Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune, March 26, 1867, Page 2

Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune dated March 26, 1867 Page 2
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(JUjicaga Slribmtt. DAILY, TRI-WEEELY AHB WEEKLY. OFFICE, Ho. SI CLABH.-9T. Thee ere three editions of the TEmcin usoed. lit. Etbj wwbuic, for circulation by carrier*, newsmen and the ««»*- ad. The ist-TTimr, Mondays, Wed B*d*y* Fridays, lor th* mail* only; sad the Wssszt, on Thursdays, tor the malls and aaleatonr toaster and hy newsmen. Term* oribe chlouto Tribune: DUU taup* a tM mr <pg Daltf, to in»o «nl)»crU>cT* (per annum, pay a- __ bieln tdTiacc) ••»••• 13.00 fper anrtim. psyablc la advance! 6.00 Wetilj, (per annum. payable Is advance) 3.00 tr Fractional parts ol me year at tbe same rates, jypfiaon* remitting ana ordering five or more copses of dtoer.tiie Trt-Weetly or Weekly edition', jjjjj- retain ten per cent nf tie subscription price as a consnißstos. KOTIOX TO BUB8CBT»»"' .—ln ordering the address 01 four papers changed. «o orenmt delay, be sure aod specify whatedition yoo take—weetly, Trl-WecMy, or Daily. Also, plTeyoarPEKHViandfatureaddrcaa fW Money, by Draft, Kxpreaa. Money orders, or la fiCEiilertd Letters, may be rat at our rlsi. Address, TRIBONE CO„ Chicago, 111. TUESDAY, MARCH 20, ISC7. THE OOCBS OF LABOR. ■We publish this morning that portion of he Beport of the Massachusetts Commis sioners on the Hours of Labor which relates to the eight-hour question. We also pub lish the communication of “ Mechanic” on the same subject The investigations of the Massachusetts Commission extended through several months. The report is adverse to the proposed Eight-Honr Law. Mr. Edward H. Rogers, a member of the Commission, mates a long minority report in its favor. The style of Mr. B.’s report is very unfortu nate for his ease. He has burled his points in a mass of quotations of both prose and poetry, having little reference to the subject, aid certain to weary and repel the reader before he comprehends what duty the Com missioner is engaged upon. He occupies a fall hundred pages of the pamphlet, while the majority occupy only forty pages. In con clusion, be recommends the enactment of ten hours as a legal standard fora day's labor for factory and farm work, and of eight hours for mechanical labor, in the absence of contracts. The reasoning of the majority of tbc committee is clear, and, as wc think, conclusive. and we recommend its careful perusal by all persons interested in the sub ject. It proceeds on the theory that every freeman twenty-one years of age has the natural right to dispose of Irs labor as he may choose or may be able to agree ; that, in fact, a labor contiact should rest on tne same legal basis as any other contract, being a matter between individuals with which the Stuie has not the right to inter fere. It points cut the fallacy of the ex pectation that by working only eight hours the laborer will be üble to command tbc same wages he does by working ten, and presents other phases of the subject which the laboring men will do well to study carefully. It refers also to the loss of pro duction caused by the suspension of two hours’ operation of all the steam machinery in the Slate, for want of workmen to di rect it. The communication of “Mechanic,” al though written in the interest of the eight tour movement, seems to us well calculated to bring that movement into disrepute. It is grounded upon the theory that a man can perform as much labor in eight hours as he can in ten. Indeed, “Mechanic” thinks he can do as much in six hours as he can in ten, and is inclined to the opinion that he can do more. The Massachusetts Commissioners are of a different opinion. They believe that while a reduction of two hours from a da»’s . work would not make the full difference of one-fifth in the amount of labor accomplished, it would cer tainly make a difference of one-sixth.. Of this there can be no reasonable donbt, and the only wonder is that any man should argue to the contrary. The spirit of “Me chanic’s” letter is as reprehensible as its argument is illogical and absurd. Qc ap peals to the prejudices of the poor against the rich, the laborer against the employ er. He compares the condition of the Korlhem laborer with that of the Southern slave; he recognizes an ir repressible conflict between capital and labor, and represents tbe latter as univer sally the oppressed victim of tbe former. All this is wrong. We do not deny that the laboring men are often the victims of the cupidity and heartlessness of their em ployers; but no such Irrepressible conflict between labor and capital exists. The price of labor Is regulated by the law of supply and demand, as much os the value of money or any commodity in the market. It always has been so, and always will be so ; and the attempt to regu late it by arbitrary legislation will prove futile. Something may be done—we hope and believe that much will be done—through the co-operative system, to secure to labor a larger share of profits than it now receives. This is a peaceful and proper remedy, which violates no laws of political economy, and does not seek to gain Us cuds by arbitrarily calling eight hours ten hours. It leads to no war between labor and capital. Both labor and capital will have abundant avenues for profitable employment as long as tbe world stands and the sun shines, ifleft to their nat ural instincts unfettered by restrictive and compulsory stututes. The great mass of the successful business meu of the country have come up from poverty, jrom the mechanic shop or the farm,and won their way to tbe rank they now hold. The exceptions to the rule are few; for every successful business man born rich there is a whole regiment of those who came up from the ranks of 1011. How could this have been under a system of irrepressible warfare be tween capital and labor—a system under which the working man is always oppressed and ground to the earth, while his employer always gets rich ? The remarks of our correspondent about slavery have no connection with the subject. The course of the Tribune has not changed; It is the enemy of oppression and wrong everywhere; bnt it docs not believe eight is the same thing as ten, or that four-fifths of a thing is the same as five-filths. Because it is the enemy of oppression it opposes a system which seeks to take from the laboring man tLe right to dispose of his labor as he pleases—the right to work as many hours each day as he chooses. Take away this right and he has nothing left. We deny utterly that the “master oittw his mechanic” during the boars oflahor. It is a libel on both the employer and employe to aeseit it, and he is no friend of the labor ing man who makes such an asseveration. The mechanic’s skill and labor constitute his capital. He “owns” tbe employer as much as the employer owns him. He works on shares. He says to the capitalist, “1 will “ go Into your shop and take charge of your “ engine, lathe, forge, tools or machinery. I “will take the raw material yon have pro “vided and shape and fashion it according “to your wishes, for a specific cash consid “eration. I will work by the ‘piece’or by “ the day. Yon shall take all the chances of “fire, of loss and depreciation. You “shall pay all the public taxes and “assessments; and lu lieu thereof shall “ have what the fabric will bring in the mar “ket—assuming all the risks yourself.” A bargain is struck; the service is performed ; the stipulated wages are paid. If the em ployer finds a favorable market for the pro ducts of his shop, he makes a profit. If the market is dull or declining he makes nothing, and often is obliged to sell at such a loss as to sweep away his accumulated capi tal, his shop, machinery, tools, everything, and emerges from the wreck a bankrupt. His success depends chiefly on his sagacity, care, prudence, economy and enterprise. Capital and labor are thus mutually depend cm. Kcliher “owns” the other, as absurd ly alleged by “Mechanic.” On the contrary, they aic partners in business, dividing the profits as above specified. “Mechanic” does not deny that his pur pose is to charge the same for eight hours’ work os he now obtains for ten hours’ labor, and this brings us to the <jl*t of the question. In our k rmer article we said: “It is wholly “ absurd to suppose that labor can secure as “ large a reward on three-fourthi production “as on four-lourtbs, and it is simply irapos “ ble for capital to pay as much wages for “ clgbt hours’ work a* for ten, unlc** tin “ workman actually doct as much in the shorter “ time as in the longer ftew.” “Mechanic” makes no attempt to refute this self-evident proposition, but proceeds to fay that “ •/, under a new order of things; under a proper philosophical arrangement of thincf, a workman can earn as much or even more iu eight hours than he doe* earn in ten,” ie be not entitled to the same wages ? Cer tainly, he is. But the “*/” stands in the way. It is a small word in type, bnt a large obstacle in practical affairs. Mere abroga tion of twenty-flve per cent of labor on tbe Ist of April will not introduce cither a “ philosophical arrange ment of things,” or introduce new labor saving methods. Kjr do the eight-boor ad vocates expect or pretend that it will. The “ifs”and “huts” must be left out of con- sideralion, and the actualities alone can be entertained. A mechanic that can do as much work in six hours as he now performs, in ten, should work by the piece or'job, ’ and cither save four hour’s time per day, or, by working full time, earn extra wages. But if & workman will only perform four-fifths as much labor in eight boors as in ten shall the em ployer stand the loss of production ? How run he pay for what he docs not receive ?* He pays the laborer his wages out of the sale of the commodity produced, but If it be not produced , how shall the money he paid? That is the question. Diatribes against em ployers, or dissertations on poverty, will not make good the loss of production or enable the capitalist to pay wages for work not performed. PIIBBVATEB. Yesterday the'lnlrodnctloff'of pnre'-walor into the city was formally inaugurated.. Yesterday the supply from jthe_ quler terminus of theTunnelwas a 1 lowed to fl >w into the wells, and yesterdiy jt'was "distri buted through the pipes to the lic. The address of Mayor Bice, which, will be fonod In bur columns ihis morning, is full of interest. It'sketches with admirable brevity and distinctness the history of the Chicago Water Works. It tells ih-j story of the work from the beginning to the end; but no words, can tell the great story, of practical benefltwhich the completton.ofl this Tunnel will bestow" upon Chicago. The city.has secured an unlimited supply of.pnrd, watef. Bow much there is. In these .few words that pertains to the future - wealth, great ness, health and. comfort of Chicago! As no man can so' well appreciate the blessing of health as he that that has been deprived of it, so no people can appreciate tbe blessings of pure water like those who have been subjected to tbe use of water that was not pure,* For years after the completion of the first Waterworks, Chicago bad water free from all impurities save tbe sand which violent storms wpntd' raise from the bed of Lake Michigan. BuL the water of the river became not only im pure, but horrible.' It became oppressive to the sight, to the tbnch, to the nostrils, and to the taste. This filthy compound at cer tain limes, found its way to the conduit at the Water Works and was distributed to the public with all Its pestilential'qualities. Chicago enterprise has triumphed over the odors and the poisons of Chicago