Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune, March 20, 1867, Page 2

Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune dated March 20, 1867 Page 2
Text content (automatically generated)

(Eljiffljgo DHLS, TEI-TVEKSXT ASD WBEEXf. OFF icE, «o. dl CLAKH*!<T. mere are ume «tunoaa ot me Tuntres urxncu V T«ryjnonuac. for circointioo ST .cvncrt, newsmen AodtbetaaUa. M. Tfce Tn-'Wrwtrr, Mondays, Wed nesdar* and Fridays, for tns mails only; and t&e TT'KKtr.otiThorednpi,fbrtbcicnlU and sale at ©or counter and ot newsmen. Tcrms-oCthe Cblcnno Tribute*. Duly delivered in toe city t&ei wetoy g gg “ “ ** “ (per quarter).... 3,*5 Dally, to mnu mwcrtberi (per annum. para* l«e in adrance)... 112.00 m-WeeWy.(p«r aacaa, rarntlcloadrtuice) «.00 Weekly. (i«r annum. oayabe in advance)....;' ‘i.XJO XZ~ Fractional parts ot 'be rear at toe atme rnea XW~- Person# resitting «ua ordering five or 'more topic* of elttcr tJ*c Trt-Weekly or Weekly edition , may retain ten por cent sftnesubscrtßiaoa price t* a CommtSßloa. ... ft one* to bubscehutk*.—id oiflennj; tne address ox yoor paper* changed. »o nrevent delay, c>e sure and specify what edition yen tare—».eeWy, Trl-Weckiy, prDally. Also, tfveyoorPßifiiM^ndfamrcaddress fW~ Money, ty Uralt, Eiprtw, Money orners, or In BejcUterodiiCttcrt, maybe wait atoar rlst. Address, - TKIBOICBCUIm Chtraao. lit WEDNESDAY, MAECH 20. 1867. AK EXTBAOBIIIKAUV ADMISSION. The New York TTo»M ofthelCth inst-, coniains an editorial article in regard to the prospects of the Republican parly in the South, which contains a very remarkable ad mission. After declaring that the supremacy of the Republican party in the South can only be prevented in such States as Alabama by tbe rebels “getting beforehand with the ** Radicals and controlling the negro vote,” it goes on to assert that “ the management “of the negro vote will be easy enough, if 44 tbe whites begin in season.” It then pro ceeds to argue that the present is the favor able time to secure the result, because of the “ poverty and prostration of the South, “short crops and impending starvation,” which, it thinks “have thus far made “freedom a hard road to travel. * * * 44 A year or two ago, says the World, tbe “negro heart danced to a ptoin of vague “ and tumultuous expectations. A year or 44 two henecy regular industry and go )d crops 44 tciU enable the negroes to realize the substantial “ advantages of freedom. At present their “ feelings arc at (he lowest point of depression 44 iciih nothing in their condition or experience to' 44 kindle any enthusiasm toward their Xorthcrn “benefactors. 4 there is a tide in the affairs 44 ot men,’ and if, by Southern blindness and 44 inaction, the whole political power of tbe 44 South should be lodged in the hands of 44 tbe negroes, tbe Southern whites woald 44 find that 4 all the voyage of their life is 44 bound in shallows and la miseries.’ ” Here is a distinct admission that nothing but 44 poverty, prostration, short crops, im -41 pending starvation,” and ignorance of the “substantial advantages of freedom” can convert the negroes to tbe faith of the so called Demociatic party, or assure their political support in a single election. It is a distinct adini-sion that the vague and tu multuous expectations of freedom, and u realization of iis substantial advantages, are alike fatal to the hope of inducing the loyal blacks to vote against the Republican party, tbe men who arc described as Iheir “ benefactors.” It is a deliberate declara tion that this Is the accepted time to de ceive the negroes, to blind their eyes to the truth, to take advantage of their poverty by falsely representing it as the legitimate and natuial fruit of liberty; to teach them that their dreams of freedom have been unsubstantial and illusive, acd that misery and destitution are the gilts of eman cipation- It is also a deliberate admission that all these representations arc false; that the movement' recommended by the TTorfd is to be a fraud from its inception; a conspiracy of the 44 superior race ” against weak and ignorant men, to cheat them of their rights and induce them to vote for tbeir own degradation. In plain English the World says to the rebels of the South: “Come quick and He to tbe negroes, for they arc in just tbe unhappy situation to believe the worst lies you can tell them. But If you do not Tie to them directly they will learn the truth, and then it will be too late!” If tie reasoning of our contemporary does not mean that, it does not mean anything. To this complexion Las it come at last! The moit respectable and influential organ of the Cop perhead party in the North, unbiushingly proposes that tbe “Southern chivalry” shill enter upon a deliberate and systematic scheme of frand, deception and falsehood, for the purpose of securing the political supremacy of rebels in the South aud Cop perheads in the North. We scarcely think this proposition is in accordance with tbe principles of “chivalrv” as expounded by its oracles. Its votaries claimed that it Imposed upon the valorous aud true knight the obligation to defend the weak agv.cst. the strong, the innocent and helpless against the powerful •persecutor, the deceived against the de ceiver, the oppressed against the oppressor. Ths chivalry recommended to the South by • the TTwrfd is of a very different sort. It takes the side of the strong against the weak, tbe educated against the ignorant, the de ceiver against the deceived, the oppressor against the oppressed. We question whether a more pitiable acknowledgment of political failure and degradation was ever seen than this one contained in the extraordinary ad mission of the World. rBftKMGATIOa OF FAtSEHODD, The facility "with wbicb falsehood is palmed off on the public as truth, is illustrated re markably in the fact that It January last, the Toronto (Canada) Leader published what professed to be a comparative statement of the numbers of Union and Confederate pris oners who died during the war, and that statement has been published as true by ev ery newspaper In the rebel Slates. The Lead er stated as follows: “In reply to a resolution of the House of Rep resentatives, calling upon the Secretary of War f.*r tbe number ox prisoners of cither Bide held, and that dorms the war, he makes the follow ing report: Number of Union prisoners South, SCi,CdO; number o» Confederate prisoners North. 200,000; number of Union pn-oners died, 55.570; number of Confederate prisoners died, 25,’t33. Oat o» tCI.OCOtJi lon prisoners, sVftf died. The Union prisoners exceeded the Contederatc prisoners CI,OGO ; yet tbe deaths ol the Unlot: prisoners foil below those of the Confederate prisoners 0,000. Two Yankee prisoners died out or every tweiity threein Southern pens. Two Confederate prison ers died ou< of every fifteen In Northern pens/' Commenting on the above statements a !sew Orleans rebel paper says: “It is due to the truth of bistoiy and to the cause of Southern Confederacy that these figures, published by the authority cl tbe United Scales Secretary of War, Mr. Stanton, should be widely circulated, from them we learn that, although the Southern Confederacy had more Northern prisoners ni its band* than the Northern Govern ment bud ofSoulheiD prison-ra, the mortality in the Northern prisons was more than twice as great as in The Southern, it is thus that facts and iigarca disprove tbe violent calumnies which wete set afloat in a time of passion regarding the treatment of Union prisoners oy the Southern Government and its agents, i'ne reader will not readllviorgctlbe tbocklng chatgc- which were made 'daring the war, not only against such men as Captain Wire, ontagunst high-minded, honor able, Christian men, like Mr. Jefferson Davis, himself. Had these stories been true they would necessarily show a largely disproportionate ex cess of mortality in Southern prisons. Tbeolß c-al recoms—not of the Southern Slates, be U re mcmb'red, but of ihe Northern States—show that (be death rate was much greater lathe North than in tbe South- • * * “We would have allowed this subject to slum ber on a« it has been doing lately, were it not for the publication of the official flgn*-s, which come so opportunely to relieve evciy resident of the Southern Stales, whether man or woman, whether abroad or at home, of the opprobrium which interested parties have sought to cast upon them, by the circulation of the most glaring falsehoods. There is no lonlier charge made against the South ern people than that of having cruelly treated Northern prisoners. By the mouths of their ene mies have tCey been folly vindicated.” When the premises arc false the inferences and deductions therefrom fall to the ground. In the first place, the Seci etary of U’ar never made any such report, to the House of Rep resentatives or any other official body. In • the next place, it is not true that the rebels took 01,000 more prisoners than were cap tured by the Union forces. The exchanges on both sides proved the contrary. 2d. On the first ot January, ISGS, before the decisive operations that closed the war, the rolls of prisoners on both sides showed that we held 40,000 more rebels than tbe enemy held of our Boldieis. 3rd. The number of deaths of TJtlon soldiers in rebel prisons exceeded 50,000, while tbe deaths oi rebels in North ern prisons were less than one third as raany- The vast majority of our soldiers who per ished In rebel prison pens died from starva tion, exposure and horrid maltreatment. From first to last we bad a quarter of a million of rebel prisoners in onr bands. They were all well fed, housed and warmed. They had qew blankets and clothes issued to them when they needed covering. They were humanely treated when sick or well, and were furnished with abundance of ■wholesome food and drink. Tens of thou sands of onr citizens can testify to these feels- All charges of harsh treatment, or scanty fare, or unhealthy food, or mortality in consequence of inhuman treatment of rebel prisoners, are base, wicked falsehoods, concocted to break the force of the shocking, murderous crnelty perpetrated upon our poor boys by the rebel brutes and fiends in human shape. But the rebel press and politicians shall not take refuge behind the lies of tbe Tory Toronto Leader , which never spoke the truth of the Northern people in a single in* stance. p»9*The Southern despa'cLes of the New York press, Indicate most encouraging pro gress In the work of reconsiruction. From South Carolina it is announced that the negroes ol Columbia celebrated their en franchisement and were addressed by Wade Hampton, ex-Unlted States Senator Dessaos snre, Edward Arthur, Hon. W. J. Talley, James G. Gibbs (white,) and Rev. David Picket and Beverly Nash (black). It Is said that the sentiments expressed by bo'h white and black orators, were highly satis factory and honorable to all concerned. This is cnconraziog. Wade Hampton has been one of the most obstinate of all the obstinate rebels ; and It hs has at last concluded to accept tlie situation in good and add South Carolina audbflssissipplto Its fidtb, it is the best possible evidence tnat list. In both pf these States tbero Is a heavy furtheropposition is hopeless; for preponderance of the colored population, literally and sincerely* last-ditch man, and if anything may be regarded as certain, In Virginia,- and/ Charleston 8. C., the iUs that the loval negroes will vote on the prnrlnmailon* of fnjljtqry seems to same side they foogbt for and sympathized havebeeuTecelvedwilhoui unusual excite- with doring tbe war. ment; and'General SheYldan's order sosoend* lug the. municipal election in Sew Orleans, led to no disturbance. From Selma, Alabama, the news come? that the largest meeting ever seen in the the city was held at and that It was unanimously resolved- to accept the terms of the new law and act on them. Tne work goes bravely on. THE BBCONSISDCriON LVW. The. Supplementary Reconstruction Bill which has been under consideration for sev eral days in Congress, has undergone so many and such rapid changes, and has so often travelled from one House to the other, that the public mind has become doubtful as to what its provisions actually are. At the time of this writing there Is J jingle point on which the Senate and House have not agreed; but It is quite probable that even this will be settled before this- paper reaches the reader. We propose to give a. synopsis of the Reconstruction Low as it stands, including the Constitutional Amend ment and the Supplementary Act as far as adopted. 1. It Is declared, lathe preamble that no legal government or adequate protection for life and property exist in the ten rebel States. 2. The rebel States are divided into five Military Districts, and their limits defined. 3. The President Is required to assign to each of these Districts a Commander not below the rank of Brigadier General, and detail a sufficient military force to enable suchofflccr to enforce bis authority. 4. The Commanders are required, to pro tect all persons in their rights. 5. All persons arrested by the military authority ere to have a speedy' trial, and cruel or unusual punishment Is prohibited. C. Before the Ist ol September nest lb’ Commanding General is required to cause to be made a registration of ail lawful voters in their respective States. Before registra tion every applicant will be required to lake the following oath; “ I do so'emrly swear or affirm, in .the of Almighty God, that 1 am a citizen ol me mate of ■- ' ; that I have resided ra rani Slate lor months next preceding this day, and now re side in the county of ,or the parish of——, in said Stall-, as the caei- may he; that lam twen tv one years of sue : that 1 have not been disfran chised for participating many rebellion or clwl war against the United Siates, nor lor lelony com mitted against the laws cf any Slate, or toe United Stales; that 1 have revet taken an oath as a mem ber of any SMe I cglslaNre of any State to hop port the tfonstlmtlon of the United States and at terwaid engaged in insum-'cnon or rebellion egamsr the United Mates, or given aid or comfo-'t to the enemies thereof; ibaf 1 will rabhfoliy sap pcit the Constitution and obey the lawa of the United State*, and will, to the best of my am lay, encourage oibers so to do: So help mo God.” 7. Alter ihe registration is complete, the Commander is to cider an election for dele catcs io a Constitutional Convention, and to appoint the officers of such election. At the .