Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune, March 2, 1867, Page 2

Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune dated March 2, 1867 Page 2
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Chicago D ALLY, FivMf E¥EXY ASH WEEKLY, OFFICE, Ho. 51 fLARK^T. 'tQ&ci arc three editions or (he Teisuk* maid. lit. er«?r m:ralae, Ihr circulation hf earners, newsmen •ol the matU. Jd. The T*i-W«*lt. MomUy*. Wed nesdays sad Fridays for th« malls only; *vd the WmiT, cu Thursdays, for the trails sad sals at our Courier sad hr cewram. Terms •( the Chirac* Tribune i Dari) delivered m the eaty (per wee*? S„ 25 •* “ M *•*««).... 3,55 BsHr. to call subscriber* (per *aca», pays- „„ h'eln advance) lff.oo Irt-WeeViT.(per astwn, payable is advance) tt.Oq Weekly, (per suntan, oaysb'v to advance) 12.0 U S 3” Ftacuoaai porta ot ’-he year at the same rates. tST“ ivnoai rem'ttmg ana ordenc* ove or more copies of either the Irt-Weskly ot Weekly editions, cay retain tec per cent if the suiwcriptioe price as a commission. None® to ScascxracßS.—in ordering t&e aesreti ci your papers change*. to •> re rent del»y, be sure and wtatedition you use— oeckiy, Tri-Weekly, or Dally. Also. KlveyoarpßasaxTnndftttnre address tF" Money, by Draft, express. Money order*, orlo RotiaWed Letters, mar be sent atoor risk. Addreea. TRIBUNE CUn Oitlcasci til SATURDAY, MARCH 2, IS6T. THE WORLD ON BBCONSTBCC TION. The New York World, the ablest and mo:-t respectable organ of tbe Conservative or Copperhead parly ot tbe North, points out the reasons which, in its opinion, should in duce the Southern States to accept, without delay, the Reconstruction BUI of Congress, ard to organize Governments thereunder. To the principles of the bill U is bitterly hostile; and only tbe day before tbe appear ance oftbo article to which we allude, it went so far as to declare that if a hope ex* j-lcd that armed resistance would avail, U would favor it ; and in the hopelessness of tiich an enterprise it found “the only good nason for not appealing to arms in this con- juncture.". But since it concludes thal fighting would be *• losing game, *ll calmly surveys tbe situation, and show; that if the South does not move promptly and organize under tbe new bill, her cause is utterly and irretrievably lost; that, In fact, her last uud only chance is to get admitted to tbe Union, under this bill, prior to the next Presidential election. In the first place, the World point* out the fallacy of the hope that either President Johnson or the Supreme Court, or both of them combined, can do anything effectual In behalf of the South, so long os she remains unrepresented in Congress and tbe Electoral College. The strength of tbe Conservative position. It declares, lies in tbe President and the Supreme Court; " but these advan tages arc dcleaaivc and temporary. They are of little use except as a means of gaining time to rally and reernlt our forces. Unless we can elect President Johnson’s successor. his fidelity to th* Constitution is but a tran sient advantage." It goes on to show that as things now are, the Supreme Court Is of more value to the South than tbe President, lince the Republican majority of Congress, la theabsence of the South, Is sufficient to OTcrrulc the President’s rcto; •while “a two- “thirds majority of Congress avails nothing “against a decision of the Court; and the “ appointment of the Judges being vested iu “the President, Congress can accomplish “nothing by increasing their number. But “ifthe Republicans elect President Joh n“ sou’s successor, they will thereby gain “control of the Supreme Court, “and thus remove the only barrier “that stands between their absolute will “and the unprotected South. If the Con servatives do not carry the next Preslden “ tial election, the South is delivered over to “six years mme of unrelieved oppression.” Hence, the ITbrtd thinks the thing to do is to elect a Copperhead President in ISUS, and to accomplish Ibis it points out the absolute necessity of having the electoral vole of tbe Southern States. And it argues that the Presidential election b so near at hand that the only possible way of getting tbe South ern States in is by organizing at once under itc Congressional plan. The Supreme Court it holds to he powerless to assist the £uulh in this matter. In the first place “the Conservative advantage in •* Court is held by the slender thread of a “ single life. There arc five Conservative • and four Radical Judges: the oldest men, ** appointees of former Democratic Prcsi “ dents, being among the Conservatives, “ and, in the nsnal course of nature, most “ likely to die. The loss ol one Conservative “Judge would make a tie, and no law can “ be declared unconstitutional but by a clear “ majority.” Congress h»s passed a law re ducing the number of Judges to seven, and in the event ol the death of one or two of the Jndges, the President wosld have no power to make new appointments, as the office would expire. But this reasoning, of -course, is founded on mere speculation, and the question Is considered whether, os at present constituted, the Su preme Court can offer any effectual resist ance to the new Reconstruction Law. We are told that under the most favorable cir* cumstanecs, a decision of that tribunal can not be obtained before next winter, and by that time we shall be on the very eve of the Presidential election. If a decision against the law could restore the Southern States to Congress, it would be amply ia time next winter. But the sole effect of their decision would be to remand things back to the con dition in which Sherman's bill found them, «im-e the Court has so control over the subject of admitting or rejecting Sen ators and Representatives. Congress ia equally supreme In the Electoral College. There is no tribunal that can review the result declared by the Presi dent of the Senate. Therefore the World concludes that “ practically the question is “no longer what may be done this side “of the Presidential election, but “what may be dene by means of It." If the new law should be declared unconstitu tional by the Supreme Court, next winter, we arc told that Congress would pass a new act, prescribing other terms of restoration, “and as the compliance of the Southern “ Stales could not be submitted for approval “ until the following session, the South “ would be excluded from the Presidential “election, without remedy or redress.” Under such circumstances the Copperhead, organ loaves the South to judge for Itself, ■whether there is a prospect of compensating advantages that will justify U In withhold ing its assistance from the Copperhead party in the Presidential election. Wc regard the position of the U'orW on tbU question us important to the country, indicating as it unquestionably does, the opinions of the Intelligent portion of the so-called Democratic party. In the first place, U is an official notification to the rebels ol the South that they can expect no efficient aid, cither from the President, the Supreme Court, or the Copperhead parly of the North. It Is a total and absolute abandonment of Mr. John son's reconstruction policy. It Is a con i' ‘•biou of complete helplessness without the pretence ofSouthern Representatives In Con gressa’ d the recognition of the Southern states in ttic Electoral College. As a mere matter of expediency, of policy, the course recommended by tbe World Is the only one that presents to the South the least chance ol success. The question is whether she will have the wisdom to adopt It, In obedience to the opinion of those who certainly have the riuhi to give advice. If not to her own judg ment. Ah wc have before said, this question Is one of great Importance to the rebels of the South, but of very little to anybody the, since if tbey choose to stand aloof, there arc plenty of white Union men and negroes, who are ready lu take hold of the work and push It to a B.:ccei>ful conclusion. IVc hope the South ern people will accept the new plan prompt ly ; and wc arc inclined to think they will fhllicto line as soon as they discover the somewhat important fact that no one hut themselves will be Injured or affected by their refural to do so. NEW L&IV AUAINST CONFIDENCE SWINDLES. The Legislature, in passing the act for the V anishment of those who practice swindling bv the “confidence game,” as felons, and making it a Penitentiary offence, has done nothing more than what justice required, ai d necessity demanded. Heretofore there has been no law in this State under which a scoundrel committing fraud by any of these devices could be adequately punished, and the result has been that tbc fraternity have made Chicago and Illinois the centre of their operations. It is estimated that there arc not Itfis than two hundred of these men con* stantly on duty In this city and on the lines of railroad centring here. These are dis tributed at all the railroad junctions, on all the trains, at all the depots, and In the streets of this and other cities. They are organized, well known to each other, have a common interest, are bound to assist and defend one another, and to avenge the arrest or other Interference with any of the brethren. The police and the Courts have been powerless in this matter, and have been compelled to look on at the bold and flagrant robberies and frauds, without being able lo bring the guilty to justice. These men have grown bold under this immunity. They arc known to all the depot ofllccre and railroad , conductors, and do not hesitate to acknowledge tbeir profes sion. They offer money as bribes to those who know them to keep silent while they “ operate,” and have repeatedly threatened, and repeat^ l ? committed, violence upon those who have dared to warn a victim, or to prevent the consummation of a fraud. This brotherhood do u thriving business. They live well, dress well, and have all the “luxuries” which go to make up the hap piness of that class of people who scorn the drudgery of honest labor. These men will rot pick a pocket when there Is any risk, but they will not hesitate to take possession of people’* baggage, or their money, when- ever they con do so by any of tbo thousand devices they have of wincing the conQdencc of their victims. We bare no doubt that the police and detect ive force, and the railroad depot officials of this city, can in ton days time print out one hundred or more of these swindlers, who infest the railroad cars, depots and other places to rob strangers and travellers. Upon the an muacoiacut that & bill hod been introduced into the Legislature to make their business a felony, a "lobby " was sent down to Spring field, ard, strange as It may appear, the pro gress of tbo bill was checked, and for a time suspended. The bill passed, however, and is now a law. Now that there is a law, the public hare a right to expect that It will be promptly en forced. The police should immediately clear these parties out of all the depots,and should promptly arrest every man engaged in any attempt to swindle strangers or others. The police should make the pursuit of this class so warm that the fraternity will have at once to choose between a voluntary departure from Chicago andan involuntary residence at Joliet. These men have hitherto laughed at the officers; now let us have the lough re versed. Let a doxen of them he arrested at once; let there be a special grand jury and a special term of tbc Court. Let tbelr trial, and conviction, and imprisonment, follow cue another without one moracnl’s.unnccessary delay. Let the ambition of the police be which officer shall have the honorof making the first orrest of a member of this gang of confidence thieves. Let the triumph of the law be made complete by the immediate enforcement of it. Let officer* follow these men on every train that wherever they prac tice orattempt to practice their frauds la this Slate they may bo punished. Let us rid the Hues of travel of this organized robbery, and that can only be done by a prompt ex ecution of tbe law by the authorities. imcpoitTeits* It la absurd for (he Tribune to declare that im l-ortcru keep out ol the lobby, aod have no agems cuhcr lu congress or out, for everybody at all posted on the milter knows better, The importa tion or tree trade “ring” Is so well organized that its operations are lu the dark, to a considerable decree, but in tue fatal delays la larifi’legislation we bare unmistakable evidence of Its existence and power, fhe ” ring” has abundant reason Hr rcjoicli g. for in tbe defeat or tbe Tariff Bill now pending In tbo House, It has won a signal vie ory egtmsc great odds.