River. From the bosom of Lake Michigan, from the pnre and cooling depths of the lake, Chicago has secured a supply, and yesterday the first stream of tbe refreshing beverage was sent to the dwellings of the people. No more fish, nor lizards, nor frogs, nor filth, nor .grease, nor sand.' No more o&bre of tbe foulest kind; but, in their place, pure water, nature's beverage, life and health-giving water! There can be no more fatal distributor of disease than impure wa ter. There can be no healthier beverage than pure water. Thanks to the enterprise and perseverance of .Chicago, this city, for the present, and as long as Lake Michigan retains her level, has secured to her people this great boon, this health-supplying neces sity, pure and wholesome water. The Water Works themselves are a wonder to the country. The entire cost,‘dating back to the first estimates and coming down to tbc present day, counts up only two and a half millions of dollars. No such sup ply of water, no such admirable and endur ing works, no water so entirely protected from foreign and injurious substances, has ever been secured to any city at an aggre gate cost so comparatively small. We can only repeat our congratulations to the people of Chicago, that this great work has been so successfully completed, and that they are already in the enjoyment of the fruits thereof—an inexhaustible supply of pure water! BOARD OF PUBLIC WORKS. The Lake Tunnel celebration was appro priately concluded by the appointment, by the Mayor and Council, of the following named gentlemen as Commissioners of the Board of Public Works: For the South Division— J. G. Gindele. For the North Division— A. H. Sublet, For the West Division—General John Mc- Abtuck. These nominations will be ratified by the people. The desire that Mr. Gindcle should be retained as a member oi the Board was very general, and among ottr German citizens, universal. Bis scientific attainments, and his perseverance In the discharge of his duties, could not easily be spared. Mr. Bur ley is one of the oldest and most highly respected citizens of Chicago—a gentleman of wealth and culture, of unblemished char acter and high business qualifications. His. secession to tbe Board of Public Works gives to that body a financial ballast which bos heretofore been wontiug, and which cannot fail to provein the highest degree advantageous. General McArthur Is well Known to the people of Chicago as a brave soldier, an upright citizen, and an accom plished gentleman. Altogether the Board is admirably constituted, and the public may expect to find the important affairs committed to ils charge administered with efficiency and economy. XSST “The lives and health of the people doubt less demanded that a supply of pure water should be obtained nearer to the middle of Lake Michi gan, bnt they did not demand that this supply t-honld be brought through a gopher-hole eighty fuel under the bed of Lake SUcblsan. when it could have been done atlesa expense by enclosing an iron tube in a permanent extension of the north pier, thus, in addition to a tunnel, giving to Chicago the best harbor on this lake.”— limet. A chronic grumbler, who is utterly reck less of assertion, is the most disagreeable character in a community. Impure, muddy, bad water is found to extend one and a half miles from the shore. Yesterday, during the celebration of .the completion of the Tunnel, with only a moderate breeze blowing, the assembled multitude saw the water of the lake discolored more than half way out to tbe crib, and near the shore It looked dirty and undrinkable as Missouri Elver water. Unless the north pier was extended two mQcs into the lake, and where the water is nearly forty feet deep, pure water could not be obtained. How many millions of dollars it would cost to build a permanent pier that distance into the lake—one that would resist the Ice fields and storms of winter for a cen tury or two—perhaps the eminent civil en gineers of the Bourbon concern can tell. Even if snch a pier was constructed, the shore currents would sweep around its outer end and supply the iron tube with water as Impure and filthy as that which has been furnished by the old Water Works for several years past? A despatch from Kew Orleans an nounces that General Longstreet has ex pressed his opinions on tbe subject of recon struction in the Kew Orleans Timet. He says there is no humiliation attached to an ac ceptance of tbe terms proposed by Congress, and be has no reason to doubt that such an acceptance iu good faith will secure the re admission of tiic Southern States. General Longstreet was one of the very ablest and bravest Generals in the rebel army. It is doubtful, indeed, if he had a superior In the qualities of generalship in tbe whole Con federate service. Those w*ho have contended with his men on the battle-field can testify that it was no child’s play. His position on reconstruction will have great weight in the South, and especially on those who served in the rebel ranks. They know that no bet ter or more faithlnl soldier fought for their cause, and will argue that they need not shrink from anything he can do without hu miliation. The worst enemies of reconstruc tion are not by any means those who were the best rebel soldiers. They are generally those who staid at home and carefully kept out of harm’s way. One by one the leading men of the South, the best men of her popu lation, are accepting the situation, and pre paring to fall cheerfully into line under the new order of things. py “ In the name of the sovereign people ol Louisiana,” tbe so-called Legislature of that district solemnly protests against the Reconstruction Law, and resolves to send a copy of the protest to A. Johnson —a very good man to receive it. By what right this pretended Legislature assumes to speak in the name of the people of Louisiana is not very clear. At the time the election was held one-hall the population were excluded from the polls, and have no representation whatever In either branch of the bogus Gov ernment. Besides the negroes, who were not allowed to vote at all, there are more than ten thousand white Union voters who did not vote for the men now “ protesting.” These self-styled legislators, therefore, repre sent only a minority of the “sovereign peo ple of Louisiana,” as they will discover in tbo next State election; The rebels have been crying ont against taxation without representation. The North has ans wered the cry, and henceforth that half of the popula tion of Louisiana that has borne tbe heaviest burdens of society, and been excluded from representation, will stand on an equal foot ing with the other half. Until a Legislature thall assemble that shall have been elected on the basis of universal suffrage, no legisla tive body will have a right to speak in the name of the people of Louisiana. CST* The removal of Mr. Bryant, and the appointment of William Kellogg as Collec tor of Internal Revenue, in the Filth Con gressional District of Illinois, ought to be promptly resisted and summarily defeated by the Senate. Mr. Bryaut is a Radical Re publican, and Mr. Kellogg a renegade of the Doolltilc soit. Kellogg went for compromise and coucendou In 1800, and was repudiated by his district |; and the Legislature of Il linois put tbe seal of condemnation on him. by throwing his county into an intensely Copperhead district in the reapportionment of the State. We cannot credit the report that Mr. Ingersoll is supporting Mr. Kellogg for this or any other office. Mr. Bryant is one of the old Liberty Guard, always true to bis colors. If the Senate allows such friends to be sacrificed, It will not deserve to have friends. ______ The act of Congress giving to every disabled inmate of a Soldiers’ Home a hew suit of clothes each year has been approved by the President and is now the law. • The first Sanitary Fair ever held In the United Stales was in Chicago. The first Sol diers’Home in the Northwest was bniltin Chicago. "We are happy to say that tnc first act giving Government aid to the disabled inmates of Slate Soldiers’ Homes originated in Chicago. The lion. Norman B. Judd, who was elected last fall as the soldiers’ candi date, has the honor of having introduced the hill, and secured its adoption by Con gress. Mr. Jndd will receive the warm thanks of thousands of wounded soldiers for the comtort they will receive through the workings of this law. THE EISHT-HOUR MOVEMENT. Report of tbe Massachusetts Commission. Important Investigation Concern ing the “Hours of Labor,”'' i ConclasioDs Advene to the Light-Hoar Law. Letter from a Chicago Working- "On the 26th of May, .1866, the Maaaaclm setts Legislature directed the appointment of a Commission to Investigate and report upon the “Hours ofLabor,” with special reference to the demand made by the Trades Unions for ian Eight-Hour Law.' The Com missioners, Messrs. Amasa 'Walker and Wil liam Hyde, have spent nearly a year in their and hive~recently submitted ;their, report- We copy that portion of it ■ relaling : to the ' . : EIGHT-HOUR MOVEMENT. : A very extended movement amongst tho leading workingmen of this country and Eu rope Is now being made in favor of a reduc tion of the hours of labor from ten to eight each day. The Government of this Common •wcalth Is called upon to aid In this reduc tion, by the enactment of a law restricting the hours of labor. • That the movement Is one of vast impor iance it successful, there can be no doubt. It will relieve the laboring class of onc-flfth of their present toll, and, of consequence, greatly affect tbc production of wealth; since it will not, it Is presumed, be seriously contended,: that os much wealth can be created in ‘ eight* hours as in ten; especially, when, as is gener ally the case at the present day, labor is connected with machinery which moves at a certain speed, Irrespective of the hours in which it is operated. The subject is one of such magnitude that it seems desirable to present the following GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. The most industrious races of men are the most intelligent and powerful, the most ele vated, mentally and morally. Those coun tries where severe and continuous labor is required for the support of life, are the most ■prosperous and progressive, and exert the widest Influence. On the other hand, where there is the least demand for human effort to sustain existence, as in tropical countries. Where leisure rather tban labor is the rule of life,* we find the greatest" demoralization, and tbc lowest standard of civilization. Man rises in proportion as his necessities are great, as his labor is constant; he sinks when his absolute wants can be met with little exertion. All this is too patent in the history of the world, and the common ob servation of all men. to need proof. Work, then, is a blessing; Idleness, or ex emption from labor, a corse. Man was made for work—his happiness, his intellectual growth and physical development depend upon it. Another fact presents itself. Those who are compelled to labor hard lor the common necessaries of life, arc the most certain to be constantly increasing in their desires. When one gratilication Is secured, another still Is wanted, and men are found ever ready to make additional efforts to secure additional gratifications. There seems to be no limit to the desires of snchcersons for the objects that Industry alone can create. Quite other wise Is it with those whose necessities are met with bnt little labor. Their desires are stationary, and they make little progress. These are suggestive tacts, and have much to do with the question of the hours of labor. They show that exemption from toil is not for the welfare of mankind, but