■jac election In which these delegates arc chosen, the people shall vote, yes or no, on Jhc question as to whether a Convention shall he held or not. If a majority rote to hold none, that settles the question la tbe negative; if they vote to held one, the dele gates are to assemble at tbe time and place to be specified by the Commander. 8. In the registration and in the election?, nil male citizens stand on an equal footing, irrespective ol color, race or former condi tion. 9. The Convention, if ordered by a majori ty, will proceed to form a Constitution. 10/ Tbe Constitution so framed shall be submitted to tbe people for approval or con demnation. U. II the Constitution is ratified by tbe vote of the people, and if it secures univer sal suffrage, and if the Government formed under it ratifies the pending Constitutional Amendment, the State shall be entitled to representation in Congress as goon as the pending Amendment becomes a part of the Constitution of tbe United States. 12. Until tbe States arc so admitted, all existing Governments therein, or any that may be established, are to be provisional only, and folly subject to tbe paramount power ol Congress, which may alter, modify or abolish them in its discretion. IS. No one is entitled to hold office who Is prcb.blted by the third section of the pend ing Constitutional Amendment—that is, those who have ever taken an oaih in assum ing the duties of certain civil offices, to sup port tbe Constitution of the United States, aiid have subsequently engaged in the rebel lion. The purport of the section will be readily seen by reference to the oath pre scribed lor voters. Such are tbe main features of the Recon struction Law as it stands at present; and it is not probable that Congress will materially modify any portion ofll. FUK COLOBEII VOTE IN SOUTH CAROLINA. The telegraph brings us the proceedings of n public meeting in South Carolina, at which 'Wade Hampton and other celebrated white men addressed the assemblage of whites acd blacks; and that two colored men addressed the same mixed gathering. This would be accepted as a mirk of rapid acd healthy progress, did not the report add that one of the colored speakers intimated the purpose of the blacks to petition Con gress to remove the disfranchisement of such men as Hampton, In order that the colored men might vote for the excluded rebel lead ers. This part of the story throws a flood of light upon the condescension of Hampton and his associates in treating the former slaves as political equals. It betrays a pur pose on their part to make negro equality their hobby, and to secure, if possible, the negro vote for the retention of political power in the bands of the rebels. The country la demanding suffrage for all ft eemen, proposes to give to all men the i,rotection of the ballot. For its misuse there can be no legal remedy. If the en franchised blacks vote to make the rebel chiefs their political masters, it Is nothing more than the whites of the same section have already done. Bat we think ilr. Wade Hampton will find his mistake lu placing the inteliicence and patriotism of the freed mcn upon the degraded level of the white population. Few and far between, like angels’ visits there may be cases of old fumily servants linked by life long associa tion and by ties of consanguinity to the old white families, who will vote just as they are told by those to whom they have been subject all their lives. But such cases will be exceptional ones. The black man knows that he is free, and that be owes it to the Radicals ; his enthusiastic joy over I the event cannot be repressed by any hos- I tilitycn the part of his discomfited white neighbors. With the knowledge of his be ing entitled to a vote, there is created also a knowledge ol its value as a protection to iLe liberty he enjoys. He will feel the im portance of that vote to himscll and ills race now, far more sensibly- than he will ten years hence, when his rights have been se cured beyond all question or danger. The great body of these men know that every privilege they enjoy' as freemen have been forced by the Republican party from the un willing hands of the white rebels of the South, and the country may rest assured that the colored vote, in the aggregate, will be cast, even in South Carolina, with an in telligence sharpened by the fact that their very personal freedom depends to a great ex tent upon the way in which that vote will be given. There need he no apprehension that Wade Hampton and his rebel associates will ever capture the black vote, as long as : hat vote Is needed to preserve the Union, or uphold universal freedom la the land. TIIK HACKTIE!H»S UNIOJf, The hackmen of Chicago have made a cred itable movement in which the general pub lic have some Interest. There has been in Chicago, as there is always in lame cities, a number of persons employed in tbe business ol back-driving, whether of their own teams or hired bv others, who were utterly unfit for the business and who made their calling a cover for extortion, robbery and even great er outrages upon the public. So urcat is the evil in many cities,and also here,that prudent strangers, arriving after dark, consult their own safety, atd avoid robbery and violence by refusing to employ a hack, preferring to walk than entrust life or property to the hackmen. Outrages from time to time by J ackmen have confirmed the general impres sion, and at night Citizens will never take a back from the stand if they can possibly avoid it. The misconduct, the dishonesty and bru tality of a portion of the hackmen have cre ated an unjust distrust of the whole fraterni ty, and has injured the business of those who follow it honestly. The hackmen of this city have recently formed au association,and have arranged a tariff of fares, which have been legalized, and if they will themselves undertake to prosecute those of their num ber who violate the law, they can secure for themselves that public confidence which is so essential to their business. If, in addition to a watchful care against over chargirg, the employers and hack owners would also promptly prosecute every dr.ver guilty of offensive language or ill treatment of his passengers, they would add much to the completeness of the reforms they have instituted. The success of the reform de pends we may say exclusively upon the seal and fidelity with which the association pun ishes all violations of its rules by its own members, and as long as they do this faith fully, they deserve the confidence and tbe liberal support of the public. The Washington Daily Chronicle pre dicts that the electoral vote of Alabama will be cast for the Republican candidate for President in 186 S; and declares that the same prediction may be safely made of North Carolina and Louisiana. We believe that the CArwiick should go even further than this, AN IfOPOftTA.NI COidniTTEE. In the organization of the House of Rep resentatives in 'the Congress' of'the United States,.the Committee' of Ejectionshas al ways been deemed an Important one. To that committee -are reiened all questions touching the qualifications and election of the members. It is a tribunal whose invests gal ions include the authority of every mem ber to his seat. The Commute of Elections of the present Ilouse Is of more than nsual importance- To that committee will be re ferred all the credentials of all the members elected in the rebel States after the recon struction, and to them will belong; the investigation into the personal eligibility of each of the members elect from the South. This committee has been select ed by Speaker. Colfax with a special refer ence to the important work they will have to perform. It consists of the following gen tlemen: Messrs. Dawes,. Scofield, Upson, Sheliaharger, McClurg, Cook, Poland, Nich olson and Kerr. The Washington Chronicle states that when Mr. Cook, of Illinois, who had been a mem ber of the Judiciary Committee, .ascertained that the Democrats had selected Mr. Mar shall, of this State, as their representative on tbe Judiciary or Impeachment Commit-- tee, be promptly relieved the Speaker of all embarrassment from tbe unusual course of se lecting two members from the same State for tbe same committee, by declining a reappoint ment to that committee. The Speaker, however, knowing that the Committee on Elections was even of greater importance at this Juncture than almost any other com mittee ol the House, appointed Mr. Cook to that committee. The committee consists of the most experienced members of the House ; of statesmen and Jurists, fully able to grapple with all questions coming before them, and having the courage to do their duty fearlessly. Mr. Cookand Judge Poland, cf Vermont—the latter has ju-t closed a term in the Senate—are the new members of tbe committee, aud will give to its decis ions a weight and authority which can only pertain to personal integrity and profound ability and learning. Es7"lt was predicted by tbe Copperheads that if Congress passed a law reconstructing tbe rebel Slates on the basis of equal rights, and set aside A. J.’s bogus State Govern ments, gold would go up “kiting.” While the matter hung in doubt, gold did advance from ISC to 143 ; but the moment the Recon struction BUI was passed over the veto, gold begun to decline, and it has continued to de cline ever since, until it is now close down on tbe twenties. What the public wanted was a determinate policy, a policy based uponrigfat acd Justice; enfranchisement of the loyal colored men rather than disfran chisement of ex-rebels. This was done and tbe country is satisfied, tbe Reconstruction Act is acceptable almost to everybody, and confidence in the ftituro Is greatly strength ened. So much for the predictions of the Copperheads that Andy Johnson’s veto of the Reconstruction Bill would shake the financial universe. It will he seen by reference to yester day’s proceedings of Congress, that the Con ference Comm ttee on the Supplementary Reconstruction Bill agiccd to a proposition in substance as follows: The Constitutions of the various States to he formed under the law must be adopted by a majority of the registered voters, and it must appear that a majority of the voters registered par ticipated In tbe election, in order to give validity to such Constitutions. A danse was also added to the effect that Congress must be satisfied that all registered voters had a fair and free opportunity to to vole without Interruption, and that tbe Constitution was fiecly adopted by the peo ple. Tbe Senate agreed to tbe report of the Conference Committee, and thence it went to the House, which also concurred, and thus tbe Supplemental Reconstruction Act was at last completed. It will now go to the President, who, it is understood, is so ai xlous to have Congress adjourn that he will cither approve or veto It at once. MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS. Levi E. H. Farwell, a hoy fourteen years old, is under arrest at Livermore Falls, Maine, for attempting to commit a rape upon a little girl of eight years, In the street, and within sight of her own house. The precocious young villain has served a term in the State Ktform School, and his lather is a graduate of the State Prison. Henry E. Beebe has been arrested at Wa tc'ford, Conn., for adultery with his step daughter, Sarah Edwards, a girl eighteen years old, who lately cave birth to a child, which is now- in the hands of the town au thorities. Says a California correspondent of a Now Tori: pap^r: “ You bet” lathe moat popular and fashionable vulgai ejaculation here I have ever heard. Everybody uses it, and all travellers have reported it. Only a few nishts ago. at a party, I asked a lady who had been brilliantly entertaining those pres ent with some exquisite selections from Ver di, if she had any music from‘‘Martha,” and she replied, “You bet!” And she did have; and she sung and played it well, too— yon bet! Quite an excitement was occasioned in Hudson City, New Jersey, last week, in con sequence of a woman having castigated two ot the teachers ol a public school, tor having whipped one of her children, in the early part of the week, Mrs. L., the woman re ferred to, called at tbe school house, and In quired for Miss Webb. The lady spoken to replied, l T am Miss Webb.” Mrs. L. ex claimed, ‘ then I will make a cob-web of jou,” at tbe same time drawing a cowhide from under her shawl, seized the lady by the hair of the head, and laid it on most vigor ously. Miss Webb screamed for help, and snuggled to free herself, which she floallly did with the loss ol her waterfall, which tbe infuriated woman demolished in no time. At this Juncture the principal, attracted by the scieoms, entered the room, when he, too, was set upon, seized by the hairof the head, and was the recipient of a number of strokes from the cowhide before he could extricate himself. 