—Journal. We will credit the Journal with sincerity in making those foolish statements, but with stupidity also, for, had It reflected on the matter, It must hare perceived that the importeis are not a class to be injured by an advance of the tariff. The Importers are generally merchants of large capital. They have constantly on band, in the various ports oi estry in the United States, immense quan tities ofimported merchandise—ln warehouse or in ‘‘bond.” It would be a safe calcula tion to estimate the foreign foods in tbs possession of importers, or in bond, subject to be withdrawn on payment of duties, at cue hundred millions* worth. The Tariff Dill Just defeated increases duties on the va rious classes ofgoods of which those stocks consist, more than thirty per cent, on the av ciage. Upon Us passage, the holders of these goods would have instantly marked up their prices thirty per cent—or whatever the ad vance in the tariff might be.' Importations have been exceedingly heavy during the past winter, as the importers believed that the proposed Tariff Bill would certainly pass, und they anticipated making enormous prof its by the rise In the selling price of goods on baud. The enactment of the House bill would have put thirty or forty mil lions of extra profit into the safes of Importers, and taken that much oat ot the pockets of the American consumers of those goods. And this is the reason why the Im porters have “kept no lobby and have no agents iu Congress or oat,” to oppose the passage of the hill- It was manifestly against their interest to defeat the hill, and the larger' holders of stocks on hand regret the failure of the bill as bitterly as any so called “ protectionist.” The importers have learned by experience, that an increase of the tariff does not ma- terially injure their subsequent business. The demand for foreign goods is as brisk under a fifty-six per cent tariff as under the fifteen per' cent tariff of 1857*00. This demand Is only limited by the ability of the country to pay for foreign products—either with gold or bonds. The Importers know that after an addition is made to the tariff, American man* ufacturcd goods are immediately marked up to the level of the tariff, leaving the purchaser no pecuniary inducement to prefer the home man ufactured to the foreign article. And this is one chief reason why a high tariff furnishes no more “protection” to Ameri can industry than a low tariff. There can be no enlargement of the home market unless the domestic manufacturers undersell the importer enough to take away his customers, and this they decline to do. People will purchase from those who sell goods of like quality the cheapest, as a matter of course, and the preaching of ten thousand news papers to the contrary can’t prevent lb. lienee, it makes little or no difference to the importer whether the tariff is high or low. Acd every time it is raised he makes an extra profit on his stock of goods eu band equal to the advuncc of the tariff, and the consumers lose it, and thereafter the competition be tween him and the domestic manufacturer ■ cmains just as before the increase of tbc duties. The only loss ho suffers is from a decreased consumption of goods caused by :hcir dearness—a loss which the home man ufacturer equally shares with the importer. Hence It is that an increase of tariff fur nishes not a particle of addltioral market lor American manufactures, and consequent* iy not a particle more “ protection” to home industry against foreign products. A tariff is simply a convenient way of raising reve nue tor the support of Government. It is indirect instead of direct taxation; but It Is none the less an assessment on the products „f labor. And the American consumer of imported goods, not the foreign producer of them, pays the impost thereon. A WISIS LAW. Tbc Legislature have passed a bill making i serious, bnt, we think, a wholesome change in the law of the State in capital eases. As the law now stands In this State, there are no degrees of punishment in cases of murder. Juries, upon the trial of an indictment for murder, have either to find the man guilty and to be hauged, or they must acquit ;Thcrc arc In many eases of that Kind circum stances which mitigate the enormity of the 'homicide, but do not entitle the man to an acquittal. As the law stands the jury must •'.’onvlct, and condemn him to he hung, or • Ley must set him free- In either c&ec jus tice is defeated. The man is hung when be ought not to be, and he is acquitted when he ought to be severely punished. The Legis lature have wisely provided that hereafter ’he Jury, In the trial of indictments for capl- •ai offences, may discriminate when the cir .•mnitances Justify it, ami may sentence the - nsoccrlo imprisonment forllfe, or for any term of years not less than fourteen. There will be persons who will object to this law as a virtual abolition of the death penalty. It is not such a law. Ills a mer ciful interposition In behalf of a man guilty of crime, whereby he will be punished in proportion to his offence, and not in excess of it- It is also a protection to the public from the release of persons guilty of homi cide, but whose crime under all the circum cumstanccs does not reach that enormity meriting the death penalty. As the law now stands juries arc compelled to acquit these men ; hereafter, juries will have the power to punish them as they deserve to be punish ed. The law Is a good one-, and tbc cuds of justice will be greatly promoted by It. A UEnouBATIC PROPOSITION. In tbc list of those members of Congress who have united themselves with the Total Abstinence Society at Washington, is Mr. Lewis W. Ross, a Democratic member from this State. At a recent mccllngoftbc socie ty Mr. Hoes made a speech, in which ho pro posed to abolish the sale of liquor In Wash ington City* He proposed that it should be tiled there as an experiment. lie considered that there were no constitutional harriers in the way. Congress had exercised the author ity of prohibiting the sale'of liquors to tbc In dian, and why not. he a*kcd, prohibit its »ale to the white man ? If It was bad for the Indian it was equally bad for the white man. He suggested that a prohibition of the sale of liquor should be made part of the work of reconstruction, and added: “Perhaps the “rcconstiuc:lon on this principle might be well begun at the upper (.Executive) end of the avenue, and extended to the Su “ preue Court, ondgeneially throughout the “city.” Kr. Ross has been a great stickler for the rights of the people, and while a proposition from a member from one of the Republican districts lo prohibit the sale, and, of conse quence, the manufactmc of whiskey might attract no serious attention, coming as it does irom tbc Representative of a Democratic district where all tbc com and rye raised, ‘•except a small portion wasted in bread,” Is converted into whiskey, U cannot fcll to attract universal attention, especially on the part of Mr. Ross’ Immediate constituents. The Tabjff of 1&42.—U. g, of the Sew York Tribune, is bolding upforlhoadmlratloa and instruction of this generation the Clay tariff of 1842 as the essence of statesmanship and perfection of wisdom. That tariff act av eraged thirty-three per cent on dutiable arti cles. The present tariff averages fißy-slx per cent, and the proposed bill before Con gress from eighty to one hundred per cent— can’t tell yet how much, ns It Is being made higher every dty, and there is no knowing where it will stop. Will the Xow York Tri bune consent to compromise tbc tariff contro versy by adopting the Clay protective tariff of 1812 in lieu of the prohibitory scheme be fore Congress ? Tbc old CUy Whigs should certainly be willing to accept such a propo sition. In the days when Henry Clay was their leader they never advocated either a Mgh or a ptohlbitory tariff. They were cn. tirrly content with a system of imposts that averaged less than two-thirds as much as the ; r.rcni lariff, and only one-third os high as the proposed lobby hill before Congress. In those days If a man supported the thirty three pet cent Clay tariff he was accounted a protectionist and a "friend of American in dustry.’* But now a-days, if a man refuses .to support higher imposts than fifty-six per cent be is denounced as a "British free trader." May we not ask our high tariff friends if this is not "running the thing into the gronud?" Flake's Bulletin, of Galveston, Texas, compares the condition of Texas to that of tbe young map In Scripture, who yet lacked ond essential thing, and for the lack of that still stayed outside tbe Kingdom. That one essential tblng, in the case of Texas, is Jus tice—Justice to tboUnionmen, Justice to tbe black men. Herforests are not felled, her prairies not tilled, her corn lands unplanted, and her mines nnworked, simply because she baa not the necessary labor. And in stead of adopting a policy that would secure labor, tbe so-called Legislature of Texas boa adopted a law * for the regula tion of labor contracts, which, the Bulletin declares, “if not speedily repealed, will leave deep and lasting marks of Injury on tbe Commonwealth." The freedmen are disheartened by its provisions, arc seeking homes In other Stales, and it is estimated that IS,OOO able-bodied laborers have left tbe agricultural districts In conse quence of ibis law; audit Is asserted that Us provisions arc so prejudicial to tbo work ing class, that Its publication in Europe would be sufficient to slop emigration to Texas. Thus, in her blind fanaticism, In her hatred of freedom, and in her revengeful desire to Inflict Injustice on tbe negro, Texas dooms herself to poverty, and decrees that her great resources shall remain undeveloped. The new Reconstruction Law Is badly needed there. It will soon work a change in affairs. X%T We give the Free Traders fair notice that the tariff Issue Is to be tried over attain so soon as the decks can be cleared of tbe debris ol slavery, and that cheating cannot win next tune.—AVir York Tribune. Whenever tbe prohibitory tariff principle is fastened upon tbe Republican party it will go out of power quicker than it ever came into power, and will stay out until the angel Gabriel blows bis tramp. H. G. has preached high tariff and prohibition in the city of New York until be ran the Whig party there com pletely Into tbe ground, fie then attempted to force the same poisonous nostrum down the throats of those In favor of Republican principles, and the deplorable result of his accursed folly is seen and felt in tbo forty thousand anli-Rcpubllcan majority piled up In that city. If the New York Tribune had bceo conducted since In 1851 on tbe tariff aid other questions with tbe sagacity, pru dence, and common sense that have charac terized tbe course ot its Chicago namesake, the Republican party would to-day be as largely In the ascendant In the city of New Yvrk as is the Republican party In the city of Chicago. LITERATURE. Arnold's History of Abraham Lincoln and tlic Overthrow of Slavery* [HE HISTORY OP ABRAHAM LINCOLN AND THE OVERTHROW OP SLAVERY. By Isaac N. Aunold, laic member of Congress Irom HU* nob*. Chicago: Clarke & Co., 1867. This work, the publication of which has been so long and so anxiously looked for by the mends of Air. Lincoln, has now been some weeks before the public, and we are able, ef*er a careful examination, to give an opinion offts merits- For twenty years Mr. Arnold was the trusted friend of the late President, and this fact, together with the biographer’s high position and well-known ability as a lawyer and a politician, and his intimacy with many of the leading actors in the creat drama which ho brings before us, has piqued the curiosity of the public to a degree not easily to he satisfied. As a whole, the work, wc think, has been ably and Impartially executed. Rhetorics! faults it has, which simply show that it: author has been accustomed to “wreak his thoughts upon expression” with the tongue rather than with the pen ; and it is now and then disfigured by solecisms and insecure* cies of expression which the captatores ver borum, the “ word-catchers that lire on syllables,” so delight to detect and expose. Bat the author writes eon amore , with an enthusiasm that kindles as he pro ceeds; the style, though somewhat declam- atory, Is lively, brisk and rigorous; tbc facts are marshalled and grouped with much ar tistic skill; the interest In the story swells to a climax with each chapter; and the reader closes the volume with a more ririd conception of Mr. Lincoln’s political charac ter, a clearer Insight of the difficulties over which he triumphed, and a loftier opinion ot tbc man, than can be gained from any other book, except, perhaps, Mr. Carpenter’s “Six Months at the White House.” Political old women, pseudo-conservatives, squeamish readers who dislike to hear ugly things called by ugly names, and prefer dainty, roinciog terms, weighed in a hair balance of propriety and good breeding, to the bluet and homely language in which bon- cat indignation is wont to express itself—all those persons, in short, who, as Canning says, are • Too nice to praise by wholesale, or to blame. Convinced that all men’s motives are the same, And find, with keen, discriminating sight. Black's not to black, not white so very white. will, doubtless, dislike the author’s Spartan plainness ot speech. Whatever other faults may be laid to his charge, he Is evidently no flinchcr, no trimmer; ho is not “plpeon-llv cred and lacking call.” If he has paid less attcntion.thau some to the nlcelte?,elegancies, and refinements of language, ho has not, on the other hand, juggled with words, or pal tered with them “in a double sense,” like the witches In Macbeth. Ho uniformly calls a spade a spade, and champions his princi ples a Voutraiiee. Yet his political principles do not blind him to the good qualities even of political opponents; he docs heaped justice to the merits of Senator Douglas, and even exaggerates, wo think, both his ability and “the debt of gratitude,” which the people owe to him; and the Intellectual ability of Slidell, Stephens, and other cblcft of the Re bellion, be fully recognizes. A biography of Mr. Lincoln tho work pro perly la not; but rather a history of the great conflict between Freedom and Slavery, which began with tho Convention that framed and submitted tot be .people the Na tional Constitution—which raged till the mariyrdomr of Lincoln —and finally closed with the woption, by three-fourths of tho State Legislatures, of the ConstltntloLal Amendment forever prohibiting slavery throughout the Republic. Of this struggle, os It exhibits Itself in Legislatures, and In the Dolls of Congress,.in the forum, through the mighty engines of the press, on the stump, in political conventions, la tho pulpit, and among tho people—the author gives us a vivid and graphic picture. Be ginning with the opinions