Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune, March 7, 1867, Page 2

Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune dated March 7, 1867 Page 2
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djicagcr Antoine. DULY, rEI-WEEHXT jn>WEEKLY. OFFICE, Ho. Ol CLAEK-ST. Tht»w> J* dree ediaoni of the Teibpw* Usned. lit. yttf jontur, Xbr circulation by wrier*, newsmen sad tb malls, id. The Tkx-W*e«.t. Mondays, Wed netda’a and Fridays, for tha malls only; and the <m Thursdays, tor the malls and sale at ear Oowter and by newsmen. Terms of the Chicane Tribune: D»U delivered In the ary <oer wees) g S 3 • - M “ , (Per quarter).... 3,33 tally, to man enbtcribcr* (per annum n%n. ole In adraace) - Ttt.oo rrl-Wceßv. fper annua, payable In advance) 6.0(1 fVeekiy. (per annum, payable In advance) 2.00 |F*Fractional parts ot the year at the same rates. IW* Persons remitting ana ordering fire or more copies of either the Tri-Weekly or Weekly editions. m»y retain ten per cent of thesnhscripuon price as a commission, Hones to EußsCEtarKa,—m ordering the address cl your paper* changed* to ororent delay, be sore and Specify What edition yon take—Weekly, Trl-Weckly, or Dally. Also, give your rogatsT and future address tM~ Money, by Prall, Express, Money orders, or la Beg!sta*dljetters,marbeßentatonrrlst. Address, TRIBUNE C 0„ Chicago, IU THURSDAY, MARCH 7, 1867. THE TEKI7BB OF OFFICE LAW. Afi our readers are aware, the recent Con gress passed a bill regulating the tenure,j)f office, the President vetoed it, and it was passed into a law over his head by a more than two-thirds vote In each house. By its provisions the President Is prevented from finally removing public officers with out the concurrence of the Senate, although he may suspend an officer in case the public interest clearly demands it, as, for instance, in case of fraud, and may temporarily fill his place; but the final determination of the case cannot be made without the consent of the Senate. In short, the bill is Intended to restrain the President from dismissing men from office, or “kicking them out,” as Mr. Johnson expressed it in his St. Louis speech, merely on political grounds or from per sonal spite. But the terms of all offices ex pire within a month after the close of each Presidential term, unless otherwise provided hy law; so that the bill dc-cs not at all pre vent any President from making all the new appointments he may choose until all places arc newly filled ; but, having once appointed them, by the consent of the Senate, the new law prevents him wantonly turning them out, and requires the concurrence of the same power to confirm a dismissal that it docs to confirm an appointment. We have no doubt of the power of Con. gress to enact such a law as it has enacted on this subject. The Constitution of the United States, Art. 11. Sec. 2, says: He [the “President] shall nominate, and with the “adviceand consent of the Senate, shall “appoint ambassadors, other public minis “torsand consuls, judges of the Supreme “ Court, ard all other officers of the United “States whose appointments are not herein “ otherwise provided for, and which shall bo established by law.” While the power of the Senate is thus made only concurrent and co-ordlnatc, nevertheless no appointment can be complete without Us exercise; and if, when so completed, the President may alone annul it, either during a vacation of the Senate or without awaiting its action while It is in session, by appointing another man, then he may in his caprice C!1 all the offices, as Independent of the Senate as thongh the Constitution had not given to that body any voice in the matter. In Lis message vetoing the bill, Mr. Johnson himself virtually admits the lawful power of Congress to pass it; for he refers to the procccdingsof the Congress of ITSDas hav ing settled the question. Those proceedings arose on a proposition to establish an Exe cutive Department, to be denominated the Department ol Foreign Affairs. A motion was made to strike out that portion of the bill which declared that the officer of such Department was “to be rellevablc from of fice by the President ol the United Slates.” After a long discussion it was decided not to strike out the words quoted ; and this, the President thinks, was q satisfactory set tlement of the question which ought not to be disturbed. But if it was within the power ol Congress to legislate on this . subject in 1759 it certainly was within its power in 1507. It was only a question of ex pediency, and the country is clearly of opinion that Andrew Johnson is unfit to be trusted with the unrestrained power of re moving from office. Be has not only used that power for political purposes, but for the displacing of loyal and patriotic men with virulent Copperhead and sympathizers xrf»ii rebellion—men who did all in their power to countenance and aid treason during the late war. In Md'l'i'fr fo itef JMunt r S. lux j-wj-ic oecausc of fheir disloyal senti ments have been appointed to office, and to make room for them tbe appointees of Abra ham Lincoln Lave been turned oat. IVlih tiublushingeffronlery Mr. Johripon announced tbat he would “kick out” all those who did not bend the knee to his policy, notwith standing the adoption ol that policy required treachery or deceit at the Lands of every man appointed by Mr. Line fin. Mr. John son himself has made il fvrmi r »-* n— gices to occlarc ILc undoubted right of the derate to Lave a voice in all removals from office ; and by the passage of this bill An drew Johnson is rendered still more power less for mischief. COSEsriC LU'S OP ABBiniM TVc published yesterday the very earnest letter of the Rev. Mr. Smith, of East Cam no, Strathmore, Scotland, who during a cumber ol years was pastor of a Presbyteri an church at Springflc’d, and, with his fam ily, enjoyed the closest and most unreserved association with Mr. Lincoln and his family. This letter bears upon its face the evidence of Us own sincerity and truth. It relieves Mr. Lincoln’s memory from an unpleasant reflection cast upon it by a reported lecture attributed to Mr. Wm, 11. Herndon, of Springfield. In that lecture there is dressed •up In a style calculated to attract attention, what purports to be a romance of the un married lllc of Mr. Lincoln, which winds up Ly the untimely death of a Miss Ana Rnt ledce, and the burial of the heart of Mr. Lincoln in her grave. This “romance” has had a wide-spread cir dilation in this country, aod Mr. Smith found it in a paper published in Scotland. It Is to be regretted that such a story was ever made public, and more so that it was not put at rest at the time it made its ap pearance. Mr. Lincoln met the Jady who, for nearly a quarter of a century, was his wile, when she was a girl of only seventeen years of age. She was handsome, aecom plished, and full of life. She possessed at tractions in his eyes so powerful that in le«s than three months after their acquaintance, he had become an ardent, persevering and devoted suitor for ber hand, and for "litre" yean, he persisted in the courtship which resulted in what both parties considered and professed to be, a marriage whose highest inducement was the devoted love of each for the other. During the twen ty-two or three years of married life that fol owed, he was the fond lover that he had been before marriage; no word or act of unkiudness; no word or look, or act indicating that his heart was absent, or was buried in some other’s grave, ever es caped him; had he been the hypocrite and dissembler which modern romance would hold him up to the world as being, his family and friends, his intimates aud associ ates never had the slightest cense to sus pect it; and to suppose that during so many years he could hide his sorrows, and conceal the anguish of a broken heart, wouid he to attribute to him a duplicity utterly foreign lo his frank and open-hearted nature. The letter of Mr. Smith is timely as well as tme. It docs but justice to the memory of a man who was a faithful and devoted bus band, whose heart never grew cold to the wife whom he had so warmly loved as a girl; who, as a father, was the centre around whom was gathered the love and affection of children, and who never enjoyed in any position, no matter how exalted, a pleasure like that which he found at his domestic hearthslde. Mr. Lincoln was never absent from home or from his wife for more than a day that he did not gratify his own affec tionate nature, and the suggestions of bis life of love, by sending dally letters of kind ly greeting to his wife at home. From the day of his marriage to that of his death, there never was a compliment per sonal or political, no success or triumph, no event of any kind calculated to gratify his pride or ambition, that his first impulse was not to communicate the fact to his wife that his enjoyment might he made more perfect by having it shared by her. Of this invaria ble rule adopted by him, there are several instances memorable in the history of his public life. It is a cruelty to hearts already bruised as it rarely falls to human lot to suffer, and cruel to the memory of a man who was candor and truth personified, to give currency to such idle talcs as this now exploded “romance” attributed to Mr. Ilcmdon. ; CgTilr. Toombs, cx-Unitcd States Senator and ex-rebel General, has returned to Geor gia from a self-imposed exile. From the manner in which the Atlanta Intelligencer speaks of his return, we infer that he was more afraid of his fellow-citizens in Georgia than of the Federal Government. His re turn seems to have been 4ccpt secret as long us possible. The Intelligencer makes a pathetic appeal to its readers not to icbukelum. This is the same Mr. Toombs who is reported to have said, several years ago, that he would call the roll of his slaves at the foot of Bunker Hill. The Atlanta Opinion docs not see why he ever felt it necessary to leave the country to escape the Federal power. “Whilst it Is true,” it argues, “that he did “more to procure secession than any other “mu In the State l^tB { rC 6n l p 1 i fl i ie 4 hed j d u , ! £H$ r other mauio sustain the rev olution he bad wrought.” THE BANKRUPT HW, It is just twenty-six years ago since Con gress enacted a General Bankrupt Law; that law was passed by the "Whig Congress of IS4I-2, and was repealed by the same Con gress that enacted It. The law of 1841 was a crude aud imperfect thing, Intended mere ly as a temporary measure. The present law is framed with a view to permanency. It will give great satisfaction to the general public, and bo a great blessing to the com mercial community. We publish a synopsis of the bill In this Issue of the TnruiTXE. The jurisdiction of the United .Slates District Courts arc ex tended so as to Include bankruptcy.. The introductory proceedings will take place before officers styled Registers, who are to be appointed by the Court; all disputed questions and appeals are referred to the Court. The act provides for two classes of bank ruptcy-voluntary and involuntary. A per £on finding himself Insolvent, may apply for a bankrupt’s discharge. Involuntary bank ruptcy is when the proceedings are insti tuted by creditors. For the details of pro ceedings in eachcase, we refer the reader to the abstract of the provisions of the bill. The law Is very stringent in Us researches after fraud, and severe in its punishment thereof. It provides/or searching inquiries, when ne cessary, and makes the wife’s testimony competent In all bankrupt cases. This bill will have no terrors for any one except those guilty of or contemplating fraud ; to the unfortunate and honest debtor it will be a boon, and creditors will find It the best collecting process known to human law. CSTTn view of the new Reconstruction Bill, the Lynchburg; Republican says; “Let us wait and see the President’s veto, and loam what he has to say and what he intends to do.” W e do not see what can be gained by such a course. It is quite immaterial to the South what Mr. Johnson intends to do. If he ex ecutes the Reconstruction Law, he will do his duty; ifhc does not execute it he will be im peached and removed from office, and his place will be filled by a man who will be very certain to execute it. And so the South must take up with the Reconstruction Bill whatever Mr. Johnson may do. Frauds In tbe Cigar Trade. The recent report of the Committee ou Internal Revenue Frauds contains some as- tonishing revelations of dishonesty iu the dear trade, indicating the practice of enor mous frauds on the part of those engaged iu that branch of manufactures. Besides adopting ordinary methods of knavery, those who carried on the illicit traffic actual ly counterfeited tbe Governmental revenue stamps, and, so extensive is this practice, that the counterfeiting of stamps Is now a regular business in New York city. A revenue inspector in New York, being asked what amount of tax, In his judgment, was collected by Government on tobacco and cigars, stated that he thought that tbe Gov ernment got about one-fourth or one-fifth of the tax actually due. The investigation, according to the personal assurance of one of the committee, developed a perfection of rascality at every turn. 4, 3 n the first place the Trhole responsi bility ol appraising the clears is thrown up on an assistant assessor, who is entirely un acquainted with the price of cigars. He has to depend upon the statement of the manu facturer for the value of the cigars. I have often reappraised clears which 'I have found undervalued. In the nest ulace, there is, unfortunately, a clause in the law statin? that all clears shall hereafter be packed in boxes or paper packages. A man in Brook lyn took out a license, and cave his bond for the purpose of manufacturing cigars. lie bought 25,000 cigars, which he rolled up in papers. He then had the inspector to come m and stamp them, putting the stamp right upon the bundles.' Just as soon as the inspector goes oat he un wrapped the paper, took the stamps olf, and wrapped the same 25,000 cigars m bundles again, and had the Inspector to come there again and stamp them ; and this he would do over and over again until he made those 25,000 cigars represent 800,000 cigars. He would then peddle the stamps around the city. They have seven weeks to make their returns and pay their taxes, and at the end of that time they generally decamp, and their bonds are worthless.” The revenue Inspector before mentioned stated before the committee that ho was originally appointed cigar Inspector, and during his term of office in that capacity stamped twenty-five or thirty millions of cigars, which brought him an annual revenue of over {■iz thousand dollars a year. Tct he gave up that lucrative post to accent oue at four re- lars a day, and voluntarily, too, because he rl ,.u - --vtaiuiCikuiuluvu,. falter post to be superior to those in the for mer, on account of the moiety system. JS 7- A SpricKOcld despatch to the Chicago Times says: “It 15 stated that Senator Ea?lman,of Chicago is rbcm rot-ssumetheedi-onal control of the Illinois is.ctf dOitit c:, ot this c ty. ” Referring to this item theSringfleld Journal says; “F; om the fact that the proprietors of the Journal THE GAS BILL. tetter from Hon. E, r. Lamed to tlie JoarnulsJ-Hls Endorser*. We publish the following letter from Hon. E. C. Inrned to Jhecdltor of the Evening Journal, in reply to an article in that paper Intended to leflectEevcrelynpon him: _ .. , Chicago. March A. 18S7. To the Editor of the Chicago Evening Journal • in sou.