3lre. L., having avenged her supposed wrongs, then walked out, and as yet no legal steps have been taken to ward bringing tbe perpetrator of the out rage to justice. Tbe Bremen steamshipUnloo.of thcNorth German Lloyds Company, left Southampton on the Cth inst., at 3:30 p. m., and, accord ing to the report of the purser, prssed Sandy Hook at 10 p. m., on the 15th, making the passage In nine days, six hours and thirty minutes. The Hamburg steamship Ham monia, of the Hamburg aud American Pack et Company, left Southampton on tbe same day at- 3 p. m., aud passed Sandy Hook at 7:30 p. m., on the 15th, making the run in nice days, four hours and thirty minutes. Tbe difference In the passages of these ves sels was only two hours from Southampton to Sandy Hook. The death on the 11th inst., of Rev. Abel Allton, pastor of the Methodist Episcopal Churches in East Wareham and Marion, Mass., is supposed to have been caused by hydrophobia. For about a week from the first attack he was moderately sick, and it was thought that he was suffering from par tial paralysis of the muscles of the face; but the affection toward the lost rapidly grew worse, and for a few hours before his death the paroxysms were extremely vio lent. Gcwas bitten in the face by a dog about twenty years ago. The Maine Legislature seems to have had some remarkable experiences during the closing of its late session. The Augusta pa pers teil how the House of Representatives suspended all operations to sing the “John Brown” chorus, under the leadership of one of i*s members, and afterwards made an as sault on tbe Senate, each man armed with bullets rolled from all the scraps of waste paper be could collect. Tbe Senate repelled the attack, and after an indiscriminate fight, both Houses separated and returned to their work. FOREIGN ITEMS. A London correspondent says: “The cigar tbip TiOffl Winans has been lor several days experimenting in the Channel, trying her speed and qualities os a sea boat m rough weather. If her propellers work as ex pected, she ought to mike thirty knots an hour, ana nothing less will satisfy Mr. Wmans, who has been spending a mint of money on her.” The Trustees of the Peabody Benefaction, in London, have built several large blocks of solid, excellent and most convenient dwellings for artisans, and the fund has been increased by rents and interest several thousands of pounds. The next sensation of London is to be the smallest Methodist preacher in the world, now drawing great crowds In the provinces. The reverend gentleman is said to be just an inch taller than General Tom Thumb. A London correspondent of the Cologne C.azitie ventures to affirm “on precise infor mation,” that the letters in which Napoleon 111. some years ago promised his continuous support to Maximilian I. have been recently’ placed in the hands of Queen Victoria. The return of these letters had been requested by the writer In the latest phase of Mexican af fairs. On being reinsert, their possession be came so coveted that the lockage of the Em peror Maximilian was searched at Vera Cruz. Paris has now some 703 journals, more or less important, devoted to gossip and local news simply, and ere long the eighth hun dred will be complete. After the Ist of March the name of Poland is never to be mentioned in Russian despatch es, which will refer instead to the “ Depart ment orYarsovia. 1 ’ EUROPE. Cnr Special Foreign Corre spondence. x A Notable Event in the History of ■ ' ‘ Germany. A. Brilliant Pageant. Tlie Scenes at the Opening of Par liament Described by an Eye Witness. The Coming Political Crisis in Italy. Gatitaldi at tbe Head of Popalar Oppo • silion to the .Ministry. FHOSBZA. A Stride of I*rcgre«—Germany In 1848 and ISC7—The Imperal Incubus—Tlie New Herman Confederation—Opening "of Its First Parliament—A Notable Historical Btcul— A Olasnlflcent Cuart Show— Description of tbe Ceremony— Tbe Pomp ana Glitter of Boyalty* [Special Correspondence of tbe Chicago Tribanc] Berlin, Prussia, February S 5. When, in the spring of the| memorable year <f 1848, the third great French revolu- tion electrified the nations of all Europe, on era of more promise than any other recorded In German history seemed to dawn for tbe great people living between tbo southern slopes of tbe Alps and the Baltic and North Sea. Frightened by the fate of Louis Pbll lippe, and the surging of the waives of revo lution to their own thrones, Its rulers con- ceded the political reforms they had prom ised to their subjects alter the Jail of the First Napoleon, but perfidiously withheld, and substituted tbe most galling oppression in their stead. None of their number made greater baste to embark upon and float with the current of the times than the then King of Prussia, Frederick William IV, In a proclamation, issued on tbo 18tb of March of the year mentioned, he declared that the times required tbe transformation of the international alliances which formed tbe only existing ties between the several States ot Germany into a close Federal-Union; tbe paxticipdtion ol the people in tbe Federal Gov enment through a representative legislative tody ; the introduction of constitutional in *tilut.oi<s into all the states; the organiza tion of a Federal army and navy; a Federal High Court; o general Western Union; an unilorm system of moneys, weights, and measures, and an absolute equality of civil rights for all Germans. Three days later, he went still further, under the pressure ol the rieiut in anus of the people of his own Cap ital, s| caking as follows in an address “to my people and the German nation 44 X put myself at your head iu these days of peril. I have to-day adopted the old national coiora and takin up for myself aud tuy people the scnerable flag of the German EmpUe. Prus sia hereafter shall be absorbed byGcrmany.” Well, la due coarse ol time the occur rences of that eventful spring bore their frui tion, In tbe meeting, on May .18, 1848, at Frankfori-ou-lhe-Malu, ot tin? first German National Assembly, consisting ,of but one House, and comprising representatives of the people of every part of Germany.' After six months of bard labor, it produced, in Decem ber, a 44 Bill of Rights,” and, four months later, o 44 Constitution for the German Em pire.” - Under one of Us provisions, Frede rick William IV. was elected Emperor on tbe 2Slh of March. On the l>t of April, a deputation of thirty-three members of tbo National Assembly started for Berlin to of fer tbe Imperial crown to the Prussian mon arch. It bad an audience with him on the second day alter its arrival, io which he an nounced to the deputation that he was com pelled to decline the offered hereditary dig nity, on the ground that the other sove reigns of Germany did not concur in the ac tion of the National Assembly, and that the acceptance ol the Imperial crown by him would Involve a violation of tbeir sacred rights and of his own solemn engagements to them. The terms of his declination were hardly consistent with the purpose he formally avow ed twelve months before to put himself at the hi ad of the German nation. : But then he was naturally Jacking in boldness of rcso lotion and courage of action. And, more over, the rnlers of the other States, from Austria down to the smallest Principality, had recovered from their first terror that seized them In the previous spring, when confronted with the demands of their sub* jeeta for political rights, backed np by threats of revolution, and made them yield all that was asked. They were determined to refuse and resist the enforcements of the various acts of the National Assembly, and, above all, the assump tion of the Imperial dignity by the King ot Prussia. The' latter having too lender a regard for the “by-the-Grace of-God” rights of the sovereign grudgersof Prussian aggrandizement, and wanting the necessary pluck to place the Imperial crown on his head at the risk of war, it came about that the Prussian Government, instead of actively supporting the efforts of the National Assembly to compass national unity, joined hands with the icst of the piinccly reactionists, and that Prussian troops were mainly Instrumental in putting down the popular risings in arms in Saxony and Southern Germany in defence of the an thoiity of the National Assembly. IVho would have believed it, in the sum* mcr of IS4D, when the Prince of Prussia, at the head of a vast army, marched up the Rhine and crushed out the revolutionary out brtak in Baden, that, seventeen years later, the very mtm who then extinguished the popular hopes for the political reconstruc tion and unification of Germany by force of arms, as the successor of Frederick! William IV., would stake the late of his dynasty upon s great war, undertaken fer the very end that bis predecessor might have; attained without tne least effort by accepting the ' offers of the National Assembly? Have not the popular leaders, who, in ltU9. were shot by order of the now King of Prussia, for daring'to take up arms for the cause of na tional unity and liberty, been turned in their graves by the strange experiences of last summer, when their slayer turned revolu tionist nimself, upset the thrones of the King of Hanover, the Duke ol Nassau and the Elector of Hesse, and attempted to in cite the Hungarians to insurrection against their legitimate sovereign? Do we not live in an age of political miracles? The edifice for which the bloody foundation was laid at Koniggratz, has now been crowned by the opening of the North Ger man Parliament (Reichstag) by King Wil liam I. in person. It was but natural that the Prussian Majesty should desire this por tentous event to come off with great eclat, and that he ordered the greatest possible display of the “pomp and circumstance” of royalty to be made on the occasion. A more magnificent court show than that got off within the walls of the old royal palace at noon onycsteiday has not taken place in this capital in many years. Though purporting to be in honor of a consummation of vital import to the German people no less than to the Prussian dynasty, the pageant was in reality but a grand ovation in glorification of the late aggrandizement of the power of the House of Hohenzollern. But to relate the great event of yesterday In detail. Berlin had put on a festive dress in honor of the memorable Sabbath. Noth* ing like the rich and bounteous decorations ol the Capital on tbe occasion of the trium phant entry of the victorious army, in Sep tember last, was visible, but simply a flag ging of the principal streets with the colors of Prussia—black ami white—and those of the North German Confederacy—black, red. An unusual number of peo ple moved up and down the leading thor oughfares, and gnat crowds collected at an eaily hour on the wide square in front of tbc old palace, In order to have the poor sa'ls* faction of seeing the various distinguished penonages drive up in their carriages. They grew so dense by noon that a large body of tbe city police bad to be brought Into requi sition to clear a passage for the latter. Inside of the palace the performance com menced at 11 a. m., with divine service in the Court Chapel, which was attended by the whole royal lamily, the Court officials, and tbe Protestant members of Parliament. This being over, the many hundreds of per sens that were to be present at the opening gathered in various apartments of the bulla- Top previous t>> entering the l * White Halle,” where the celebration was to come'off. This famous chamber has been used for grand elate ceremonies ever since tbc palace has been built. It was enlarged and remodelled in IMO, and is not only the largest, but also the most tastefully decorated room in the edifice. Its length is 103, its width flfiy ote, and its height forty-one feet. Its orna mentation is distinguished by simple splen dor aid beauty. The walls arc walnscotted from floor to ceiling with slabs of bcanlitul white marble, divided into square Adds by lines of gold- On two sides there are double rows of pillars, so divided as to form boxes below and galleries above. The pillars con sist of the finest white mar ble mono'iths. In front of them arc marble statues of tbe twelve Electors of Brandenburg. Besides these sculp turn! ornaments there are distributed over the hall eight allegorical statues, represent log the eight old Provinces of Prussia, and renting oh caryatides, carrying shields with their several coats of arms, and fourteen groupcs of figures m bns relief representing various subjects. In friezes tbc portraits of distinguished Prussian statesmen, generals, savants and artists are placed. On tbc floor an immense eagle is inlaid. The finest orna ment of the ball is aVlctoriaexecuted Id white narblc by the celebrated sculptor Rauch. The curtains and the boxes arc covered with red plash velvet trimmed with gold. Alto- i gether, no finer throne hall can be found any» here in Europe. Between half-past twelve and one o’clock the boll became filled with a brilliant as ' st-mblagc. There were all the general offi ceis in garrison and the capital in gala uni forms and resplendent with orders. Then the members of the Ministry and the Privy Council In uniforms covered all over with gilt embroidery, and also decked with stars and crosses. 01 the members ol Parliament, all who had the right to wear uniforms by virtue of some military or civil office, bad donned them, leaving the plain dress-coat in an insignificant minority. Representatives of the Governments of the several dtates or the Confederacy were also present in gaudy uni lorms. Shortly before one the diplomatic corns, than which no part of the gathering displayed more sho«y cold embroidered cloth and richer decorations, appeared in the p, xes reserved. A little later tno Queen, the Queen Dowager, the Crown Princess, with her oldest son, the Princess Frederick Charles atd ail the other female mcmheis of the Koval House, made their appearance, followed by a largo and brilliant suite ol ladies and gentlemen in walling, and look their scats to the right of the throne. Tbe Chief Master ol Ceremonies then arranged tbe assemblage in tbc positions assigned to than in tbc official programme; Tbo Min ister-President and tbe Ministers of War, Finance. Interior and Commerce as Commis sioner* ol tbe Prussian Government to tbe Parliament stood next to tbe throne on tbe left. Next to them 1 came tbc Plenlpotenrla rita 'of the'smaller States of the Confed eracy J Tbc members of tbe Reichstag and and all the other mvD and military digaita lies presentwere made to lorpr a semi-circle, .infrojr pf agd at, distance of about twenty feet from tbc throne. ■ Everything being'ready, the Hlnlster- Proldcnt repaired to, tbe chamber In which tbc King was waiting, to Inform him that .the assemblage awaited bis pleasure. A few miruieslater the royal Majesty made his entrance into the ball, preceded and follow ed by tbo “grand cortege.” This was beaded by a score of heralds and court attendants. Next came the royal pages, dressed in white satin embroidered with gold, to the number _of about sixty. -Behind them,’ in-gorgeous - array, came strutting along tbe Master-m- Cdief of Ceremonies. He was followed by a long string of royal chamberlains, dressed In fold embroidered red uniforms, with golden eys (the insignia of their o£Qce)on their left sides.