they do not prove that men may not he com pelled by their desires to work too hard, and for a greater length of time than their best interests may require. Again, all wealth, being created by labor acting In conjunction with capital (which is but accumulated labor employed in repro duction), the greater, other things equal, the amount of labor, the greater will be the sum of enjoyments which maybe possessed by roan. But while this is true, it is certain chat men may labor so severely and inces santly, as in the long run to impair the vital energies, and thus reduce the powers of pro duction ; and it may be farther true, that tco great an amount of toll may not only in jure the physical powers, but depress or Im pair the mental faculties, so that in this way the productive capacity of a people may be greatly lessened. And still further, not only the physical and mental, but the moral na ture oi man may be imbrnted by severe and unreasonably protracted toil. All this being apparent, tne question of the hours that should constitute a day’s labor, is one de serving of a careful and candid examination. The great point to be aimed at in the culture of a people, is to secure the highest produc tion of wealth, consistent with preserving intact all the natural powers of the laborer, and advancing his best and highest interests, his fall and complete manhood. We have said that idleness waca curse ; but leisure, a relief from toll, is not uncom monly even more so. Whether It is so or not, depends entirely upon the use that is made oi it.' If the laborer, after he has per formed a given amount of elfort, spends the rest of bis time in healthy recreation, in ac quiring useful knowledge. in moral and in tellectual cnltme; or If he has a family, In the cdncatlon and training of his children, hia leisure will be a blessing to himself and to others. If on the other band, the boors of exemption from toil are wasted In idle and vicious amusement, the less leisure he has the better. The desirableness and even the necessity for leisure, however, increases with the in crease of the responsibilities of the citizen. A*l«borcr in the United States needs more leisure, or relief from toll, than ouo in the same position In Europe, because he has the elective franchise. and is a part of the Gov eminent. If be is deficient in Intellectual training and moral culture, the State will fuffer. The American laborer must not only take care of himself, but discharge his civil duties and fulfil his obligations to the inter* eats of religion and morality. Tnis respon sibility involves the necessity of intelligence and culture, and these require leisure and opportunity. It is not enough that the la borer have education In childhood ; be must have the means of constant improve ment and progress in manhood. He must not only know something of the past, but be familiar with the events of the present. Kew ideas, new discoveries, new issues arc made from day to day, and the la borer must have the means of knowing what these are. All this requires lime, and not only time, hot rest from toll in such a con dition that the mind can engage with its full strength in intellectual pursuits. Hence it follows that the hours devoted to labor should he not so extended as not to leave sufficient time and strength to engage in those pursuits which will qualify the laborer for the discharge of bis duties to himself, his family, and his Government. Great social movements are in continual progress— these, tbe American laborer ought not only to be cognizant of, hut take a part in; vet whether he shall do so efficiently and intelligently or not, must clearly depend upon-two conditions: first, that be has tbe necessary leisure; and sec ondly, that he improves that leisure for tne desired purpose. Tbe mechanics of Massa chusetts, as an almost universal fact, work ten hours per day. If we allow two hours for tbo three meals of the day, and eight hours for sleep, we have still four hours left. Are these sufficient? and if so, is tbe laborer after ten hours of continuous toil, in a con dition of mind and body adapted to the pro fitable improvement of these hours? The necessary cares of a family, if he has one, must demand a part of his leisure moments; how much, depends upon many circum stances, as how far be is from his place of labor, and from other places which he must of necessity visit. It will be seen, then, taking into view all these considerations, that the time left to the laborer for leisure to be devoted to per sonal Improvement and .the discharge of social and public duties must he very limit ed. We should look at those facts in all their significance, and if there be anything that legislation can do to ameliorate the con dition of the laborer, it certainly should be done. Laboring men, as all have seen, ask that their bours of toil may be reduced from ten, the present limit, to eight hours per day. That they should desire such a reduction Is not surprising; but the question which arises of most Importance to them is, whether such a change, if practicable, would be for their best good? And another question would arise, viz.: whether the change would be for the best interests of all .concerned, the employer as well as the employed, the con sumer as well as the producer? If these questions can be answered in the affirma tive, there should be no delay in carrying out the proposed reform; for, other things equal, it is undoubtedly desirable that the hours of labor should be reduced. The primary Inquiry would seem to be, whether the laborer can get as large wages, that is, us many commodities, for the shorter as lor the longer period? To this we must answer: certainly, he will get asmuch wages, ifhe can produce as much value in eight hours as in ten, but not otherwise. The reward ol tbe laborer, though usually paid lu money (ortbat which by ’comtesy is called money,) is In fact a certain* share of the com modities which he produces. Tbe more, therefore, he can produce, the larger will be the amount of wages, since tbe latter must always bear a certain proportion to the tormer. The question therefore is, can as much be produced in eight as in ten hours? The difference between ten and eight hours is equal to a discount of one-fifth, or twenty percent. Bui, as iu cases of the proposed reduction of factory labor from eleven to ten hours, we do not conclude,that tbe actual re duction in the amount produced would be in exact proportion. Theiast two hours would not be quite as productive as the previous eight; and we may safely answer that, in stead of a loss to production of twenty per per cent, the differences would be but one sixth orsixtecnand two-thirds percent. This, although it is of course but an estimate, must, wc feel assured, be near the truth. If so, then the loss would ho just the same as working five days out of six under tbe ten hour system. There would bo less produc tion of all commodities by one-sixth. Capi tal in all its forms must stand still to the same extent as the workman, since one can not go on without the other. That the pro duction of all commodities will be reduced one-sixth, when the effective hours of labor arc reduced to that extent, we take it no one will dispute. If so, the laborer will have one-sixth less, and the capitalist, or he who carries on business, will, under such a reduction of time, have one-sixth less. The question, then, of the reducing the hours of labor has two sides. Tbe laborer is as much interested in production us the cap | Stalest, for he is a consumer as well as E reducer, and, as such, is concerned in. avlngthe largest production of wealth, und in huTing the commodities he requires at the lowest price at which they can be afforded—since tbe lower the price the great er the sum of his enjoyments. The capital lets will not encounter all the loss which a reduction of the hours of labor may cause. Qe furnishes capital for as many hours as the laborer docs his services ; why then should he suffer mere than his share of the loss ? 1 hire is no good reason why he should do. so, and it is certain bo *lll not. li tbe laborer were to receive £8 much for .elcbl as for ten hours, while be would pro duce, but fivc-Bixtbp as much, the commodi ties he created would ofnccesriiy beenhaneed; correspondingly In Then, If laborers form the must'numerous class of society,! and consume'the greater part of all com-' mod products, would they not lose in add! tional-price what they had gamed by the shortening hours of labor ? Would not the final result be that they would work less, and have less? If tbe laborer could get as much for eicbt boors as for ten, why not dobettor, and demand as much forrte aa for eight f or, better still, demand as much lor four os for tizt for two as fob Form ? If the principle was a sound one. it would hold throughout. But wc see it will'not hold, because it be comes absurd, and we perceive that tbe at tempt to make eight hoars equal to ten is Impracticable.. -This-. ■ much-indulged fal lacy arises in a great decree-from thefict that thelftborer-supposes-be-is-workiag for money wages, when in reality he is'only work*, log for the commodities that money will' purchase. If, therefore, he raises the cost of commodities, he injures himself more than the capitalist, since all the' laborer’s i wages, or nearly so, are generally expended for articles which he must consume In order ' to live. This Is a consideration certainly worthy the attention of the laborer. Again, It is further to be inquired in this connection, whether the laborer would not sacrifice that for which be would willingly work more than eight hours per day ? whether he would'get as many ofthe neces saries and luxuries oflife by eight hours’, labor aa by ten ? whether he could-well af-; ; ford to relinquish any , considerable part. of what he now enjoys, or would not rather prefer to encounter present hardships than" suffer additional privations? But still another question arises? Would . the - workingman • spend his additional; leisure in a wise and useful manner, so that It would really con tribute to his elevation and Improvement, or In such away os to injure himself and his family ? That Is a grave and pertinent in quiry. That some men would use their 'additional leisure, as they now use the little leisure they get, in a judicious manner, so oStomakc It a means of intellectual and moral elevation, there can be no doubt. There is always a certain proportion of sen sible, ambitions men who areoonnd to suc ceed, and they accomplish their object by untiring assiduity ana industry—but how would it be with the majority ? .In answer ing this last Inquiry, wc must remember that tbe State makes no provision’ for the im provement of Its people after they pass out of tbe public ore thrown upon their own resources; neither libraries, reading rooms, or places of social resort arc provided by too State, or by the Church, or by society, os a general fact ; and therefore operatives, unless they-have homes of their -own, arc literally turned into the street, to find a place of resort and social enjoyment ■wherever they can; and, as there is but one iplace where they are always welcome, and that is the lager beer saloon or some similar beneficent institution (!), they are of neces sity compelled to shut themselves up in their lodging rooms, or-resort to these places of refuge. Such being the unquestionable condition of things, it is not to be wondered that many are led to the belief, that the less leisure the working people, especially the vounger part of them, have, the better. This is doubtless one of the most weighty considerations in-regard to the effect of a re duction In the hours of