-paper of to-day I find an article on the Gas Bill, in which It is stated that “Eon. EC 'If Dt , to Springfield as Ihe paid attorney of a private ring ol speculators, for the purpo-e of procuring the passage a Gas Bill.” 11 T,*ls statement iswter/!, false. It Is doubtless designated, like the other base and slanderous charges which have, during this contest, been insuc against me by the agents and representa tives of the gas companies, to prejudice the pub lic mind against a measure which it is found diffi cult to attack npon its merits. I am not in the habit of replying to newspaper abuse, bat where a specific statement of fact is maJo which Impugns my good Cfith, 1 feel called npontotakcnotlceofU, I lake occasion, therefore, to state that I went to Springfield in pursuance of the following reao- P asscd at a pobllc meeting of the citizens or Chicago: “i?<rso/c«f,.That said committee are also anlho-- tzeu and instructed to transmit the said bill to the General Assembly of the State of Illinois, to gother vnth a copy of the report presented here with, and of the proceedings or this and the previous public meeting of the citizens, and that the Senators ana Representatives from Cook County are hereby respectfully requested to give their best efforts to secure us passage by the l egislature at the present session; and that said committee arc requested to take such action vith- r by personally going to Springfield, orothcr wifc, as they shall deem necessary to secure the passage of said lull.” • I was the Chairman of the committee referred to in tnv roregoing resolutions. I went to Springfield and used my best endeav or? to secure the passage of a bill designed to re neve our people trom the gas monopoly—a bill -.vhich had not only been approved by the people m public meeting, and bv petition, and bv an al most unanimous vote of tho Common Connell but which had received me express and vnauiU pYt cpnrcral cf the editor of tin Chicago Daily .•■■vrnal, whose letter addressed to onr dele~a fron, setting forth “that the passage of the b<H wus desired by a large majority of the people of Chicago, and that its defeat would occasion great dissatisfaction,” and urging our delegation” “to use their best efforts insecure Us passage.” is now in my possession. " Tire bill was precisely what it purports to be—a puhlx measure designed for the public ~ood without any private or public object or purpose whatever. Any statement, come from whom it may. that this measure represented anytnlu" other or different from what appears on its face"* or that It was prompted byany private or interest ed motive, or was to serve any other interest whatsoever than the interest of the city and citizens of Chicago, is entirely base and false. I have given to this measure more than a month of my Hire, and have not even been paid the cclnalcash expenses Incurred by me at Spring field, and any stitement or insinuations tbat'l . ave been paid rmylilug for mv services, or that I have any promise or expectation of being paid for any p-ttlcc? that I have rendered in connee* tlr!n ..» k this measure, la absolutely and un qualifiedly false. The only reward I have thus far received, for rovctiorts to e-.tvo the people ol Chicago In this matter, has been the abuse which has been thrown upon tuc by such articles as the one ia question. Hu 1. in spite of all this, 1 do not propose to di«- rorln.ne my labors in the cause of the people un til the bill which has been defeated shall have be come a law. \on allude In the same article to what yon term ffce “Wabash swindle.” I have never had any connection with that scheme, and never support cd it or gave aid. infiacrce or service in its behalf. On the contrary, I unqualifiedly rcfn«cd lo be employed, professionally or In any uay, to advo cate u before the courts or before the Governor ’or Ice reason, it did not meet my approval. Your remarks, therefore, on that subject are unfounded Ic teet, ana most unjust and injurious to me. The Journal is entirely welcome to any satisfac tion which it receives in Impugnin'- lb° motives and traducing the character of citizens when they are seeking lo serve the best interests of oar city urd people, ana having made this express and ex plicit statement I am content to leave the whole subject, together with my conduct in ro latlon to it to the intelligent and catiGid judgment of my fellow citizens. Your obedient servant, E. C. LaHNED. The following is the letter referred to in the above communication: To the Cook Connty Delegation, Springfield. 111. : The undersigned desire to state that, in their opinion, a very large majority of the people of Chicago arc srrongly to favor of the passage of thcbiii now before me Legislature “ foauthorize the city of Chicago to manufacture and supply s?*’ 4.®2 d ' vl '* occasion much surprise and dissatisfaction here 1 1 it should not become a law. In view of the fact that the bill Is one which largely concerns the pecuniary interests of the tax-payers, that it has bccu published m a<l the daily newspapers, and that it Is not to go into ef fect until after a full investigation into the merits of the proposed plau; it has been approvedby the vole of the majority ot the people, so that to de feat the bill is In fact to deprive the people of the opportunity lor investigating and determinin'* this important question lor themselves, we thinS the bill should be passed, and would earnestly request you to use your best efforts to secure Us enactment by the Legislature. llouace White, of Tribune. \V. P. Stoner, of Times. A. C.Hessino. of StaateZiitvug. A. SnuxAJf, of Journal. HisnnoocK Davis, of Post, Chicago, February 12,1SCT. And others. What Becomes or Old Teeth.—llls said that the number of people who take “ laughing-gas” tor the purpose of having their teeth extracted without puiu is now so large that old teeth ac cumulate by bnthcls at the rooms of the Colton Dental Association In New York. Dr. Colton finds about five hundred dollars’ worth of gold per year In the teeth extracted. He takes the teeth to his residence in Brooklyn, and uses them to enrich his grape vines with, they affording a largo quantify of ammonia. The effect upon the grapes has been to stake them bring forth an abundance ol fruit. FRAUDS IN THE NEW YORK CUSTOM HOUSE. Extraordinary Disclosure of Of ficial Corruption. Perquisites of the General order Business. Negotiations for the Disposition of the Plonder. The Friends of the President to he Bemembered. A Douceur of Pin Thousand Dollars for a Modest Wisconsin Senator. One of the most Important public docu ments presented to the late Congress was the . report of the Committee on Public Expendi tures, in reference to tbc frauds and abuses 'in the New TorkCostomHousc. The report was presented just previous to the final ad journment of the House, and, with accom panying testimony, os published lu the New. York papers of Monday, furnishes a startling disclosure of the extent which important Federal offices and their incidental perqui sites have been literally bargained for and sold in the interest of the President and through the agency of his political friends. Bnt the enormity of these offences against public propriety and decency is best told by tbc following extracts from the report of the committee: The act of isio authorized the warehousing of merchandise is Government stores upon a bond for double (be amount of the estimated duties, which duties were not required lo be paid until the poods were withdrawn for consumption. The supplying of these stores, and the expenses inci dental thereto, together with the rapid enlarge ment of imports, caused extortionate routs to be demanded, or assumed bj Collectors to be de manded—to be rid of all which Government by the act of March 28, 1554, extended “the ware housing system to private warehouses.” The propiielors of such warehouses were required to obtain tbc approval of ibe Secretary of the Treas ury, and to give the Government bonds for the safe keeping of the goods. Thereafter Govern ment ceased to lease or use public stores for warehousing purposes. By a regulation, all goods unclaimed by the owner or consignee at the expiratlou of the period allowed by law lor the discharge of the vessel in which the same may have been imported, arc, in virtue ol a general order issued by ihc Collector, store approved for that purpose—which store in consequence is desiccated “General Order Store." No goods can be taken from such store or bonded warehouse until all charge* due the warehouse proprietor have been paid. These charges consist of toe cartage of goods from vessel to general order stoic, and elqrage of, and la nor upon, said goods, and it is specially prescribed that these charges “shall not exceed in any case the regular isles tor like merchandise at the port of im portation.” • • * The magnitude of the General Order business and of its legitimate returns, the facile opportu nity its itemized nature admits, the constant ab eoiption of email unlawful additions thereto, com-pire to rcudcrils concession or lease, eager ly sought after, as. in broker's phrase, capable of icing made a good thlrg. it is evident from the testimony that Mr. Smy the eagerly gauged the anprccltblc value and commercial me he conld make by the disposal of the General Older business, declaring, ns ho did, the very day ol his official life, to Mr. Barr (a witiresb) and others, “the North River General Order business i? the big plum for the Collector. 11 It is also rendered qui'c prooable that before his coufinns'ion by the Senate, possibly b:Tore his nomination eve**, he had “aeroed" with, and In behalf of certain persons, thal they should be pe cuniarily benefited ty the allotment or conces sion of tie pmm business. While Mr. Smytbc declined itilormio? the committee who those per sonl! were, ho was less reticent as to the division of the veln-.tion or price he bad fixed upon the general erder business. Other witnesses were mere communicative, and by the aid ot their tes timony, and of a proven memorandum, the com mittee were enabled to learn, with tolerable pre cision, tbc names of these intended beneficiaries, and the enms they were respectively to receive. From Mr. Smythe's cotemporanoons declara tions. his own swoin admissions before the com mifcc, and the testimony of Peter A. Van Ber gen, it seems the Collector's first known attempt to ••plac 11 ibe gencial order, was ty negotiating with Van C< rgen & Co., immediately on taking the office. The unique partnership of Ibis firm may have oiiglna*ed in Washington before .Mr. Sniilic’s nomination, oosstbly it was enlarged before that nomination was acted upon in the Senate. Whatever the place or time of its origin may have been, there la a lolcrp.lc certainty that Van Bergen, George F. Thompson, Senators Doo little and Patterson, and a •‘Mrs. Perry," had un equal intorcits In ita effective operation. It is quite likely this arrangement was expected to be tbc fulfilment of Mr. Mnvthe's oracular saying, that “parties in Washington of large imluence acd great expectations 1 ’ most be taken care of. When Mr. Smythe came into office, Messrs. Humphrey & Co. were in the unpurchased enjoy ment of the general order business; its manage ment by that ffrm caused no fncion or antagon ism between them and merchants, or with the Collector. possessing nnexplrcd leases of warehouses rented expressly for that purpose, they naturally desired to retain a fair share, If not all. of ihe business, lu lunhcrance of this desire, Mr. James Humphrey, partner of the firm of Hum phrey & Co., and at that time member of Con gress from the Brooklyn district, early ceiled upon Collector Ssmythc to solicit a continuance with his house of the general order business. He was informed by Mr Smylhelhat Mr. George F. Thomsen, who in negotiations represented could, with d: Co., bare one share of Noilh Kucr and all of East River; oat tint in atch event Humphrey A Co. must “ take care of two Iriesus of the President;” that the Collector must have »3,OMt from the cartage business, “for a political lund.” Mr. Humphrey at once cotn insidtatcd withhl* partners; one of them wrote on a slip of paper ihe form, as follows; “Noub River, Thompson 3shares, 11. & Co., 1 share. lia?t River, H. & Co., who arc to take care of the two irk-nds ot the President. £ ar, ?/Ai>2vt ( J 0 , , J1u»I r jSnPuAtatlon with his part ner., reiurnut to Mr. Smyths and banding him the memorandum slip, asked If that was the proposl .loir. Ur. Smyibe, afi«.r penciling opposite the words and fgares ** Thompson 3 snares,” the tetters “V. P. & C 0.,” assented. On being asked hy Mr. Humphrey if, under the circumstances and requirements, Humphrey & Cc. could not be al lowed a larger proportion of the general order, .r kj'OJhe replied no, fur he had got to pay ont ol it ;-b,COO. He then proceeded to pencil on the back of the memorandum slip the distribution of ik in words and figures as follows: Mrs. Perry, Brown, *2 0C0;PolU|. ’ i«i a «-'iVin mooo Sj,WX) SIO,OOO 5 olal. 00(T Ibis original slip was exhibited and'idcadfled and explained to the committee by one of the surviving partners ol tn© firm of Humphrey & co. ihe pencilled Tetters, names and figures on the face and back of the slip were proven to be the nnaorib ed autographic characteristics of Mr. by S. Ogden, Auditor of ibe New vork Custom flon?e. The duplicate “ $5,000.” represented respective amounts destined for the I two friends of the President.” Abundant tes timony, o,bcr than the declarations of the now oeceascd Mr. Humphrey to that effect, conclu sively shows Messrs. Doolmlo and Patterson to have been the “friends.” . At a Jt tcr nnd Il6t interview of Mr. nnm phrcy tnih tie Collector on ttie same or tollowlne day with the foregoing, he Informed Mr. Hum ph.ey (bat ho had sold the whole general order business to Messrs. Miller & Contrer ” fcr the round earn of SIO,OOO per annum.” On Mr. numpnrey a remonstrance against being treated and trined with In that manner, Mr. Smythe “°ronM D s*Moo” a£rmaity of S3iWW out of the T*J os f; k % w Mr - Humphrey when living can well believe his representations of the-c inter views ard h s inalgnani njection of ihe last prof fer. Eadall »h!s been known at the litre of his dcaih, the a- nonneement of it In the Collector's ante-roem. In the presence of Meiers. Thompson Jiinbree ana others, surely, wotld not have, anre puked, called out the the unfeeling remark •* that there was one less to divide with.” .The contemplated distribution, under this 1 arrangement, appears, from Mr. smvthe’e and other testimony, lo have been a little more explicit and exhaustive, it was aa follows: Geo. F. Thomson, late of the Daily Mwi. .$5,000 Senators Doolittle and Patterson, $5,000 each... ,1° 000 Embree, Deputy Collector ...*.”*’.'.!".l gjOO Humphrey— and by him at once rejected..*.*. 3.030 Drown, Private Secretary of the Collector— , byhim 2,000 Political iuud 10 000 “Mrs. Perry,” known as “a Washington ’ woman.”,,, 3 qqq Van Bergen, to have some unknown share! 