of the Fathers on slavery, he portrays the growth of the slave power till Its triumph In tho admission of Missouri ; ho next sketches the fierce strug gle in Kansas between tho Sharpe’s rifles of New England and the bowic knives of the border ruffians; then follows a life-like por traiture of the great leader who was soon “to guide the whirlwind and direct the storm,” with an account of his early train ing and culture; then a sketch of his intel lectual combat with Douglas, in which tho characteristics of the two athletes are vividly depleted; and next follows a chapter on the campaign which resulted in Mr. Lincoln's election to the Presidency, with which tho “ great argument ” of the work begins. From this point wo have a full, though sac cint account of the great struggle, both In Its civil and military aspects—lncluding a history of the adoption of the Constitutional Amendments abolishing slavery—down to the titan the rebellion was crushed, and Its malignant, expiring effort was put forth in the assassination of Lincoln. Among the best features of the work arc the portraitures of the chiefs of the Thirty-seventh and Thlny clcbtb Congresses,"with the selections from the debates, and the selections from Mr. Lin coln’s speeches, which arc made with excel lent judgment and skill. Politicians and others who are anxious to know Mr. Lin coln’s views ot Reconstruction will find them fully set forth, with facts of deep Interest hitherto unpublished; and they will also be interested and Instructed by'the final chap ter on the war powers of Congress and the Legal status of tho rebellious States, in which the author’s legal acumen and knowl edge of constitutional law are brought, with signal effect to the solution of some of tho knottiest political problems of the day. The following anecdote of Mr. Llnboln’s early life, illustrative of bis shrewdness, will be new to many: la rosdloess lo extricate himself from a di lemma, to do promptly the wisest thing which could be done under the circumstances In which he might he placed, ho was the equal of any Van- VeetaNew England. A gentleman reports that the brst time be ever saw Lincoln, be was in the Sangamon Ilivcr, his trowscra rolled up five feet, more or less, trying to pilot a flat-boat over a mill dam The boa* wes so foil of water it was bird tomanace. Lincoln got the «cow partly over, bored a bold through the projecting part, and let the water rnn out. The following Incident, which strikingly illustrates Mr. Lincoln’s honesty at a time when he was stnipKlinff to keep the wolf ol porerty from his door, we have not seen In print before; Alter bis removal to, Springfield, ami some years after he bad ceased to be Postmaster, a drstt was sent out for collection for the balance, Sl.ou, ot Post Office money received by him- It was contrary to ibo regulations ol the Post Office Dc paitmcntlorHmtopay this balancenntllltwas drawn for. My Imormant, Dr. Benrr, accom panied the scent with the draft, to Mr. Lincoln's office, where it was presented "or payment. Knowing Lit coln’i*poverty, and doubling whether he had the money on bond to meet the draft, the Ot ctor bad accompanied the officer, with the in tention of loaning nlra the money to pay it. Upon the drafts being presented, lancoln asked ihe officer lo bo seated a moment, west to his boardne bonac, and directly relumed with an oa t locking with a quantity of sliver, and copper r o io lied up In II- Untieing the Blocking, he pouted U»o contents upon the table and proceed* cdto count corn. It was in the small silver and copper coin, sixpences, abitlhiffs, quarter dol lars, end half dollars and cents, each as the coni.ltr people were in the habit of using in'those cave, iu payioif postage. On counting the coin. It was found to bo the exact amount ol the draft, and die identical coin which bad been received. Lincoln never used, even temporarily, any money that was not h>a. He said be Ml that tbo'money belonged to tte Government, and that he had no right to exchange or use U for any purpose of his own. This evidence of strict integrity and fidel «ty (o tinst was the more striking, because be had frequently during Ue period he had held this money, been compelled to make large discounts upon noteshrliadrrcrived for Ice*, and sometimes ohonowmoney topaj his small lulls. The following is a good commentary on Emerson’s essay on Compensation: “ Riding the circuit” Involved ail soils or per sonal adventures. Hard fore, at miserable country Uteres, slovplnron the fionr, and lording streams are among the common ercry-dar incidents. In fording streams, the (ntnro Pieridcm was some times sent forward as a pioneer. BU extremely long legs enabled him, oy removing hia psnta looua. Hoots and stockings, and taking hia coat tails under bis arms, to aiccrtaln wl'bout wetting bla carmenla where the streams offered the best fording places, and often to pUot tbe party through streams that, at first sigbL seemed unfordablo. One of the most vivid and graphic sketches Id the book is the description of the final straggle In the House of Representatives on tbe Kansos-Nebraska bill, when the keen Intellect and shrewd parliamentary tactics of Stephens, of Georgia, were so serviceable Its length prevents na from to the South. copying U. Our readers recollect the coq, fldcnCfi With which tbe leading rebels in Washington, predicted belore the war broke out, that the North would not fight. Mr. Arnold records the following conversation between some of them and B. F. Butler, who Lad united with them in the support of Breckcnridge: • “ Are you prepared for wart" said Bntler. » “Ob I there will be no war; toe North will not fight.” “The North will fight. The North will send the last man, and expend me last dollar to maintain the Government/' said Butler. “ lint,” said hie Southern friends, “ the North can’t fight, wo have too many allies mere,” “Yon Pave tnenda,” said Bntler, u ln the North, who will stand by yon so long os you fight yom bailies in the Union; but the moment you fire on the Dag, the Northern people will be a unit against you. And.” added Butler, “you maybe as.-med If war comes, slavery ends." Butler, sa gacious, and true, became satisfied that war was inevitable. With the boldness and directness which has ever marked his cnaracter, he went to Bnclianan, and advised tbe arrest of the Commit (•loners rent by tbe acceding States, and their trial for treason. This advice was as characteristic of Butler to give, as of Buchanan to disregard. Mr. Lincoln’s person is thus daguerreo typed: Physically, he was a tall, spare man, six feet and four inches in height. lie stooped, leaning forward as he walked. He was very athletic, with lour, sinewy trtnf, large, bony hands, and of crest physical power. Many anecdotes or bis physical strength are given which show that U was eaual to that of two or three ordinary men. 11a luted with ease fire or six hundred pounds. Ill* lees and armc were disproportionately lone, as compared with bis body; and when he walked, be swuac bis hands to and fro more than most men. When seated he did not seem much taller than ordinary men. In his movements, there was no grace, but an impression of awkward strength and vigor. Be was naturally diffident, and even to the day of his death, when In crowds, and not speaking or acting, and conscious of be* ing observed, be seemed w shrink' with bashful* ret.?. When be spoke, or listened, this appear* anev leicbim, and heludicatedno self-conscious* ness. His forehead was high, bis hair very dark, neatly black, and rather suit and coarse; nia eye brows were heavy, ids eves dark grey, very ex* pressive and varied, noweparallng with humor and fun, and then deeply sad aud melancholy; dabbing with Indignation at injustice or wrong, and then kind, genial, droll, dreamy; always chancing with bla moods. Ills nose was large, clearly defined and well shaped; cheek bones high acd projecting. Mr. manner of conducting jury trials was peculiar, and reminds us, in some respects, of Bafus Choate, lie was familiar, frequently colloquial, often, at the summer term, taking off his coat, and leaning upon the rail of the jury box, ho would single out a leading juryman, and, addressing him in a conversational tone, would, with the utmost candor and fairness, reason the ease. When ho perceived that he had secured the judgment of the one so addressed, he would turn to another and address him in the same manner, until he was satisfied the jury were with him : Be never misstated evidence, or law, bat met the case squarely and fairly. Such was filr. Lin coln at the bar, a fair, honest, able lawyer, on ibe right side,always successful—avoiding, carefully, tne wrong side, and when he fonnd himself upon it, either throwing aphis case, ormaktngan osort so weak, that tuejury generally said, "Lincoln is on the wrong side; he don't try. He was an admirable reader, and read and recited from the Bible and Shakspcarc, two favorite books, “with great simplicity, hut with remarkable expression and effect” ; Oden when going to and from the army, on the steamers and in his carriage, betook a copy of Sbakepeare with him, and not nnfrcqnently r,ad aloud to his associates. After conversing upon public affairs be would take np his and, addressing bla companions, remark: "What do >o* say sow to a scene from Macbeth or Ham let J’’and tben be would read aloud, scene after scene, never seeming to Ure of the enjoyment. On the last Sunday oi bis life, as be was coming up the Potomac Irom his visit to Cur Point and . Itichmond, he read many extracts from Bhak epcare. Among other things be read, with an ac cent and feeling which no one who beard him will ever target, extracts fiom Macbeth, and, among | others, the following: * ♦ " Duncan is in bis grave; After life's filial fever, he sleeps well. Treason has done hi* worn; nor steel, nor poison, Malice domestic, foreign levy, nothing Can touch him farther.” . , After‘ltreason” had "dons ms worst,' the friends who beard him on that occasion, remem bered that bo lead that passage over twice, and with an absorbed and peculiar manner. Did he •eel a mysterious presentiment of his approach lag fate! His memory was ready and tenacious, and, though he read few books, their contents were so thoroughly digested and assimilated, that in history, poetry, and general litera ture, no one ever remarked any deficiency. The skilful use he made of his limited lite rary stores strikingly Illustrates the truth of the German saying, that “ nothing Is so pro ductive as a little known well.” The truth Is, intellectual ability depends, not on the number of facts which one has read, hut on the number one can firing to bear on a given subject, and on the power of treating them as data, or factors In & new product, In. an endless series- Close observation and ac curacy, combined with systematic arrange ment and a habit of reflecting on conse quences, will place the man who has read one book on a par with a„man of little dis cipline who has read fifty. It is not the Aril nones Übrorum , the • devourers of libraries, who become the Intellectual giants : As an Illustration of the power of bis memory, I it collect to have once called at the Wfalto House, late In hfs Presidency, and introducing to him a Swtde, and a Norwegian; he Immediately repeat ed a poem of eight or ter. Scan dinavian scenery and old Norse legends. Jn ic ply to the expression of their dell »ht, be said tlat be tad read and admired the poem several y tare before, and It Md entirely gone from bnu, hut seeing tbsm recalled It. The two books which be read most were the Bi ble and Sbakspearo. With these be was very familiar, reading and studying them habitually and constantly. He bad great fondness for poetry ard eloquence, and bis taste and Judgment in each was exquisite. Shaker***/* «va* nia aton e po et, Bums stood next, llolroea 1 bcauutat poem, " The Last Leaf,” was with him a great favorite. The following verso be regarded as equal to any thing in the language; " The moßf>V marble rests On ibe Bps that be has pressed In thslr bloom. And the names beloved to hear, Have been carv'd for mauy a year, On the tomb.” Wc arc glad to find In Mr. Arnold's book a point blank contradiction of a charge often popularly made against Mr. Lincoln. The infirmity attributed to him has always seemed to ns absolutely Inconsistent with bis delicacy of feeling and acknowledged nobility of soul: Mr. Lincoln was by nature a SanUcnian. No nan can point, io oil his lifetime, to anything mean,small, tricky, dishonest, or false; on the contrary, ho was ever open, mauly, just, sincere, nnd true. That characteristic attributed to him by filr. Holland, in bis mo*t excellent biography, or coarse story telling, and w hich be deems neces sary in palliate and apollgizo for. did not exist. 