labor, and one that we think should arrest the attention of tbe Commonwealth. Our social condition has almost totally changed. From an agricul tural and rural population in 1820, wo have become a great manufacturing community, with numerous large towns and cities ; and yet. in many respects, our institutions, social and religious, have remained almost unchanged. As a people we hove not awak ened to the exigencies of our new condition; and our means of social and intellectual im provement and culture are in no adequate proportion to the destiny and urban character of our population. * Especi ally are ,we destitute of places of amusement of a rational and ele vating character. We have absolutely none for the masses ofthe people. Wc seem to have no faith In any places of resort for public entertainment, except those provided by the Church on the one hand.and the thea tre on tbe other. However painftil this state ment of the case may be, Is it not indisputa bly true? And if so, does it not form one of the social problems which we are called upon to solve ? Yet it certainly is not a valid reason why we should keep our laboring classes shut up la shops and lactories for un reasonable hours, because wc have provided nothing for their improvement and enter tainment when they are let out. Society, then, wc perceive, has not only a direct and positive interest in the hours and conditions ot labor, but in the hours and conditions of leisure; and though it may not interfere with the personal liberty of these who are of an adult age, it may and ought to protect those classes who cannot determine for themselves under what circumstances, or to what extent they shall labor or recreate. But wc pass to the consideration of another question connected with the proposed change. It has been strongly insisted that tbe loss arising from shortening the hours ol labor, if indeed there be a loss, will fall wholly on the employer of- labor. But if we regard the point as settled, and there would seem to be no reasonable doubt in regard to It, that the laborer cannot pro duce as much In ten honrs as in eight, then the mannlactnrer, for example, who could produce 00,000 yards of caasimerc per annum under the ten-hour system, would, on the supposition we have made .of one-sixth de ficiency, now produce but 50,000, yet this quantity would cost Mm the same for labor as the 00,000 yards did before the change. Therefore, he must raise the rate of profit on bis goods to get an equal aggregate amount. , • , Bui it may bo erroneously, yet sincerely urged, that Instead of this the manufacturer must take the loss, and be content with less Eroflt. This will certainly not bothecaseif e can use his capital to better advantage, at home or abroad, than to continue his mauu- facturc at a loss of a considerable part of his profits. If, from necessity, he is com pelled 'to do this, bis accumulation of capital will be reduced in proportion to toe falling off of his profits. It may may be thought, however, that this does not concern the laborer, ycl it cer tainly docs, for as the number of laborers is constantly increasing by the natural increase of population, and by immigration, capital must increase m an cqnal ratio, or labor can-' not find full employment, and the competi tion will be so great as to reduce wages. Such a result is beyond a question. Here wo find a confirmation of the principle, that the interests of the employer and employed are Inseparably united ; that one cannot be In jured and tbe other not suffer; that both have a common interest in the profitable ness of lilt kinds of business. They arc co partners, not antagonists. Bui it has been argued “ that the reduc tion of hours which bas already taken place, was not attended with a reduction of wages. TLe labor ol mechanics in general, up to about 1840, was nominally eleven to twelve hours. The time has been reduced to ten, and wages instead of being lower have been raised.” In reply to this wc may remark that the change of hours has been gradually accomplished, occupying a ouartcr of a cen tury ; and during that period there has been a most important change in the currency, not only of the United States, but of tbe world. The volume has been greatly en larged, not merely by tho Introduction of a vast quantity of gold, bnt by the exten sion of tbo mixed currency system through countries where it did not before exist. The conse quence has been a great rise in the prices of commodities in general, as well as wages; though the latter have advanced mucbleas in proportion than the former, tbe laborer receiving a larger sum In currency, but a less share ol value than be did before. So great has been the change of prices within the pe riod named, that an exact comparison be tween the real wages of labor before 1840 and since cannot he made. There is, therefore, no sufficient evidence that wages have risen in consequence of, or cotemporancously with, the reduction in the hours of labor. , .. „ , , Wc here pass to tbe consideration of a fact • quite essential to tbe discussion of the ques tion of the hours of labor: THE UNITY OF LABOR. The labor of the world is a unit. Once it was not so. , “Nations separated by a narrow frith abhorred each other, , , , „ Mountains Interposed mode enemies of nations." But such Is the case no longer, so far as the Interests of industry are concerned. The populations of tbe earth form one grand brotherhood, bound together by a common destiny. If the conditions or rewards of la bor are better in one country than another, the favored country will at once receive con tributions of muscle and sinew from all others. The facilities for locomo tion In the last half of the nine- tecnth century are such that it requires but a few days’ time, and a few dollars in expense, to transport a full crown laborer from one hemisphere to the other. The condition of the laborer is now better, bis reward greater,. in the United States, than in any other quarter of the globe; con sequently Europe Isjourinc: in upon us her emigrants from the East.and China from the West. At the late international congress of laboring men at Paris, the fact was referred to, that whenever wages advcnced in Lon don, Germans went over 'by thousands to supply the demand, aud this kept down the rate, and that this was the case throughout Europe, owing to the d illusion of Intelligence and conveniences for travel. By some this was spoken of as a matter of regret, but such is a mistaken view of the sub jeet. This unity of labor Is for the general advantage of ell mankind. To re gret it Is like regretting the discovery of labor-saving machinery, which throws hand labor out of immediate employment, but benefits ultimately every human being. This great fact being well established, we sec at once that anything which goes to improve the conditions of the laborer, or raise his wages in ibis country, will of a certainty in crease immigration, and ibis will increase the competition for wages. We mast not ignore this very important consideration, because it is entirely essential to a correct understanding of the case before us. The question of the boars of labor is the same In its nature as that of wages, and wages are and must be governed by the laws of trade, and those laws arc above all human enact ments. If the Lcgislaturcof Massachusetts could by a mere law limit a day’s work to eight hours, and at the same time insure the same wages as when ten hours constituted a day’s work, would not the undoubted effect be to Increase the competition for employment m this favoicd State, until the wages were re duced io a point nearly or quite equal to the reduction In the time of service ? If so, is It. practicable to effect the desired object of re ducing the boars of labor, and at the same time insuring equal wages as before? GOVERNMENTAL INTERFERENCE. In regard to all Governmental interference in the hours of labor, our" conclu sion is, that since no one Is compelled bv law to work, there Is no good reason why any one should be forbid den to work—that Government has no right ful control over the labor of free men, who must dispose of their services at all times, in such quantities and at such rates as they can get, m the great competition ofindustnal pursuit a— that Government can no more In justice or propriety ordain that eight hours rtall ccnstltule a day’s work, thaa that eighty ccuit. bLall bea'doliar—f Oat all at tempts to intorleio wiib the laws of value mufti be ineffectual for any good object— that the laborer can never be’oppressed by being le:t at perfect liberty to work as be p eases—that be is never lojarcd by.comje tition, unless the law* nr customs of tbe country deprive him of his just rights. The laborer in our own country.to some extent, and in foreign countries to a greater ex tent, is wronged, by social institutions. Especially Is tbe A merican laborer rphbed, at the present time* by a false currency, which takes from him nearly or quite one tonrtb of what he earns fiv-m day to day* Such evils most be endured until toe Intelli gence of the community is sufficient to dis cover and pat an end to them. Let labor be measured by an exact and Invariable stand ard of time, and a sonnd atandaid of curren cy, and tbe laborer has no occasion - to fear that a just compensation will not be secured to him. i ritOPOSED SEDUCTION NOT DEMANDED BT • TUBPEOPI.B. From all the observations which the un dersigned have bemrable to make, we are quite satisfied that there is no general senti ment in the Commonwealth in favor of such ’a measure as the redaction of all the me ichanical labor of* "the * country from : tcn to-elght -hours. -< Even amongst the me chanlcs themselves, we do nob think that the proposed measure is looked upon as feasible -and desirable. Not that men would not great ly prefer to work eight hoars iustcad of ten leach day, if by doing so they could get the same reward ; but we th'nk there is a general conviction that such alhing is impracticable, that It would arrest to an injurious extent the industry of the country, and reduce the general production to such* a degree as to greatly restrict the enjoyments of all classes. - There seems to* bo no enthusiasm in any quarter in behalf of such a redaction. The absence of effective -organizations on the subject seems to indicate an Intelligent con sciousness that the measure is one that can not, and in reality ought not to be carried. GRADUAL REDUCTION. t Again, If it were decided notwithstanding, that the reduction should be made, the -.question would still remain whether it enould not he a gradual one, made hy instal ments. So great a change has never yet been attempted at once. The reduction in the boars of factory labor, from thirteen to eleven hours, was gradually accomplished in a series of some thirty or forty years. It did not take place instantly or universally, hot gradually and partially at different times and.places, until It la now nearly complete. Yet the redaction from thirteen to eleven hours was but a trifle over fifteen per cent, .while the change contemplated, as already stated, is twenty per cent, or near ly onc-tblrd greater. Besides, we must remember that In the case of factory operatives, the great majority are females and minors, while .in regard to me chanics, all are male adults. ' Again, the reduction to ten hoars which has come into practice within the last forty years has been, wc are assured, rather a sys tematic arrangement of labor than a reduc tion of time. Previously there were no es tablished hours; a day’s work depended much on the circumstances under which it was performed, and the time of year in which it was made. There was great irreg ularity and variation in regard to the whole matter of hours and meals. Bat the adop tion of a ten-hour rule, though it did not es sentially lessen the aggregate hours of labor, so systematized them, that both parties, the employerand employed.were benefited by it. The change was effected by the natural pro gress ofiudustry,not by Governmental action. All future changes will doubtless be In the lame direction, and wc believe will eventual ly go much farther than Is now generally anticipated. As mind triumphs over matter, the necessity for muscular efforts to secure equal results, is constantly diminishing, though It can never wholly disappear. 