1 say ’ 5 (jog &P tk« S-WiOOO eo as to correspond technically with Mr. Smyihe’s oil repeated ob lrat he was not to have a dollar of tt. /his showing, however, lelt him sole almo ner of the SIO.CCO political fa ad. Iho Miller & Conger arrangement fell through, as was commonly supposed, in consequence of their inability to bond suitable warehouses for doing general order business. Just tore a new negotiator and operator inter venes. i.. C. Johnson, a warehouse and general order man of some exoemneo, ifto be believed, on hcanrg of the SIO,OOO arrangemenl, went to Mr. bm>ihe ard offered him $50,030 per annum tor the whole general ord*r business, knowln", to use his own expressive phrase, “It would knock that arrangement into a cocked hat.” And his expectation was not disappointed. ills true when before the committee Mr. John son dia not recall to mind this additional decimal thousand inducement oi his to break up the Mil ler & Conger arrangement. infacthe could not recall even the cocked hat Illustration, thongh It was abundantly proved to have been his favorite and frequent phrase when speaking of his agency in the transaction. It was, however, made quite manifest to the committee that Ibis was nof the only instance where, when before them, Mr. John son exhibited a very Irregular and defective, or a verv treacherous memory. The pcru J al of his testimony will not only repay the time expended, but satisfy the most superficial humanitarian that, under certain surroundings, man. in the abstract oliheicdivlonal, and in the concrete of socielv, is a strange, complex being. Mr. Johnson’s offer was accepted, and, assnrin" the Collector that Thomson managed the Miller & Conger atair badly, he would conduct It ‘with a view of avoiding any unpleasant consequences from an Investigating Committee.” \\ hen reminded that such sale and purchase might be deemed a misdemeanor under the act of March 3,1&G3, he replied, “Nobody would know at y thing about it.” When assured by persons of larger and later experience that the general or*icr business of the whole Stale ot New »ork,‘‘lalrfy and squarely conducted.” would not pay a profit of SJU.OtiO a year, he developed his plan. r That was no less than systematized and pro tected extortion. To bo effected in this wise; raise much higher than ever before paid, the rates aud charges for sioipgc, labor, cartage, &c.: ex pressing bis b'-iicf that thus the business might be made to yield an annual profit of SIOO,OOO. He further declared that if the importers coinolalncd and appealed to the Collector, he would not re duce UlO rates bnt would protect and sustain the lessees who bad the general order business.' On such a basis and with such inducements Johnson attempted to sell Messrs. Bixbv & Co a partol the business. They declined all negotiations, on such expec tations, declaring they did not believe the Collec tor, directly or indirectly, conld he privy to and uphold such contemplated patronage and such an organized plan for deliberate, outrageous ex actions. However, nn J or all the preceding and altenllng and subsequent circumstances, it is Impossible to resist the belief that Mr. Smythe could not, ccr ,al;&Jf tong, have continued in Ignorance of the use this iclennedlcry and embassador of oxtor* non was making ofhia official name and posi tion. lusaytrg this the committee are well aware of the consequence rhat ought Instantly lo follow. Certainly justice, outraged right, toe protection of trade, a decent respect even for official pro priety. ought u* innuro a prompt disseverance of Government connection and official complicity with such concerted robberies. “Good antecedents” shrivel and wither Ic the Presence of such bold developments. “Good standing on’change,” or m “bank par lors,” is ol email account to gloss over the wicked ness of anch proposed enormities. • • • • • • « (Signed) C. T. Hoimunn. E. a. Rollins, J. M.Drooxall, Sab-Committee. Hints to Whist Platees.— The Imperial Heview, in an article on whist, gives seme Uinta which may be useful even to many carcrul players: “ With many players yon can tell to a certainty whether the card about to bo led is a winner or a loser; and cot only that, but whether, If a winner, It is the precursor of other winners. The wrist and the fingers arc oft the solo revealers thereof. .A man touches three or four cards bclbre leading—ln all probability touches losers; for a bad player invariably plays out his beat cards, Irrespective of consequence,, with readiness proportioned to their value,' and a good player never touches more than one card. He who discards briskly does so from an insignificant suit; hesitatingly, in the presence of alternatives; deliberately, from a good hand.” THE BASKEDPI LAW. TTte Act to Establish a Uniform System of Bankruptcy throughout the UoKcd Staten—Tfliat tlie BUl*ls—What It Frovldce, The substance of the Bankrupt Law will be found in the following summary; Section one establishes the several District Courts of (he United States os courts of bank ruptcy, in addition to the other original juris diction (bey sow have. Section two gives the Circuit Courts canity power to supervise the proceedings of the Dis trict Conns in bankruptcy, litigation nod aaaire and in addition to this power gives them concur rent jurisdiction In the eame matters. Section three provide? for the appointment in each Congressional District, tipon the nomination of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, of one or more registers (to be counsellors in tboDistrict Courts), whose duty it shall be to assist the Dis trict Judges in the performance of duty in bank ruptcy cases. Bonus in 51,000, no interest iu any of tbe snite, and ability to take the Iron-clad oath, are the pre-requisites of each Register. Section four mokes it the Register’s duty to ad judicate upon, receive surrenders In, and preside in bankruptcy proceedings. He is to compote property, dividends, assign pro ra(a shares to creditors, but bars him from commuting for con tempt or In acting in cases that go uoou appeal. Sections six. seven, eight, nine and ten provide for tbc formula of legal proceedings in the Courts of Bankruptcy, a recapitulation of the practice now in vogue in other litigation. Section eleven makes 53U0 tbc limit of debts on which to declare voluntary bankruptcy, requires (be banktnpc to be or to become a citizen of the United States, forbids a transfer of property dur ing pendency of proceedings, and demands full exhibitor dents and assets on the part ol the vol untary bankrupt. Sections twelve, thirteen and fourteen provide that the action in bankruptcy shall go on should the bat-krnpt die, the same as if be were in esse; tlat the creditor shall appoint an assignee or aeslgcccs of the debtor’s estate, sub ject to the approval of the District Judge; that everything be turned over to the assignees, whether of substance or account, for distribution except: 1 hat there shall be excepted from the op eration cf the provisions or this section the neces sary bonschoid and kitchen furniture, and such other articles and necessaries of such bankrupt as (lie raid assignee shall designate and set apart, having reference In the amount to the family, con dition, and circumstances of the bankrupt, but altogether not to exceed in value, in any case, tbc earn of SCCO; and also the weiring apparel of such bankrupt and that of bis wife and children, and the uniform, arms, and equipments of any person who is or has been a soldier in the militia or In the service of tbs United States; and such other property as now is. or hereafter shall bo, exempted from attachment or seizure, or levy on execution by the laws of the United States. and such other pro perty, not included in the foregoing excep tions, ns is exempted from levy and sale upon ctccuihn or other processor order of Court, by tholawsoftbe State Iu which the bankrupt has bis domicile at the time of the commencement of the proceedings in bankruptcy to an amount not exceeding that allowed by snch State exemption laws in force in me year 1S0I: Provided, That the foregoing exception shall operate as a limitation upon the conveyance of the property of the bank rupt to bis assignees, and in no case shall tbo property hereby excepted pass to the assignees, or the title of the bankrupt thereto be impaired* or affected by any of the provisions of this act; and the detcimlnatlon of tbo assignee in (he matter shall, on exception taken, be subject tolthe final decision of the said Court. Sections fifteen, sixteen, seveolce,n and eighteen give the assignee ml! power to recover tbc prop erty oflhc debtor, to be distributed by whomso ever held; rcqmrcblra to classify and separate the goods or other effects, empower the assignee to choose arbitrators In matters of disputed pos session ; and provide for tbo supervision over and power to remove tbc assignees by the dis trict judge for cause shown. Sections nineteen, (wcnly ard twenty-one, or dain that claims bo proved in the same manner as now against tbc Ihc estate of deceased persons; provide for set offs in mutual debts between debtor and claimants: forbids sails against the b&rkrupt by those creditors proving their claims, sad provide that if any bankrupt shall, at the time of adjudication, be liable upon any bill of ex change. promissory note, or other obligation in respect of distinct contracts as a member of two or more firms carrying on sepa rate and distinct trades, and having distinct estates to be wound up in bankruptcy, oras a sole trader and also ns a member of a firm, the cir cumstance that such Arms are In whole or in pnt composed of the same individuals, or that the sole cor tractor is also one of the joint contrac'O's, shall not prevent proof and receipt of dividend in respect of such distinct contract against the estates respectively liable upon such contracts. Sections iwectj-two, iwcnlv-tnree and twenty lour require verification by oath of all claims by creditors, and if a corporation, by the proper officers for that purpose, to be filed before Register, or if in a foreign country, before tbe Consul or other diplomatic oSlcer nearest adjacent and that invoriigaiinnjcan be and must bo made by tbe Judge In case of all doubtful claims. Section twenty-five orders the sale and the bolding for distribution by the assignee of all perishable properly, the UUc to which is not in dispute. Section SC provides for tbc examination of the bankrupt by the Court, cither at its own option or at the rennest ol the assignee, into all circum stances and statement of the bankrupt who is punishable for contempt for noncompllance with the order tor examination, and for good cause shown the wife of the bankrupt may be called mid similarly examined. bicUuuTosuouiviacs priority of claims as fol lows : Href. Servants’ wages under 150. Sxond. All the creditors pro ra'a, without any prcfoicncc cither from amount or date of claims, except that In cases wherein the bankrupt has become bail, surety, or guarantor for another, the compliance of the. latter with thi-conditions must be shown before tbe claim is allowed. At the expl.-atJou of three months from ths date of the adjudication of bankruptcy in any case, or us much earlier as tbo court mav direct, the court, «nnii yl !)•' shall call a ffapnrnf ft’* or the credkrors, of which due not-ce shall he given, and the assignee, shall then re port and exhibit to the conrlana to the credit ors just and true accounts of all his rec-lpis and payments, verified by hH oath; and bo shall also produce and file vouchers for all payments for which vouchers shall bo required by any rule of the court; be shall also submit the schedule of u and property as amended, ?h°J itlni!? e(! . ! ? ,b 5 b » a Hf T W» nod a statement of the wholocstatc of the bankrupt as then ascer talncd, and the property recovered and the prop er outstanding, specifying the cause of Hi being outstanding, also what debts or claims are yet undetermined, and statin'*' | what sums remain in his binds. At sues I meeting the majority In value of the creditors 1 prefect shall determine Whether any and what part of the net urocecdsofthe estate, after deduct- I inc and retaining a enmsofllciciil to provide for | all undetermined claims which, by reason ol the i distant residence of the creditor, or for other suf ficient reason, have not been proved, and for other expenses and contingencies, shall be divided 1 among tbe creditors; bnl ncles* at lean one half in value of the creditors shall attend such mect ir.g, either In person or by attorney, ft shall be the duty of tho assignee so to determine. Incase a dividend is ordered, the Register shall, within ton days alter snch meeting, prepare a list of credit ors entitled to dividend, and shall calculate and set opposite to the name of each creditor who has proven his claim ihe dividend to which he is enti tled out of the net proceeds of the estate set auart for dividend, and snail lorvrard by mall to every CTed'Toragjatcmentol the dividend to which ho la entitled, and snch creditor shall bo paid by the assignee in such manner as the court may direct. Section rivenlT-elgbl provides that the like pro cecdings shall be bad at the expiration of the next three months, or earlier It practicable, and a third meeting of the creditors shall then bo called bv the Court, and a final dividend then declared, on- Jest-any action at law or suit In equity be pend mg, or unless some other estate or «lP*cti of (he debtor aiterward come to the hands of he as signee, la which case the assignee shall, ns soon as may be, convert such estate or effects into money, and within two months after the same shall be so converted, the same shall b- divided in manner aforesaid. Further dividends shall be made in like manner as often as occasion re quires: and, after the third meoUn'*of cred'tars no further meeting shall bo called u-ileas ordered by llic Court. Jl at any limolhcrc eh*i| be In ihe hards of the assignee any outstanding debts or °-ber property, due or belonging to the c-»Mic which cannot be collected and received by the assignee without unreasonable or inconvenient delay or expense, the assignee may, under the duection of Uic court, sell and assign snch debts or other property in such manner as ihe conri shall order. No dividend already declared snail be dlstmbcd by reason of debts being sah-*e fluently proved, but tho creditor proving such debt shall be entitled to a dividend equal to tho-e already received by tbe other creditors before anv fortbcrpaymcnllß made to ihe latter. Rrcnara tory to the final dividend, the assignee shall euh mu his account to the court, and file rho same, and give notice lo the creditors of such min'*- and shall also give notice that he will apply for a set tlem. nl of his account, and fora discharge from all liability os assignee, at atime lo be specified In snch notice, and at such time the court shall audit and pass the accounts of the a—i'mce * ami such assisuce shall, If required by the" court bo examined as to tnc truth of such account, and If lound correct he shall thereby be discharged from all liability os assignee lo any creditor of tbc bankrupt. The Court shad thereupon ordcra div idend of the estate and eff-cts, or of snch part (liercol an il sees fit, among such of the creditors as have proved their claims, in proportion to tbe respective amount ol their said debts, in addition to all expenses necessarily incurred by him In th* execution of bis trust, in any case, ihe assignee shall be entitled to an allowance tor his services in such case, on all moneys received and paid out hy him therein, for any sum noi cxcceulog one thou sand dollars, five per centum thereon for; any lar ger sum, rot exceeding fire thousand dollars, twu and a half per ccntumon (he excess over five thou sand dollars; and If, at any time there shall not bo in bis bands a sufficient amount of money to defray the necessary expenses required for the further execution of his trns’, he shall not be obliged to proceed therein until the necessary lands arc advanced or satisfactorily secured to him. If, by accident, mistake, or other cause, without fault oi tbo as signee, cither or both of tie said second and third meetings should not beheld within the times limited, the Court mar, upon motion of an Inter* tided party, order snen meetings, with like effect afi to the validity of the proceedings as if the meeting bad been daly held. lathe order for a dividend under this section the following claims shall be ci)tilled to priority or preference, and to be flmSpaid in in the following order; FI; The fee*, costs ml expenses of anl's and the several proceedings In bankruptcy under this act, and for the custody ot property, as herein