- Then came a promiscuous swarm of officers of the Court, designated in tbe pro gramme as moat highest, highest and. nlgb officers of tbe royal household, tbe titles of whom are untranslatable —all gotten up in tbo gaudiest style. Behind these walked tbe Giand Marshal of tbc Court; who was fol lowed by tbe four oldest .Generals and. tbe Chief Chamberlain, carrying the sacred in signia -of royalty. First‘came General de Knnowskl, bolding aloft tbe ; unsheathed sword ot the realm; next, General do Pena ker, carrying, the globe with tbe cross on a cushion of silver-cloth; then, General Count Waldersee, with tbc regal sceptre ona cushion of gold cloth; next the Chief Cham berlain Count Rcdern carrying the Crown on aootucr cushion of gold cloth,and last Field- Marshal General Count-Wranael, tbe oldest officer of the army, with the standard of the realm. The bearers were escorted on both sides by a flic o! the Royal Body Guard. Theireusignia were the identical'ooes used at tbe coronation of the first King of Prussia in 1701. . - Immediately behind the ensignia-bearers, came tbe King, dressed in a General’s unlfoim, with the scarf of the Order of the Blocs Eagle over the shoulder; the Order IhiMeriU around the neck, and numerous grand crosses on his left'breast. He is too short of stature to present a yery imposing appearance, but walks the precise, easy step or a regular soldier. Behind him came the Crown Prince, all the princes of the Royal House,- together with the Princes Nlcolous of Nassau, William ol Baden, and Henry of Hesse, (tbe only representatives of the sovereign confederates of King William present on tbc occasion.) the Minister-Presi dent, the officials of tbe King’s private Cabinet, the Adjutant Generals; ana Adju tants ol tbo King, and Princes. The rear woe brought up by another swarm of richly costumed Court officials, attached to tbe persons of tbc Crown Prince and the other •mate members ot the Royal House. The King walked into the ball uncovered. As soon as he came In sight, Boron Frank enberg. the oldest member of Parliament, called for three “hochs” (tboGerman cheer) for onr “most gracious King and Lord,” ■ which was heartily responded to. Bowing to the right and left, tbc King made directly for the ihroi c, which consists of a heavily giltcd straight-backed arm-chair, cushioned with gold embroidered red velvet, standing on an estradc, likewise cov ered with red velvet. After "cover ing himself with his helmet, he took his scat on the throne,-whereupon Court Blsmark with a profound bow handed him the written-out speech be was to deliver. The Crown Prince took bis stand on the mid dle step ol the cstrade on the right of tbe King; tbcolhcrPrinccsarrangod themselves cn the same side. Count Blsmark stood next to the cstrade on tbc King’s left. The cortege distributed themselves to the right and left of the throne opposite the members of the Reichstag. Perfect quiet being established, the King commercid to read (covered and seated ac cording to tbe usages of royalty) the throne speech. With his lull, manly voice and dis tinct enunciation, every word he uttered was heard by every one of tbc spell bound audi ence. The speech, a full abstract of which was no donbt despatched to you by the At lantic Cable immediately upon Its delivery, was one c&lcnlatcd to produce a good Im pression upon a first hearing. It was written ad captandum and did not come short of its intended effect npon tbc immediate auditory. Especially the well-turned, well-sounding phrases in the exordium about the long yearning and struggling of the German peo ple for National unity were calculated to captivate the ear of the hearers- But strip ped of Its taking phraseology, and reduced to tbe positive assurances it contains, it will not be found tojuslify any great hopes for a due regard to the true political interests and aspirations of the people In tho organization of the North German Bund on tbe part of King William and his Government. He tells Parliament, and indirectly the whole people of the new Federal Union, how difficult the work of German unifi cation has always been; what a delicate task the production of the “Federal Consti tution” agreed upon by tbe Governments of tbe Confederated States, had proved, and how necessary it was for the attainment of the great end of national unity, that Parliament should ratify tbe work of the Governments. But be falls to say a word as to how far tbe representatives ol the people will be allowed to revise the latter, though this was tbc very point in regard to which the public ex pected lo get some enlightenment from him. The speech, moreover, makes no reference whatever to an enlargement of the couslilu tional liberties of the people, as one of tbe legitimate incidents of the present process of reconstruction. It seems. Indeed, to rest upon the assumption, that the German peo ple want nothing but national unity nod tbc power that comes from it. Perhaps William I. will leurn before he goes lo rest with his loicfutbers that in these modern times unity and liberty are correlative terms, and that liberty cannot be withheld from, au united people. Tlic delivery of the speech was interrupted four tnm-8 by vehement applause—a breach or the prescribed decorum tuat I believe has never before occurred in tbc presence of royalty. The passage most applauded was the introductory one about tbe loegiugof tbc people for national unity. As soon as ; tbe rcauing was finished, the Baxon Embas sador, Baron de Trleser called for three more “hoeba" for his Majc>ty, which were lustily giten. That the representative of the sovereign who had to suffer and is sllll suflering so much from Prussian aggression, should thus make him self prominent, is a ratherpnzzling phenom enon. During tbe cheering tbe King made three bows to the assemblage, and then with drew, preceded and followed by his cortege in tbe order already described. The Queen and Princesses retired next. The hall being clear of the “ most highest personages," n 3 the Court phrase runs, Count Blsmark “In the name of the King of Prussia and the Governments of the North-German Confede racy," declared the “Reichstag” formally opened, after which the assemblage dis persed. The Constitution for the New Confed- eratloD, Bxnurr, March 4.15G7. In to day’s sitting of tbc Parliament the draught of the Constitution for the North German Confederation was introduced by Count Blsmark, who, in presenting it to the House, adverted to the speech of the King ot the opening oflhc Parliament as an ex position of the basis upon which the draught was iramed. He laid stress on the necessity that It should be adopted by the 13th of Au - gust, on which date the one year’s prelimi nary alliance between the North German Slates would expire, and pointed ont that the prompt despatch of the business before Parliament would render it possible to pro cure belore ibat time the necessary assent of the separate Diets to the scheme, and, more over, promote the settlemcntoftherelations between tbe Northern Confederation and the South. He then commented upon the eclf tacrlocing spirit displayed by the Govern ments of the different North German States, and declared that the Parliament ought not to be behindhand in this respect. “No land," he added, “so completely contains within itself all the essential conditions of greatness and nnltv as Germany, and it is justified In demanding that the Parliament should adopt measures to prevent the recur rence of calamitous crises.” Tbe Pin«*lon Army. According to a return just issued by the Prussian War Office, the total number of troops brought by Prussia into the field during the last war was 009,070. Of these, 442,440 belonged to the standing array, 129,025 to the reserve, and 97,533 to garri sons, At the close of the war there were still 100,000 troops, consisting of eighty squadrons of the Landwehr, thirty-three fourth battalions of the army, and nearly tne whole of the Landwehr ot -the second bun, who had not been called into tbe field. The Landwehr was thus distributed: Twcn ly-iour infantry battalions, of eight hundred arid two men each, were attached to the first corps of reserve ; fifty-two squadrons of civ alry to the cavalry of the lice, and ninety two Infantry battailous, fourteen squadrons of cavalry, one hundred ana twenty compa nies of artillery, and twenty six detachments of pioneers were employed in garrisons. TJte ministerial Elections— Op position Co the miuls ry—Gttrlbuldi's A«;\> ITllioiloii—Griiramlagc—The Coin* lus Political (.'Unis. [Special Correspoi-dcDce of the Chicago Tribune. Fpobesce, lialy, March 2,1507. The fervors of the election are very hot upon ns, and in the warmth of the sfnicplc nobody can estimate events very cilmly. If public opinion and the votes were on the same side, there could be little doubt as to the result. The Ministry and their Papalihe Bill are heartily condemned by a decided majority; but a large part o! this majority never votes. Garibaldi’s appeal to them will wake up a part; but habits of political life are slowly jormed, and a man will fight for an opinion on the lloor of bis coffee-house who yet will not take the trouble to vote for it at the polling booth. Garibaldi has thrown his whole weight in to ibe struggle against the Ministry. He has written a vehement manifesto and made sev eral brief speeches in same tone. It is tbe fashion to underrate bis political capacity; bat X cannot recollect that he ever condemned anything that did not stay dsmned. The cession of Nice and Savoy, the removal of the Capital to Florence, and sev eral other ca^es-occur to me, In all which tbe heart ana mind of the nation went with him. He has khled the Ecclesiastical BUI, whatever be tbe result of the elections. His condemnation of the priesthood of Italy has grown more and more pronounced from year to year, and he is rapidly shaking the foundations ot tbelr power over the masses. He is now at Venice, where he has been re c Ivtd with an entlnn-lasm which beggars the roy»l reception of last autumn. The election takes olace next Sunday—the better the day the better the deed- in this country—but as each Deputy must have a majority of all the votes cast in bis district, not mote than half the Deputies wiu actual ly be elected next Sunday. On the following Sunday there will be in those districts where no man receives a majority, a oallot between tbe two highest on the list. A good deal of schcmmg feoes on account of this awkward method. The Clericals have often used their power to get a baliot between tbeir man and the Moderate candidate. This is very easy when there aie four or five Liberal candi* dates, as often happens. Ihe people aiesluw to leant how to manage caucuses; in fact, I sometimes think that the ability to run a caucus is ibe best proof of the fitness 01 a people for liberty, and that the Italians, are fatally deficient. To lastas bew political habits on an old people is a very disc*. form of teaching old dogs new tricks,'and many wise Italians des pair noton account of ,this or that} question and its -difficulties, but because they cannot gel public opinion organized to speak. ' There Is a Calabrian proverb that “brig ends grow with, the leaves.” The explana tion Is that the “men of the mountains” abandon their profession wheu tbe snow falls, live peacabiy with their friends in the villages during tbe winter, and resume their noble, trade with.the -first.harbingers-of spring. -During tbo last week tbe- signs of coming, spring, and coming brigands are visible on the lower slopes of the Appe nines, and tbe latter manifestation is visible to instructed eyes in certain quarters of Rome. The enrolling officers of the ei»Ksng ol'Naplcs are at work, and the annual sup ply of arms has just been lauded on the coast. They have just had a grand review of the Papal troops in Rome. To get np this demonstration the frontiers word abandoned, and captious people say that one object was to leave a free road open to tbe brigands just enrolled for a summer’s work in the mountains. Across the frontier Francis 11. Is represented as bopefil, on two grounds: First, that France will put a veto on Italian movements to Rome, and, in case she is dis obeyed, will break up Italy; second, that in case tbo Ministry fail at the coming elec tions. they arc expected to make a coup d'etat , and this would prepare a revolution iu bis late Kir gdom. Both theories arc ilia eious—but Francis 11. has lived six years o n just such dreams. There is nbw no doubt that Garibaldi has made up Ms mind to put an end to the uncertainties about Rome. He will give the Ministry ample time to go there; hut if they do not go, be will. He has probably come to the mainland to stay until this question is settled. His manifestoes destroy tbe chances of the Ministry in the election; because they will doubtless induce the peo ple to take part in the elections. Still, whatever he the result, you may expect to he irformed by tbc Cable that the Ministry have won. At tbc last election in Vcuetia tl e Ministry sent out telegrams that nearly all the new Deputies were of the ministerial ptriy, ttongh only about one-fourth of then* really were so. In that case nobody look the trouble to contradict’ the story, but the Venetian Deputies voted down the Ministry. A possible combination is a San Martino- Garinaldl Ministry, iu case the Liberals win this fight. San Martino is a personal friend of the King, an old Moderate, now utterly disgusted with his narty and taking sides with the people. Nearly all the old Pied montese leaders are with btm. . All th*ncs point now to a union of Pied mont, Vencila, Sicily aid Naples against the central Provinces. Tbe Ministerial leaders arc Tuscan and Bolognese—l mean tbe lead ers of their party—nod It is believed that they have marked sectional combinations urder large liberal pretensions. . The Perteccroma, ol Milan, points ont that the Kingdom of Italy has had; nine Minis tries, with an average life of.'only seven months and six days. It is important to add that they have all belonged to the same party. Something more stable mast be reached. It cannot be got by;kecpmg on under a party wbo are going straight to bankruptcy; whose mlsgovernment is re epcntible tor those evils which Ricasoli has the effrontery to lay to the charge of the na tion. Deaudoius. THE KEW YORK CUSTOM HOUSE FRAUDS, Bore of the Jobr.son-Smyfbe-Do'OlUtle -a*erry matter. Tbc following Is an abstract of the debate in the United Stales House of Representa