1 assert, that ray Intercourse with him was con stant for many years before be wemto Washing ton. and tbere 1 saw him daily, daring the greater pan e( bis Presidency, and although his stories and anecdotes were nicy, witty, aod pointed, be {ond all comparison with others, yet I never eat done of a character to need palliation or -XCQBO. Death of nr* Peltow. Javxs Dunwoodt Daßow, the journalist and statistician, whosename has loo?been familiar to the pnblic, died on Thursday, the 28th of Februa ry, at Elizabeth, New Jersey, alter a brief Illness, lie wav bora in Charleston, South Carolina, on the linh of July, ISO, and was In his forty-seventh year at fbe time of his death. lie was the son of Garret Defiow, a Charleston merchant, and for seven years was himself employed in a mercantile boose. Buthe manifested an inclination for in tellectual pnrtult*, and hla father determined to givohlm slibcial education. He was graduated at Charleston College lu IMI, studied law. and was admitted to the bar in i&H. He bad more taste for Uuratnrc than for law, however, and became a contributor to the Southern Quarterly RevUw, a Charleston periodical, of which he soon after took charge as chief editor. One of hla papers, on "(Oregon and the Oregon Question," attracted great attention, both In this country and Europe. In 18*5 he withdrew from the Charleston periodi cal and went to New Orleans, where he estab lished Deßotc't Commercial Jlerific," which was highly successful. Inl&tS, Mr. Deßawwas elected Professor of Political Economy In the University ol Louisiana, and was soon alter placed at the bead of the Census Bureau of Louslaca, which position be held three year*. In 1&5&, President Pierce ap pointed him Superintendent of the Colled States Census. In that position ho collected and prepared for the press a large part of the material of the census of 2SSO, and aohicqncntty compiled the "Stillatical View of the Colted Slates," being a compendium of the seventh census. He also published a work In three volumes‘entiled "In dostrialißcsonrccs of the South." lie was a mem ber of nearly every Southern Commercial Conven tion since that of Memphis In ISIS, over which John C. Calhoun presided. He'took an active part In various enterprises designed to advance the commercial and intellectual interests of the South. Be lioic't BnUic, a monthly magazine, started before the war.and temporarily suspended, was revived alter the return of peace, and Mr. Beßow was engaged In editteg and publishing that successful periodical at the time of hla death. Mr. Pcßow was a strong advocate of slavery, and adhered to the South during ihowaroflhe rebellion. He has written much to prove that slavery was more economical and better in nvery way than freedom; and he lived to see his favorite theories overthrown by the great war that was in augurated to establish them. No particulars arc given of hi* death. Cernsa orr tub Pan Dajtdlb.—The Wheeling (Va.) EcjUttr says: “We learn that petitions h&vc been drawn np, and will toon be circulated, asking that ibe Pan Handle coontics, Obio, Brooke and Hancock, bo annexed toPennsylvania. H is contended by those moving In the mailer that If tbc counties above named were taken from Weal Virginia end attached to Pennsylvania, the cooplc’s bmdens In the way of taxation would be much lighter, and that the territory la so sit uaUd that It would increase Its value were It an &ex*d to Pennsylvania. FROM BOSTON. The Liquor Warfare in Mas- bachusetts. Tlte Prohibitory Law and the License Lair. Art Mnttrrs—The Wheelock Collection- An Artist's Pitnit—Crawtotd’s his toric Doer for the National ' /; 1. Capitol. The Gossip of the Huh. (Special Correspondence of the Chicago Tribune.] Boston. Mass., February 23. THE LIQUOR WARFARE. . Kcver, since the temperance question be came an element in State politics, has the contest between the liquor party and the prohibitory law party been so animated and vigorous as now. The latter faction, having their law and the instruments to enforce It, stand on tbe defensive, as far as the Legis lature is concerned, while the former, having their all in peril and craving a license law, assume the aggressive with a will, as If their case were not, os everybody knows it Is, a hopeless one. Perhaps the force of their attack is owing to its having better generalship than before, the heavier dealers haring showed their saaacity in engaging for their counsel. In cx-Govcrnor John A. Andrew, a man with brains, with brilliancy, with with reputation, lie has organized the movement for a license law this year with great ability, and has pushed it forward with sach per sistent and untiring energy os victories are made of. The hearings before tbe Joint Committee of the Legislature appointed to consider this subject, have been as interest ing as a novel. Mr. Andrew’s sa gacity has put forward os witnesses, not the stereotyped set of hotel-keepers and politicians, but the most eminent men la the State, gentlemen entirely disinterested, of pure lives and known temperate princi ples, who have seen the workings of the pro hibitory law for the lost dozen years and have been led to the conclusion that a judi* cions license system would be of more bene fit to the public morals and the temperance cause. Some of these gentlemen were advo cates of the present law at the time of its passage; others are men of wide fame, like George S. Hillard and Ex-Governor Wash bum; and the opinions of all of them are entitled to respect. While the Legislature has thus been dl rcctly appealed to to cut loose irom the tra ditions of the last decade, other means of moving men’s minds have not been left untried. The press of Massachu setts, barring the little country weeklies, Is almost unanimous In favor of a license system, but prone to consider the subject exhausted and not worth writing about; since Governor Andrew has taken charge of affairs the papers have been constantly sup plied with readable articles by competent hands, not too violently partisan to be Insert- cd os editorial discussion. A powerful in terest Is ready to encourage and reward the journals which advocate the license system ; while those which venture to rally on tho other aide get more kicks than half-pence. Thus, the Boston Traveller, having given in- dictations of on alliance with-the ultra tern* pcraccc people, has, in consequence, been deprived, of its poor privilege of copying from the hotel registers the names of arrivals for publication. And etlil more illegitimate means have been taken in aid of the same cause—doubtless without ex-Governor Andrew’s sanction such as the opening of luxurious rooms in a central part of the city where legislators may be entertained and daintily refreshed by the hospitality of the wealthy class petition ing for a license law—although of course many legislators would spurn an invitation to any hospitality and for such an object. Naturally, while there is such a stir in the camp of one party, the other is not idle. The usual advocates of the prohibitory statute have appeared with the usual argu ments at the committee hearings; and petitions without number have poured In upon the Legislature from all quarters— many of them from Sons of Temperance, Bands of Hope, and similar organizations— favoring a continuance of the present state of affairs. The half dozen pulpits in the city in which the prohibitory law is upheld al most os an Eleventh Commandment, have poured forth the bitterest denunciations upon the liquor dealers, the hotel keepers, the witnesses, the petitioners, the counsel, and the newspapers on the other side of the question, and have appealed for support to the virtuous Traveller , still among tho faith ful found. Of course the State Constables have been stimulated to new ac tivity by the apparent approach of a crisis, and have made seizures of liquors kept for sale with remarkable swift ness and vigilance. So great is now tho danger of these costly seizures that many of the hotels in this neighborhood, though still openly selling liquor in defiance of all prose cution, keep only a very small quantity of , liquor accessible on tho premises, but hide their main stock in barns and various places of concealment near by. I have said In the beginning that tho present imposing movement to secure a license law Is hopeless; aod so It Is, io the estlmetlon of all who consider the probabili ties with candor and with understanding. The balance of power In the Legislature is held by tho country members, who in this matter arc much like the Bourbons, learning nothing and Ibrgctting nothing, and not to be shaken by ever so portentous a blast of trumpets. But a constant dropping will wear away even adamantine obstinacy; and perhaps the present lavish expenditure of [ the liquor people is wise economy, In view , of what may be the needs and possibilities of next winter. AWT MATTERS, The Boston artists have at length got ready and opened to public view their col lection ol pictures contributed to be sold for the benefit of the family of Whcc lock, a comrade Of tbecascl, lately deceased. Tbo collection, which number seventy or eighty paintings and one statuette—a group In clay, sent by John Rogers, of New York— is rather interesting than valuable, the works being nearly all small, bnt worth study as giving in such close contrast speci mens oftbc styles ol so many different men. The largest piece In the lot, I believe, is a marine view by George Curtis, of Chelsea; the finest, according to the most competent criticism, an Italian scene by VlrgU Williams, this city. Landscapes largely predomin ate, of course, and Bellows, of New York, and Champncy Brlcber and Russ, arc all represented. One Boston painter sends a portrait of Maggie Mitchell; ond there arc about half a dozen Ideal heads .and figure pieces on the catalogue. Some of our artists have planned a way of spending the summer, combining pleasure, comfort, cheapness and profit. A club of eight or ten, with Mr. Bickncll at their head, propose the erection of a build ing on the beach at Saugus, for their own oc cupation during the warm months. It will bo a large two-story structure, the lower floor being arranged , contrary to the usual custom, in sleeping rooms, and tho upper thrown into one largo room, abundantly lighted, for a common studio. Of course pro vision is made for a kitchen and dining room, so that tho jolly bachelors and their cook live almost Independent of the world. A barn adjoining tbc dwelling shelters the live stock, which serves a double purpose in this odd commu nity—for the hens after laying the eggs for breakfast, and the cow after supplying the milk foi tea, may be called into requisition as models, for a picture which Is to bring in tho bread and butter for future repasts. While the animal painters are thus conven- iently accommodated with studies,the marine artists have the sounding sea and the gliding phips ever before their door, and tbo land scapists need go but a little distance Inland for cheering bits of woodland scenery. At the same time tho artists are within easy reach of Boston, but a short walk from onr most fashionable watering-place of Swamp scott, with tho healthiest air In tho world, out of way of the gossip or impertinent intrusion, and able to live in luxury quite as ‘ cheaply as they could in Borne itself- A recent visit to the Immense establish ment of the Ames Company In Chicopee en ables me to tell yon something of the Wash ington Historic Door for the National Capi tol, designed by Thomas Crawford and now In process of casting at Chicopee. Crawford, yon remember, bad hardly completed the models when ho died, and being sent to Mu nich for casting there some contemptible rebel malice not only seriously delayed the work, but wickedly defaced the models themselves. On bearing of this, the Gov ernment ordered them .home, and the best workmen at the command ot the Ames Com pany have been two years in making the castings, yet by no means complete. The door, or doors, (for it opens in the middle,) will be fourteen feet high and seven feci wide, and will weigh five tons. The sec tions have each four panels in bas-rclicf, representing events of Peace and War respectively; tbc first scries consisting of “ Laying the Corner-Stone oftho Capitol;” “Washington’s Inauguration;” “The Ova tion at Trenton,” and a symbolical represen tation of “ Peace,” in a farmer and his faml- - ly plowing; the other including “The Bat- He ot Bunker Hill;” “ The Rebuke of Lee at Monmouth;” “ Bayonet Charge at York towo,” and “War.” As I have said, the ponels are not yet completed In bronze, and any attempt at criticism would be prema- lure. Many features of the designs arc un questionably very fine; and some anachron terns, such as the Introduction of William Henry Harrison and John Quincy Adams In a scene occuring in 1783, and the portraits of the artist and Mr. Crawford’s family a«d friends, in the crowd doing honor to Wash- Incton at Trenton, will be sore to call forth general remark when tUo doors arc placed on tbclr hinges in the Capitol. VARIOUS MATTERS. There is a vague rumor afloat of the revival of the now thoroughly defunct Boston Cour fer, as a Johpson paper, under the ill-omened editorship of George Luut.' Ido not think capital will be found wild enough to go iato the enterprise, the only excuse for which is that tbe Post, now the only Democratic pa per here, seeking'sensibly rather to make money than to champion a fillen cause, gives more attention to Us jokes than to Us poll- ies, and bss even shown a few streaks of liberality in its old age, such as joining the Chicago Tima In the effort to rally on au impartial suffrage platform. Washington’s Birthday was observed here by the suspension of business more gener ally than ever before, but not publicly cele brated beyond the parade of a militia regi ment. Mrs. Harrison Gray Otis, whose ef forts were influential In having the day first. set apart as a holiday la this State, gave a grand reception at her bouse lu the after boon, at which all tbe fashionable world of this vicinity was present, and Mr. George Peabody was tbe leading lion. Do not he deceived by a paragraph which I sec has gained credence and circulation, to the effect that if the capital is removed to another city a company will purchase the present State Honse for a hotel on a magnifi cent scale, with ridingechool, Turkish baths and various other absurd accompaniments. There Is no prospect of the removal of the capital; and this story was started as a joke by a paper (the Journal), which so sel dom Jests that its country exchanges did not appreciate the humor ofit, and accepted the statement ag gospel troth. Revere. THE MORRILL TARIFF. Confessions of Its Author, Chicago, March 1. To tbe Editor of tbe Chicago Tribune: •* If there are any gentlemen who disbelieve the recitals concerning Idle factories, forges, furnaces and foundries, and wbo think that we arc still on