provided. Second. All debts doe to the United States,and al: Inscs and assessments under the laws thereof. T.'tird. All debts doc to the State lo which the proceedings in bankruptcy are penning, and all tones and assessments made under the Jaws of such state. Fourth. Wages due to any operative, clerk or bonce servant, to an amount not exceeding SSO, labor performed within els monlns next preceding the first publication of the notice of proceedings in bankruptcy. BAll debts dne to any persons v ho, by the laws of the United States, are or may be entitled to a priority or preference, in like manner as if this net ban not been passed. Always provided. That nothing contained in this act shall interfere with the assessment and collection of taxes by the authority of the United Slat's or any Stair. Section twenty-nine provides for the fall dla* charge of the bankrupt six months alter compli ance with the above conditions, In entire honesty and good fatth. Section thirty declares that no one shall be en titled a etcond time to the benefits ol bankruptcy whose estate la Insufilcicnt to pay seventy p-r centum of bla debts, unless upon the written as scntorihrec’loarthsofbis creditors in value. - Section thirty-one provides that any creditor op posing the discharge of any bankrupt may file a specification In writing of the grounds of ms op position. and the Court may, in its discretion, or der any cjuestlou of fact ao presented, to be tried at a stated session of the District Court. Sections thirty-two, thirty-three, and thirty four, forbtd the benefits of bankruptcy to one wtof-e debts have accrued from their fathers when in a fiduciary capacity, and provide lor the full and final discharge ol the honest bankrupt as fol lows : „ DtexmcT Coubt op tux United States—Dn- inter op —. —Whereas ~ has been duly ad judged a bankrupt under the act of Congress establishing a uniform system of bankruptcy throughout the United States, and appears to have conformed to all (be requirements of law In thatbehalf, It is therefore ordered by the Court that said —— be forever discharged from all debts and claims which by said act are made provable against his estate, and which czUted on the day of—, on which day the petition for adjudication was Sled by (or against) him; ex ecuting such debts. If any. as are by said act ex cepted from the operation of a discharge in bank •rnpur- Given noder my hand and the seal of the Court, at—, in the said district, this day of , A. D. —. [Seal.] Stc ions Iblrty-s'r and thirty-seven provide for the extension of acts to parties in partnership, and fir Ihe liability of the same kind of property as loiv'cbtalca fc ordinary nlndlngnp of part neiahlp concerns. . * . section tiiiity-eicht requires the daft filing of fill pfij.C Bln the care In the ordejof their date, ami bneslfled as to title of subjaelmatte'. {Sections thirty-cine.-forty, forty-one and forty two provide teat person* absent with inteat to df'riaad creditors, or who take any method to foreatill the legal eemca of Just amt proved claims against Item, are to have their property proceeded upon at the demands of creditors, who are to follow the same measures they would were the bankruptcy noon voluntary application. In which case service of due notice upon each a* h er to apjearis to be made in the same way. Utber by personal wailing upon, or bv publica tion. as is now-pursued in civil State actions; his non-appearance within the lime spcc'fled, causing the claims to go against him by dcfiult, which can afterwards be remedied for cause shorn. , dec. 43. And be it further enacted. That if it I any meeting of creditors to be specially called fortbat purpose, and of which previous notice shall bare been given for such length of time as the Court may direct, three-fourths In value of the value of the creditors shall resolve that It is forthoiutercstof the general body of the credi tors that the estate of the bankrupt should be wound up and settled, and distribution made: it shell be lawful for the creditors to certify and re port such resolution to the Court, and to nomi nate one rr more trustees to lake and hold and dltributotbe estate, under the direction of such committee. If it shall appear to the Coart, after hearing the bankrupt and such creditors as may desire to bo heard, that the resolution was duly passed, and that the interests of the creditors will he promoted thereby, it shall confirm the same: and upon the execution and filing, by or on behalf of Ihree-fonrtha m value or all the creditors whose claims bare been proved of a consent that the es tate of the bankrupt be wound up and settle** by said trustees according to tbe terms of such reso lution, tbo bankrupt or bis assignee in bankrupt cy, if appointed, as the case may bo, shall, under the direction of theJConrt. and under oaih, con vey, transfer and deliver all the property and es tate of the bankrupt to the said trustee or trus tees, who shall, npon such conveyance and trans fer, have ard hold the same In the same manner, and with the same powers and rights, in all re spects, as the bankrupt would have bad or held, the same if no proceedings in bankruptcy bad been taken, or as the assignee in bankruptcy would have done had such resolution not . been passed; and each consent and the proceedings thereunder, shall be os binding In all respects on any creditor whoso debt la provable who baa cot signed the same, as tf be bad signed 11, and on any creditor, whose debt. If (provable, Is not proved, as if he bad proved it; and the Court, by order, shall direct all acts and things needful to be done to carry Itto effect such reso lution of tbc creditors, and tbo sold trustees shall proceed to wind up and soltle the estate nnderihe direction and Inspection of such com mittee of tbc creditors, for the equal benefit of all each creditors, and tbe winding op and settle ment of any estate under the provisions of this sec tion shall be deemed to be proceedings In bank ruptcy mulor tills act; and the e&id trustees shall have all the rights and powers of assignees In bankruptcy. The Court, on the application of such trustees, shall have the power to summon ond examine, on oath or otherwise, the bankrupt, and any creditor, and any person indebted to tae estate, or known or suspected of having any of tho estate in bis possession, or any other person whose examination may be material ornecessar; to aid the trustees in the execution of their trust, ard to comncl the attendance of such persons and the production of books and papers in the same manner as in other proceedings in bankruptcy under this act; and the bankrupt shall have llio like right to apply for and obtain a dis charge after the passage • of such resolution and the appointment of such trustees as If such reso lution had not been passed, and as If all the proctcdlngs bad conduced in the eamcmatmor provided in the preceding sections of this act. If tbo resolution shall not l»c duly reported, or tho consent of the creditors shall not bo duly filed, or if, npon its filing, tbc Court aba'l not think fit to approve thereof, the bankruptcy shall proceed as if no resolution had passed, and the Court may make all necessary orders for resuming the pro ceedings. And the period of time which snail have elapsed between tbc date of tbe resolution and the date of tho order ior assuming proceed ing shall not be reckoned in calculating periods of time prescribed bv this act. Section forty-four provides that from and after the passage of this act. If any debtor or bankrupt shall, alter Ihe commencement of proceedings in bankruptcy, secrete or conceal auv property belonging to his estate, or part with, conceal, or destroy, alter, mutilate, or falsify, or cause to be conceited, de stroyed, altered, mutilated, or falsified, any book, deed, document, or writing relating thereto, or remove or cause to he removed, the same or any part thereof, out of tbc district, or otherwise dis pose of any part thereof, with intent to prevent it from coming into tbc possession of the assignee in bankruptcy, or to hinder, Impede or delay either of them In recovering or receiving the same, or make any payment, gin, sale, assignment, transfer or conveyance of any property belonging to his estate with the like Intent, or spends any part thereof in gaming; or shall, with Intent to defraud, willfully or fraudulently conceal from his a,-eicncc or omit from his schedule any property or effects whatsoever; or If, Jr, case of any per son havlup, to bt« kpowlcdge or belief, proved a false or fictitious debt against hU estate, he shall fill to disclose Ihe name to his assignee within one monlh alter coming to the knowledge or belief thereof; or shall attempt lo account for any of his property by fictitious losses or expenses; or shall, within three mouths before tho commeucem n ut of prccrlclt gs in bankruptcy, under the falaecolor or pretence of carrying on business ami deal n-gs in the ordinary course of trade, obtain on credit from any person any goods or chattels with Intent to defraud his creditors, within three mouths nest before tbc commencement of pro ceedings In bankruptcy, pawn, pledge, or dispose of otherwise than b» bona fide transactions In the ordinary wav of his trade, any of hU goods or chattels which have been obtained oa credit and remain unpaid for, be shall be deeacd guilty o( a misdemeanor, and, npon con* idan thereol in any Court of the United Stales, shulljbe punished by Imprisonment, with or without hard labor, for a term not exceeding three vears. Sections forty-live, forty-six, forty-seven, forty eight, forty-nine and fifty, provide !or the punish ment of ofilcers of (be Court who act wrongly with Intention in bankruptcy proceedings, with a Sue not less than S3OO or more than SSOO and for Imprisonment lor less than five years. Also pro vides the fame punishment for malfeasance on the part of all persons who shall forgo or cause to bo lorgcd. or knowingly allow the lorgery of any seal or commission of either the Judge, Itcgisler, or who shall be guilty* ot any criminal acuon or knowicge in the provocation of any false commis sion or documents cl baukruplcy In favor of any parties. Also, me same schedule of fees for legal fccrvts, are., ts provided as now obtain in pro ceedings in tho Courts of thejCuttcl States la other matters. Tlio Science of Wealth. WjjfoxA, March 1 To the Editor of the Chicago Tribune: 1 have been a freetrader, but a review of “ The Science of Wealth,” by Araasa Walker, which I accidentally met in a newspaper, lias almost convinced me of my error. The special point made by the writer which lias created such doubts in my mind, is, that the cost of transportation is a total loss. Mr. Carey has elaborated the crotchet, but I never before happened to be in a position to sec it in Its true light. You see, Mr. Euilor, a barrel of flour con tains no more nutritions qualities In New lerk than tbe same barrel of flour contained in Chicago; therefore, for the sole purpose for which a barrel of flour Is designed, it Is worth no more In New York than in Chicago, and the cost of transportation thither Is a total loss. The same is true of the same barrel of flour If carried on to London ; also of the woollen goods brought from London to New York, and from New York to Chicago. Therefore, I hope Illinois will have the laws so made that she can grow no more Hour than she con consume oud spend the balance of the time in growing wool and cotton, and making them into cloth, and the cloth into wearing apparel for their own use. It is as plain us a pike staff, but lest you fail to see it I will put It In an other way : I may be a lumber dealer. I import my lumber from points in Wisconsin, one or two hundred miles distant. The shingles I im port will Cwver no more roof per thousand here than the same shingles will In Wiscon- sin, and the timber will cover no more sur face. Therefore my lumber and shingles are worth no more, as lumber and shingles, than they were In Wisconsin, and the expense of transporting them hither has been a very se rious loss to me, and through me to the con sumer. Now I propose to do this no longer- I will with argument, and, if necessary, with money, make the Legislature so sec it that they will ordain a heavy duty on lumber coming to Minnesota, especially to Winona, from Wisconsin, to the end that we may grow our own pine trees. We have the soil; a Winona man can do as much work in a given time as a Wisconsin man ; and all wo want is prohibition, hy keeping outthe Wis consin logs, ana in a few years’ time, to grow mir own logs. Thus all the money we spend for lumber will be kept at home. This sore ly Is very plain. Apply the same principle to Chicago. Ton Import most of your lumber from this pesky ■Wisconsin, when you have the soil, the on erj-y, and capital to grow it yourselves, if you could only get a start. The way to do it Is to get a law passed protecting you In the giowth of pine trees, llnlld a high legal breakwater, and keep out the "Wisconsin lumber. True, your lumber will for a ten-years cost joumoro than it now does, but the money will all bo kept at home, which is so essential to the moral, religions and economical well being of the community. It Is In this simple way tliat we can easily perceive the eminent wisdom of the pro hibition policy. Let the West build a high icpal wall of prohibition against tire East and South ; and the East build a high legal wall of prohibition against the West and South and foreigners, and wo shall be on the high road to national prosperity, based on individual freedom. I hope your people will soon com mence the lumber growing business on their F. E.J. own soli. P. S. Advise everybody not to read “The Science of Wealth,” by Amasa Walker, pub* listed by Little, Brown & Co., Boston, aod by your Chicago booksellers; price $3; for it might be the means of checking any move ment of your people towards engaging in the aforenamed profitable business of grow ing your own lumber. J. Bow Two Young Ladles Became Drunkards. [From a New York Leber.] Some new and splendid dwellings are be ing built on the proposed Boulevard drive, above Central Park. Mr. Coventry Waddell is building a suburban palace la that local ity, not lar (rom the Hudson, about One Hundred and Forty-third street. He was the owner of the Gothic villa, “Murray Hill,” covering a block on the corner of Fifth avenue and Thirty-seventh street, where Mrs. Waddell’s festivals and balls were the delight of the fashionable world. Thu property was cut up and sold, and palatial brown stone mansions have arisen on the site of its garden and pleasure ground. In one of these houses lives a wealthy, but coarse minded lady, whose husband bus a world wide notoriety, and whose profuse dinners and convivial suppers are attended by for eign gentlemen not abstemious in their hab its.! She entertains few ladles; hut a year or two since she took a fancy to two young orphan sisters, beautiful, modest and inex perienced, whoso presence, she thought, would adorn her gay reunions. She pursued them with attentions, sending her carriage for.them every day, keeping them as her guests lor weeks at her town and country houses, Bending them wine, and compelling I them to drink excessively at her table, 1 where the revelling often overstepped | bounds of dccornm. The consequp^ C 0 W g S that both the young girls becar* Q gu Tea to f the fatal habit of drinking j a( j„ whom they owe their 7nlii°now denounces them as ciety! Wot £ De effort has she'made to res cue f r om the snare she set for tbi'm I Strange as it may seem, this lady has admission- Into fashionable circles, though stories like that of her leaniog ont of her front chamber windows to swear round oaths at her coachman, illustrate her reputed character. TEE COMING KEYOIUTION OF SOUTHERN SENTIMENT, Significant letter from a Prominent Confederate General, The following letter, from the Confederate \ General Chalmers, addressed to Hon. Rever dy Johnson, contrasts significantly with the I stern and unrelenting spirit of Andrew John* • son. General Chalmers, who was a promi nent actor on‘the side of treason in the late ■ conflict, is a strong leader of opinion in the ; South, and the subjoined letter considered iln connection with the submissive advice ; lately addressed by Governor Brown, of I Georgia, to tbe people of the South, shows how the practical work of reconstruction has already commenced: Wasotkctoh, March 2,1857. Hod. Eeverdy Johnson ; Dear Siu: At the request of a mutual friend I