tives on Friday, March 15, on the frauds in lire New York Custom House: Hulduud oflcred;a resolution request* izg the Speaker to appoint the Committee on Public Expenditures. and that such com mittee take into consideration tlie report of the committee ol tbe last House on the sub ject ol tbo New York Custom House, and report wbat action, if any, is advisable in tbc premises. In explaining bis object be referred to tbc investigation made by the committee into the allows of the New ITork Custom House, and to the card issued by Coibctor Smytbe, charging tbe committee with a spiteful animus, because of bis In* ability to make all tbc appointments that the committee asked for. That was a grave cborge, but there was not a 'shadow of foundation for it. The committee bud never asked •an appointment from Mr. Smytbe which he bad not made, bat, on tbc contrary, be bad tendered to them appointments which they never re ceived. Kefeniugalso to the denial of Sen ators Doolittleand Patterson, that they bad not received ote copper from MK Smytbe, be said the committee bad never made such charge; tbe committee bad simply reported tbc fact that Mr. Smytbe testified be had In tended to pay certain ouma to those Sena tors, and they bad not denied that there was not an arrangement of that kind. He dis missed that pait of tbesubjcct with tbe sim ple remark mat on tbc supposition that tbe committee was still in existence, bo bad ; i cen approached wiih the oiler 01 testimony i which would bring that matter yet closer home. Keleirlng to tbe charge made by Mr. Smytbe, that pait of his testimony bad been | suppressed, and all ol it distorted, he denied that there was any troth in Ic. and as- : tened that Mr. Smytbe had been in- i vited to come Injure the committee, and . to make tbe fullest statement, that be bud | ooue so, and baa subsequently come to the committee room, and revised bis testimony, : striking out and inserting whatever be chose, in inis connection he scut totbc Clerk’s desk and bad read a letter trom an assistant to tbe stenogiapber, making similar denial and as sertion. Tbe only part of Mr. Smytbu’s tes timony suppressed was tbc - answer to the question os to whether be bad ever made any presents to tbc families of Senators, that answer being: “Yes, sir; I one gave Senator Patterson’s lady forty cents’ worth of candy.” He (Mr. llulburd) bad thought that ao impertinent, eo flippant, so mean, that be directed the reporter not to takedown that answer. All of Mr. Stnytne’s testimony was iu the bunds of tbc Public ■ Pi Inter, except a portion referring to , liis having improperly procured from j -an assistant to the reporters a i report of his testimony after having been | refused it by tbc committee. Hc;declared that tbe Custom House in Wall street was, i unrer Mr. Smytbe’s administration, reeking | with corruption; and that In reference to the bonded warehouse business, a more fla gitious, improper, disreputable and disgrace ful transaction than that shown in tbe tcsli uicnv bad never been made public. Healso de clared that the evidence showed that while Mr. Srojthe look an oath every month that be received nothing for cartage, Ac., he actu ally did receive every month $250 from that source, which money was banded to his Sec retary, who kept it until the monthly oath bad been taken by tbe Collector, and then paid It over by checks or otherwise. He would never forget tbo indignation be felt when a witness testified that Mr. Smytbe bad said to him: ‘Tam d—d sorry that I ever undertook to carry tbe President’s daughters.” Mr. Smytbe, to be sure, denied that be bad said so; but tbe witness said to him; “I don’t know what you thought, I do not know wbat occasion yon bad to say so, but I do known that you used these very words.” Tbe hour allowed fur debate having closed, Mr. Uulburd was, on motion of Mr. Chan ler, permitted to continue bis remarks. Keleirtig to the name of Mrs. Perry as con nected with the investigation, be said she was no myth. Her veritable presence in tbe Executive Chamber was proved more than once, and tbc soft, low words there spoken to her. It was a proof that she was to have shared one-third of tbc profits of the general Older business, and one of the witnesses had told him, oflcr be left tbo stand, tbat Mrs. Perry bad a written agreement tothnt clfcct, and that the President of the United States had read that agreement. He character ized Mr. Smytbe as a vampire, suck ing out tbc life blood of the com merce of New York, hampering com meice, and making it subordinate to bis own personal aggrandizement and to politi cal objects. In conclusion, be relieved tbc ofliclal reporters of the House of all blame in the maiterlo which be bud referred. Tbc person who bad improperly furnished tbe testimony to Mr- Smylhe bad been only em ployed, and bad been dismissed, even before the matter became known. Mr. Cuaxler obtained the floor and de cla:ed himself an advocate of tbc reform which the report ol the committee coutcm p}atcd. Peunakdo ‘Wood obtained the floor, but yit-i- /folded it for other propositions. Mr. Ferkakdo tvcoD having resmnccl the floor, on the subject of the New York Cus tom House, gave way to Mr. Sciiexck, who pi oposed to offer a resolution Instructing the committee to inquire into the conduct of Demy A. Smythe, Collector of the Port of New York, in connection with the adminis tration ol bis office, and in connection with bis testimony and proceedings as a witness befre the Committee on Public Expendi tures, to examine into the mutters relating to the New York Custom House; and if he should appear to be guilty of bribing, or other high crimes or misdemeanors, to report by articles of im or otherwise, uith power to send for persons and papers, to examine witnesses and sit during the ses siors ( f the House and during the recess. | Mr. "Wood declined to yield to have the resolution introduced, and proceeded to ad dress the bouse. He spoke ol the bighchor aetcr which Mr. Smythe had enjoyed in New York, and of the great presume brought to bear on the President ior bis appointment by the Chamber of Commerce, the banking Institutions and the mercantile community of New York. He did not know Mr. Smythe per.-onally, he never exchanged a word with him, and never applied to him for an appointment for a friend; he was satisfied, however, that Mr. Smythe was totally unlit for the office he held. He was satisfied,from the evidence taken by the Committee on Public Expenditures, that whethercrlminal ornot, he'had not the capacity, certainly not the discretion, to fill a place of such magnitude and Importance. Referring to the statement made by Mr. Hurl bnrd, that Mr. Smythe had sworn that he had always been a Demo crat, and had afterwanis had that statement erased, Sir. Wood denied that Sir. Smythe had ever been a Democrat, or had ever voted the Democratic ticket. He was a member, in cood standing, of the Loyal League. [LauEhler.] If the statements made against Mr. Smythe were true, toe responsibility for his removal rested on the President, and if the President did not remove him, then he (Mr. Wood) was almost going to say that the President himsell should be impeached. The question was taken on Mr. Hurlbaro’s resoluilon reviving the Committee on Public Expenditures, and instructing it to continue the investigation of the New York Custom House. Tee resolution was adopted, Mr. Hurlbuku suggested thai he did not wish to be ft member of the committee, hav ing bad a sorielt ol such scavenger work, but tbc Home refused to exemehim. Mr. Scuenck then otlered bis resolution, but subsequently modified It so as to substi tute the Committee on Public Expenditure for the Judiciary Committee, and bylstnking out the instmctlots about impeachment, leaving th; action entirely to the committee. In the course of the discussion Mr. Huai- ZT&Xt's:. uubd staled that a gentleman tcld him yes teidayjbat Mr. Smytbe had told him tbe dsy befoie that he bad received a letter from •he President’s Private Secretary, assuring him that be was ail right. -..The expression being that was “ hxmkey dotej.” v i-. | ; Mr. Wood asked Hr. Halberd whether be believed that Mr. Smytbe said so. > Mr. Hulbubd. thought it very likely.' ; Mr. Wood inriher asked him whether he believed that Mr. Sinythe in; saying so told the truth. r-*' ■ Ah I, (said MrJ Smylhe In reply,) that Is quite another thine, air. But,‘ said Mr. Wood, that is tbe main thing. After some farther; discussion, Mr. Scuenck’s resolution, as modified, was adopted. A HORRIBLE TRAGEDY. Harder of a Widow TtfcCulloagb, at OlaDCbestrr, Data Deed of Revenge-Tbe HI order er Arrested. (From tbe Prmceton iWIs.) Republic, March 11] On Thursday morning, March 7th, about two o’clock the quiet people of the Tillage of Manchester, Green Lake County, Wisconsin, were aroused by the announcement that Mrs. Margaret McCullough bad been foully murdered, being shot dead through the win dow while sitting by the stove in her own house at about ten o’clock me previous even ing. Tbe news spread like wildfire, and by day light the whole country was in tbe most In tense excitement. Business was entirely neglected and a thousand wild rumors were in cbculation as in bow It was done, why it was done, wbo was guilty, and if tbe murder ers would be apprehended, and. so on. In the meantime Justice Millard, of Manchester, had cmpannrlled a jury and was holding an Inquest inquiring into the circumstances of the murder. Something over four years ago, Margaret McCullough bad been left a widow, who in about a month afterwords bore her first and only daughter to her dead husband, making the eighth child, the oldest son being then just fourteen years of age. Her farm being large, the boys conld not work all of it, and there being two small bouses upon the premises, she rented U to various tenants at one time and another, with whom she invariable managed to pick a quarrel. In fact, it is stated mat she was of a very quarrelsome disposition, but was kind-hearted, and never did any one barm more than to give them a “regular blowing up” when things did not salt her. She Is represented as a woman of very Variable and versatile feeling. At one moment she would ' curse and swear, calling down upon tbe ob ject of her opposition the most direful and awful calamities, tbe next moment would be prajiue upon her knees, tbc next, rolling upon the ground, crying with hitter tears, and the next, laughing as though her soul was the seat ol jollity. In appearance she was rather short, good looking, turning upon the entbonpoint, raven black bale, olive complexion, and tn health, rather pretty rouna lace, acd : was about thirty-eight years old. In religion a staunch Catholic, and of nationality pure Irish. About two years ago she rented her farm, or at least a part ol it, to Simon Stefeoskle, aPolander, whose family could not at that time come to the new place. He, however, boarded with Mrs. McCuilougb, and the whole family—eight children, herself and Stelenskie—slept In the small room, which was kitchen, dining room, parlor, and bed room at the same time,' crowding the sleepers pretty closely together, and, as Stefenskie has frequently averred, placed him in an awkward position by shar ing a part of his bed, which tact coming to his wile’s ears, produced discord, not so much between him and his wile as between the two families. This may or may not he true, as there is none other than Stefenskie’s word lor U. and after he hod become Mrs. McCullough’s most Implacable enemy. The families, shortly after his' occupation ofthehonEC allotted to him on the farm, which was much the better of the two, be crime embroiled in a series of quarrels, in sulting at one time in Stefensalo’s galogto Mrs. McCnllongh’s house, and brutally beat ing her with an ax handle. At'a previous time he had struck her with an ax handle, he said, for making Improper advances to wards him. Thus matters stood between the two families on Thursday at dark. The house Stefenskle lived in Is upon a road running north and north, while the one Mrs. McCullough lived in stood about forty rods from the same road, and about sixty rods in a southeasterly direction from Ste ftnskie’e. Midway between the two ran a little brook, which crossed the road at about twenty-live rods south ol Stefeoskie's house, and Just below which a path Irom a pair of bars led up to Mrs. McC.’s bouse- Some icc had accumulated on the side of the road at the crossing of the creek, near the bars, upon which was a light fluty of now, and in which a i rack having peculiar marks was observed next morning. The same track was next ob served in company with a smaller one some fifteen rods northwest of Mrs. McC.’s house. a consultation was evidently held, as several tracks were seen os if standing a minute or two, when the larger track started abruptly off from the path leading up to the bouse to the right, and went lar enough south to observe the Intended victim through the lower right hand pane of glass, from which the curtain was torn away, then mak ing a right angle advanced steadily up to the west window of the house, while the person making the smaller track had nut changed course until nearly even with the house, when a change was taken directly towards the west sifleofthe housewberethc first bad urnved. The smaller track stopped some rads fiom the house, and when the fatal shot hud been fired by the person making the bait ing step, a hasty retreat had been made by both persons, as the tracks were plainly seen for a distance of some rods in the direction of Sttfcnskie’s house, bat probably leelinga necessity for more care, the