tbe top wave of prosperity, and so mar be willing to venture a deeper cat into oar revenues, I In cite them to look at tbe comparative returns of tome ol our principal railroads, to the present state of our ravigstlon interests, to tbe decline of the commerce ol oar canals, to our diminished export trade In cattle, horses, hogs, beef, i utter, cotton and manufacturers of cotton, iron, copper and braes, together with numerous other ancles, Hits Is an expoamon of wbicb 1 have the details, bat which I shall not, unless compelled to do so, place upon the records.”— JnK'tn a. J tornll. These are precisely the results which might be expected to flow from the commercial policy forced upon the country by the com bined votes of Pennsylvania and New Eng land. But instead oi accelerating the ruin by administering additional doses, it would bo well to pause and allow natural laws to come in with their recuperative powers. If the patient is to recover, it is to be accom plished by trusting to the native energy ot bis constitution and not to tho nostrums of such physicians as fl. Q. and J. S. M. Disastrous as this policy has proved to the general Industry of tho country, it has proved particularly so to agriculture. We of the West have a large surplus, which we seek to dispose of in foreign markets. What It will bring abroad, determines tho price of tho whole crop. Whatever the West re ceives in return is charged with fifty per cent duties. Tno ‘Western farmer, therefore, finds that in the cloth ho wears, in the tea, and coffee, and sugar, which he consumes, in the wages which* he pays, and in tho rates for transporting bis surplus, there bos been an advance of not less than fifty per cent, while his own pro ducts, reducedito the gold standard, hare not felt the effects of the general movement; and he fails to comprehend how he is to be benefited by on additional duty of twenty percent on everything which he consumes, ■while the value of everything ho raises re mains stationary. Agriculture furnishes tho great bulk of all the materials for transpor tation ; but when Ibis interest, in addition to being charged with nearly all the revenue customs, and with double rates of transpor tation to markets is charged seventy per cent upon all of the materials which enter into production, is it to be wondered at that there should be “ a decline” In the comparative “returns” of our principal railroads and canals? Everyone knows, or onght to know, that commerce is founded on a mutual exchange of products; and that when one nation re fuses to receive anything but coin,trade must cease. If, therefore, “onr navigation inter ests” have been swept out of existence, and “our export trade iu cattle, horses, hogs, beef and butter, has been diminished, the cause is perfectly obvious and was clearly foreseen Irom the outset by every sober minded man. This diminution extends, too, ns confessed by Mr. Morrill, “to manufactures of cotton, Iron, copperand brass.” And why should not; this be the case? How can we hope to com pete with the markets of the world? As to the raw materials which enter into these manufactures, wo are os favorably situated as most nations; but, to carry out the “American oystem,” wo levy a duty of fifty per centTjpon the imported articles coming In competition, and at the same time create an irredeemable paper cur rency far in excess of the wants of the coun try. The American manufacturer, when he comes to erect bis mills, finds that from these two causes—a niearly prohibitory tariff and on expanded currency—labor, materials, machinery, rate ofintercst and personal ex penses have so advanced that he cannot com pete with the foreign article, and hence ho clamors for more protection. That granted, up go labor, materials, rent, interest, &C-, to the now standard, and yet the price of the competing articles will be determined by the rate at which It can be afforded by the for eign manufacturer. Hence our commercial history affords this singular anomaly—that the greatest Importations occur under the highest tariffs. This, so ihr as relates to the domestic market; but when wc go abroad without fabrics, we compete with articles paid for in a currency more valuable than our own, which have been manufac tured In a community where wages, coat of machinery, rents, personal expenses, everj. thing except human food. Is fifty ceD t cheaper than at home, Under such a slate of affairs, bow can wc mitumin an externa, commerce, how compete in the markets of the world? If with fifty per cent duties such has been the result, what will be the effect of seventy per cent ? The Morrill tariff, os now confessed by its author. Is a stupendous failure. With one-third of the Imports on the free list and duties intended to be nearly prohibitory on the other two thirds, U has deranged and crippled the in dustry of the country. Prohibition ond rev enue can no more assimilate than oil and water; and the pressing nature of the public debt U such that wc must discard the one end increase the other. * Universal nutfraffo to all Claeses la the Southern Slates* Owxoo. JJrirg lon Coaßij, 111., February 27. To the Kdltor or tbo Chicago Tnbtme: In your trl-wcekly Issue of the iSth In stant appeared an editorial entitled “ Uni versal Suffrage,” which seems to mo to ex press clearer and more correct views of the great problem of reconstruction than (I think I may safely say) anything else I bare yet seen in print since the. close of the re bellion. You propose to “ establish unlver "sal suffrage, and make uo exceptions, not "even of rebels.” You say well that "It Is “preposterous to suppose that any State “ Government can be organized and success “fully maintained with on&half or a ma jority of the peonlc excluded from the “polls upon a general effirge of crime for “which they have been pardoned without “ trial or arrest.” That has always appear ed to be the fatally weak point In all the schemes of reconstruction which have been proposed, based upon the idea of entrusting the government of the lately rebellions States to tbeir consistently loyal people alone. It sounds well, no doubt, to say that only the loyal citizens of a country have any right to participate In its government; and abstractly it is true enough, too. As a mat ter of principle, Andrew Johnson’s famous declaration (in the days of his loyalty) that If there were but five thousand loyal voters In a State, they should rule the hundred thousand or the half million disloyal voters, Is all right enough; but the practical diffi culty remains of maintaining even the sem blance of republican government, with the governing power concentrated in the hands of an Insignificant minority of the people. Such a Government most necessarily fall, and fail speedily, unless upheld by the bayonets of the Federal power; and if so upheld, uhkh is really the Government of the State —the reconstructed sham State Government, or the Federal bayonet which sustains it ? Better undisguised martial law at once, un der Military Governors, than such a poor pretence of self-government, whose only effect can be to keep alive and embitter the old feed, and postpone the day of actual and permanent reconstruction. So sweeping an extension of the right of suffrage as yon propose is not, perhaps, free from danger, or at least from donbt and un certainty ; but is It not the least dangerous path that Is open to us ? We are environed with perils, and the best we' can do is to cat onr way through them where they appear least threatening. “The occasion Is piled high with difficultybut I believe that In* this as In former cases the path of courage and of justice will be found the path of safety. Give the free ballot to off the people of the South and of the nation, and then Gcd defend the right’. Territorial Govern - ments or martial law may answer for tem porary expedients, but “for any lasting “Government the general suffrage to all “freemen is alone consistent .-ith justice “ and safety.” Let as adopt lt,\ nd leave the issue to the American people. • E*,J. It. WISCONSIN. Proceedings in the State Legislature. An Important Bill for tlie Regula tion of Railway Charges. _ The Proposed Railroad Consolida- lions. (Special Correspondence of (he Chicago Tribune ] Madison, wia„ February a?. Nearly all the members of the Legislature have returned from tbclr brief vacation, and arc at work with a good degree of diligence In the business before them, though not feel ing a pressure for two sessions a day as be- fore the recess. The Introduction of new business, which was to have closed on yes terday, had not the time been extended when a recess was resolved on, continues, and the number of bills in the Senate has been increased to 200, against 213 up to the same period last year, find the number in the Assembly to 400, against 302 last year. THE LODBT IK FORCE. One would suppose from the formidable lobby here this week—larger than at any former period of the session, and making the Third House almost equal la sice to the Legislature—that important matters were on tbe tapis. Representatives of the leading railroads in the Stale, including officers and members of the Boards of Directors, attor- neys of the railroads, and stockholders hos- tile to the management of some of the roads, are here la force. Quite a large delegation is also here fron the northwestern part of tbe State, interested for and against sundry proposed and existing charters affecting the navigation and lumbering interests of the Chippewa, Black and Mississippi nvera. Persons interested in various local measures affecting different parts of the Stale are also here, and altogether there Is no lack of ad- vice for members of the Legislature how to cast their votes. AK IMPORTAKT RILL FOR THE REQCLATIOK OF RAILWAY CHARGES. Few Important measures have been nn- dcr consideration since the Legislature re assembled. The Assembly remorselessly continues its warfare on railroad monopolies and is earnestly making the attempt to regu late tbe rates of charges and the manner of receiving and conveying freight. The bill, reported by the Railroad Committee, to es tablish a uniform tariff for freight and pas* senpera was the special order in the Assem bly last evening. Contrary to expectation scarcely any attempt was made to amend it, and there was no discussion thereon. Mr. Abrams made a brief speech opposing the bill, os impracticable In many of its pro visions, and objecting to the attempt to compel the railroads to give preference to one kind of freight over another, and to the provision that roads running In connection shall be considered as continuous lines in cl<a*ging for carrying freight. He advocated the appointment of a Commission of com petent men, os recommended by the Gover nor In his message, to examine this whole subject and report what good grounds of complaint there may exist against the rail roads and what would be the best measures of relief. The Assembly, however, by the emphatic vote of 78 to 13, ordered the bill (which Is given herewith), to a third reading, and will doubtless pass it in a day or two. Section 1. It shall not be lawful for any rau road company within tie State of Wlscon-la. wbtcb bae constructed and in ooeration within lie State a line of road exceeding fifty miles in length, to demand and receive a greater rate for the trans portation of weight and Passengers than is in this section provided, via: For the transportation of passengers, aenmmaybe charged and received cot exceeding three and occ-halr cents per mile for any distance; and for the transportation of freight, a snm cot exceeding the following rates, viz: For all kinds of freight usually denominated in railroad schedules first-class Irelght, arum may be charged and received not exceeding twen ty-two cents per one hundred pounds, for any quantity nor less than five hundred pounds, for lie first thirty miles tie same may be transported, and for every additional six miles that the same mav he transported, a farther snm of one cent and one-half may he charged and received; for any distance over thirty miles, and not czcced'Dg one hundred miles, and i for any distance over one hnndrcd m'les, j one cent for every additional six miles. 