address you in relation to your late speech in the Senate cm tbe Reconstruction Bill. 1 hoard the speech when delivered, and have since carefully read the copy which you were kind enough to send mo, and afur mock, reflection 1 am satisfied that you were right. , -O It should be the first object every one who loves his country to bring pence to our divided and distrcfscd people, and this, I am satisfied, was the object of your heart when you took the course that von did. and T have, therefore, greatly regretted tbe many confutes that have been heaped upon you by our friends. It Is said, first, that yon hare yielded np principle for expediency and protection to property. We have now no prluclploto contend for except to make the best terms of peace that we can. When General Sherman, with a magnanimity which ever marks the victorious hero m the flclu when dealing with a conquered “ foeman worthy of his steel,'’made terms of peace with General Joe Johnston, tbe South hailed those terms with Joy, end was ready to accept them. But the President said that General Sherman tad no authority to make such a treaty of peace, and therefore annulled 1L . Ihe President then announced certain terms of Bcace which were veryobuoxions lo us, requiring rat wo shonld, by oar own acts, abolish slavery, and degrade ourselves in tbo eyes of the world by declaring that attracts of si-ces.-lon, which we had passed with great unanimity and enthusiasm, were noil and void, and that our Slate Govern ments were nullities: and be compelled us then to receive Provisional Governors appointed by Mm, and to organize our governments anew. Ibis was very distasteful ro ns ; bnt we were conquered—we had surrendered unconditionally —and wc accepted these us the terms of peace, nothccansc we desired them, hut because it was the bist we conld do. Bnt Concre-B paid that the President bad not alone the power to make treaties of peac •, and therefore they prescribed other terms. Tbo 'oulhern States, believing that the terms already Imposed were sufficiently severe, and be lieving that the power of the President and a returning ecnpo or justice and generosity In the public mind North wonld enable them lo eecnre all the benefits conferred upoa them by the Presi dent's terms of peace, determined to stand by him, and rejected tbe terms proposed by Con gnss. Our hopes wore vain. The President proved to bcpowcrlcsp, and tbero was and Is no evidence of any returning sense of Jnatlcc and generosity In the public mind North. On the contrary. Its sentiments are growing more hostile toward ns every day. and the history of the Sibyl’s Book at Home leaches us that those who bare the power to dictate (erms increase rather than abate their exactions. There must be an end of these troubles as soon os possible, and the names of Southern rebels, which arc now used before the Northern popu lace tike the red flag boloro the Spanish bull, to arouse, inllame. and madden them, must bo with drawn. If this can be done by accepting the terms now offered by Congress—and I am assured it can be—l for one am in favor of it. The terms offered by the President were, to my mind, unconstiimlor.al, and those offered by Con gress still more so. Wo accepted one for peace, and I can see no sacrifice of principle in accept ing the other. In great revolutions men never stop for logic or consistency or Constitution, and It is idle in us to hesitate now upon any logical or constitutional grounds, or tn expect anything trom the fact that tbe position oi the Radical parry of to-day is in consistent with Us position during the war. If the Southern representatives can once get into forgrets, they will. It united, form a power that will he sought after, and they will bo able, when great questions ol tariff and governmental science shall divide »hc East and West, to hold the hal once of power, and to demand favors for their support. Again, ithas been said that your position and that which yon recommend to the booth is un manly. When ono man has hern overcome and un armed by another, the only u'-macllncsa that could possibly be shown would be by the victor who would make degrading terms for the con quered foe. 1 believed firmly In the doctrine of secession, and 1 believe that wc did secede, and that when we were conquered wc were a foreign nation, and I therefore belit.ve that the United Sta'es have a / l(, A( to prescribe new term $ if we should make a new alliance with her. Believing this, and knowing that The President alone cannot make a treaty of peace with a for clen Government, 1 never have believed that tbo action of the President in his efforts to recon struct the Union was right; bnt 1 gladly support ed him, and supported hu* plan because it was more liberal to my people than the Congressional plan. But since he cannot carryout bis plan—slaco the Supreme Court cannot now afford us adequate protection, and may be soon changed bo as to oe hostile lo us—and since the Louisiana BUI and the Confiscation BUI are being pressed by tbe extreme liadlcajs, wi:h a (air prospect of forcing them on us it toe agitation continues, I am for closing Ito contract with Congress on the terms which she proposes. It is tme that 1 end many like me who have oc cuj.lcd positions in the South will he proscribed, oar and should be willing to yield our personal ambition (or ibe public good. But oar young men can Mna., tbi« bin come forward <»a represent ns In tbo Govern* ment. If we delay until fanaticism baa gathered strength-—and that the la galhorlng it is evident from the advance made in els months on negro buflfatre— not only will we ourselves bo excluded, but all who cannot take the “ irdn-clad oath” will he disfranchised and excluded. That will leave us to tbo mercy of the negro, and the while men who lay hid in our awamoa while we foucht lor our ideas of constitutional liberty. I crant that ihe lenna 01 the bill are unjust and oppress!* e to the South, but others more oppres tivo may bo passed, and the same feeling which animated the breast of Leo when he submitted to the mortification of surrendering his sword to save the Uvea of the men he loved should induce every Southern man who was prominent either la the events that led to the war, or durlu" Its con* Uunance to sacrifice something for the peace of bis people. Therefore 1 pubUcly sanction and an prove your course, at the same time belienntr that It will subject mo to some odium. Yours, respectfully, Jas. u. CTULatau. A SIGHT OF TERRIBLE CASUAL- TIES. A Town In Possession of in ole Drovers —A Lesson to Lawless Rnninn., [Flora (ho MaryrJlle (Kansas) Enlorpmc.] On Monday nißbt, the 13th ultimo, tho train of Mr. Beuham, of St. Joseph, on its •way down from Denver, drove into town, and corralled In the vicinity of Tom. Smith’s hvery and feed stables, near the heart of the town, and a number of the drivers, headed by u notorious desperado, named Reed, alias ‘Arkansaw,” began visiting the different saloons and calling for whiskey, whereupon thrceor four of the roughs became quite pro fuse in spewing out oaths and making decla rations of what they would do ifthey didnot get whiskey, but they were finally quelled by the keeper, the saloon vacated and the door closed. About dark these fellows were a"ain parading the streets, and In nn intoxicated condition, having procured liquor some where, os their actions fully evinced. They became more and more noisy, but the citi zens suspecting really no serious injury from them, retired to iheir respective pi ices until about 10 o’clock in the evening when a li; tie boy came runniug do.vn the street from the bakery of Mr. Straub, ami Informed I a number of citizens that these wretches I were breaking Into Mr. Straub’s establish- I ment. and had almost killed an old man— Mr. Burllow—aud pulled Mrs. Straub by her hair from the house into the back yard. Ec.lore the citizens could rally they had vacated the place, however, aud returned to camp. Previous to this, while passing d>wn the street, they were heard to remark several times that the? had becu “ hired to run this town, and by G—d they were going to run it. it teems, however, that they did not remain in camp long, for a very few minutes ?. r r o ? Wtis ,ienrtl at a house In the vicin ity of Spring Creek, aud a loud cry of “ mur- SLv °* our arraed Citizens rushed to the place, and found that a num ber of these drtmkeu devils, led by “ Arkuu eaw, had taken possession of a house of a vidow lady with the evident intent of ravishing her, and threatened to kill her if she did not yield to their demands. A brother of the lady was with her In the house, but. before assistance had reached them these brutes bad knocked him down with the bundle of a revolver, inflicting a bad wound on Ids forehead. The citizens de manded oi them to surrender and "Ive up their arm?, which they refused to 30. and suddenly dashing open the door, and rushing out, they togan firing as they went. But our six boys were too much for them, and altera hot com eet of several minutes, during u ucre 6 . ome three of them b. ought to the ground and another, “Arkan flinv,” surrendered. A desperate dare devil called “Red” was shot tbrougli tliu arm, another by the name of Casey, and another named Coulter re ceived a bal in hia side, which lodged some where in his bowels, and of whfeb, it 1s thought, he will not recover. The whole lawless gang was safely guarded during the «leht. and other parlies arrested the next morning, who have since been discharged, ili/acnious as it may seem, not one of our citizens was hurt m the least. From what information wo can gather this man Heed, or“ Arkansaw,” isadesper nte and hardened character, who delights in calling himself the “hull of the woods,” and we can gay but a little more for “Reel” or S r ‘li. to l f s ,. he “H* himself, or for Coultur, who it is thoucht will not recover. Arkansaw” has been held to hall to ap pear at our District Conrt under live differ ent charges In the sum of $2,500, and the others, who are in custody, wil I be tried and ti™” a .i'! TCr “.A? ns «>=lr Physical coudi- JlMtlcc Cottrell.^ em t 0 be brought before Snd Case of Drowning* [From the Guthrie (Iowa) Vedette, February 28.] Mr. E. B. Smith, of Carroll County, rives ns the particulars of the accidental Ins, on Tuesday forenoon of last week, of Sllss Jane boef, aeed fifteen years, daughter of Dan e Noel, an old and wcll-knowifclti. zen residing nt Colo’s Grove, live miles south west of Carrollton. Miss Noel was walking with her sister and in attempting to cross on a log over the stream known os “ Brushy For£” she In some way missed her footing, and fell into the water. The stream was very hi-rii and swift, and the poor girl was washed down under the ice, to rise no more. Her sister’s cries drew to the place a man livin'* near but he was too much excited to be 'able to do anjthipgHght; and so it was a full hour and a half before help was obtained and the now lifeless corpse recovered. House Gleaning. A new process for cleaning the facades of Eublic buildings and dwelling houses Is now elnz experimented on In Paris. A steam engine supplies pipes of gntta percha with a constant steam of vapor. These are applied to the stone or brick surface ot the build ings, one man directing the steam Jet and the other using a brush. The building, after the application ol this system, looks as clean and new as when erected. A course of men. la three dajs, -will thus wasp the facade of a hotel. - THE HEW TAX XAIf. Important Snomary of the Piertolois of the new Amendment. The following summary embraces the pro* visions of the Tax Law as amended and' finally adopted; ' v WASnKOtOS, . report of the Committee of Conference op the Tax BUI fixes the tax on cotton at SKcents, to go into effect September 1. The Senate amendment to tax mannfac tnrcs exclusively of glass, three per centum ad valorem is retained: the words “other than window glass” being inserted, with an amendment by the Conference Committee, as follows: “On leather of all descriptions, and goat, deer, calf, kid, sheep, horse, hog and dog skins, tanned or partially tanned, curried, finished or in the rough, per centum ad valorem The Senate receded-from its amendment relieving syraps and molasses from the two per cent, and reducing the rate upon sugar, so that item reads: “On refined sugars and on tbe products of sugar refineries, not In cluding syrup or molasses, a tax of two per cent ad valorem . Section nineteen Is amended by adding tbe following: “And so anil Air the purpose of restraining the assessment or collection of the tax shall be maintained In any court.” The Senate recedes from its amendment placing upon the free list boots, shoes, shoe findings and strings, and gloves made of •leather or skins. The House provision, placing on the free list steam locomotives and marine engine boilers, log, siding and sbinglo machines, is removed, but scythes ore Inserted in the free list. The Senate recedes from their amend ment making wire cloth free. The rate on brandy made of grapes Is increased from fifty cents to ono dollar per gallon. The Senate amendment provides for the repeal of all taxes on advertisements or receipts of toll roads. The Senate amendment is retained which provides that the tonnage duty now imposed by law on all ships, vessels, or steamers engaged In foreign or domestic commerce, shall be levied at once within one year, and paid by such ship, vessel or steamer. No farther tonnage tax shall be collected within one year from the dales of such payment. The following proviso to section thlrtr-fonr Is also retained: J*rovided x That this act shall not be construed loaficct any act done, rlghi accrued, or penalty Incurred under former acts, but every such right Is hereby waived, and all soils and prosecutions for acta already done In violation of any former acts of Congress relating to the subjects embraced in this act may ho commenced or proceeded with lu like manner as if tbla act had not been passed. And all penal clauses and provisions in existing laws relating to the subjects embraced In this act shall he deemed applicable thereto. Tbe following articles are added to the present free list; Alcohol and ethereal vegetable extracts when sold and u-cd solely formedical purposes; ball rope seines and netting for seines, twine and lines of all Linds ; bar, rod, hoop, hand, sheet and plate Iran of all descriptions ; and iron prepared tor the mannfadnre or steel, provided that the exemption shall bo confined exclusively to said articles, in tbe stale and condition specified In the loregoing enumeration, and shall not be construed as exempting spikes, calls or other manufactures of iron, Horn the taxes now imposed by law; brush-blocks, canned aud preserved meats, and shell fish; carbonate of lime used solely for disinfectants; carpet-bags and caha frames; canned and preserved vegetables and fruits; casks, churns, barrels, wooden brushes and broom LandUs; tanks ana kits made of wood, including cooperage of all kinds; bungs and plugs, packiug hosts, nest hoses, match boxes, whether made of wood cr other material; wooden tame.', plow beams, split-bottomed chairs, and turned material fer the same, manufactured; and saddle-trees made of wood, and match boxes heretofore made, on which been paid; cast iron hol low ware, tlnned,.enamclied, japanned or galvan ized; clock trimming*, namely, clock works, clock pillars, tosh fastenings for clocks, winding keys, verges and pendulum rods ; clothing or ar ticles of areas not specially enumerated, made by sewing, for ibe wear of men, women or children, from cloths or fabrics on which a duly has been paid; coffee mills, coffee grinders and roasters and applc-nar lug rnacltlues, copper bottoms for articles used for domestic and culinary purposes, doors, sash blinds, frames and sUK of whatever material, drain, gas and water pipes, inside of wood or cement, frames and handies for saws and back saws, gine and gelatine of all descriptions in a solid state; glnc and cement made wholly or In part with giac in tbe liquid state; horse rakes, horse newer?, tedder?, bames, ecythc-anatbe, hay forks, nocs and portable grinding mills; horse blnnkete made from clothes which a tax has been fmld. licorice and jicotlce paste, magnesium, amps, manufacturers of jute, molasses, concen trated syrup or melaao, syrup of molasses or sngar, cane Juice and cistern bottoms, oil, naphtha, benzine or gasoline marking more (ban seventy decrees Baum's hydrom ter; ra!m leaf and straw, bleached, split, prepared or advanced by being braided or woven, but not made up Into hats, bonnets or hoods; potato hooks, manure and spacing forks, pottery of all descriptions. Including stone earthen, brown and yellow earthen, and common or cray stoneware; pumpp, garden engines and hydraulic rams, rock and root diggers and excavators, root beer and other final!’ beer, salt, school room seats and desks, blackboards, and clobca of oil kinds, sleds, wheelbarrows and hand-carle, ana fence made of wood: eoap, com mon brown m bare, sold for less than seven cents per pound; saws for cotton gins when used by tbo maker in tbe mannfac’nre of gins, folesand heel taps made of India-rubber, shirt fronts or bosoms, wristbands or rnffir for shins, except those made of paper, spiral springs used in the manufacture ol furniture, stove pol ish or other manufacture exclusively or plum bogo, back saws, stump machines, potato diggers, steel of all descriptions, whether made from muck, bar, bloom slobs, drops or otherwise; scythes, straw or hinders* hoards, and binders' cloth: straw wrapping paper, tin ware, ultrama rine bine, varnish, wagons, carts and drays for burning freighting; washing roanclea aud wring ing machines, nine washboards, spinning and da* wheels, hand reels and looms, wooden knobs and bcc-hivcs. NORTH.WBSXEEIf ITEMS, Governor Siono has Prof- D Franklin Wells, of lowa City, to the office of Superintendent of Public Instruction of lowa, vi-e Mr. Favlilc, resigned. Prof. Wells hos been long Identified with the educational interests of lowa, and was for several years Professor of the Theory and Practice of Teaching in the State University. On Tuesday evening last, a few minutes after a school at Butler, Indiana, had been dismissed, and ere the pupils were out of hearing, the celling, joists, principal rafters and beams came down with a terrible crash, crushing nearly everything beneath. Poll fifty pupils had been la attendance daily, and had U fallen when they were in the room the result would have been frightful. The house has not been considered safe since last winter, when a lire burned olf or weakened tbe beam and principal rafters. ■The Clermont (Iowa) Leader says: *‘Some days ago a serious accident occurred at Tlnkertown. A Mr. Smith, wife and two children aged about two and four years, were standing near the stove, when the floor suddenly gave way, precipitating all four into the cellar, the drum falling on one child and tbe stove on the other. Tbere was water standing on the stove, which caused steam, and together with the smoke, blinded and confused the parents. When they recovered their self-possession, they found the children lying insensible and bad ly burned. It is thought one of the children will recover, but the case ol the other is exceedingly doubtful.” The Macomb (111.) Ea/jle of the 2d instant says that a terrible accident occurred ut Col chester on Wednesday morning, about sis o’clock. Miss Helen Goldsberry, daughter of Jchn Goldsberry, aged about thirteen years, undertook to pour some coal oil oat cf the can into the fire, with a view of re viving it, the fire having nearly died ont. The moment the oil came in contact with the fire, the flames communicated with the oil in the can, causing a terrific explosion, which thoroughly enveloped Miss Goldsber ry in a mass of flames. The little girl, with her clothing on fire, rushed out of the house, and the flames were extinguished hy the family as soon as possible. The poor girl suffered Intensely, and death came to her relief about four o’clock in the afternoon of the same day. NSW ENGLAND HEMS. The valne of property which the city of Augusta, Maine, gives to the Spragues to es tablish manufactures there is $532,000. The city bonds, amounting to $230,000, have been taken to Boston and New York, where their sale will he negotiated. The committee which has been investi gating the Hoosac Tunnel business express the opinion that the loss to the State of Massachusetts, by the failure of Haupt & Co., will reach three hundred and fifty thou sand dollars. The contributions in Boston to the South ern Relief Fund amounted, on the 28th ult., to $15,022.25. William Gray, Nathaniel Thayer, Francis Skinner «& Co., and Jor dan, Marsh & Co., give one thousand dollars each. —The will of the late Paschal P. Pope, of Boston, makes the following bequests: To the Boston Society of Natural History, $20,000; to the Temporary Home for the Destitute, $10,000; Boston Dispensary, $20,000; Sailors’ SnngHarlor, $30,000; How ard Benevolent Society, $20,000; Boston Provident Association, $10,000; Home for Aged Men, $30,000; Harvard College, for a Professorship of the Latin Language and Literature, $50,000. They Lave a live seal on exhibition at Ban gor, Me., which was captured among the snow drifts where it had become bewildered and lost, after having come out of an air hole on the ice for food. Ticks destroyed more than one hundred and fifty thousand dollars’ worth of sheep in Maine last year. The Boston Transcript says that a very large proportion of the bnsiness men of that city hope for the defeat of the Tariff Bill. PERSONAL ttftwr, The famous cooking Baron in Paris re ceives letters beginning as follows: “Dear Baron Basse; We are fifteen at table to-mor row, and I wish to expend but fifty francs. Now tell mo how I can manage it.” The Baron is a marvel of economical cooking for goormands. In one of his late speeches, John Bright said that one-half of Scotland is owned by twelve persons, and onc-half of England by one hundred and fifty. When the late Commodore Foote was in Slam he had, upon one occasion, the Ring on board bis vessel as a guest. He did not hesi tate in the royal presence to ask a blessing as the guests took their places at the table. “Why, that is just as the missionaries do,” remarked the King, with some surprise. “Yea,” answered the heroic sailor, “and I am a missionary, too.” . Emma Hardinge, long known as a “medi tun” and lecturer on spiritualism, is prepar- In* of Spiritualism in America,' which TUI-be published in two volumes. She s vast amount of carious material, including personal narratlTes con tributed by zealous believers, and full ac counts of the different manifestations which have taken place in the United States since the first appearance of the Fox girls- Laura Keene has not added to her reputa tion by her hmhhle denial in the Southern papers that she was an enemy of Wilkes Sooth. She will feel the effect of her truck ling to secessionist! when she returns North. This anecdote of John G. Whittier is told by a New England exhangc; On a recent occasion ho was levelling with a friend over a New Hampshire railroad,- and during con versation, Whittier's friend, who is also a member of tbe Society of Friends, told the poet that he was on his way to contract for a lot of oak timber, which he knew would be used In building gunboats at Portsmouth, and asked him whether ho thought it was exactly in consistence with the peace doc trines of tho With out saying anything calculated to decide the question the two friends arrived at their porting place, when Whittier, shaking his friend's hand, said; “Moses, If thee does furnish any of that oak timber thee spoke of be sure that it !s all sound.” The Cable is expected to announce shortly that the Princess Helena Is “ rheumatic.” A Frenchman, named Gustavo Lambert, proposes to explore the open Polar Sea, dis covered by Dr. Kane. Queen Vic. is actually preparing a book of her own composition for the press. Two hundred and fifty thousand dollars have been subscribed to build an opera house on Canal street, New Orleans. Manager Gran has offered to run the musical machine when completed. A rumor prevails In London that Sir Bulwer Ljtton Is soon to be married again In spite of his advanced years. Victorien Sardon, the French dramatist, is remarkable for his homely face. A French woman recentlysaid : “If ho be as gifted as he Is ugly, ho would be the greatest genius in Paris.” The Japanese ambassadors in Paris take five meals a day, and appear to have excel lent appetites. Of wines they appear to ptefer Madeira and champagne, hat they have a strong predilection for beer. They are not nnfreqncnlly carried to bed In a state of extreme intoxication. "Wilkie Collies, the novelist, is said to be in a hopeless state of consumption. General Fremont, Gencial McClellan, and J. G. Bennett, Jr., were among the guests at the Inauguration hat (Topera of the New York Academy of Music, on Friday evening last. ASPASBIOf SfciSSE. Benrdr Jolidiod’ii Speech In Favor of the Reconstruction Bill. In the Senate, on Saturday evening, March 2, at halt-past eight, the veto of the .Presi dent on the Reconstruction BUI was taken up and read. The reading having bee a con eluded, Mr. Johnson (Dem., Md.) tooK the floor and said; While doing, as be most sincerely did, fall jus tice to the conscientious purpose or the President, be conld not bat regret tbai ae(ih-_- President) had felt himself compelled to come to that resalt, and to send this message to Congress. There were many propositions In law contained In that message which could not be maintained. There were many errors ol judgment m It which upon examination would be ao parent, and above all, the rere.U to which he (the President) had been compelled to come in the ex ercise of his own judgment, which, there was no doubt, was conscientiously exercised. He (Mr. Johnson) saw nothing but continued turmoil, danger and error to the South and to the entire country. Ho tose, therefore, for the purpose of statirg very briefly, in addition to that he had al ready said tv bee the measure was before the Sen ate ou a former occasion, wby it was that be bad cast] tbe vote be bad cast on that occasion, and * why it v-as that be should give the same now. f Applause In the galleries, which was repressed by the Chair.) It will not be for a moment sup posed, said Mr. Johnson, by those to whom 1 am addrea-ingmyeeif that lam governed now or that 1 fovemed then by any hope of popular applause, ly motives, If I know myself, were perfectly pnre and patriotic. I saw before me a distracted and almost bleeding country. I thought 1 saw, and I think 1 see now, the means by which It might be restored tu a healthful condlnon, and the Consti tution of tbe conntry to the end preserved. 1 have arrived, Mr. President, at that period of my life when, 11 ever any other ambition animated me, I can have no other ambition now than that of serving my conntiy. Having referred to tbe views be had previously expressed on the ques tion of reconstruction, concluding toal whm the war ceated the States were re stored to their former relations, and that no conditions for their representation were rc anlslleor constitutional. Mr Johnson said that te present and tbe late Executive thought diiTer enlly. It was nnuccersary for bun to say what were the conditions caacled by the present Execu tive. They were in bis (Mr. Johnson's)judg ment as unconstitutional a? any that conld be fonnd in tnis bill. Tbe Congress o! tbe United States was ol opinion th»i, notwithstanding the people oftho Southern States complied wihthc terms exacted by the present Chief Magistrate, they could not be restored wi’hout the sanction of Congrcssicnai legislation: and this was the judgment of the conntry. Then how were they to come back? Only by complying with tbe con ditions which Congress may impose, whether Congress haa the authority to impose them or not; or, taillrg to comply, to remain in the sad condi tion in which they are now. Ho (Mr. Johuron) Impaled bad motives neither to Congress nor to the Executive. He thought be knew his duty to the institutions of the country too nod to call in question tbe motives of either. £^^ c ? orde,i J ,c J il y„ of .« lr patriotic principles to both, Ho aiU-.-reil (rum both, but uc sought the ic-lora ion of the Union, add he saw no wav of scrompllahtug it now Out by the adoption of the measure i.ow beforr the Pedate. We are nov., in my opinion, In ft state of quit I war—our condition Is revolutionary— tea Slates of the Union are virtually held as province--, upon the ground that wo have a right to hold them as enemies of the Union and tbe Oovemmeic. In that state of things to hesitate in the adoption of any mearnre which premises even the most distantly to put an end to this revolutionary condition is in my judgment, to be false to the into interests and saietv cf the country. In e inclusion, Mr. John-on raid he was glad to see from tbe public prints of Ihebunlk, aril to be Informed by many of the leading men of the Soutb, that It was the purpose ol the homhcrii States io organize under tht? hill. They are taking lessons 1.-otn experience. The Constitutional Amendment, that had been adopt ed, would have brought into Ids chamber and the other chamber representatives from tfledonth Of this I have no doubt. Now it will not. Tb" Mil which we p.isaed, and which was ..afterwards amended in tbe House, would have accomplished the same purpose upon terms less exacting than the one now belore the Senate. It was amended, and Ihe amendment is the most obioxion* feature of tbe bill. The Senate passed it, and I voted for it. Why? Becauselthought l knowl hadsatlsiac toilly sect named that, this failing, a measure oi a more rigid character, a measure founded upon the idea that ihe people of the South were con quered enemies, their property liable to forfeit ure v*onlU have been enacted. THE HOKKOIiS OF LIFE IS 3US- SOCHI, Attempt of Desperadoes to Rob a Bank at Suvauuala —A Notorious Desperado Killed, (Special Despatches to the SL Louis Democrat ] WARRExncRo, Mo.. March 4.