1 The natural tendency ot things will an donbtcdly be in the future as in the past, to a gradual reduction of the hours of labor, and to a continual amelioration of the condl- lion of the laborer. The great inventions and Improvements in labor-saving instru mentalities which are constantly increasing the power of labor In production, arc render ing it more and more feasible to dispense with a great share of what was once indispensable to human welfare. Perhaps the time has already come when, if there was a general concert of ac tion throughout the world, the hours of labor might be universally reduced, and yet the Improvement and civilization of the race f;o forward. To be sure, there would be a css production of wealth, less for the labor er, and all other classes to enjoy ; but, if all were content with this, human happiness and welfare might perhaps be advanced by it. There would be more time for recrea tion, for reading, for travelling, for mental and moral culture. Bat to be fully success ful, it must be a general, not a partial move ment. ALLEGED TTRRA3TT OP CAPITAL. : A great deal Is said In this connection of the “tyranny of capital.” Bat capital has no more power in Itself to tyrannize over labor, than labor has to tyrannize over cap ital—except that capital can be more read ily concentrated and brought to act In masses, and may be said to have more leisure and more opportunity to exert influence on legislation. It has a power more readily wielded than labor, TV hat labor needs to counteract all this, is a greater concentra tion of its own energies by voluntary asso ciations. and by the diffusion of Intelligence, and that kind of knowledge which appertain* to Us</wn interests. Nothing promises so much for the advantage of workingmen as these associated efforts for useful purposes, for the promotion of good morals and the protec tion of tbe defenceless. By union and co operation, not only may all their rights be secured, but they may largely participate in the proflts of trade and manufacture. . Tdis. we know, tbcy.aro doing with almost incredible success In Europe, and to some ex tent in Ibis country; and if, regardful of their own interests, they will extend these efforts as far and os widely os possible. Cap ital has more independence than labor, that is, it is not compelled, as labor often Is, to act under unfavorable circumstances, It should always, therefore, be an object of the first Importance in the mind of the laborer to se cure a cerium degree of Independence himself, by practicing such frugality as to lay by as much of bis earnings as will prevent the ne cessity of working at once, whether he can get reasonable terms or not. This we regard as a matter of the first importance to tho la boring classes. Accumulations, however limited, promote not only* the self-respect and independence of those who make them, but the respect and confidence of those who em ploy them'. Tbe amount of deposits In sav ings banks, so far os made by the working classes, the bext index of'the real progress of those classes, in pecuniary independence and in social Improvement. CIRCULARS TO WORKINGMEN. At this point we take leave to Insert the circular before alluded to, scut to those »ho were supposed especially to represent the Interests of labor: Boston, October 3, ISt3. Deab Snrt As a citizen of Massachusetts, yon arc prestum d to be interested lo the present la* vesupatiou of the subject of the boars of labor; “esittciaUy in tf« relations to the social, educa tional and sanitary condition of the iuaustna! classes . and to the permanent prosjterily of the productive industry of the State." Will you be so kind as to give as brief answers, by letter, as arc crnsistcnllo the following queries, or to any portion of them ? 1. In what manner would a redaction of dally lal ~ ‘ dhor, to eight hours, affect you socially, by hs nilucnco on you in moral, political or domestic duties and privileges? 2. Wnal would be the effect of reduced boars on menial development ? , 8, state the length of yoar day's work; also the time and distance yon travel, and the time re quired in domestic duties. 4. Was any deduction made In the wages of la bor when the ten-boar system was Introduced. 5. Was the redaction In time made at once, or by successive steps! 0. lias the custom of ten boars of actual labor been shortened by the Introduction of railroads ? 7. What is the effect of the boms of labor on the choice of a place of residence T Answers to these inquiries arc requested, if pos sible, before the first of November. AVASi. WALKBn, William Erne, Rnwtnn H. ROGERS, Commissioners. To about four hundred and fllty of these circulars scut out, some forty replies were received, as a general fact, earnestly In favor of a reduction from ten to eight hours for mechanical labor. We insert three of these letters, quite different in their general tone, bat representing, no doubt, to a fair extent, the average sentiment of that class to whom the circulars were addressed. (Signed) better no. J. To the Commissioners of the Hoars of Tabor: GxßTLumt: In answer to the questions pro- Koacd Id your circular, in relation to tbe shorten' ig of the hoars of daily labor, 1 would ray: f. "Jbat a redaction of the term or labor to ten hours per day, would give to the operative classes more time for the cultivation of thoao fra terna’ sympathies by which human beings are united together in associative bonds. It would promote toe moral Improvement of the masses, by bringing them np to the standard of bettor and more enlightened society. It would caneo them to valnc more highly, and sect: more earnestly, the acquisition or political knowledge, and afford them more time for the study thereof. It would secure belter order m the domestic circles of the working classes for slmilarrcasons ' 2. A reduction In the hours of labor would im prove the mental condition of the operatives, by raising them to a state of Illumination, - which they could not fin tbo very nature of things), oth* ( r*lst afaln, Ifarl’Bsly aver, that this state, ment Is fully sustained in tbo history and expert' ecce of the past few years. 1 a. The length ol a day's work In onr factories is from eleven to eleven to eleven and a quarter h' nrs. A considerable portion of the mill opera tives of 3-owell reside from balfa mile to one mile from their work. It requires from twenty min utes to hall an hour to walk the rcspectlv distances—the distances are from one to iwo miles, calculating both ways. We have forty.flvo minutes allowed for dinner; and ifwc deduct *r. m twenty minutes to balf an hour from forty* live, It only leaves fifteen minutes for one etas?, and twenty-five for the other, to cat dinner and i erfotm the domestic duties. . We swallow oar food in a partially masticated state, thereby oc casioning oyspepsta and other distressing symp toms. ... 4. lam not aware of one single instance where jiuy deduction whs made In wages of the opera tive when the fen hour system was introduced: .but 1 do know, that wages have advanced about nvecty-flvc per c:nt since the enactment of toe ten-bonr law. [There has never been any such law. — Commissioners.] • 5. Thu reduction oftimowae made at once. (1. I am not prepared lo eay, what Iho precise mfiueric- or the Introduction of railroads has in shortening the hours of labor. 7. Working claeses have virtually no choice in n place of residence, bat arc necessitated to take np with the mostmiaciahlc accommodations. Yours, for Tabor ItßToiur. Noix.-.I have confined my remarks to the ten honr system, as I believe It to be the only practi cable standard which wc are likely to obtain from our corporation friends, and seems to me lo be 'he most reasonable. utter no. 2. GEKTT.ruen; Your circular came to hand the 22d; I take the earliest opportunity of replying to those “queries” to tho beat of my personal knowledge. , lo query 1. I think If the hours of labor were reduced to eight I should bo more social In tny own family, 'through the summer months Ire turn from my labors weary In mind and body; my better nature and good nature are pretty well ciound down, and I am not the pleasant husband >and father my ialntai disposition inclines me to be. Mlrtbfnlnces and good nature don’t go band iq hand with overwork. I think wc should be belter neighbors; It would give ns time to visit ana be sociable.to indnlcc in»octal amazements, l.ccpionr youth and not become old men at furty • jive. I think I*. woUtQ tend to make me a more constant chnrch-gocr. I should not feel compelled to make the Sabbath a day for boully rest, and a good sermon would make double the Impression upon a tninu free from weariness. The Sunday’s sermon now comes at the end of a bard six days* work. 1 have a balking apparatus, but seldom make use of !♦, for weariness at night and lack of timemtbo morning; so this great promoter of , health ts lost to ns through the very season we ' most need iL lam satisfied that 1 make many losses esch year by making purchases by lamplight; get de ceived iti quality -1 goods or other arucles that oßj ilgbt would show Us defects. If we are un lortunale enough before manytng and haring ft family dependent open ne, to acquire any accost pllebmect, as music, Ac , it mast lie wcroa wi op tmo Jeu(ira''Ce and barbarism; we cannot do without tcori, Luioverydarliuir accom plishment that ilie ns over tbe ttoc? pains of lift?, we mn«i »eaye to aonm over the- oaiaaco of onriiver, more time a* home, the wearli.cts of (be mind and bolf and Urea na- FTcr lecnnii'K oeu-aod for Blceo,aretbe gteat enemies ofm» of constant (oil. * * • LLTrxn ho 8. u.i i—■ av ui Mn. CnsißitajT—tsirs ilaviog your circular be foiciDclulU answer your questions in.the order i.Dined 1. I do not think it would be .ot much value to mo, from the fact that I now have from three to five hours rally for doaic*tis dart s, roid- log, attending lecturer, <tc.. v htCQ is ecouehfor a man having a small family to racoon, and who desires a email balance in oank fora “wet day/’ S. The answers to Hie first would cover the tecond. . S. I get no regularly winter and summer (Sun days excepted)atSVi o'clock, and leave at? for —, returning a»6J4 i», u. to my house, giving about nine hours working time and two boars In the journey. 1 * pend less than one boar per day in aome-ifcdnika. ■ 4. “Was any deduction* made In the wages of labor wbtn the ten-bonr system was introduced ?” No; from D>c fact that ea much is now. performed as was under the old system. Labor was immedlv alely reduced to a system of begminng on time,— 'no leaving off for meals and a closer application to business. A further reduction wooldbe impos sible to obtain the same amount of work, without injury !o the body. | 5. £ think it was adopted at once as regards me chanical work.. 0. I think it may—lt has in my case. . 7. It baa no efilict with me. Now, Ur. Chairman, allow me briefly to offer some suggestions as they appear to mo. . The eight-hour agitation seems uatjecossatv to me, bat iLmay lead to itUee, or contract iror-t, or association work, Simply aa debt-hoar law, wllhoat a compulpatorv danse compelling capi tal to hboat such prices .and .at such times os wonld sail the employed, would be of no value to labor; capital wonld adjust Itself to the new order ot things. I have lived upwards of fifty yean and have never yet found the per son who was willin'; to accept eighty cents for one hundred, and never expect to. This movement starts with the prose assumption that none have rights bn* the employed. It is no where proposed to reduce the pay m the same ratio, bnt ;i poss the law and wo will compel capi tal to grant us the terms. 1 * The whole atmfr from the beginning is an outrage on common sense and fair dealing between man and man. The de