1 For all kinds of (height usually denominated sec ond class, a sum mayoe charged not exceeding eighteen cents per one hundred pounds for the first thirty miles the same may he transported, and for every additional six miles the same may be transported a further earn of one cent may be charged and received. For all kinds of freight usually denominated third class, a snm may bo charged and received not exceed log fourteen cents for one hundred pounds for the first thirty miles the same may he iranaoorted, end for every addi tional six miles the same maybe transported a further sum of nine-tenths of one cent may be charged acd received- For all kinds of freight usually denominated fourth class, a sum may be charged not exceeding twelve cents per one hun dred pounds for the first thirty miles the same maybe transported, and for every additional six 1 miles tbc same may be transported a further snm of eight-tenths of one cent may be charged and received for* any distance not exceeding one hundred miles, and seven mills for each and every six miles over one | bundled. For all kinds of freight usually de nominated “special,” which shall Include grain, except corn and oats In car loads per, 100 pounds, floor per barrel m car loads, salt, cement and stucco, twenty-four barrels or more per car, soft lumber in quantities ol flvo thousand feet or more, per thousand, sbinglea per thousand, lath per thousand pieces, live stock by special contract per car load, agricultural implements per car load, heavy fonrth class articles enumerated in car loads per hundred pounds, coal, brick, wood and stone per car load ; prodded, that the tarts' on wood shall cot exceed two dollats per cord, ; for ihc first twenty miles, and twenty-five cent* , per cord for every additional six mhos, a sum may be charged and received not i exceeding eighty per centum of the several I amounts set Jorth and charged in 1 the special freight tariff MU of the MUwakeeaod 1 St. Paul Railway Company to take effect Septem ber Sib, ISbO. and in determining the classification , of freight for the purposes of this act, the schedule shall be the same as the special freight tariff of the Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway Com pany, which was to take effect September 6th, ISG6, except os varied by the provisions ol tttU act, and it shall be the duty of the Secretary of tbe State to cause an authentic copy of said classifica tion of freight to be printed in the appendix of the J ulntcd vomme of the general laws of this Slate or the year -1567, and said copy so printed shall be received In evidence in all cases arising under the provisions of this act; and provided further , that the provisions of this act snail apply to all railroads, ony part of which is within this State, the entire length of which exceeds fifty miles. Sec. 3. Every railroad company within this State shall receive and transport freight in tho or der it may be offered, and tbe cars shall bo fur nished for tbe different kinds of freight In prop**" tioutotbe whole amount of freight offers* J x . cent fteisht denominated extra baxatd** - .,- w *h!ch shall take the precedent; and ’‘VhenoTcr any freighter any ktodot ,hSjl betrsnj feired from one railroad to Sootier, in any of Iho dcpola, ftelehl bonao. warehouse, or railroad troiaiars In One 11 rhall ha the duty of the companies and receiving snch freight, , to transfer deliver the same from one road to 1 the other without delay and In tho order which I they have been received at the different I stations aforesaid; and no preference shall wvea in any manner, either by rebaw drawback of otherwise. 10 any person or company over any other pe.V on °^ c ssfSf whenever any freight shall be tr»-? rectw Jj f “ i? this section provided, for tho purpose ?* C 0 “ 0 puttn? tbe snm to be charged for conveying u»<- same, the several roads on which said freight 2* to be ranted, shall be deemed and Akea to bo oLe continuous railroad, and any company which shall violate tbc conditions of this act shall for feit and pay to the party aggrieved a snm quad ruple the amount of damages the said party may have sustained, to be recovered before any court of competent jurisdiction within the btato. This act shall apply to ail roads owned or operated by any company which shall have in the aggre gate more than fifty miles of railroad in operation in tola stale Sic. 8. A wilful or continued violation of any 0; ice provisions of this act, shall work a forfeiture of tno charter of any railroad company guilty of such violation, ana it shall to tbe dntv of the Court before which a conviction aball be bad to give Judgment against tbe offending company, and appoint a receiver to tike charge of Us effects, and to dispose of (bo same according to law and under the direction of tbe court. Sko.4. Any officer or agent of any railroad com pany. who shall wilfuliy vloiavs any of the ©re visions of this act, snail bo guilty of « misde meanor. and. npon conviction f.ercfor, shall be paniihed by fine not exceeding* five hundred dol lars,and on a second conviction shall be Impris oned not exceeding one year. Sec. 6. This act shall bo an amendment to every railroad charter granted by the people of tbe State of Wisconsin. . , Sec. 6. This actsliall take effect and be in force from and after tho first day of May, 18(17. A strong fight wDI be made on this -bill in the Senate, where its passage, without some modification, Is doubtful. It goes largely into details and attempts to regulate the whole subject of transportation. It may be doubted, iflt becomes a law, whether It will prove a panacea for all the evils complained of. RAILWAY CONSOLIDATIONS. The bill to allow the Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad Company to issue additional stock and to consolidate with railroads in lowa and Minnesota, # bus not yet been re ported back from the Railroad Committee; bnt it Is understood that it will be reported to-morrow, and that the representations of Mr. Meyer, on behalf of Eastern stockhold ers of the Milwaukee and Prairie du Chien Railroad, and of newswapea articles in the same interest, in regard to the management of the St. Panl Road, hare had no apprecia ble effect, and are not likely to materially change the vote on the bill in the Senate. ALLEGED CORRUPTION 12? THE LEGISLATURES ov 1805 andISGG. The committee to investigate the charges of corruption of the Legislatures of 18&> and 1806 are ot work and have examined quite a number ol witnesses. I have not heard of anyone who has been smart enough to find out what Is the nature of the testimony they have taken, bat the general Impression is that if they discover any mare’s nest they will not find any great amount of eggs therein, THE LABOR QUESTION. The bills regulating labor and fixing eight hours as the legal limit of a day’s work are ■ the next special order injthe Assembly, where they have been postponed from time to time, and some elaborate speeches have been pre pared thereon. THE LAND GRANT RAILROAD. The Directors of the Land Grant Railroad from here northward, chartered by the lost Legislature, met yesterday and resolved to open books- for stock subscriptions Imme diately, and there is a hope that the work may be begun ere long. More Anon. How to Kill Little Girls.—Warmly and fashionably dressed mothers may be seen on the street, at almost any hour,- leading their shvering little daughters around with barely enough clothing on their lower extremities to protect them from sight, to say nothing of the piercing blasts. An exchange says: “Yesterday we e&w a little girl, led by Us mother through the street. Her little collar and muff and hat were of the warmest fur; and well she needed them, for it was hitter cold, and her little legs, bare ami bine, between bor stockings and skirts, told a shivering tale.” Who docs not dally see the same thing? Little frail girls, with head and shoul ders bandied in unneeded furs, while from the feet to a point above the knee, the Utile darlings are almost naked. Of course mothers who thus dress their children are very for from intending to kilt them or render them permanent inva lids, but such Is the probable result of tbeir fashionable exposure. Ills true that most children have their limbs well protected, be cause most mothers have an intelligent re* card for the health of their offspring, bnt there are many who are clad as we have mentioned, and to the mothers of these we aodress our appeal. As little girls are now dressed, their skirts arc no protection against the wind and cold below the knee, and what do they have as a substitute? Linen drawers reaching just be low the knee, and there meeting the tops of stockings, which usually have about half the warmth possessed by men's socks. Let us compare tils armor with the clothing of boys and men, who have at least five times the power of endurance * possessed by the little girl. The father of this same six-year old girl would consider himself coldly clad, and a certain candidate for rheumatism, if his lower extremities were not protected against the winter blasts by, first, thick wool socks reaching more than half way to the knee; second, wool drawers, reaching from the waist to the feet; third, boot-legs of double leather reaching nearly to the knee; and fourth, thick woolen pantaloons, covering all else and reaching to the foot. And yet the same father permits this delicate, blne-vcined child to go out in winter with legs encased in a single thickness of linen I flow wonld ▼on like to walk the winter streets clad in linen pantaloons and nothing else ? THE FAB» ASD GABDES. Early PloirJntr—Breaking Prairie in march- Com on the Soa-Tlio Armv Worm—lu Breeding Place, and Bow to Destroy Them—WliltewaslUns Ap ple Trees* [Agricultural Correspondence of ibe Tribane.] COAMFAiax, 111., Feb. 27. EABLT FLOWING. On many occasions I have called attention to tbo advantage of breaking prairie early in the spring. Its advantages are so little nn* derstood that X feel disposed to again urge Us more careful attention. 13 so horses with a twelve to fourteen Inch, breaking plow, or even one of the clipper plows. All farmers know that a short, bold mould* board is not pood for turf land, bnt well cal' culated to cover up stubble and weeds. If one has bnt a small patch of prairie to break up, be can do it with one of the common old land plows, but if be has a large amount of it, It is better to incur the expense of a sod plow. For this purpose, when two horses are used, one similar to the Moline Iwelve-incb breaking plow Is the best: while for three horses a sixteen Inch plow should be need. While the ground is soft the turf la easily cut and turned over; at this time two horses i will do the work of three in Hay or June. The furrow should bo left as rough as possi ble, so that the air can get under the turf; . when thus exposed to frost and wind the roots oftbe gross arc as effectually killed, as if exposed to the heats of July. . As a matter of course there are instances In which this early breaking has not been satisfactory; either because the furrow slice bus been laid too flat, or that little frost has occurred afterward?, or # thc falling of warm rains has tended to keep alive the roots ot the turf; but the same thing often follows In the case of June break* lug, the warm rain keeping the grass roots alive, and in autumn the Jane breaking often presents a new turf that most again come under the plow, to reduce it to a’proper con dition for tbo seed. From several yaars ex* perience, I have found that turf broken thus early, is as certain to be reduced to a tillable condition as that of any other season. The most forcible argument Is that of sav* ingofeost. At this season there is little other farm wotfc to be done, and both men and teams are comparatively idle. Now if wo can do any part of the work of June and July, it is of no small Importance, for just then we have hoc* ing, haying and harvestisg on onr hands. In the Eastern States It was formerly the prac tice to snmmer-follow meadow and pasture land, hut that practice has been nearly or quite abandoned fora more profitable system of spring and autumn breaking. When the prairies were in their normal condition, or what farmers call the raw state, nnpastnrcd by domestic animals, we bad some excuse for adopting tbo system of summer breaking, for In that con* ditlon the turf was tough and unyielding. Besides this, the old settlers told us that It must bo done; that a Booster team of five to seven yoke of oxen was the only one fit to put upon this work. Added to this was the early prejudice In favor of the summer follow. Now the Booster team is seldom seen on the prairie, and the break ing is done with two to three yoke of oxen, ; or a team of from two to three horses or moles- At the Implement trial at Mattooa ! the breaking plow that attracted the most attention was a sulky twelve-inch breaking plow from Areczville, Casa County. On this the driver tides and manages both team and plow. It had a thorough test lu a blue grass turf, snd beat some three or four turf plows that were held by hand, in tbo ordinary way. The weight of the Imple ment kept it in place, so that the turf could be cut at any desired depth- The cost of the riding plow It some STU, which puts it be yond the reach of many farmers. Almost every farmer can make the trial, if only on a small scale, and Ucl will be pleased with it. Last I seme «f the best crops of corn grown, in this.' county were planted on prairie sod broken i In the months of March and April. This re. suit was cot duo to a single fanorahle-season, for the same experience has came under my notice almost every season since the year 1843, when I had fifty bushels of corn per acre from a piece of prairie land that had been pastured for only three years. This was broken up m March, planted the first week lin May t and received no farther culture. doubt the yield would have uccn larccr, if the crop had received proper culture,but In that early day no one thought a corn crop on sod land coaid be cultivated, and, in fact, with the implements then in use It was rather difficult. TUB ARMT WORM. This pest of the Southern and Central part of the State may make ns a visit the coming season in some locations. It always comes from the grass land, where the eggs have bceu laid ; never in iho grain fields. By keeping a careful lookont in the meadows, and to be either ready to plow them nnderon their first appearance, or to plow a strip' around the meadow to keep them in, or around the £T.aln field to keep them oat. It will be necessary to often repeat plow ing of this strip, as It will retard and destroy a largo part of the pest. The digging of ditches have been resorted to in many coses with great success. They fall into the ditch, and if the opposite bank Is a steep one, they cannot climb np, and thus perish. Ihave seen bushels of them in this condi tion. Few of onr formers observe them until they appear either on the heads of the Timothy or on the winter wheat; but this Is after