—The grand high priest of the desperadoes. Bill Stevens, has met his just dues, and, it is reported, was killed this morning at daylight by some horsemen who bad surrounded his house and called on him to explain certain threats made while in town the day after the hang ing of Sanders. This man Stevens has been the terror of the county and State, he being at the head of all villaiuy and crime, and woe was it to any person who dare thwart him iu his views. One of his eons was killed at the Blair meeting last fall—a chip of the same block. Another of his sous, a well known horse and cattle thief, who has by his acts made himself liable to arrest and by his daring had always escaped, has several limes been shot at by the SheritT and his posse, hat, Dick Turpin-liko, escaped. This son Is blamed for being connected with the gang that murdered Mr. Switzer, and was waited upon, but succeeded in escaping, along with his pal, Morg. Andrews, across the river. Polk Adams and John Starkey, both mem bers of the same gang, were waited upon by the committee at the boose of Adams* father on Friday night, hut they succeeded in es caping by running the gauntlet thioagh two hundred horsemen who were armed to the teeth, and had surrounded the house. Adams is reported wounded in the arm, and both him and Starkey are now In Kansas or Ne braska, hid away among their friends. All these men are well known to every person who has owned a good horse or ox lor the past two years. Sr. Joseph, March 4.—A band of despera does under the notorious bushwhackers Jim White and Bill Chiles, attempted to rob the bank in Savannah, Andrew County, on Sat urday afternoon. There were six of their number in this bold attempt nt robbery. They rode Into the centre of the town about two o’clock in the afternoon, dismounted not far from the bank building, and leaving their horses in charge of one of their party, proceeded directly to the hank. Four of them entered at the front, while one took position by the window as a sentinel. Jnd«*e McLain acd his sou were In the bank. The robbers presented their revolvers and de manded the money on hand. Judge McClain comprehending the situa tion, snatched a revolver from a drawer, and flred upon but missed them. They then fired upon him across the counter, one shot taking effect in the side of the Judge, and glancing at ound a rib, came out at the back. The firing attracted attention and a crowd commencing to assemble, the robbers re treated, taking no money, and hastily mounting their horses, rode out of town as speedily as possible. A party started in pursuit, and overtaking them, several shots were exchanged, but the pnrsuing party was not sufliclently armed to take them. Before reinforcements coaid he had they made good their escape. Information from Judge McLain, to-day, is favorable ; the wound Is very ugly and painful, hut external. While and Edmond son were recognized, and the general Im pression is that they were of the same band who robbed the Liberty Bank last summer, and wbo arc robbing and murdering In the counties along the river from Lexington to the lowa line. Bribing a Jury. [Coldwater (Mich.) correspondence of tbe Detroit Advertiser.! Stephen Paddock, a well-known citizen of this place, was arrested on Friday, the Ist, on a charge of bribing a jury. The case it* self, and the circumstances out of which it grew, have excited no little interest here. Some time in July, 3SC6, Paddock made an arrangement with the 'Chicago Ale and Malt Co., whereby he was to have the ex clusive sale of their ale in this city, he pur chasing the ale at a discount of one dollar per barrel from the regular price. Some timo the present winter he failed to meet his pay ments, and the company brought suit against him. The case was tried before Jus tice McGowan, commencing on Wednesday, the 271 h ult., and occupying two days, re slilting In a verdict of SIOO against Paddock. The day after the suit was decided two of the jurors stated that daring the progress of the trial Paddock slipped money into their hands for the purpose ot bribing them. One of them entered a complaint against him be fore Justice Webb, whereupon he was ar rested and held to ball in the sum, of $1 000 to appear for examination on the Bth Inst! Paddock is said to be worth SIO,OOO or He has been constable since last THE DIIBY INTERESTS. Illinois State Dairymen’s Convention. The Opening Address. (Special Correspondence of the Chicago Tribune.] Rocxronn, m„ March fl. The following Is the substance of the open ing address of William G. King, delivered this afternoon before the Illinois State Dairy men's Convention in session in ibis city: Hr. Chairman* and iltmturt of tho Pionter Dai rymen's Convention i n the Susit of JUinoio. The citizens of Winnebago County have taken the initiative step In the improvement of the Im portant branch of industry, which we aro now en gaged in fostering to maturity. __ TUTv-mn xomt jFßonTAraxTiunnAiSTsa osier. The staple of Ibis country has been raising grain; Its cultivation ia attended with severe labor and much expense. Three years out of every five tho crop has not paid the expense of cultivating and harvesting; the quality of the grain has deteriorated, and the expense of trans- Rortatlon to the seaboard, absorbs a large por on of the crops of the coarse grams. You ato aware that corn bu bean extensively used as fuel, because it would not pay for trans portation. Why rot. then, obviate all these dis advantages, by adopting a better kind of product? With proper attention tbe dairy never fails. Cows, well cared for, always give milk. Thetc arc ueno of tbe uncertainties of grain-farming to contend against. Tbe fluctuations of tbe market for your commodities are incidental to every business, and cannot be avolJcd—but In dairying you do not tear every rain and coming at unsea sonable tunes. Tour young stock grows up and thrives when tho July ram is followed hr the blighting warmth of tbe son upon the wheat as well as when the early September fro*t has frilcn upon the com m tho milk. The cow fills your pail as lull and as rich when the wheat is sweating and heating in the slack, as whin the bailey is smut ting In the field, acd the bug eating up your sub stance In every piece of grain. The cows come home to be milked and fad, and the process Is comparatively short and easy, when comusrcd to the weary hoc days in tbe harvest field, or the times in the cola and windy March, when yon followed tbe plow from 1“ rise of morn till set of bud.*’ Tbe industry we arc here to-day to assist Is a much more congenial pursuit, assuring great er certniaty and less toil.) pnotrzcTAi* AXAirtiCLEor coxxmer. Irwaslearcd three years ago that the great somber of cheese factont**-. then In existence and constantly increasing, would so fiooa the markets with this article that U» manufacture would be come unprofitable, hut so Ear all fear* oa this bead have proved groundless. as new ma'kcta are being opened, and tbe ocmand baa seen steady. Perhaps no article wc export has Lad so st.arir a demand, and such continued good price). Tbe export last year 1 do notknowfrom auv statistics, but Mr. Willard, it his address to the Dairymen's Association of the State of New York, delivered on tLe 10th of January, J6&5, put* down the probable exporter the crop oflSuCat sixty millions of pounds, and he estimates the product of cheese in New York and Ohio, tnu same season, atone hundred sndlorty millions ofpounds. Allhongh the export Is large now, Mr. Willard expects It to teach one bnndied mllhons of pounds ot cheese within a comparatively short period, while the Lome corsumption wilt probably bo much larger than tbe export trade. Here we have peculiar ad vantages. The eflbrta already made prove that we can make a very rood, if not a superior article of cheese. .Most ot the cheese consumed toroogb tbe Weft, from the lakes to the Pacific coast, is imported from New York and Ohio. The new States and lemtorlcs north and west of us »e would naturally simply from this section. Tbe teeming population now settling, and ibat is to set'le in those regions, so tich in mineral wealth, will look to ns for many of the cecoi-ariea and luxuries ot Hie fir years to rome They now set itcir cheeso after parsing thiouch the bands of one or two com mission men, and paying h-avy treights ther on, fiom Ohio and New York. We can -ive ihein this article cheaper than they can get it East, and we can get better profits than Ens ere men. The markets of tbe roulh will mtnially be at our service—tne Mississippi, the great highway of water, secnrtd fo onr use forever by the bin very ot the fanner boya of the West, will take onr product* along its conrge cheaper than auy rail road ran. and open 10 ns the trade of tbe Ouir of Mexico and all the countries on its shore?, I whence we have access to the markets of | the world. Our bird is better and cheaper, 1 and mure easily cultivated than It is Bast—onr cows can be purchased for halftnc price the East ern man has to pay. Onr fodder is coesp and plenty; we have markets nearby, and need not pay heavy freights, and, if obliged to frcichr, can transport dairy products for about five per cent, of Ibclrvalnc to tho seaboard, while moat of our present products cost from tweclv-fivc lo seventy-five per cent. By cultivating those in terests whose products ore most readily and cheaply distributed, we place ourselves more marly onan equality with the mo*! favored lo calities. The export of butter for the last year has been very light, consequently the supply is larger than tho demand cheese factories will have a tendency to correct this evil. Tho product will be equalised, and chccso will be made lu tbs worm season, win n the email dames, with inferior fa cilities, make the poorest butter, it is those f mall two andthne cow dairies that supply the large amount ot poor butter. It would he a great gain to the bnticr trade if so person with less than six good milch cows would attempt to make butter for market. The standard of butter, from any section, ts ca’ab:i&bed in the markets by the a' erage quality of Uie whole—tie few very poor, ortho lew very good, docs not make the stand aid. ♦ GOOD ARP DAD BUTTEC. There arc many points to be observed by tbs dairyman, in order that bis butler mar meet a ready sale. and. It may be remarked here, that good butter aid checse*are always in demand, and a poor article Is always very difficult to dis- Ehoe of at anything belter thau grcaar prices, niter must be sweet and pleasant to tec taste. It is a laxmy, and Is bought and consumed as such. A ban lasted, uop.easant luxury is a con tradiction, and of course, it bnilcrls bail tasted. It cannot be tolerated on (he tabu-. No matter from what source this ill tavor may come, wheth er from over salting, from weeds in tbe pasture, from bad air m the cellar, from soar, rancid or decomposed milk, or dirty miik vessels, in any and every ca # e it most be sweet, otherwise it goes forgreiseol some grade. It nxtmbc ol uufo-m color; must not be ma:blcd or streaked in appear arce. There must not be two or more cjlor-- m Ibe same package. itmuri be of a good blight color; summer-made of a full yellow shad--; un made is not usually found in the market so yel low as snmrovr, hut to command ihe bajt price It must be yellow, if nor quite so deep a yellow, SALT ARP tAbTISa. It most hav* just tic right quantity of salt ited p. tb» otfct find id's iU It tuns 1 be fatted so as lo be piraesr.t to tec taste. 'ib r rc is noerror coinrucij here more: frefiuentlrcouimil than over salting. It v» ’h'yrtc'.&fiC cl o-;r butter. From ail potnis where it is consumed, tee unlv r?al crmplnlnl cliucs with every mail, "ton much sail,” “why cannot juuc-’rtail thl? amonal of salt?” I bell* vc. and I hare every facility for Judder, that Uic butter marketed in RocWf-*rd oi the lasi crop would have brought tbe fanners b:c IhonsfUd dollars more if they had uj d one hun dred dollars lea? salt. And tfth-,* Live-pool salt oi ihe At-btco brand hod been universally used, my Judgment i.< that the value cf our homo crop would have been enhanced mere than twenty thousand dollars, at an additional or.tia. fir tbe anterior salt over the price cf Onondaga of cot more than a hued'e: dollar.-. The A/iMa salt is nee fre»m lime, and it contain* no •mporilus ttal chatcc tbs? nature: of Lie bntUr, consequently, there being nothing In it tkat can Injure, it improves the flavor, being itself the finest tlavoici salt la tbe American markri. Bur thesaltoidinaril) usedhereis full oi impur llirs, and a package of batter salted wlih it in Jur c, wilt generally come out In October "soapy” ard " Cfhy.” The coareo barrel salt to bo found at all tbe st res Is very objectionable. By dis solving a little in a tumbler of clean water, you can readily see a dcpo-It of lime at the bot tom of tnc glass. The cne dairy salt Is bat lit tle better; it is not aaitoeo full of grit, and the crystals dissolve better, but it Is just os fall of lime. Lime is a powerful alkali, and is used in trat-ing soap, it decomposes alt greasy sub stances, therefore it changes the condition of your butter. A keg of flue June made baiter salted with limy salt, kept m a pare and cool cellar, when taken out and tried in October, will never be fine flavored, high toned butter. Tbe presence of luce in the moss during a period of three or four months will have changed the original chararter of the batter, and it will be fonnd of inferior quality. Besides all this, there is no salt amalgamates with butter, and so thoroughly pervades tbe wholo mas*, as the Ashton You can salt butter highly with it if desired, still it all melts and dissolves and roar batter may be highly seasoned, and yet notgrilty, cr unpleasant to tbe tas>e. Bat I wish you always to remember that enough even of the best, is better than too much, and (hat If makers persist in using too much salt, all our exertions to enhance and improve this dairy product will be in vain. At present the stock of hotter of ordinary erodes in all the large markets of the Untied Slates Is far more than is wanted, bnt the stock of very tine, or, as tho dealers call it, “ m\u edged, Is smalt, and there is a brisk and larae demand for It. Last season crops in the States east of ue wts of poorer quality than osoal, acd a great many makers whose belter for years has ttrod in first grade, arc obliged to sell at oatcers* pikes. Had it been of as fine quality os usual, or Id other words, bad it been cared with Ashton sail as usual, eblpoets would nave taken mash oi it out ol market long ago, and the prices of batter would beiemaceratlve to nil concerned; as the case now stands, it will be taken only for bakers’ use. or for grease to slash' masts in foreign ship-yards, or to smear sheep In shearing time. If of a better grade to saprny bakers* wants, sneb grades alway- bare to go offal low prices, say 1U to 18 cents per pound. Slosh greofe Is always cheap, and bakers* short ening is regelated by the price ol lard, which they prefer. I wish to be impressive on this subject. 1 have opportunities of knowing more of bow the market price of yonr product Is depressed for want of attention to It than any person «*nn who is not in (he trade. 