assassins soon struck thepath, when no more tracks were seen. In their retreat by the side of the larger track were seen come marks, os if made by the muzzle of the gun catching in the snow. The little house. If U hejroper to dignify tbe structure with that name, was about twelve by fifteen feet, one low story high. Seven children and their mother' occupied the two heaps of old dirty clothing they called beds, which stood side by side in the west nait of the room next to the Window, while a tabic, a shelf, a few old chairs &ud a cooking stove completed their outfit ot fur niture. The children had, with the exception oi one of tbe little boys, retired as usual. Hu nas standing behind the stove, while his mother eat before the stove, with the side of her face askant the * trdow, bathing her leet in hot water, and drinking herb tea. Having undrcssi d ready to retire, she had tied a red woollen flannel about her head, and wrapped her shoulders In an old dirty quilt. The room was dimly lighted with the sickly glimmering rays of a lighted rag In a skillet of lord which sat on tbe store, by which the piardercr saw his victim through the window. As. Mrs. McCullough was In the act of reaching out for the saucer containing her tea, a deafening crash was heard, accompa nied by a vivid flash oflight, filling theroom with sulphurous smoke and scattering pieces of glass in all directions. Alter his first mo ment of terror, the little boy ran from be hind the stove, blew oat the lamp, and aroused his elder brother, a hoy of 10 years, when they, bidding the younger children lie still, ran to the nearest American neighbor, who was at religions revival, thence to a second, with the same result. After a while, both coming home, they all returned to the scene of tbc murder, when Mr. Pendall, who .was In advance, went m and lighted Che can dle he had brought with him, was struck dumb with horror at the scene before him. Mrs. McCullough lay half upon her lea side and face, her feet, one upon tbe other, resting upon tbe pail holding the water, not a drop of which had been spilled, her right arm thrown forward and tbe lea behind her. The skull was torn in pieces of which were scattered about the room, and two of which were found in the saucer or tea, her long black hair torn and matted in tbc blood and brains, while blood com pletely covered her person, and wos spat tered upon the walls and celling. The younger children had now awakened, and looked upon the awlul sight with freezing terror, then crying and wringing their hands and calling “mother, mother.” The little girl, onfy lour years old, clung to the bloody clothes of her mother, crying, “O, mamma, wake up. Turn mamma, wake up mamma, oh, mamma, do turn wake up." Struggling and screaming, she was carried awav, too young to know that God alone could “wake mamma up."- At the inquest it was shown that the halt-, ing step of the person who committed the teiriblccrime, was an exact counterpart of that made by Steienskie, the same nail marks, tbe samb tap marks, and tbc same halting scuffle. Hu is somewhat lame In tbe right leg. His wife’s shoes made exactly tbe same track as the smaller of the two that went to tbc house. But Steienskle proved a point blank alibi. He was in Kingston at 9 o’clock and went to bed in the Kingston House, and left next morning at daylight, having walked there and back for the purpose of getting some medicine tor rheumatism. It isa singular fact that he lett a splendid pair of horses in his stable, while the roads were good. A thing he never did before. He is represented as a very close, penarioas man, who never stayed array from home, never drank, and bad no incentive for staying away from home. He started at daylight from Kingston and did not roach home, a distance of six miles, an* til ten o’clock In the morning, when no was met by three of his neighbors. He told them he bad stayed at Kingston, two or three times, apparently without any reason, acd when asked if he bad beard Mrs. Me* Cullougb was murdered, he said two or three times, “ I don’t know anything about it,” without manifesting any surprise, and without any apparent reason for his vehe ment assertion of his Ignorance of the mor der. These facta, with other strong corroborate evidence caused the jury to render a verdict implicating Stcfenskle and bis wife, and upon the Dtclimiuary examination, they were held for trial at the next term of the Conrr, which will take place at the ad journed term In May. Stcfenskle is a medium sized man, rather short, heavy set, light grey eyes, sandy whiskers, broad Jaws, and rather of a quar relsome and passionate disposition. His wife Is large, tall and stout, well pro portioned, much used to out-door labor, ircquently seen plowing In cold, stormy weather, barefooted and bare-legged, while her little girl took care of tbe smaller chil dren. She has a fair complexion, light hair, light, almost while, grey eyes, large promi nent nose, long light upper Up, broad, heavy lower jaws. When shown tbe bloody corpse ot the murderer woman, the only visiole change in her features, if there was any change at all, was enlightening of the upper lip. Another Polandcr is now under arrest as an accessory, who does not seem to be able to give a good account of bis whereabouts for a few days previ<-us to and after the mur der. As eoon'as the witness can bo pro cured, he will have an examination. js?- Of Mr. Barton’s article on Chicago, the New York Nation says that It will draw men westward. The theme Is one excel lently suited to bis tastes and abilities—a city,that Is tbe embodiment of the living present, with no past, without traditions, and with abound n» and anperaboandlog energy to go in and possess the future. He must nave gone to his work of exalting such a community with extreme pleasure. Qia faculty for clear description ard narration, for racy writing, sever before shoved to greater advantage. This article is enough -'to eesd arother pang to theibeartsof St. -Lotus and Cincinnati, and the Chicago Beard of Trade ought to vote him the .free dom of tbecity. We leave the wOrkofacnmo nicnacriticism to the Cincinnati t/aseteand Commercial and the Missouri be log ourselves content with eajing that we understand Chicago much bet»er than ever and look on it with aa admiration not oniy more intelligent but greater. THE GREAT DELUGE. A Whole City I Dder Water-XnuneMe Destruction of Property ga«ltnn.-Lo« of Life aid TwnUe SoflV rln £- Intereetln e IncMenta, [from the CbattaDOOgatTens.) Union, March 10. J For miles the land la hidden, only a few of the higher points of bills being' above the water- In Chattanooga to-night, Saturday, March 9, 1867, there is from four to eight feet ef water on all of the streets. .The loss es of onr merchants, business men and citi zens cannot be estimated, and we fear the injury to the fntnre prospects of the place can never be estimated-. Such a flood bos never been known or heard of by any one in this section, and, we sincerely hope it may never be seen again. Cances. dng-onts, akiflS. schooners, ba teaux ana barges were plying all day In dif ferent directions- There was a great scarcity of most of the above named crafts at first, but tbe necessities of the occasion made men set their wits at work, and now nearly ev ery man in town owns some kind of a water craft. On Friday a subscriber of tbe American Union, who lives some distance in the coun try, paddled a canoe from his boose to with in a tew rods of tbe office door to obtain his daily paper. We thought this was quite a huge thing, but yesterday onr carriers were compelled to carry the papers around in skiffs and canoes to leave them with sub scribers. Many of the latter were not at home when they called, and the papers had to be brought back to the office. Residents in the suburbs were forced, on Friday night, to take to the roofs of their houses. In numerous Instances, and remain there until taken off by boats the next morn ing. Frequent capsizes of boats took place, aud the occupants were only rescued from their perilous positions after great difficulty. Daring tbe morning a large mill went down the river. The water wheel was still attached to It, and it soiled along as if It was proud of the feat it was accomplishing. At the river bank nothing could be seen but water outspread as far as tbe eye could reach. The current was still very swift, and considerable drift wood was running down. The water was np to the base of the lime kiln on tbe cliff above town. This shows that the water bos risen fifty feet, tbe base of tbe kiln being about that distance abate the average stage of water. On the bank below Cameron Hill, scarcely anything can be seen of tbe numerous build* itigs which stood there on Monday lost. Nearly everything has been swept away. At least one hundred buildings have gone from that part of the town alrne. Market street, from the river to the depot, a distance of a mite, is under water, with the exception of a small portion of tbe middle of the roadway each side ofThlid street. Mr. Parham, one of our well-known citl zeos. was Instrumental in rescuing over a bundled people, living In The country be yond Fort Wood, aud taking them to the high grounds. Chaplain Van Horn and fam ily. living at the National Cemetery, weie brought off by him and taken to ms boose. I from 'he Chattanooga Union. March 12 ] The waters continued to rise during Satur day night and Sunday. On Sunday night they rose seven incles between nightfall and daylight. During Monday morning they were on a stand, and abont noon they began to fall. From that time to twelve o’clock at night tbev fell five Inches, and by daylight this morning we expect to find that tbe flood bas subsided at least one foot. Large- barges and scows, flat boats and trading boats, floated up Market street and around Ninth, past tbe Crutchfield House, ont Chestnut street, past the remains of Butlertown, around Seminary Hill, and In fact everywhere. It is stated that tbe back water extends up Lookout Valley to a distance of forty miles from tbe river. The steamer Cherokee, on her trip down the river, steamed across the country three miles, to the town of Washington, county seat of Rhea County, forty miles from here. Her officers took every man, woman and child who remained in town on board, and after giving them an excursion around the subuiba ot their town, took them back again. The flood is up over the eaves of most of the houses in Harrison, and the Inhabitants have taken to the high bill on which the seminary stands. It is feared that they will suffer lor want of provisions. Nearly every building on the river bank below Cameron Hill has been swept off. The large brown colored frame building which stands there has been damaged Immensely. Tbe building is nearly three hundred feet long. About one-half of It is already gone, and tbe rest of it is badly broken up. Tbe water -stood five feet deep in the American Union building yesterday morning. The paper has been published regularly every morning without the loss of a single iasne. The employes, and all others who had busi ness to transact with the office, were com pelled to land in a boat on the stairs. The Jiemtbliean office has been completely ruined. The wnterwas up nearly to tfieceil lng of the first story yesterday morning. Locomotive engines standing on the track in the depot yard, are covered by the water, leaving nothing bat their bells and smoke stacks visible. MARTIAL LAW. Yesterday rooming, a petition signed by about one hundred of the property owners and businessmen of this city, was presented to Major Kline, commanding the troops at tbe post, requesting him to proclaim mar tial law, and interfere to protect tae citizens horn the bands of roving scoundrels who were plundering the deserted stores. Alter a consultation with His Honor, Mayor Carr, Major Kline issued the following order: hEAioiaiLTriis Post, Ciuttaaooga, March 11, ~ , n o# j 2 Tt , —’• 67 General Order?, Ho. 12. In accoio~—~ wnh the wishes of the Major and property hold err, the dlyofChatta'Oosaishereuy placed un der martial law. All skins, barges, ilamoats, etc., will be seized and used by the military for the purpose ol moving furniture, unless Jfcey nola permits from me Major, or trom these head* unaitere. Jacob Klos. Captain Twcnty-flfih Infantry, TJ. a. A., Com. Post. Two companies of men, in choree of a commissioned officer, were sent out during the morning, and guards stationed at the foot of every street on both sides of the over flow, with orders to take every boat as soon as it landed. [From the Chattanooga Delon, March 13.'