they have done a large port of the damage, and of full size and in force to travel to other fields of depredation. It is therefore of tbo utmost importance to know when they first begin to appear. They arc then about a third of an inch long, and begin at the lower leaves of the plant, and strip It of all Us foliage. They do not cot the straw or heads of wheat, but rob them of the leaves that supply the nutriment to the ripening grain. ■When they enter a field of wheat late in * the season, they - do it little damage; that is when they have stripped one field of wheat and marched from that to another. All meadows and prairies that have been burned over will have de stroyed the eggs and run no risk of breeding the insects. Now that we know the habits of this Insect, it Is our own fault if we allow it to do ns serious damage. WHITEWASHING APPLE TREES. The best time to do this work is in the be ginning of winter,|but even now Is better than not to do it. The lime will destroy a large number of the eggs of insects that have been on the bark of the trunk, It wiU also de stroy the moss, and leave the bark In a smooth, healthy condition. The spring rains will work the lime down the trank, and pour It Into every available space where an insect egg can be laid, and long before the leaves appear, no trace of the white color will be left on the tree; bnt In Its place, that deep green so desirable to the bark of tree. Rural. a horrible murder. A Lady Literally Butchered l>y her Ser- xant Girl. [From the New Tort Herald, February 27.) On Monday night last a most atrocious murder was perpetrated in the little town of Newmarket, New Jersey, about three miles westward of Plainfield, on the line of the Central Railroad, Ibc victim being the wife of a Dr. Lester Wallace Corlcli, a resident of the former place. It appears that about twelve o’clock on tho uight In question a gentleman by the name of Coriell, a distant relation of the Doctor, was awakened by a load rapping at bis door, and on raising the window to ascertain the cause, he ocbcld the doctor’s servant girl standing at the door with the doctor’s child, a boy two years old. in her arms, clamoring for admittance. He asked her what she wanted, and she replied that # there was trouble at the physician’s house. He told her to run across the way to * tho minister’s, tho Rev. William C. Little’s, while he got ready to como down. The girl did as she was told, and in a few moments the clergyman and a friend proceeded to the doctor’s, followed by the girl, while tho gentleman who had been first awakened went out into the; main street and rang a large hell as a signal of general alarm. In a ' short time the whole village was aroused. Mean while the minister and his companions had proceeded to the doctor’s lipase, where they lonnd everything in The door was shut, but unionised. Entering on his hands and knees, htuOTecUng his way cartiully as he went, Air. Little succeeded in crawling across the sitting room floor and reach)* g the door of the bedroom adjoining, which he found shut. On opening It a dense volume of smoko burst forth, almost suffoca ting those who were in tbe outer room, ami flckeriDg flames, burning dim ly ui der the black Qclond of smoke that hung about the place, were seen to be creeping along tbe bedposts and tbe floor sirewt> with bedclothes. Amid the whole, with the habiiamcnts torn to shreds and be smeared with blood, lay tbe body of Airs. Corlell. With tbe assistance of the neigh bors Air. Little had the body carried out and the flames in tbe room extinguished. So soon as a light had been procured, and the smoke dispelled, a scene presented itselt to the eyes of the horror-stricken spectators that made the blood freeze In the veins of tbe most sturdy; On every side were cridi ncea of a fearful struggle. The bed, with tbe posts blackened and charred; the bed clothes, wb J ch had been dragged to the floor in. the scuffle, and lay hnddled here and there in ragged heaps, stained with blood and gore; matted feathers torn from the pillows; tbe kerosene lamp broken into fragments under tbe half-consumed crib in which the little child had that night been Snt to sleep by its mother, together with the roken choir, with the splinters smeared with coagulated blood ; all these signs beto kened a strife that most have been one in which the victim contended for life as fierce ly as did the murderer to do her fiendish work completely. But tbe saddest sight of all, the cne that harrowed the hearts of all those who crowded round the corpse and gazed, with pallid cheek and trembling Up, upon tbe upturned, mangled face of the dead, was the body of the unfortunate vic tim. There was not an inch of flesh from the forehead to tbe breast that was not covered with hideous gashes. The jugular vein was torn ont. not cut, and the deep imprint of four teeth was visible In the left cheek. Twenty-three stabs in all bad the murderer made, any one of which would have in all probability been the cause of the death of the victim. So soon as the excitement occasioned by the terrible occurrence had somewhat sob sided, the servant girl, Bridget Dorian, was questioned os to what she knew ot the mat ter. She said that about half-past eight o’clock that evening two men called at the house and asked to see' Dr. Coriell, but were told that he had cone oat to visit a patient. At halt-past ten o’clock they colled again, while she was in the kitchen and her mistress lying on the lounge in the sitting room. Shortly after they bad entered she heard Mrs. Coriell scream and call out to her to take the child away and co for the doctor. Without stopping to sec what was the mat tea, she says she ran out and alarmed the neighbors, asd'on returning with them found the bedroom on Are and her mistress dead. These facts were immediately telegraphed to this city and detectires put on the look out for the murderers, while detectives Wil son. Morris and other officers on the Jersey side were sent to the place of the tragedy to I see what they could do towards ferreting I out the whereabouts of the perpetrators of I the bloody deed. Oaring the day a jury was empanelled by Squire Bears, and the results, which are given below, to the amazement of bat few of the townspeo ple, showed beyond all shadow of donbt that not only was the murder not committed by two men, hot no less a person than the doctor’s own servrnt girl was the actual per petrator of the deed, and that she concocted the story of robbers, hoping by its plausibil ity to shield berseli from all consequences of her fiendish act. The jury after a deliberation of a quarter of an hour, returned the following verdict: - ‘•We, the jury bolding an inquest on the body of Mrs. Coriell, find that, in our opin ion, the said Mrs. Coriell was wilfully mur dered by wonads inflicted by a knife in the bands of Bridget Durgan and possible acces sories.” The girl was then Hilly committed for trial, atd the Constable, Mr. FUswarth, im mediately proceeded with her to the Middle sex County Jail, in New Brunswick. Bridget Durgan, the alleged murderess, is a stout built Irish girl of abont twenty-three years of age. She has an evil look that strikes a person forcibly on beholding her. Her manner throughout the inquest yester day betokened that she was either a cunning evil-doer, hiding her moral ugli ness under a simulated appearance of a half Idiot, or was a half willed creature in the foil sense of the word- The unfortu nate victim ot the murder, Mrs. Mary Ellen * Coriell, was aged about twenty-five, a wo man of uncommon beauty and suavity of manners. She was regarded by the citizens of Newmarket as a person whose gentle na ture and goodness of heart were amheient of themselves to make her loved and respected by all who knew her, and it thus may be naturally supposed that the excitement and horror occasioned by the frightful manner in which the murder was committed were not lessened by the fact that the victim was a general favorite in the neighborhood. What provocation the murderess had to commit the deed is as yet but matter lor conjecture. DEGRADATION AND CRDIE. A man Connives at the Prostitution or Ilfs 'Wile—Her JBrotber aI»o an Ac rcMory—Dlngusting Bcvclattons* [From the Adrian (Mich.) Times and Expositor, Feb, 27. J For some time past the officers have had under surveillance a house on Locust street, near the cemetery, occupied by a man named Smith, his wife, bis reputed slater, his wife’s brother and two or three “young lady hoarders,” and on Monday lost six of the occupants were arrested. Four of the delightful half hozen who .were thus added to the Interesting family at the jail, are Charles Smith, the Lead of the household, his wife, Mary, a young lady named Lizzie Robinson, who passed as the sister of Air. Smith, and a young man named James Conk lin, who is said to be the brother of Mrs. Smith. The parties arrested all appeared before ; Justice Robbins this (Wednesday) morning to answer to tbb charge of violating the city ordinance relative to houses of ill lame. Smith came to this city last tall, and then claimed to be a Chicago detective, who being temporarily ont ot business, had retired to the country to rest and recuperate alter his arduous labors in the cause of justice. But Charles, though tired, was of unbroken spirit, and longed lor the coming of the mer* ;rv eprim; lime, when, as the trees leaved ho would leave also and return to tho scene ol ; bis former thief-catching exploits—odorifer ous Chicago. He is a large, heavy-bulit man, apparently about thirty-five years of age. Ills wife, Mary, is a buxom, rosy-checked woman, of from twenty-tivo to thirty years of age, and appeared In court with a child of one or two years old in her charge. The other three females had nothing particularly to distinguish them from women qf their class, and James Conklin appeared like a green, overgrown hoy. It appeared from the evidence that Smith, in addition to bis dntlcs as head of tho some* what numerous family under his care, also acted as agent for the females, and assisted in procuring them customers. He was by no means exclusives in h!s tastes, and was will ing, nav, anxious, to share his matrimonial felicity' with less fortunate persons, always provided that he received the cash proceeds of the transaction. It was tho wont of this man to make arrangements for his wile, as well as the other inmates of bis-house, to pass the night, or portions of it, with stran gers, wherever they could securd accommo dation. The women, too, were by no means backward In prosecuting the nefarious busi ness, and it appeared that in every Instance Smith received the entire proceeds of his wife’s prostitution. Tbc girl Robinson Is an emigrant from Kal amazoo, and says she has been in town bat three months. She testified to Smith’s har ing made arrangements for his wife and her self to meet strangers at various places, and luat she and Mrs.'Smith had filled the en gagements In several places In tho city. ’ At the conclusion of the examination Charles Smith was sentenced to ninety days in tho Honec of Correction, or pay $75, his wife to sixty-five days or pay $5(3. and Conk lin to the same. The happy trio went to ' jail. Sentence was suspended on Lizzie Rob inson. A TERITABIB FISH STORY. A Boy Bragged Several Block* Xbrongb Hie Water by a Ft»h, [from the Milwaukee Sentinel. March I.] FUh stones arc proverbially discreditable —so much eo, that when we get hold of a pood one, we are almost loth to tell U for fear oar statements may be laughed at. However, despite Ibis, we will relate au inci dent which happened yesterday, and which was told as by a gentleman whose veracity wc have never had occasion to doubt. It seems that a number of men and boys were at work almost opposite the Detroit and Milwaukee depot, when one of the num ber saw au enormous sturgeon swimming near the surface of the water close by the dock. The party armdd themselves with poles and other weapons, while a boy named Patrick Nolan procured a boat hook and re solved upon the capture of the monster. Patrick made a lance at the flahand caught the book in its back, bat before be had time to brace himself and haul the fish on the dock. It darted out into the river, jerking him from his footing into the icy water. The boy held on to the boat hook and was drag ged with great velocity out into the middle of the stream, and then out towards the lake. The spectators, meanwhile, were almost paralvzed with terror. They were powerless to help Nolan, and coaid only look on and see him dragged through the water by a monstrous fisli at a rate of speed exceeding that of the fastest row-boat. They called to him to release his hold ol the boat-hook, but he, either too much terrified to heed, or not being able to hear, clang fast to It as if it was his only hope of life. Thcmouster flab, maddened by pain, and terrified by the load he was dragging, lashed the water into flakes of foam as he sped putward toward tbe great lake, never staying in his mad coarse. Death seemed tbe only fate awaiting the boy, and one or two of those on shore knelt down and Implored tbe mercy of Heaven upon his soul as he lost receded from their sight—probably forever. Providen tially, however, a couple of fishermen, who were In a boat near the straight cat, saw what bad transpired, and although unable, at that distance, to understand the full nature ofthe affair, intercepted the coarse ol the fish. But there’s many a slip ’twlxfc the cup and the lip; for, jost as they were about to grasp the almost inanimate lonn ofthe lad, the fish changed its coarse, and the hoy es caped from their bands. They commenced a pursuit, however, and being stout and skilled oarsmen, and the fish having some what slackened its speed, they succeeded, after a chase of about half a block, In grasp ing the lad and,lifting him into their boat, while tbe sturgeon passed on into the lake. The boy fell fainting in the bottom of tbe boat, and was taken home, almost dead from terror and the chill of the water. Had he remained In the water only a few moments longer bis life would have paid the forfeit of his attempt to deprive one of the finny tnbe of Its existence. A Claim Against the Government for $1,500,000. Commodore Meade, brother of Major Gen eral Meade, has a salt against £ e J*°™ rn ’ meat ic the Conrt of Claims for 51,000,000 as administrator of hls father, Richard TT. Meade. It appears that tbe father of the Commodore resided in Spain during tbe French Invasion under Napoleon, and en tered Into heavy contracts with tho Spanish Government, by which means Spain became largely his debtor. After the restoration of theKmg oibpam to me throne Air. Alcaue Prt* oo * and was only re leased through the interposition of the Gov ernment of the United States. In 1813, Air.