1 would that yon conld all see the subject as I do, and 1 have dwelt upon It be cause 1 feel satisfied it this Convention shall be the means of correcting oar defects in this one particular, we shall all be largely and liberally re paid for oar attendance here. When themerchantlnes butter with the augur or butter trycr be can at once cetormme the qual ity of the whole package. ills tryer goes to the bottom and comes oat foil of tbe barter. If it has been well made, not over-worked, and the natural grain of tne butter preserved in making, it comes out in tbe tryer arm Too Instrument indicates a crisp short cat free from-stickiness acd not “salvy,” tbe back ol the tryer is clean acd bright gecerdJy, showing a sprinkling ot clear glistening drops of pickle, like dew. The color and uniformity of tbe package is at once discovered. Tbe senses of taste and smell are then called Into action; if both arc gratified by the examination, tho goods are approved. On tbe contrary, when the bnrer is badly made —when any of the many things which man bo at* (ended (o ut order to hare good batter has been neglected—the tryer shows a very dlfiercnt result: it comes from the batter drawing with it a ropy, sticky substance, tho back of the tryer, as well as the barrel, covered with it, having no consis tency or grain, disagreeable to look at, and abom inable to taste; or It may be spongy and porons, 101 l of soar milk, which grows every day sourer; or, os we often find a package, port or It may be cr:sp andsolld.wlthhere and there a light colored, spongy layer. Such a showing with the tryer, of coarse, marks tbe package as inferior, and places it in the grease category. Jo order to secure good butter, the room where the milk is kept must bare a cool and puro atmosphere Mceh of the Inferior butter is made so by not paling attention to this point; and even when this is well seen to, a large quantity of butter is spoiled by placing It in damp and im pure cellars Farmers who make any butter for market must not expect to get good prices if they bare not good mllk rooms and cellars. A mere trench ting in the damp soil and covered with a roof of boards, exposed to the sun and weather, isnot a cellar suitable to keep milliard butter In; and those who are not prepared with suitable place: should not attempt to make batter for market. The best cire you can give, the best salt yon can use, will not compensate for neglect of good cellarage. coopzsaos. Cooperage Is another very Important matter—so important that the best batter we can produce with tbe closest attention to all the points wc have been examining, may be depreciated several ccnls per pound by packing it in vessels made of timber which will impart an unnatural flavor or discolor the batter. No particle of pine or cedar wood should be allowed. Itla now universally established in the trade that white oak is the purest, strongest and beat Umber from which to manufacture butter packages. Before packin'* butts nn tuba or firkins, they should bo fllicS with pickle for a few days, which extracts the col or from «he wood which would otherwise stain tbe butter, and also neutralizes tbe acid of the oak. Ttcfavorlle package for summer asc is the him dredpoano flrkm, Uap bclogmaae of bcaw tim ber, acd having out little earfaco of batter ex posed to the air, also being easily beaded up and made air tight. will preserve ibis article best from all outside influences, preferred for export to forelcn countries ana to send long distances, especially If into wanner climates, .Neatness In ail Its parts- and a good and substan tial stave is essential. This package should weigh, when made and dry, twentyponiids, when soaked, IwcntT-two pounds. It should bo twenty-two Inches hlgo, baring sixteen Inches diameter through ue middle, and thirteen Inches di ameter at tbe bead. It should he hooped with ten coed hickory hoops, all of uniform size, free from knots and stumps, with clean, handsome bark, each hoop a halt pale; no mere strap* sttoold he used. The surface of Ute firkin should be bright and smooth. This is tits firkin rtfiulred £7 market. A rabstssfial package tooUaraw look nponlt la an aiaurnoco rtoritae £ 1T ® beea «r«fnl>j and neatly mans , rfw!3 , ffA h “-> creat lllflaec£e securing agood Alu dT ? le * T=e firkin, bj wSchtenn *~i£f.!LiK alcniXa ‘be style of package SbTS probably tbs oldest styleia .SJ22 mrj \ bnt Its Present chape and .1o" ath lmproTcd tt °“ nnPifovn'k»wv£?£ v Jpnnerlv latrodaced into northern r»ew York by timicrs from Wales and up to the present day n«a i a thaTwicfrr.fr a good ana convenient package for apnarmtf frU use, when the weather is of tuie and the dairyman has not a large amoStof butler. Bauer never ahould be packed la ■ secondhand package. 1 would not scseat aan present the best second-hand package* la the country if I must have my bolter sent tc market in them. They can never be repaired and bnrht eaed up so as to present an attractive appearance. ax nrjrniocs paacncK. One injurious practice wo must not pass over nnmecUoncd. It has been a great trouble to grocers and butter dealers lately, and prevails most In dull markets, that Is, the one or taking up tho butter from firkins and maldn; U over into rolls, to be palmed off for fresh butter at the stores. Sales are seldom effected In this way unless the butter have been very rood. In the town of Rockford* this winter, thousands of pounds of old butter has been offered for sals in rolls, and thousands of pounds have been fatt-rn hack to the country, which could have been sold In the original packages at s price accord ing to its quality. Sometimes the dairymen suc ceed In making a sale of such butter; bnt Id nearly all such cases the dealer is deceived, and fleds it out to his loss; bnt the firmer 1* so seldom remunerated (and when he is Ills at tho expense of his friend the merchant) that the prac tice is a large loss to him. lithe butter Is <-ood, has been well made, and kept well, it is fn tbe best shape possible in the original package, and will be greatly Injured by taking It our and work ing It over Into roils; IT it is poor, it will oulv be made worse by further manipulation. The mar ket is also always belter for good y.-Mow butter* In packages, than in rolls;' acd strong yellow rolls are the worst article in the naikci» fts.ers shun them, aud grease shippers cannot lose the time to put item In shipping shape Winter made butter is. as a geneial rule, hotter made imo rolls, because dairies are not, in this section, large enough to be able to fill nnitorci packages ia any reasonable time. Consumers, at this season, are sccastomrd to buy roils of the maifc-t men. They arc srnt to market as soon a* possible af ter being made, are fresh, and what they purport to be, and are bought for fresh winter rolls. If those who have not frailties for keeping their milk from freezing, and v.bo make butter in win ter as white as the snow, conld be Induced to give up trying to make butter at ibis season, it would greatly becem the batter trade of ihfr sec tion. and enhance tbe value of really good rolls. As I have esid, this winter butter Is eeut ta mar- bet and sold immediately; each roll is wrapped in a pare white cloth, washed in pid.lc; now the white toll? go into the same barrel, and tb-lr S rescues there cheapens the wnole. Of coarse, ealets do cot like to lake thU snow-white crease—-for we can scaro-ly dignify it with the ennae of batter—and Itishawkc'. ahoot for sale ITam store to store, anul at lost it rested p’aco. Winter batter should, at least, have a good deep cream color—a gooa grata acd sweet. Nothing can be accomplished without toil— noihing without perseverance. him never should be flancrcd b> obstacles,—aithcnlties were created for men to con<jner, never to succumb to. Thoe wide and fruitful prairies would have been a wilderness, inhabited only by the ravage, lost* ad of blooming gardens, the aoode of Christianity acd civilization, bad It not been for tie noble men who were the pion- era of tnis happiness and greatness. Twe.ve men in a garr.-t, in Mauchts ter, England, were apparently ihe forlorn hope of the Com law league in Great Britain, which finally did so ranch to open nn our vast domain to the commerce of the world. We have oar .vork to do, and let ns resolvo to do lu The lines of industry, tsiablishct by our predeces sors, were the only ones ibey could onr-nc. The rc«inlrfmcnts of the agearemiwdJjJcront. tel ns leave th<» old pa*.sand follow those which lead ns to a higher orospenty sort aui tre ennob ling civilization—let us relievo onr rands by glv lugmore nork toourheads, Hints and brains together—taking advantage of the glorious heri tage God has givens—will elevate and improve nr. Sian Is not a nitre animal, to c*t, drink and sleep: be has higher watds, and lives for nobler purposes Besides the natural wants of Ihe body, the m!rd miter hare Its sustenance; and when both receive their due share or attention, then the lull realization of onr destiny, the fall tapadty of eojoymc'it, the full sense ot the par poses ot onr creation is realized, and then only. Let ns. thee, be op and do lux, With a heart for any late; Stilt Mchlevmc, still narinirg, L«»rn to lafor and to wall. I would respectfully suggest t’.at this mealing, before It close its labors, shall organize tho Hairy* men’s Association of the State of Illinois. iMKCIAI AND COMB2CML. MONETARY. Widsesdat Evaamo, March 6. Financial circles in Wail street and elsewhere have been somewhat excited during the past three or four days, owing to tho failure of several Na tional Banka in various sections of the connt-y. Tbe causes assigned for these suspensions arc speculating Presidents and defaulting Cashiers. A lew days since it was announced that the First National Bank of Medina, New York, hnd closed ts doors, owing to the unfortunate spec ulations of Its President, Bolsford Fairman. A local paper says the Bank never really had any bottom. Organlrcd on a nominal capital of of S3O/00, but a small proportion was owned by the Bank. Ibe President was the chief owner, Lcldlrg 8-t3,(KO of the stock, while flvo otheraheld each sl/00. Tho Government securities de posited with the Comptroller of the Currency as redemption for (ho bills isvaed. were borrowed and paid for by tha currency received from the Comptroller, so that about $3,000 appears to be all tbe actual capital the concern ever had. above its debts. On such a basis. It is not strauge that a crisis should at length overtake it. In New York, correspondents, understanding its condition, and Laving carried Its rotten credit as long as was safe, were lucky enough to get their ledgers bal anced by county funds, and closed down upon it. Of course, it bad to £iO. Tic Mechanics' National Bank of Baltimore has passed into the hands of the Government, and is now being wound up. Recent investiga tions show that upwards of **jO,ni.O had bi-ou Jxojdnlcnlljr utelrMl-J h. two ol Its odccra, ni,o j been connected with the institution for some tweniy-five yean. It had a capl al of <Cd),(X>O. The First National Bank of Hudson, N. Y., closed its doors on Saturday lor examination of accounts. The Cashier, Joseph Hasbroack, was found to be a defaulter to a largo extent, erased by htavy leases in lancy slock speculations. The capita? stock of tnU in«U:atloa was $200,000. On Ihe same day, a telegram from Boston an nounced tie mysterious disappearance of E. Dyer, Jr., Caflrcr of the First National Bank of Newton, Mass , who was found to be a de salter to’ t e amount of SIIO,OOO. The stock of this bark is set down at $150,000. TLe faliurvjof ifellen. SVa d ■& Co., stock-brokers, ot Boston. a enhanced on Friday lasf. Lit earned considera le excitement In financial circles in Jtal city, as the Cashier of the State National Bank had certified a number of checks made by the above-earned Arm. Tae*e checks were pre sented at the Clearing Honso at the settlement, on the morning of the failure, by varione banks hold ing the same, and were thrown out by tee State Bank on which the certificated were made. Tbs Directors of the bank declare that they never en tered into or agreed to any arrangement made bo- Iwcen the city banks for certifications or checks, and that such action ol their Cashier .was wholly unauthorised. Thesntn involve! in these trans actions Is upward? of half a milliub of dollars. There is something rotten ia the arstenj of bank management as practiced by the officers of the various bants alluded to. The directors most hare been exceedingly derelict In the di-charge of their dnllcs. for had these been performed with an? sort of attention whatever, these irregularities would never have happened, and tb-i enemies of the National Bank system would not hire se cured a peg on which to bang their diatribes. Dishonest Cashiers and speculative Presidents have caused the failures ol banks under all sys tems, and from these contingencies the National Banks are not exempt, so long as the stockholders elect an incompetent set of directors. Ko law can be made that wii) protect the interests of the depositors. These are left to the honesty and honor of the bank officers; bnt, under all circumstances, the holders of National Bank notes are protected, and no loss can ever be entailed upon them. It is natural that these irregularities and defalcations should excite the public mind, but at the same time they exercise a good effect, by waking np the directors of Na tional Backs all over the country to the responsi bility of their position. We bold that all banking Institution?, public and pri vate, which receive deposits and roan tho same either on call or on time, should, as for as possible, do business In an open manner. All bankmglnetltutlois should be governed by laws prescribed by the General Government, these laws having always In view (he interests of tho public. The depositors should, at all times dur ing business hours have access to the books of tho banks; anda sworn statement of tho condition of ILe institutions, both public and private, ahonld be published occe a week, in tho commercial centres of the country, and once a month In the smaller cities In order to make such laws effective, all banking institutions should be required to toko out a license (n htch may be of a nominal amount); and should any concern con travene any of the provisions of said laws, its license ought to he revoked. The local money market preserves the even t r nor of Its way. Some of the Natlonils were checked on to-day bv the Government, bnt the amounts were not large and no Inconvenience was felL The market Is comfortably easy, and 11 gilt edged ” paper Is negotiated without the slightest difficulty at 10 per cent. In the open market good signatures pass at l£ioU» per ceot per month. Exchange was steady, with sales of round lots between banks at parGMc premium—mostly the upper figure. The counter rates were unchanged —par buying aud 1-10 premium selling. Flour was less active. Wneat declined H@ic. Corn was IGIHc lower. Oats advanced He. Bye was steady. Bailey was more active. Mess Pork for Immediate delivery was inactive. Bulk Meats were firmer. Lard was quiet. Seeds were steady and active. Gold was lower but irrrcgnlar. The market opened at 130*4. declined to 155*$. rallied to lajtf , and closed at 11525. The following quotations wire received by Boyd Bros., gold brokers; 20:30 a. m ISC* j I m 125.4 Ite*js 23t>»4 112:30 p. n:co •• Mcsjsico " . 21:13 “ .130*12:10 •* ... ! .W4U 11:20 “ IS52£ 1 3:00 w .......23iis 11:45 •* 135*$ I this “ .... Jaw Btre the market was unsettled, ranging" from 1C50126 baying—closing at 135*4 hid. There was some speculative demand, but holders were un willing to sell at New York quotaUons. Silver was nominal at 123 ft 123 buying. Government Securities opened dull and weak la New York, but dosed firmer at the afternoon call. The following shows the closing prices of to-day compared with the three previous days: sI 3 3 SLtes 0f’31........ • Five-TWcnOe*. }}} Fire-Tweniicj. ••*. lb*** ’C5 IC3* Tcn-Fortlw o£* Sercn-ThirUea, Aogost 1(S?J i-'cren-TUrtles, JDne....105?i Sevcu-TCUIlre, July 105f* yaw j'lTc-Twentlea iccjj —*Es-Conpon. Here the market was quiet bat firm. coTEßaaasT secluuties—Chicago slvbsct Baying. ScUimj. • •IWH lOiii • «»2£ 110' ..10714 107',; ..1074 1072^ ..IcGH iogo£ .. Kli ** 074 .. 9CJ4 .JOS* ICC ..106U JOSJf ..105H 1055£ ..IK>S»HC?4 ..117 ..11C« HO* 110 103 U 110* JIU»4 110~ IWS 107* 107J£ 108* 103* 1073 9S W fl?s Wj.T,' loss 105* 103* IG3* lU5* 105»f lav* USX IOCS 10GS 10&S U. S. Sixes, of IS3I U.S.E-dOs, 1362 tJ. S. 5-St's, 1864 D.S.JWOs, lrC5 U. S. C-Ci's, ’65 and *CG (new). U. S. 5-sfc, small U. S. IC-lOj, large U. S. HMDs, small D.5.7-9's, Ist series.. U. S. 7-CT|i t £d series U. S. 7-SOs, Sd series D. S. 7-CCs. small.. Compounds, June, 1561 ** July, lew M Aug., 16W 14 Oct, 18W “ Dec., 15*1 *’ May,' 1885. .. . Aug., 1868 u Sept-, IBC9 u Oct. 1865......