mand for a law Is unnecessary, because we all, or most of the labeling people can make an arrange ment now with their employer to work eight, nine or more boors. If circumstances make it desirable. I have always been able to do so, and will never surrender that right without a struggle. * Again, ice enactment wonlu be a gross insult and a standing evidence of the degradation of the laboring classes. It would be virtually saying to .them, that they were incapable of making their own contracts. Taking my own case and looking over the vast range ofctrcumaiances and conaiuons that go to tnoolfy Ihe various occupation* of men, such as climate, physical and mechanical obllUv, in-door aud out-ooor work, unwholesome and dangerous trades, Ac.. Ac., It seems Impossible that any one can seriously propose it. ' To me it would be as absurd as i o ask the Legis lator to pass a law declaring (bat every person should eat, drink, aua sleep the same time, and w«ar the same coat. The rlvbts of American citizens are the same, he they bosses, capliaihts or laborers—each performs lie part, ana all are necessary to the great whole, and any attempt (o Irnoco or deny to cither party those rights, will be resisted. 1 now pass to another point that will, if adopted, settle this question forever; namely, ptcce-work. In fact I can sec no possible objection to It, ex cept by those who expect to receive service orpay for woich they do sot give ancqnivalent; and above all, let the same price be allowed for the same work, whether it bo performed by male or lemale hands. Tkcc-work is the only trnc. Just and dignified arrangement to bulb parties—U has less ot the oversccrism about It ana objectionable features, to disturb a • sensi tive mind—beanies, Judging by my intercourse with thoi-c trades—people tbit have adopted piece work, and those (hat have not. I -find the former more intelligent and cheerful, have more manly and womanly dignity and self respect, and tako a Higher social and intellectual portion, than those that work on time Ana last ciativo efforts. Why not? Is It more difficult for twenty carpenters to join together for the pursuit ot their business than for a like number of musi cians T We have the latter in oar midst m per fect success. Let the several trades have a placo ot business, with an agent responsible to them, and the community, and thou they will be in a fair way to reap the entire benefits of their labor. Hoping that whatever else may happen, the time may never come when the Intelligent Ameri can people are to lie considered unable to make their own bargains cither concerning the number of hours that shall constitute a day’s work, or the price thereof, 1 submit the questions to the seri ous consideration of yonr committra, whose efforts are for the good of the human race. • We might give more of these expressions of opinion by the workingmen and women of Massachusetts, but our limits forbid further extracts. THE EXAMPLE OF MASSACHUSETTS. It has been maintained by some, that al though it may be impracticable to fix the hours of labor for the various branches of in dustry in the country, it is expedient that the Legislature of this State should enact that eight hours shall oe a day’s work for all mechanics in Us own employ. The argument In favor of this measure is, that the moral effect of such action on the part of the Government will tend to establish eight hoars as the limit of a day’s work every where. The ques tion in relation to this proposal Is. whether the State wishes to give Its sanction to the principle, that eight hours Is the true limit of u days work, to which all the industry of the State ought to conform ? If so, then the law proposed may well be adopted. If, on tbe other hand, the Legislature of the Com monwealth is not satisfied that eight hours should be tbe legal day’s work anywhere and everywhere, it pugbtnot to set no such example; it should exert no such moral influ ence. We believe the time has come when the hours of labor in some of tbe severer trades should be reduced from ten hours to a less number. The work may be gradually accom plished, If thought, best. Every half boar deducted from the toil of those who are called by tho severity of their employment to exert to the utmost every faculty of mind and body, would be a great benefaction. Then, again, not only arc some trades much more severe and exhaustive than others, but the seasons of the year greatly influence the condition of the laborer. In winter the days are short and Inclement; and to be compelled, as many arc, to rise at five o’clock, and be off to work at six, in tbe dark and cold, is undoubtedly a hardship f'om which any one may well bo desirous to be released. It wonld seem, therefore, that a rcductloiLOf hours In certain trades, especi ally in the winter season, ought to be effect ed, not by law, but by a public sentiment which would Induce the employer to make the change. THE HOUR AS A MEASURE OF LABOR. It Is proposed in some quarters that a gen eral law be enacted in the absence of any con tract, that the legal day's work shall be eight hours. The consequence of such an enactment would he to compel the adoption of a general contract system by the hoar in stall of the day. In so far, the result would be a highly favorable one. All work should bo measured by the hour. It is the only proper unit of time In relation to labor. It 13 a definite and Invariable quantity, w blch all understand; while a day, as a measure of labor, is a variable and undefined space of time, to regard to which thcrel must be a constant opportunity for disagreement and dissatis faction. *ln agriculture, to olden limes, a day meant from sun to sun, except In hay ing time, and then it mcaut from daylight in the morning until the hay was duly secured at night; but In the present state of things in this country, a day’s work has no definite limit whatever. It would be a wise arrange ment, on the part of all engaged In business, If their contracts for labor were made en tlrely by tbc hour Instead of the’day, and from present apncaranccs such can hardly full to he the final result. It would settle all questions of dispute In regard to the hours of labor, as each person would agree to work as many hours as he pleased, and ho content to fulfil his contract, whatever it might be. It may be a matter of qnestion*whether it would not he good policy to enact that no contracts for labor not made upon the boar standard should be recognized in law. In view of the foregoing considerations, the undersigned would respectfully repre sent to yonr Excellency, that they cannot recommend the enactment of any law re stricting the hours of labor for the adult population of tbc Commonwealth, bat In accordance with what bos already been ob served, they would suggest that it there be any persons unconvlcted of crime to the em ploy of tbe State, whose duties are of an especially laborious and exhaustive charac ter, that the hours oi labor for such persons should, under the direction of the Execu tive, be reduced to such an extent as human ity ond the nature of the case may seem to require. (Signed) Amasa Walker. William Hide. Letter from a Chicago Journeyman. Cttioioo, March S 3. To the Editor of the Chicago Tribune: Having been a constant reader of the Chi cago Tribune ever since its birth, and hav ing always regarded it as the friend of the poor, the advocate of reform, and the friend of the oppressed, I am therefore greatly sur prised at the sentiments yon express in yonr i cply to Mr. Hendricks’ questions in refer ence to the Eight-Hoar Law. One would think, from the gist of that reply, that yon had forgotten all your poor, destitute labor ing friends, who arc so essential to you in a political point of view to keep your party organization, and so essential In a pecuniary point of view in furnishing customers for tbo Tribune, and turned advocate and apologist for the seventy or eighty employers you speak of, thereby assisting them to still tighten the screws on the already over worked laboring men of Chicago. You must certainly have forgotten yonr recent logic, as applied to the many mil lions ol laboring slaves oT the South, for the benefit of their few hundred masters. You were then eloquent, and persistent in yonr efforts to lift up live millions of laborers from under their master’s feet. For those efforts I love the Tribune, and shall always feel grateful. These considerations make me all the more astonished and mortified at the sentiments 3'ou now put forth on this question of labor. Every argument that you use to deter the laboring man from manfully contending for a better orderofthlngsunderthe Eight-Hour Law, could, with equal propriety, have been and was urged against the change from six teen to fourteen hours per day, and from fourteen to twelve, and lastly from twelve to our present system of ten hours per day. The same imaginary bugaboos were then pointed out, to terrify the mechanic from contending for his elevation, that you point ont now. But, in your zeal for the employers, do you not mistake the question at issue ? It Is not, as I understand you to Infer, “ Whether the mechanic shall have pay for two hours’ work per day that be does not dobut whether, under a new order of things, under a proper and philosophic arrangement of things, he cannot earn his employers much, nay, even more, in eight hours, more cheer fully yielded, more vigorously prosecuted, more Intelligently directed, assisted by im proved machinery, than ho can or does earn in ten hoars per day as at present directed; thereby leaving an additional two hours per day to spend with his family, Improve his mind, strengthen his body, educate himself in the science of his calling. Thus day by day will he not only Improve himself as a mechanic, and render his labor more valuable, because more intelligently bestowed, but he will, also, derate himself as a mao, os. a citizen, lilting, himself far above those degrading habits aid expend!