* Meade presented apxinst Spain for tbe Governments _ S'Stcs and 'Spain entered into a treaty, by which, in consider. ation of *5,000,C00. the Government of the United Stales nneondltiooaily released the Government cf Spain from any liability on claims of citizens, of the United States, the latter Government undertaking to satisfy any claims of her citizens. A comcaasioa was appointed by the Government under this treaty, to which was submitted tbe claim of Hr. Aleade, among others, but it was not allowed. Mr. Meade presented bis claim until tbe time ol his death, when tbe Commodore was f substituted as esecnlorof his father. The ag. giagate of the claim, which amounted hr 1819 to SOOO,OOO, now amounts to $1,500,000.- The case has been referred to the Court of Claims merely with a view of an aopcal’from whatever judgment shall be rendered, to the Supreme Court, the object being’to obtain a decision of that Court on the question whether this claim Is embraced among those provided for by the treaty of ISI9. POLITICAL COUUDmOS. Barnnm on Bribery. Mr. P. T. Barnum, Union candidate for Congress in the Fourth District of Connect!- • cutj'was lately solicited by a friend to spend money in a manner deemed objectionable by Mr. Biainum, and be responded as became a patriot. Here is bis letter: Binnotpoar, February &. Beau Sib: Yonrkindiclter of tbe cotb baa caused me painful emotions. I now wish to say once for all. that under no conceivable dr- Constances will I permit a dollar of mine io be nacd to purchase a vote, or to Indues a vo:cr to act contrary to his honest convictions. The idea tna* the intelligent reading men of Mew Englar d can be bougni tike sheep in tac sham bles, and that the gaoed principle? which have so tar guided them in the teritble s*rnggle between Liberty and Slavery, can now, in this eventful hour of the national existence, be set tip at auction g and knocked down to the blrbest hl ider. scents to me as jprenosterons as it is shameful and humil iating. But If U la possible that occasionally a degraded voter can thus be induced to “sell tils hlrtb-risht for a mess of pottage,’' God grant that I maybcathonsanc times defeated sooner than penult one grain of cold to bo accursed by using It so basely 1 1 will not behave that American citizens can tend themselves to the contemptible meanness of sapping the very life-blood or oar noble institu tions by encouraging a fatal precedent, which ignores all principle, and would soon prevent any hotear man, however distinguished for bis Intel ligence and loyalty, from representing bis Dis trict In onr National Toured*. Nou_* canid then succeed except unprincipled vagabonds, who, by tha lavish expenditure or money, would debauch and occrade the freemen whose votes thsj cov- ' eted. , No, Sir I Grateful as lam for the distinguished honor of receiving a unanimous nomination lor Conrrcss Iron the loyal Union party In mr district, 2 have no aspirations for tne blah cotillon If It ts only to ba attained by bring ing Into disgrace the noble privilege orthe free elective franehUe. Think for a moment of what a deadly weapon la being placed in the bands of ty rants throughout the civilized world, wbb which to destroy such apostles of liberty as John Bright and Garibaldi, if it can be snid with truth that American citizens have become so corrupt and do- rrafiert. bo lost to »Just estimate of ihc value and true nolahty of the ballot, that it 1b bought ana gold far money. Mr dear bit, anj party that can obtain a tcmoo rary ascendency by such atrocioas means nut oc- 9 ly poisons the ooay politic of a free and Impartial government, halls also sura to brine. swift de atrnctlon nponiUelf.' Ana so It should be. 1 am unaccustomed to political life, and know but little ot the manner of conductings campaign like the present. 1 behev*. however, U » cus tomary lor the Slats central Committee to assess the candidate* In order that they ebail detray a proper ponton of the expense* incurred for speak* «r »nd documents to <nllc/t:en the voters upon the political issues or ihe day. To that extent 1 am willing and anxious to betaxea; for “ligot sad knowledge" are always desired t>y the Iriooda . of human ttgbts and public order. But 1 trntl that all money used for any other pmpoees In the pending election wilt come from the pocket* of those who now (as daring the rebellion) are doing their utmost to aid traitors, and who, mllnarepentiag, j are vindictively t trivina to accomplish at the bsl lot-box what their tionibern alllee tailed to accom plish on the field of battle. If any of our friends misapprehend my true aenllmetti npon the sub ject of bribe. Tt corruption and Iraod. I hope yon will read them this letter. Truly yours. P. T. Bahscx. P. S.—The following Is the law of Connecticut on Ibe bribery of electors: “Section tii. No person shall oQ’cr or receive »ny money.or olber thing, byway of gilt, fee or reward, for gtvii g, or tetoelng to gtv,, a vote lor eleciiutr members of the General Assem bly. or any officer chosen at an elector*’ meeting, not promise, procure, or in any way con fer, ao; gratuity, reward, or preterm* nr. for any vote given or to be given. In any election; and every person guilty of to doing shall forfeit the sum of sl7, occ-half lo him who shall prosecute to efifcct, and the other half to the treasury of the town where the offence ts committed; a*d every rerron who shall be convicted a second time of a Iks offence shall he disfranchised.” That section c'mmcnds itself to the obedience of every law-abidii g voter, ond 2 shall be the last to consent to Its violation. I*. T. B. Ill© Into ITllssloD toSanPomlnso, The papers hate .been publishing various statements concerning the object and result of the late mysterious visit of Secretary Se w ard’s son to San Domingo, on board of a war steamer. The New York Times, Sew ard’s organ, makes this announcement In re lation lo the matter; The late Scward-Porter mission, to the West Indies was by no means such a failure os it was hastily proclaimed to bo by those who knew nothing whatever about it. In fact, no one need \>e surprised if we should speedily learn that it was a success in all it* mite, and that the scheme was not one mstily ard crudely formed, but was the same scheme which had long attracted the attention of onr Government, and which the Secretary of State himself pul in the wsy of consummation during his visit to the-Wast Indies a year or more ago- When Assistant Secretary Seward left An napolis with Admiral Porter on a Govern ment vessel la January last, he was rightly repotted as accredited on a mission, to enter into negotiations with the authorities of San Domingo for securing or purchasing a har bor and port in that island as a naval sta tion of the United States. The Coe, valua ble, well-known, and long-defied Bay oCSa xnana was the locality w.Uoae acquisition was to be effected, and It was to be dona through the actual assent of the Domini can Government at this time In power. Now (if onr advices from the island be correct)'lhe mission of Assistant Secretary Seward waS successfully accomplished; the points of negotiation and treaty were established with President Cabral, and within the present week an official agent has arrived In this country bearing a preliminary treaty which has received the sanction of the legislative and executive authorities of San Domingo, and this preliminary treaty will presently he submitted, it it has not by this time been submitted, to our Government. This matter is one of very high importance to the United States— important in rcforejicc to our commercial interests, and to our pres ent and future position as a great and self defensive Power. We trust that no obstacle will impede the consummation and reifica tion of the treaty, and our acquisition©! this West Indian station. Protection and Prohibition* , IFrom the Stark Connty (1U) News, (Repub lican.)! The objects ol a tanlT are two-fold ; first, to produce a Government revenue, tod sec* ond. tofosterhome Industry—eitberoNvhich is a sufilcicot reason for establishing a system of duties on imports. But wtecref our system shall fail of one or the other of these objects, li Is just so far wrong and Insurious. The enormous Tariff Bill now under con sideration in Congress, should it become a law, musthave one of t*o results, either of which will be dire enough, especially ricultural districts. It will either virtually prohibit importation, or it will raise the prices of home manufactures to just the extent of the added duty, eo that In one case it will defeat its own object, so far as revenue Is concerned, and in the other it will bleed the agricultural districts to pamper the manufacturing corporations add monopolies. And It is safe to say that as a general rule the only protection a high tariff elves to the manufacturer Is in enabling him to obtain an exorbitant price .for his wares, so that after all the homcconsumer not only pays the duty on the imported, article but pays a corresponding sum to the wealthy manufacturer, over and above a fair profit. That such is the only protection afforded by a high torlffls evident from tbo fact under the “ Morrill tariff’—the law now force—which Is the hichest we have ever had duties on imports exceeded, by nearly a hundred millions in gold, those of any for mer year. This hundred millions went into the Government Treasury, it is true, and so far, all well; but did it go from the pockets ot foreign merchants and speculators ? By no means. It was wrenched from the hands of individual consumers at home, and a cor responding hundred millions from the same source, to the coffers ot wealthy manufactur ing companies and corporations, as their •‘protection.” We can heartily thank every man fn“Con- Eress or out, for every word of denunciation c ntters against this scheme of wholesale plundering contemplated by the Tariff BUI now helore Congress^ Names of Trustee* of ib© Industrial Coll eg©* The following rained persons have been ap pointed Trustees of the Agricultural College at Champaign: Executive Dxp&btxext, 1 Sraixonaj}, Itn., v February aS, ISCT. ) . To tbe Honorable the General Assembly of the State of Illinois: - Id compliance with theprovklona of the act to provide ror the organization and maintenance of tbe Illinois Industrial U> iversify, 1 have the hon or to ucminate and appoint the following named persons as Trustees to the said Institution : For the First Congressional District—David S. Hammond, of Cook County. For the Second Cocrressional District—Luther W. Lawrence, of Boone County. For the Third Congressional Dis trict—Bonce C.Bnxchard, of Stephenson County. For the Fourth Congressional District—John a. Johnson, of Hancock County. For tbe Fifth Con gressional District—Samuel Edwards, of Bureau County. For the Sixth Congressional District— O. B. Galusha, of Grundy Connty. For the Seventh Congressional District—M. L. Dunlop, of Champaign County. For the Eighth Cpngres sionafDistrict—Famnel Allen, of Tazewell Coun ty. For the Ninth Congressional District— Alexander Blackburn, of McDoootmh County. For the Tenth Congreislonal DUtrict-lL a Goltra, of Morgan county, -for the Eleventh Congressional District—J. H. Clay County. For the Twelfth, Conces sional DisufcU-VUlasd. C. Flagg, of Madron County. For the Thirteenth Congressional Dis trict—A. JI. Mann, of Pulaski CoMtr. For the First Grand Judicial Division— B.McMurray, ol vfHnpiiam County; Cnas. Topping Union Coun ty; i htw. Quick, o! county . Burden Fuller, of Clinton County; -• Marion County. For the ?ecomi Gnmd Division— George Harding., .ofFdgar Connty , Henrv Pickerel, of Macon county, Mason Eray- County. For me Tbira Grand Judicial Division—John M. Van OsdelUJ. C. Bor rouebaand S. S. Hayes, of Cook Cqjmty; Emery Co°h,ofK&nkakee, and Robert Dciglas, of Lake County, and more respectfully reqotet your con currence In ibc same. K. J.X)gccsiit, Governor of Dllnoia. Iscmorr at a MAfKEP Ball.—The Vienna journals relate a dramatic incident at a recant masked hall tn that dly. A yonxur couple, find ing tberr steps constantly dogged by ofemale fig ure In a black domino, were about to leave the theatre in order to escape tbe espionage, when the ettangcr placed herself before them and daaaed a vial of vUriol In tbe face of tbe gentleman. The domino on being arrested and unmasked proved to be a lady belonging to the arUtocracy, and the wife of ibe young man whom she had thus disfig ured ; sbe bad also Juar obtained a judicial sep aration trora him. The face and neck of the hus band were horribly burnt, and one eye was com pletely destroyed. The domino had. also spilled so much of the liquid on her own hand and ana. that amputation became necessary.