affirmed, would onto ot Itself. Against this closed door C placed a chair, and In the chair a whole ham to act as weight, and waited for d-rd,,* nients. After a short time the ch tir shoved along by an invisible agenev a-u!th. door opened to the extent of three or f„ ar inches, right before their woudcruij e\ t * The cupboard was searched, bat was'foiad to be empty. Now. this night’s sights Is but a sample of the performances of tbe ghosts, or what-not* which Infest the cottage. The nivsu-rvu unexplained, and the most unbelieving aroused to a State ox*excitement in regard to the matter. Tbe Georgetown Election. The official count gives the followingre. suit of the election In Georgetown for M.«jor; 7USCIXCT4. match. Ist. 2d. Bd. 4th FoT Chaa. I> Welch Ifc'J 450 15J -v« • ( -,,j Henry 223 lUO «6 V* Radical majority * Members of the Council—Republicans- Messrs. Cragln, Shoemaker, Davis. Brown, RadcliiT and Revlvin~f and Democrats—Messrs. Pickrelf, Kohrrr* Davidson and Clabaujih—L ’ Speaking of the election, the Washingtoa Chronicle says: When it was announced that Charles D Welch, the Union candidate, had been electl od, mingled cheer? and expression* of disap pointment were beard. The ■were, however, sanguine that they had elect ed a majority of the Common Council, but in a few minutes it was announced that the Radicals were In the majority. A look of dismay settled upon many a'countenance and tbe Democrats then, for the lime’ appea cd to comprehend the fact thai the city government bad passed out of their hands into those of men whose principles both of freedom and progression, wen* in strange contrast with those of the political dcmi-gods to whom forycars thev have l*cen accustomed to look for advice a‘ud govern m*nt. Charles D. Welch, Esq., thesncccssfisi cm didate for the mayoralty, was born in Anne Arundel County, Maryland and is now ah ml forty-five years of age. lie removed to Georgetown when quite a young man. sia-l In a few years entered into l,u iio» as a merchant tailor, and contlttied in that t>a-i --ness for ten or twelve years. About eight years ago he was elected city tax collector, and filled that office with distimntMiea ability until January last, when ho was de feated in an election held by both branches of the Georgctcnn Councils! his Um-.-n senti ments being the only obstacle in the way of his re-election. As a business man lie is well known to the people of Georgetown us a gen tleman of great energy, sterling iatcgiily, aid unswerving loyalty, and we have no doubt that his official course will be highly satisfactory to the community. Aim-tig the incidents of tbe day was one wl ieh is worthy of mention. It will be re membered that at fbceh-etionhcld lasi June open the ncgio suffrage question, but one num voted in favor of colored suffrage. When that h-diridtial heard the resultof the election last night, he remarked that his vote, which had been deposited so long ago, bed hatched. Unquestionably ft wa« a hitter draught to most of those “legal v*.tcrs” ot a year ago who voted *• no”on the question of confer ring on *fac colored people equal political tights, hut they had the prudence to confine their manifestations of displeasure to vindictive g'unces at passing colored voters, and expressions of disgust exchanged with those of their own way of thinking. As to the colored people themselves, they approached and de parted from the polls with a dignity aud de cot urn sufficient to silence the tongues of the most malignant of their detractors. It was evident from their Ucmeau»r and the earnest expression of their countenances. Unit they fully appreciated the importance of the event, but their exultation in their newiy-«equircd prlvl : lges did not manifest itte.l in boisterous demonstration-.. The oc casion had doubtless been talked over in ad vance, in tbe churches and elscwoere. yg*! il^i^e&Voritierr^iTemi^lully'aircusscd. A Bmh of Kmigratlun from Europe to tile Unltea Suites. iCeilin Correspondence (February id) of Iho New York Herald. J The tide of emigration from Germany f'tomues this } ear to swell to a real torrent, owing—besides the growing attractiveness of America—to many causes' consequent upon the issue ot the late war, foremost among which is the aversion to the Prussian milita te concstlption felt in the recently aoncsed parts, which disposes many families to emi crate with the view ol freeing their boys irom the servitude that would a trail them tome few years tence. But even In the old Prussian Provinces the emigration movement is exceedingly strong, and In pome villages one-third of the population are leaving lor America In the string, nod have already be spoken their passage. In a body. The week- steam packet* from Bremen and Hamburg, with tome five or six extra steamers, which have been engaged, have all tnnr places