* tnrea you refer to la yoor answer to Mr. H. I contend that eight hoars per day, or eren six hoars per-day, of skilfal, well directed labor, intelligently and cheerfully applied, la worth more to the master than ten hoars . .as at present rendered and applied ; and I fall to-see the “Inexorable logic” of your ▼lews In reference to the eight-hoar system making clothing, groceries, house rents,'etc., higher than they now are. especially if the eight hours of work be worth as mach to the employer as the ten hours are now. It is a well-known fact that capital has always sought to own labor. At one time the master owned his mechanic sixteen hoars per day, at another fourteen hoars, at an other twelve hours, and at another, and that not a very, remote period, and in our own country, It claimed to and did own him, soul and body, bnt now in thla land at least, cap ital owns the mechanic ten boars per day, and what has it ever done In trim for all this toll, beyond 'discussing the question which Is the cheapest diet for the mechanic: homi ny and beans, or rice sonp. and hard tack; nor has the employer ever yielded even so much as a hair, except what was forced oat of him. He stepped sulkily and reluctantly from.sixteen hoars per day down to ten hours per day; he now, true to all bis selfish instincts, refuses -to go a step farther until again forced, and forced he will be; tbat other and remaining step must be taken. The genius of our Institutions, the spirit of onr age, and the temper of the American mechanic demand it. ' If we but look around ns a moment, wesee everywhere the employer getting rich. His little'shop of but a few years ago has grown into a mammoth manufactory; his few hundreds of dollars have multiplied Into thousands, perhaps millions, whilst his poor mechanics remain as poor os ever, en gaged in a dally contest with poverty for his bread and meat. Now, os none rendered more efficient service in breaking up the old order of thlqgs, and freeing the many mil lions of laboring poor from their few hun dred masters that owned them soul and body, than the Tbibune, why does it turn Its back on these many, many thousands ol Its friends, who so much need its valuable assistance Just now, in helping along this tnost saintary reform? Or docs it think that, as it says, the “employers have the most money. ” it Is therefore safest to fight under their banner of - oppression? I know It has been said that “gold obtaining all things all things, were therefore sacrificed to obtain gold.” But I cannot even yet think that among the many sacrifices made to obtain gold will be ionnd the principles so long advocated by the Tribune. : So, friend Tribune, let us have, your valu able aid in ilivor ot the Eight-Hour Law; in favor of Its honest, faithful and legitimate adoption; in favor of the elevation of the American mechanic; in favor of the eleva tion of brains over muscle, of thought over toll, of the intellectual above the physical. Mechanic. THE NEW STATE HOCSE AT SPKINGFIEID. Specifications for the Plan of the Pro* posed Ifidlflce* The Commissioners of the new State House at Springfield have issued the following cir cular of instructions, giving a general out line of specifications for the plan of the pro posed edifice: . Under the act for the erection of a new Bute Uonso, the cost is limited to $3,000,000, and the building to be made as near fire proof as possible. Stone will be the principal material used In the construction—using brick la the inner walls when it can be done with safety. No style or “order,” of architecture has been decided npon. Each architect will consult his own taste, select such “order” os he may deem most suitable for a building of this character, avoiding extreme or superfluous ornament, the Commissioners preferring sim plicity and solidity. The great dulderatum is a hall for the House of Representatives, with capacity to seat not less than three hundred members, each member with a separate desk—two desks between each aisle; main aisle, five feet; others, three feet. The general plan and size of the building must conform to that one idea. Ample rotunda and halls. Senate Chamber, with capacity for at least one hundred members. Connected with each hail should be separate rooms for the Speaker, Chief Clerk, EorolUug and En grossing Clctk and Sergeant-at-Arms—docu ments and stationery—also a “ folding” room and a wash and cloak room opening into the ball, and with no other entrance, also an ante-room. No space allotted for visitors (lobby) on the floor of either house. (Ample) gallery for ladies and gentlemen. The basement will be occupied with tho heating apparatus (steam). Document and stationery rooms—one to bo connected with each department office on tho ground floor, with an outer entrance and through the office, and in addition an artists’ room and storage museum room connected with tbe geological department. Store and commit tee Also, water closets, and a pri vate one for each office. The first floor, or as much thereof os may be necessary, to bo devoted to the following offices, giving to each department the number of rooms designated below, and abont the ageregato amount of space, and the several offices of the form and size desig nated as nearly as possible, with their prop er convenient arrangement, and the lighting of the some. oj iue tiuuu. nnsr noon. For Secretary of Sia'e : Business oiUce, 24x32—758 square feet. Biivnte office, 24x32—'7C8 square feet., btato Utirarr, 60x100—6,1 Ou square ftet. Librariau'* office, 16x20—320 square feet. Vault—Fire proof, 16x40—CIO square fccL Wash and cloak room. For Auditor ofPubtXe Accounts : Business office, 2-1x32-'TO? square feet. Private office, 20x24—130 square feet. Clerk’s office, 21x32—703 square feet. Vault—Fire proof, 16x40—610 square feet. Wash ami cloak room. For State Treasurer: Private office, 18x24—182 square feet. Business office, ( n < T -w Vault—fire and burglar proof, ( * —766 square feet. Wash and cloak room. For Supreme Court: Law library, 00x00—3.000 square feet Courtroom. 40x40—1,600 square reel. Conference room, 20x25—oui square feet Clerk’s office, 2i*x25—600 square feet. Hat and cloak, wash room, large, for use of bar, etc. For State Geologist: Business office. 18x24—482 square feet Private office. 18x24—132 square feet Museum, 40x70—2,300 square feet Wasb and cioalt rtfom, artists* room, document room, duplicate and stamp room, basement For Superintendent of Fuhlic Instruction : Business office. 24x40—900 square feet Private office, 16x24—482 square feet Library office, 18x24—482 square feet Wash and cloak room, document and stationery, models, etc., basement It is desirable that the rooms allotted to the Superintendent of Public Instruction and State Geologist be In the same quarter of the building, contiguous to each other, the library and museum located between the offices and communicating with each other. Also that the offices of the Librarian and Sec retary oi State be located In the same man ner as to each other, the library room be tween and may be divided into two rooms, communicating as above. If there be sufficient space in the quarter allotted to the Supreme Court for the offices of the Attorney General, locate them ad joining the law library and connected there with. The Auditor and Treasurer to ho located in the same quarter, and if sufficient space is left, the same Is to he allotted to the Ad jutant General, with document and storage room in the basement. THE SECOND FLOOR to ho devoted to the two hails and their ad jacent offices. For Executive room*: Ante-ioom, 24x32—783 square feet. Clerk's office, 2Ux3o—6tU square feet. Private Secretory, 18x21—«* square feet. Executive private room, 24x32—763 square feet. Fund Commissioner, 10x20—320 square feet. Wash and clrakroom. . . k Booms for Attorney General and Adjutant General to bo on second. If not located on the first floor—tbc balance In committee rooms For Attorney General: General office, 2lx24 —lfcO square foot. Private room, 16x20—320 square feet. Wssb and cloak room. For Adiufant General.’ _ Museum trophies, 40x00—2,400, Business office, 20x24—48 1). Private office, 10x20—320. Vault, fire preof, 10x40—WO. Wash and cloak room. TILS THIRD FLOOR. That part over the executive and •other rooms to be made into committee rooms. There should he from thirty to forty com mittee rooms, fourteen of .them containing about 425 square -feet each. The balance fiom 180 to 800 square feet each. The whole building to be amanged for heating with steam and lighted by gas. Halls lighted by day from above. THE LOT. The lot fronts east on Second street, 500 leet, north on Monroe, 623 feet, west on Spring, 500 feet, and on Charles 023 feet. Main approach from the east. The central part of the lot Is elevated about twelve feet above the grade of Second street, reached by a gradual slope, and is also higher than tbc street on the other sides. Lot covered with scattering forest trees. Jacob Bonn, President, John TV. Smith, James H. Beveridge, J. C. Webber, Secretary. Committee. Homblo murder In Washington Coun ty, Pennsylvania. [From the PUiabureh Commercial, March 21. J we are called upon to record another lear* ful tragedy, of a more horrible character than that committed on Boyd’s Hill over a year ago. The scene or the tragedy was at the house of Mr. David Sproul, located in ■Washington County, three miles from No blestown, this county, two miles and a half from McDonald’s Station, on the Fan Handle Railroad, which Is abont fourteen miles from this city. Mr. Sproul and his unmarried sis ter, about fifty years of age, occupied the house, which Is half a mile from any other habitation. On Monday night lost about eight o’clock three men, one of whom had his face blackened, knocked at the door of Mr. Sproal’s house, and inquired the way to the Uempfield Railroad. They were answered by Mr. Sproul, who went to the door lor the purpose of pointing out to them the direction of the railroad. As soon as he reached the door ho was seized by two of the men, who dragged him into the kitchen and there brutally murdered him. The body was mangled in the most horrible man ner. llis throat was cut from ear to car, his head cut across the forehead, the knife run through both cheeks, opening his mouth nearly the lull extent of bis jaws, and was stabbed below the eye, back of the ear, and on the top of the head. „ „ , . Simultaneous with seizing Mr. Sproul at the door, the man who had his face blacken ed rushed In, and catching hold of Miss Sproul dragged her up to the garret, where he throw her on the bed, and tied her firmly with a rope, swearing at the same time if she mndo za> outer he would murder her. The men In the kllchen halloed :o the man with (he blackened**, whom they called Calb furnla John.” to kill her, but fludlins; that sho wee eecnrcly fastened to the bed, they did not harm her. , ~ . The villains then proceeded to ran-a-k the house, as their purpose seemed to be to Ret money.. -Tbeysearched the garret and found a box secreted, which they broke open. They t'iok from the box all the money in it —one hundred and sixteen dollars. and two silver watches. There was aiso in the box notes to the amount of over twenty-fire thousand dollars, bat being of no asc to them, they left them strewn upon the floor. The wretches, having secured all the money In the house, then fled, leaving Miss Sproul tied to the bed. Sbe remained in that position until two o'clock the next (Tuesday) afternoon, when a neighbor, who had come to the houso to f:et some milk, beard her screams, and re* cased her. Upon being loosened, sbe was so prostrate that she could scarcely stand. SEBIOUS BAILROAD DIS ASTER. Fearful Accident on the Great Western ■ nf —On II flfanSfcald* ed and Another Burned to Death— Bagcage and (Balls Banted—Sup posed Loss of Express Money. (From the Detroit Tribane, March 33.] ; Yesterday morning at about seven o'clock an accident occurred on the Great Westers Railway, near a side track, a few miles cast of Woodstock, which resulted fatally to two employes of the road and in the destruction of several cars, a large amount of baggage, mails, etc. ■ It appears that a special freight train com ing west was attempting to get upon a side track in the vicinity above mentioned, hat was a little behind time or slow in doing so. The night mail train, also hound west, was immediately behind the freight and was running much the fastest of the two. For some reason, as yet unexplained, the mail train which was being drawn by two engines, was driven Into tbo rest of the freight, and struck the conductor’s car with such force os completely demolished it. John Farrell, the conductor, was the solo* occupant of the car at the time, and he met a fearful death. A