} Darius yesterday oar merchants and tmsi uess men were busily engaged in attending to their stores and stocks, the waters baring fallen sufficiently to allow boats to enter tbe first floors of all on Market (street. Mad over an inch deep Las settled on everything which iLc receding waters brings to the light, and the labor and expense of cleaning shelving, counters and floors will be a very heavy item on the list ol losses occasioned by tbe flood. Tbe vast Quantities of drift wood which floated up Market street in the last font days has been very destructive to panes of glass in bulk windows of stores, and to glass doors. We noticed yesterday great numbers of panes which had beei broken in this way. Rations were issued by the city authorities, yestuday, to the hundreds of poor, white and black, who swarm in oar city, and whose penury has been increased by the loss of their habitations and huts. Tbe city author* Hies have labored energetically In this work, and merit great praise for their efforts. Shots coaid be heard during last night in various parts of the city. We suppose they were fired by some of tbe soldiers on duty at men prowling around in canoes, who refused to come to when ordered, or else by some of the police or citizens at suspicious charac ters. Buildings have been carried off from every part of the city. Some of them are lodged within tbe corporation limits, oa blub spots ol ground, or have canght on posts and held till the waters went down, when they over turned and nuw lie in every odd manner on the streets. [Fiona tbe Chattanooga Union, March 14. J LOSS OP UPS. No reliable estimate can be made as yet oi the number ofindivlduals who have perished by the flood. We can only give a few well* authenticated accounts, trim which oar readers can judge ol the probable Dumber. Between nine aud ten o’clock on Saturday night, cries were beard as from two men in the water, in Railroad street, opposite the Crutchfield House. Their cries were mingled with splashlngs in the water, which lasted for a couple of minutes, when all became quiet, and it is feared that some unfortunate men sank to rise no more. A small boat, containing three men, capsized between tbe Episcopal . and Presbyteiian churches, at Seventh aud Chestnut streets, on Saturday morning, Ho boats were near to render them any aid, and none of them seemed to know bow to swim. After several vain endeavors to climb upon their boat, they finally went down. A Irame building with three men on it floated across Sutlcrtown late on Sunday evening. Two of them slipped off the roof somehow, and in attempting ; to get back, it turned over on them, throw ing the third man off, and burying the other two underneath it. A gentleman informs os that he baa counted fifteen bodies of men, women and children, w bite and black, float past his p'acc, ou the Lookout Mountain road. A negro ’ man was drowned near the upper end ol tbe depot jard, on Saturday afternoon, and a white man lost by bis boat swamping near the old Soldiers* Home, corner of ninth and Pino streets. As wc said before, no estimate can be made of the number of lives lost, but we have no doubt that it Is very large. Probably the fall number will never be known. Death ot Hiram Woodruff, the Veteran Turtman. (From the New York Herald, March 16.] At three o’clock yesterday morning this famous veteran of the turf ttied, at his resi dence on Long Island, of an attack of con gestion ol the lungs, added to the liver com plaint. Mr. Woodruff was bom in Backs County, Pa., on the 22d of February, 1817. His lather and uncle were well-known turfmen, and rrom them he obtained his first knowledge of the manner in which a horse should be trained. When quite a lad he removed to Philadelphia, and In that city and Baltimore first appeared as a jockey. The remarkable success vbflt attended nearly all the horses h» rede soon brought him Into notice, and upon bis removal to New York be was sought rfterhy numbers of owners of horses, who deshedto secure Lis cervices for the racing seasons. Sts reputation as a trainer and rider, however, cud not become established uutil he was put in possession of the famous trotting boise, Dutchman. After a coarse of careihl training, in IS£>, he rode Dutch man a three-mile heat forsl,o3o against time, and came cot winner, having made the dis tance in seven minutes and thirty -two and a half seconds. The extraordinary time made In this race fully established his reputation as being the first turfman in the country. lie now settled in life as a profes sional jockey, obtaining os many oflers for his services as be could possibly accept. In deed, it Is doubtful if there were or are in this country any trotting horses of note with which be had not something to do at times, either in training or in handling the ribbons. The confidence reposed In his ability a&d honesty were unbounded, and be never felled to do fell justice to those who era ployed him. - Tie rapid strides which hate been made Jo deTeioplsg the speed of trotting horses la this country during the "put twenty .years are more due to Mr. Woodruff thin to any other member of the turf. Hs-was, id feet, the pioneer of America 'in hfa profession. After Dutchman he trained and drove Kip* ten, Confidence, flora Temple, Rose- of 'Washington, Boston Girl, Lady Woodruff and Dealer, together with many other well* known trotting horses. One of his most fatuous races was the trotting match be tween Rspton and Lady Sutton; Hiram d.ove Ripton, end to the astonishment of all, lost the first beat. The excitement became in .uterse, and heavr odds were offered against bis winning the race. Upon hU appearing for the second heat every eye was upon him, and -when the hoises started tbe crowd was treated with a hriihant exhibition oi jockey ship. The result was that he won tbe two last heats and the race, aod came in wiener amid the deafening applause of both win ners and losers, all parties being: satisfied that it was entirely owing to his skill as a driver that the success was achieved. An other famous and exciting contest in which he was successful was his race on tbe Union Coarse some twelve years ago.whcn he too* Kemble Jackson and defeated O’Bleonis.lola, Prince and Boston Girl. Mr. Woodruff was was probably the first man on record who drove a horse in a race without traces. This he did in 1857 with Boston Girl. Be ing a very hard puller, and tbe traces dangling about her legs on tbe first heat, Iliram ordered the “Dutch collar” and traces to be taken off. The order was obey ed, and he won tbe next two heats with ease, nothing drawing tbe vehicle but tbe reins. On the 2d of September, 1856, Mr. Woodruff drove Flora Temple in harness acalnst Tacony, on the Union Course, and came out winner in making the qn ck est time then on record. The excitement that was manifested in tbe snorting world when this achievement became known bas never since been equalled, not excepting that caused by Dexter’s achievement of 3:18 since that time. Although be was not possessed of a lib eral education. Mr. Woodruff was a man of sound knowledge and ability. His success was not wholly due to his masterly atreneth, tbe sensitiveness of bis hand nor the quick ness of his eye. It was principally owing to bis carefnl study of the horse, which en abled him to decide what was the best to be done and what the capacity of the animal was. He never baoyed up the owner of a horse with hopes which he knew could never be fulfilled, but plainly and candidly told whether, in his opinion, the animal was likely to win or lose. And this same honest candor was apparent in ail his dealings, lie never sold a race, but always tried to win. CHIGNONS. The Trade In Human Hair—Statements and Statistic*—Tbe Secret Horror* of the CoilfniT—ChttreU Yard, Hospital and other Varieties of Hair. IFiomlbeNewYotlc World, March 10] There are four houses In New York that make the importing of human hair their sole business. The hair is procured from the French ana German markets, irom Russia, and each places on the Continent of Europe where the trade in that article Is made a specialty. The amount of hair annually im ported is valued at from $500,000 to *1,000,000, and is taxed by a dirty of forty per cent. Oi the varieties, the German hair is considered by connoisseurs as the beat. It is the largest and finest, though from cer tain Provinces in France the hair procurable Is ot the best possible description. Made into chignons, wigs, plaits, fronts and such like, hair in New York has a ready sale. The price of hair varies Irom $0 to slf» per pound, except in the case or grey or white hair, when as much as $l5O and S2OO is considered not too [exorbi tant a price. "White hair is of coarse the most scarce, the shafts having to he picked from the grey, so probably tbonsaods of pounds of hair have to be gone through before being able to get as much as one pound of white. The $0 a pound hair is, of course, not of a very fine texture, nor ol a veiy delicate hue; texture, hue and length improve with the price. One ot the princi pal requirements in hair to make it valuable Is length, and the task of sorting the various lengths Is one of immense difficulty. The . hair, before arriving In this country, under f.oes a number of operations In order to make t thoroughly clean and free It entirely from oil. One of the largest importers in the city informed ns yesterday that, from the nature ot the process the hair had to undergo, it was next to impossible that any insect, whether grcgarlne or nediculi. could remain in it. He stated that the hair be had was submitted to a powerful microscope, with a result only showing the beauty and fineness of its tex ture. LIVING AND DEAD HAIB- By living and dead hair la meant hair re moved from the bead while its owner was alive, and ati eontrarie, hair removed after death. To a connoisseur, or one in the trade, the two are possible of easy discrimi nation; bat a purchaser would have some difficulty in determining whether the hair offered for sale was of an ante-mortem or post-mortem date. It is asserted i that post mortem hair can never be made to equal the other in gloss or appearance. It may be washed and scoured,steamed and fumigated, but tbe taint of disease will always cling to it. This portion ot the subject is necessarily a horrifying one, and yet tbe truth mast be told. Of this dead hair a vast quantity is in the New York as well as the London and Paris markets. Fedlers through the New England States often return to New York from a trip with several pounds of hair which has been secured from loved heads by loving patents, and exchanged for soap, orpios, or something of that sort. This is a reality, and its correctness may be asccrtafr ed by a visit to any dealer in hair, who will tell you the article is frequently offered him for sale, and of coarse (?) re fused indignantly by him. Incur city hos pitals, too, quantities of hair are procurable, it is rot then to be wondered at when it Is stated that taints, scrofula, fever, cholera, and all such diseases lurk in the hair that is used for the adornment ot the human bead. The London Lancet on this subject thus speaks: “ The fact is certain that many la dies carry about them m their 'chignons' tbe seeds of ringworm—an Intractable malady. There is also a novel species of false hair in tbe market, it is called ‘churchyard hair,’ and consists not only of tbe shafts but tbe roots also, and hence must have been pulled from the scalps of the dead.” If the Lancet were to go futther still U would not be far out as regards the truth of its statement. Ibere is not an infectious disease known that does dot convey itself to tbe hair of the suf ferer, and yet this “churchyard” hair in smooth braids forms part of the chignon that may be worn by the most fashionable of fashionables. Thus does death lurk amid their waving tresses, and “all the ills that flesh is heir to” lie hidden in the depths of gorgeous compares. CHIGNONS AND THEIH COMPOSITION. A chignon may be purchased lor $l5O and at any sum up to S3O. A chignon of human, and what Is said to be living oair, cannot be bed under $lO. By far the majority sold av erage under this latter price, and so must consist ol the article cbeer/ully character ized by tbe Lancet as “churchyard,” or, at best, hospital oair. Each week men make it their business to visit the various barbers’ shops in tbe city and purchase tbe varicol ored clippings of tbe week. These clippings are, ol course, neither clean nor choice, and yet teven-eigbths of the chignons lathe mar ket are stalled with this questionable mate rial. The outer covering Is composed of a thin layer of the prepared article, but tbe bnlk is made ol tbe retnsc of tbe bar bers’ shops. Horse hair and sheep’s wool also often Jorm ingredients of this fashionable head-dress. Tbe shifts arc many to wbieb those young ladles resort who cannot afford to pay high prices for tbe better article, though it scarcely seems that there could be much choice in articlenone of which are very desirable. Consequently, the sooner womankind universally discard their use the better for all. They have never been handsome ornaments, and decidedly arc not the cleanest capital appendages. Let them be consigned to the furnace or the ash- bane), and permit a speedy dissolution of their elements to destroy grcgarines, pedicull, inlection, and all the many hidden terrors for which they are remarkable. THE ST. CLAIR FLATS. Adoption of a Hew Plan for Obviating tbe Obstruction*—Tbe Work to be speedfiy Commenced. [From me Detroit Post, March IS.] By last mail, orders irem the Engineer De partment leached the engineer officer in charge of our river and harbor Improve ments, directing General Cram to discontinue all operations he may have commenced upon the pretent crooked old channel of St. Clair Flats, and to make tbe necessary arrange meets lor commencing the work, upon tbe proposed new channel without delay. SSO,- 000 of let and $150,000 of this year’s appro priation wLI be available with which to comments the work. It is alio understood that the Chief of the Engineer Department obtained the approval of the Secretary of War, and transmitted that to General Cram for the work, which it was gennally believed, though not before officially promulgated, was directed by Con gress “to be made and tbe money expended in accordance with the plans and specifica tions of General Cram, as recommended in his report of December 10, i 860.