taken up to the month of No vember. This, at the low average of eight hundred emigrants for each steamer on about ninety voyages ra ten months, would alone give over 70,000 emigrants by steam direct from Germany, besides which a large number of tailing vessels will continue to take off emigrants, and the hundreds of steamers arriving from the Slates with visi tors to the Paris Exhibition will draw largely upon emigration by French, Belgian and British ports, by running at reduced fares. It is believed that in this manner number 10.000 continental passengers, mosliv irom this country, will find their way 'to the States. Fortunately most of the people going over now, at any raietha better sort of them, start with the fixtd resolution to proceed at once to some Inland place or Western State, instead of lagtfug behind at New York, where, in the event of “bard tlmea” coming on. they might be exposed to severe suffering, whereas In the West or Northwest the vast agricultural resources of those regions will never allow labor to be come a ding. An Miopemcnt. (From Its Utica (N. Y.) Herald, February 26 1 No little excitement and scandal bt* been created within a few davs past by the elope ment of one of tbe most prominent easiness men of Hlgglnsville, (Oneida Connty), Mr. W , with the wife of his neighbor, Mrs. J—. The fact*, says the Borne Nenffnrf, are as follows: “Some two years ago W—- unfortunately lost bis wife. Bearing up. for a short time, under his affliction, hla mind, after a while, naturally turned towards some object lor consolation In these dark hoars of his tribulation. J ’s wife was the one to give comfort to the mourner, and ponr oil upon the troubled waters of his life. So earnest was Mrs- J In the desire to do good, that she neglected her husband and household affair*, spending most ot her time in the society cf the afflict ed "W. Her liege lot d became suspicious, and finally jealous of the many Samaritan act* ol kindness which characterized the daily life of his wife. Kemonctrance proved to be in vain, when legal proceedings were insti tuted to accomplish that which curtain lec tures conld oot- The result was a happy one. The law returned to the arms and forsaken fireside of the unfortunate J., h*s recent spouse, and fCOO for damages none to his household family circle. prevtbus*min{stnu lions of Mrs. J. t W.’s load of sorrow hud ap parently passed away. All was seemingly quiet till within a few day* past, when the tongue ol tbe gossiping world was set to wagging with the intelligence of the elope ment of W. with his former unprepenlanfc paramour. Mrs. J., to parts unknown, where inquisitive and indignant husbands are not. Mrs. J—- Is the mother of two respected and beautiful girls, who have arrived at the age of womanhood, only the more deeply to feel and deplore their mother’s shame.” Great Flood In Kentucky. [From the Louisville Conner.] On Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, the I3tb, 14th and 15th of Felroary, occurred the largest freshet that ever was known hi Breckinridge. Grayson and other adjoining counties In Kentucky. The streams of Roach Cretk, though short in length, have destroyed nearly everything- upon their banks. Mills, bridges, boats, skiffs and ca noes. all are gone. Plantations on the weeks, north and south forks of Green River, arc stripped of all the i>ottom fencing, and also numerous tobacco houses, full of tobacco and coin. Saw logs and lumber, in the mill raids, were hurled toward the old ocean. Those that dwelt near the margin of the streams deserted their homes with their shrieking little ones, leaving behind them alt they were worth to he washed away. The citizens that live on the creeks are disheart ened, and some expect to move away. There are no mills to grind with, and no way of get ting to market until dry weather comes. How to co to Bed.—Hall’s Journal of Health gives the following advice how to go to bed in winter time. Those who practice retiring on the “cuddle up” will readily fall m with these suggestions: *• Do It in a hurry, if there is no fire In the room, and there ought not to be unless you arc qnite an invalid. But if a person is not in good health it is best to undress by a pood fire, warm and dry the feet well; draw on the stockings again; nm Into a room without fire; Jomp into bed, cuddle up, with head and eats under covers tor a min ute or more, until you feel • little warmth ; then uncover yonr head; next, draw oil jour stockings, straighten out, turn over on your right side, and go to sleep. If * s ? n f® of chilliness comes over you on setting in bed it will always do an Injury, and its vei'®’ tUlon increase* the ill effect, without harm any leniency to “harden" you. Mature ab hor* violence. We a r e never shocked ml beal.h. Hard usage makes ro garment ia*a longer."