- The es sential feature) of tbe plan will be ascer latntd by rcadttg tbe resume given, below. The Chief Eb'ineer reports to the Secre tary of War tbit tbe canal will fall within the United Stabs territory, os shown by tbe maps and reports of the boundary commis sion. ; General Crans finds that the actual amount In momy yaiu yearly for towage, pilotage, groundug damages and collisions, Isncuiiy $500,000 At the present period this Is the sum diectly chargeable to the ex isting channel though the flat annually, ex clusive of the amounts chargeable lor tow age iu the other puces of the rivers between Lake Erie and Hubd. Now, this hail a mil lion Is only a part of the tax that will be lifted from our commerce annually by a pro per improvement; tie other part of the tax which will also he HLed, will be the tious to which vessels ate now subject as a direct consequence ofthccrookeduess. The value of this loss is difficult of precise esti mation, bnt reliable met engaged in the lake navigation place It from $250,000 to $500.000; if we take the lovest estimation, the total tax upon the comuerce annually is in round numbers $750,000. We arc happy to learn, from the beat aa thority, that preparations will be made du ring the coming week for inviting proposal; for the woik by contract. „ , “General Cram, in his report to Department, ertlmatea that the ? deepening and preserving the sides o' of thl- crooked channel/ will coat the Govern ment $371,130. • • * Mina}were '•ByactofCongrfSs, Jnne2B,lSG6,sSfl. (m-i. appropriated ‘for the Improvement of Clair flats,’without specifying anr d or rente to be Improved; and■ h. (He of JSj’.'SSpSrSrSSS chance* of the P^ ,d unnecessary and proper. Improvement « ,> e hr the law, tjen “thAer a joaoamJon the present crook cral Cram p«»i < ral2bl „j,j d canal from the ed, ?2 u vff" l thi r«*. directly across the SS tt tato ibe lake, which will be only one and a ft , iS««» long, tbereuy saving one mile at least, ***** tare a depth ol thirteen feet below the £SSn aiisE of water, and . width of 300 between Ita banks, wbica are to be ventral on ihe sides next to the caul, and pro toe tea by a drborerelment, aid to rlae Ore f«tt aboroibe iirfice of Uie laHwud tolto tmi.leat teat wide on lop, including an melfe leetlnlctaeaa of djac - debarks tote made ol the material dtaTaUt ioio<mtnecaxti. “The only perishable part will be I bet portico a it-«Wbc4vo>kat the'Qjlea tbote wafer, which to herp ip i epair, is estimated 10 coat leva per aa nun (hamLeiaauueaaaceof the l>«hus*obQoj> t»ees»ary tor the prrrent crooked channel, aoo which would be dispensed with ter the atrsbrhl caoat. -,v “ Ihe hanks ore to be sloped ol the ride nett cc the Jake water. and he adduces the cxtUos b»»kt of the United Stales Ship Cass), cni m iaabrtd Id the Biter Fan-m directly to Jake Erie, to JSK, aa an example, ahowh.2 how Umber «|it spout* ntonsly pi ow oc banks » hose so.l Is brought op oy ezravacoi'. Ibere trees have crown in twea* It years to tbe size ot twenty Inches la rlametcr, wjttontsnt losiery? other than whit ram* e has bestowed, and, be says that by care la x plan'icc, and attention a£erwa<d*, xesrtavioa ' n at in niew years be made Babes'rad dooiUalnc on the banks oi hia proposed canal across Sl Clair and thereby pive them a lnun; aci • taedtseme character. He also provide* for pre venting Injnry to the outer or lake slope? of the backs from what mlrbl bo aworebraded from the lake waxes and currents, which by ob*erxai'onj rwecily and specialty directed uereCo t are above to be oi (b all force. “ Ihe esilie cost of the canal Is estimated «t f42?.TW, and to be complrt'-d, if commenced next spring. by the winter of ISCS. “Such a ratal would allow sell vessels, trader i fair wind, to pass without being towed day mi night. i*lU*e the commerce of an tax now borne r t more than fSCh.OUJ on accutut of its b» mg straight, wide and deep, and a mile snorter, and would also lelievetc of the tax for detentloi under which It now labors And it is sbo«n that, in a pecuniary point of view, U c advantage ta - commerce which me canal, when completes w« uld bestow oerr and abote what the preset crooked channel, improved lo It* highest degree, comd besluvr. is fGis,t 00 annually. And It u al*> shown that tbe total coal of the canal weald dj only seven-eighths of the smoant of lax for eau fljre, towage, pilotage, iliomlnaton and huoj ine now annually expended, anl which would be lilted from tbs commerce in one year alter'ompletlog the canal. The canal would thus pay tor Us whole cost in less Uun one season of navigation alter Its com pletion. Nor would thU plan require the ernen allure of the S'O.UO recently appropriat'd 'or range lights any more than to construct two tv cot* lights, one on each extremity or one of < banks. Ihe present lighthouse rang* Irphis, Deacon lights, and system of buoys cmft he dispensed with os being no longer necessa^ “The forccolig are the principal reasons for recommending the £nmreer Department to use Ihe Don. Secretary of War to calf upon Cougre-H to make (besides toe erdslleg fSO.OW) snappy prlailon. dumur the present session, ot and another appropriation of (be same amount s its next lollowlnff session, for the conatrocuon «f the canal, lather than to call for appropmaon for improving the old roa:>-. “General cram eays; ‘Very few channels tf commerce pres-ut such a constant stream of past ing vessels as eeea during the reason ol navi/*- lion in the ctatnel of (be ilar. Tbe connled i.un* her of mgs, steamers,propellers, scows, barge, sleep*, and schooners that parsed through ufroi April 1 to December 1-1, !Sod, averaged eighty-sx daily, besides many known to have passed in lb night, which were not recorded Th ■ immeos timber foils that passed averaged ore a day frot June 15 to September 15. these are extreme/ dangerous to versels which attempt to ca-a a* tS come time. In October, ISCG. a gentleman ol »- radty informed me, that while he was detained a coming ibronch. he coanted one hundred vesss in the crooked portions of the channel at oe time, etrngglingto ret toronch, and that tbe jai at the currentar tbe light bouse «as tearful.’ “Mich a CMis'ant stream of vcsceis wool hinder tbe operation* of dredging bv at Km on tbiid of ti e "time h> the old channel. Whereas, i dredging ana all other openness lor eon-tract tg the cacal no inch hindrance wan'd he e perienetd. for the present channel would be tuao to (.office lor the navigation while construe*!? tbe canal. •* It may be asserted, without the fear of co trtdlcKor, since the present cut wns dredge, more money bas been spent In hiring lags to ter through tbe present channel than u would ect twice over to make tbe proposed canal.’' ISECONSTBIICTION. General Schofield** First General Orde, [Piom the Cincinnati Commercial, March IS.J The drift of public sentiment in the Sout seems to be In favor of reorganizing the* State Governments under the law oi Uo» gre>s. Rebels are driven into this by th fear that the few Union men and the uegroi will do the work by themselves, and o*uaii as in Tenntssec and Missouri, the precedecc and power ot t epresentalion in Congress That the President Is powerless to aid lb South, and that his plan of reconstructio is a failure, is too obvious to he dispute* even by rebels, and mere is a dispoaittu manifesting itself in many quarters to cent the situation as it is. It Congress woul only get through with Its supplemental le> itlaiion, there is reason to hope that tb conquered people of the South will presea ly make reconstructive submission. ■ Of course we can not expect much to t done before Congress crowns the cuific-c f its policy. The General Order No-1 ol Gu eral Schofield, upon taking command of to Bi.-trict of Virginia, i? os follows, ami iiif general interest, showirg practically h«r this thing Is to be done; HZADqUABTEU’* If lO9T DISTRICT. 1 STATU or VIRGINIA. [ Richmond, Va., March 13, 1557. | General Oidera, So 1. 1. In compliance with on order of the President the ncneisigned hereby command o* tb *i:st District. State ol Virginia, under the acto Congress oi Marco 2,15C7. JJ. All officeis under ibe exiting Prunsiom Government ol tbe bum of Virginia, will centum io periona the antics of iheir respective offleet according to law, unless oifierwise hereafter o> tiered m individual cases, until tbdr stuccssoi shall be only elected r.nd quaUflid in accordano with the above-named act ot Concuss. 111. it la desirable *oat the mill air power co> ferreti b« the before-mentioned act be ci<rcisj only so far as may be nec epary to accomplish ib objects for which that power was conferred; ad the onoerargied appeals to the people oi Vii plain, and especial; to magistrates uni otbe civil officers, to render the neceanliy lor the exe> cist ot this power as might as possible, by atrle übtoiecce to the laws, and by Impartial admin l uatlob of justice to all classes. IV. Ibe stas officers no* on doty at Ucac quarters Department or tbe Po'Otnac, are assignti to corresponding duties at Headquarters Fir* District, State of Virginia. J. M. Sonomxn, Brevet Major General U. j>. A. This is what Slate sovereignty has trough Old Virginia to. The leader of the Rich mond L'nquirer of tbe 1-lth is headed “ Firs District.” General Schofield is complimented, as commanding the bop acd confidence of the people ** it the civil a;- ihority of our State must bo subord<natd and overruled.” And the Enquirer rcmaiki: Ibe ihhd paragraph cl ineotcle:* tdUbrespt dally pleasing ana soothing to iho people, on a> ''oust of the self-imposed reaUainu* and ihe esc«i lent spirit according to which it sires gaaran'ee tr at the military power mil be administ rei. We cordially and confidently nnltc in trapped 10 the people ol Virginia, and to the magL-trata and other avil officer*, to display in their cor doct “a strict obedience to the lans.” and “an in partial administration or Justice.” leased wt claim wlib the fullest coiTicnon. that tbe bearing ol ynr people and their officials in these reapeeb bave been such as to famish Ia» fewer exception lo a universal good oider and propriety, among any similar number of dozens tn the sates north of us. Ilisverv * unbcfus. II is very ‘stisCartorj lo Ituo-viial a like conduct Is tbe future will be acknowledged by forbearing to icterrupt Ihe eatabllabert coubc oi law and justice among us. We have smug hope that our people will be left to pursue tleii eevctal avocations In aoco peace uoil frtrebm irojn molestation. that Icey will but seldom be e» nusoed of tbe sew role t ow over na. Al. ARABIA. A Radical Convention at HunuvilK On the iourth of March, a Convention ur der lead of Jndge Saffold, Judge Humphrey Mr. J. C. Keffer, and other well-known cit zens of Alabama, assembled at Buntsviil Ibe movement oricinated entirely wit white men, but bad tbe support of all tb pi eminent representatives of the colore' * men. GeneralWagerSwayoe, among o’henr ; j addressed the Convention at length. Oftl many radical resolutions adopted, the fal- j lowing arc the most interesting: jtetolved. That the rejection ol the ataecdmcn proposed to tbe Constitution of the United States j known as tbe 14th Article, by the Southern i bas Induced tbe action upon tbe part of the Ic?1f lathe power of the Union in adoption other am ' mote radical measures to suppress tbe spirit o ‘ rebellion and the political idea of State autagui; I ism to Federal control. • I lietolvttU That the policy of Inactivity ea') pressed by tbe opponents of Coocreas. and th • reiceal to participate is tbe restoration policy < the law-making department ol tbe Union, la th ‘I work of a weli-known hostility to the Union, aoc 1 in me judemext of this Convention, no measure '• compatible with (be rafety of republican coven j ment could be adopted that would satisfy tbi ‘i opposir g element. * Jietolud, ibat property qualification attache 1} to tbe rght of btuhage la antt republican an. S dar e* tons to tbe bbeiuc* of tbe people. [t Hetolctd, That we recommend tome true Unit* j men or»l»t different counties lu tbe State to bol 'j county meetings tdtUln the neit sixty days, an • that meet mecungs vend delegates to a geien Convention, to be held in tbe State Capitol, i V such time as may be appointed by the Execottv .» Committee. 1 A State Conventlonbas been called to mee at Montgomery early in May, to take forma steps to reconstruct Alabama on the co: ditiona of Congress. A Terrific Gnnpotvder Explosion 1 England. The English papers give details of tl severe explosion of gunpowder which o • caned on the Loudon «s Northwestern Rat way, just before midnight on February 26il It happened at Clifton, near Penrith, ant 1 from tee accounts, it appears that as ; Ireigbt train was passing Clifton, the axle <i one of the cars broke. Alter j roceeding short distance, the car ran off the rails, ao then general confusion ensued. Other can including one which contained about toe tons of gunpowder, ran off, and the trai was speedily brought to a standstill. Tbe gunpowder car, along with anothe containing salt, was “slewed” upon th other track, and thus the whole of tbe roa was entirely blocked up. Hot Tong after tfc accident happened a freight train came u[ and the contusion was so great that aufficiet means were not taken to check it, and ia lew minutes the engine came into coliisio with the gunpowder car. Either the concoi sion which ensued,{or tbe sparks emirie from tbe engines, produced one of the on* terrific disasters ever witnessed.oua rail wav for the moment after the engine struck th car all the powder it contained explode with fearful force. The entire four tons of gunpowder blew u In cne vast cloud of smoke and flame, tb; latter Illuminating the eutire district, an ‘ the explosion seemed to shake it thirty t its centre. The earth quivered as il in th throes of an earthquake, and the shock tei rifled people for miles around. Cars ao goods of all sorts were whirled about i every direction, and a scene of deAructio seldom, if ever, witnessed on a railway wa presented. The driver and stoker of the engine whic' ran Into the powder car were insranlly kill ed. Goods contained in both trains were se on Are, as were also some of the cars, aoi. they continued to bnm lor boars. The shoe: of the explosion was heard for sixteen a twenty miles, and the windows ot housa three or four miles distant ani in some Instances broken. About sixboua and a half elapsed before the road ws cleared. Xne Proposed Bridge Acroaa the Sllasir alppl at DQbnqne. We learn from the Doboque TimerofMarc 16th, that quite a number of the busines men of Dubuque gathered on ’Change o. Friday afternoon for the. purpose of takin: action towards the organization of a bridie xompany, to bridge the Mississippi at tb;t P«nt. The following resolutions WC jc adtfted: Thai we strongly favor aid will do til, ic rot*h ,' ° { a 1 con#trncUos of a bridjv Jnfl“n«wT ‘ S . PI>I slv5 Iv ' r atlb “ point, by at rtSnttt'SLi ! *.v ,cek ““PMT. wnlcs bnilrt „“ lh ' oac of all tailrcad contpan Me It on equal tertna. datlon of tbvri a i.‘ our i 1 gtnent. the conaoll mr,Jlrcidl^bMni: * Sloni Ctijr Eailroad with “ , de"lm?itii , . cf “>? ?«al« rarer w„„ld 'Northern lowa ® Interests of Dtbnque sod would forever defeat tbecoa •'"n™§ e”er “■> deprf'en.of”. rafting more than one railroad ♦?^ n «XiM^ e rtfL.?Bf tlj « rrh r* )r *cticil]y denying this portion aUmar- Letn except v-hicago SuscnmlnaUag freight Vii-