flue of the forward engine of the mail train bnrst, and the escaping steam was thrown noon the unfortunate man, scalding him terribly. After the collision the poor fellow was removed to a sleeping car. where 'every attention was shown him. He lingered about three hours in Intense agony, at which time death relieved him of his sufferings. The deceased resided at London, and leaves a wile and family there. . Besides the car above alluded to, the bal ance of the freight train was more or less damaged, hot none of the cars were thrown from the track. j The collision was more damaging to the express than the freight train. The passen ger coaches were crashed against one anoth er so much as to break the platforms. The "baggage cars were turned over and piled upon the tender and set on Are, evidently from the stoves Inside. ' Several persona occupied these cars, and all except one, the baggage-master—Mr. Rogers—escaped Injury. This man met a death even worse than tint of the poor freight conductor. His body was firmly 'wedged In between the broken fragments of , the car, and he was literally roasted alive. : His legs, from the knees down, were horned to a crisp. The baggage cars were burned, together with all their contents, Including the mail bags, express goods, and all the through baggage belonging to the passengers. Toe : smrll safe of the American Exoress Com pany, which minor says, contained, among other things, SCO,OOO in United States bonds, and $40,000 in money, was taken from the ruins red-hot. Everything Inside of coarse was destroyed. The express messenger was slightly in jured, which, with the deaths be fore mentioned, are the only person al injuries sustained. Strange to say none of the: passengers were hart. The injury done to the track, together .with the debris ol the wreck, caused a de lay of several hours to the express train. It was due in this city at eleven a. m., bat did not reach here until about half past eight o’clock last night. The loss sustained by the through pas sengers was very great, bnt the prompt manner in which the managing director of the road acted in the premises ena bled them to secure a just compensa tion fur their lost baggage, without any delay. An officer was ordered to be in readiness at Windsor, and upon the arrival of the mail train at that place ho sought out' the losers and paid their claims. This action not only prevents litigations, bat also enabled the passengers to pursue their journeys without interruption. Daring Forgery Operations In Phila delphia. (From the Philadelphia Inquirer.] The young man, “L. M. Hosea,” whose arrest on a charge offorgery we have already recorded, was before Aid. Beitler for a hear ing yesterday afternoon. He la one of the handsomest male bipeds npon whom our optics ever rested. In stature about live feet eight, with a complexion like mother of-pearl, a beautiful eye, and hair like floss silk, he stood before the Alderman a model for an Adonis. It will be remembered that he was arrest ed at the La Pierre House, where, with bis young wife, ho was disporting himself in lavender. He seems to be a polished and unscrupulous character, bat splendid save as to iniquitous results. His wife Is the daugh ter of a highly respectable citizen. He seems to have sailed under false colors for a long time past, and has at least a half dozen of well authenticated aliases. Dr. Royer testified before the Alderman that he advanced $2,000 to him, receiving lor it a draft on Cincinnati, in tbe First Nation al Bank ot which city he claimed to have upon deposit SO,BOO. The draft was dishon ored. Another witness, Mr. Daesso, deposed that defendant had victimized him in a cor responding manner. He gave defendant S3O, . receiving for It a draft uooo Cincinnati, wheie he claimed that his mother had de posited $3,000 to bis credit. Dr. Royer got back $l,lOO in gold ol the amount he had ad vanced. Mr. Duesse got nothing, while his watch, which ho loaned defendant, was re covered only through the instrumentality of the detectives. The filling up of the forged draft?, of which we have hitherto given ft description, was done at the LaFlerre Honae, where the defendant was staying. Mr. Wra. S. Ander son testified that ho filled theta up, and that Hosea signed them. It was made manifest by testimony that the Lieutenant Colonel L. M. Hosea, of Cincinnati, personated by de fendant, is a very different man from the ac cused, and that he Is engaged In the whole sole dry goods trade there. A citizen named J. A. Keenan, who had resided with the de fendant some time at No. 250 South Third street, deposed that his mother always ad dieased him as “ Willie.” The defendant woe represented by Coun sellor Woolston, who stated that the hear ing was only ex parte, and that a good deal now enveloped in darkness would ultimate ly find satisfactory explanation. The magis trate committed the accused, in default of $6,000 ball. According to all accounts ho has played a game of exceeding knavery, and nls effrontery and sangfroid have ex ceeded anything on record since the days of Monroe Edwards. If half that is told of him be true, he is a sort of mixture between Aaron Burr and Colonel Cross. Qc went to § risen with reluctance, after trying to in uco his father-in-law to enter hall tot him. He claims to be entirely innocent. George F. Brook testified that ho knew the prisoner, and was acquainted with him for some six or seven years; witness knows him by the same ofW. D. A.Hosieer; some time aeo the prisoner told witness that he was a broker on South Third street, also, that he had a commission In the United States Navy, and was attached to Porter’s signal corps ; witness had known of the prisoner represent ing himself os the nephew of Governor Aiken, oi South Carolina. 'William Worrlck, Jr., hair dresser at the Pa Pierre, testified that some time since he was conversing with the prisoner, who then represented himself as the son of Governor Aiken, of South Carolina; he said he was In tho Union army, and was wounded at tbe battle of Island No. 10; was transferred from the army to the navy, and ranked as third lieutenant; he said ms father gave SIO,OOO to the Confederate cause, and he gave himself to the Union cause. Presentation or a Splendid Blfle to General Grant* [From the Providence Journal, March 19.] On Wednesday, the rlfie purchased by the citizens of Providence, as a gift to General Grant, was presented to him by N. G. Whit more, Esq., who, accompanied by Governor Sprague, called upon him at the headquar ters of the army,in Washington. Mr. Whit more, representing the donors, made a brief presentation speech, to which the General replied, expressing his pleasure at‘ being made tbe recipient of so handsome a pres ent. He also wrote the following letter ac cepting tbe gift and signifying his apprecia tion of the compliment: ncADqvAßTzns Armies or tjte United Status, I Washington, D. C., March ISth, 1557. J Messrs- N. &N. G. Whitmore: Dead Sms:(l have the pleasure to ackuowl eege the receipt of tne beaut Ifni rifle of your man ufacture. presented to me by the citizens of Pron ounce, Rhode Island. I scarcely know how to tnank tbe citizens of Providence, yonrselves in cluded, lor this token of their esteem. Through you Ido, however, extend to them my thanks for ibis testimonial, which will be ever appreciated. With great respecVyoor obedient servant, D. H Guant, General. The rifle is the workmanship of N. & N. 6. Whitmore, of Mansfield, Mass., valued, with tho case -at SBOO, and Is a beautiful weapon. The stock is of American black walnut, with solid silver mountings, one of which is a shield surmounted by an eagle, and having engraved upon it a monogram composed of the initials U. 5.6. interwoven. The barrel, in common with all other parts of the gun. is of American manufacture, inlaid with gold. The case is of black walnut, is lined with fine broadcloth, and contains compartments for implements, ammunition and other appurtenances. Frozen to Death. [From the Cedar Falls (Iowa) Gazette, March 22.] The terrible cold and blow of Tuesday, the 12th, brought death on tbe prairie to one of our residents. John Callen, who lived six miles south of Cedar Falls, with his brother in-law, John Howe, left this city about six p. m., on Tuesday of last week, in the midst of that blinding, freezing blow, and not reaching home, was at length found on Friday, at 4 p. m., frozen to death by the side of his team on the prairie. It was plain from his tracks, that he reached within eighty rods of home and then wandered off to the west two miles, coming: within eighty rods of another boose, the residence of some English people- Then he most have been fully benumbed, lor he tied the reins tightly to bisslcd-stakc, and lying down by side of bis horses, on his back, he slept the frozen sleep of death. For three whole days tbe horses stood there unable to move, so tight were the reins. They had finally succeeded in gnawing off tbe inside reins, next to each otter, bat then the outside reins drew round their heads, and prevented their moving. They were in a sorry plight, one of them having two feet frozen, and being probably spoiled . completely. Callen was abont thirty-eight years of age, a widower having one 'grown-up son. The Eamenight another man, out west of here, running airay with a horse, bad both his legs frozen up to tbe knees, and may have to have them amputated. PURE WATER FOR 6HICARO. Formal Opeaing of the Lake Tmmel. Laying the Corner-Stone of the New Water Works. A Wemorablo Event. Grand Masonic and Civic Demon stration-Procession Through the Street's— Interesting Masonic Ceremonies. Oration by Hon, J. B. Hico, Mayor of the City. Speeches by Er-Mayor Sheram and City Engiicer Cheshofough, History ot the Water Supply of tlio City and Description of the Heir Buildings* The Tunnel is at last actually finished. The cttirens of Chicago* had yesterday tbs first opportunity they have enjoyed for many years of Imbibing a draught of pure water directly from the pars and limpid portions of the lake. TO a people so long habituated to qneoching their nat ural (hirst by unnatural beverages, to quaffing bumpers of diluted animal matter, the outflow- Ings of sewers, and the distillations oi graveyards, the event must be a happy one.- Every one will bail the announcement as being indeed tidings of : great Joy. Those who have, despite all the frequent hilarious public declarations thattbe Tunnel was progressing, was approaching comple tion. was at last actually finished, mil he startled by the flow or their several hydrants. They will ate a chrystalue stream flowing therefrom which will strike them with amazement.- Their tea, coffee, and otner beverages, will- be no longvr fishy. The silvery Utile minnows that were wool to wriggle themselves through the hydrant will no more be seen. If families have been accustomed to store up these for broiling purposes, these will he disappointed: at the completion ol thr* work. It will seem to them an encroachment on their pmUeges,anm novation which m its very inception ought to have been put down. But these may be expected to be in the minority. Water, water,-every drop of which one may with safety drink, will be flow log perreually through every street, and alley, and thoroughfare In the city, catering every borne; and carrying with It health and blessing as It flows. “Water, beautiful water,” exclaims Mr. Gough in one ol his perorations, whlcn winds np by tracing the fluid to its various sources, till be duds at sea where U joins with the wild winds In “sing-- ibg me march of God.” In that connection one la tempted to think what is to become in after days oi such insiltniions os the Washington Home. What is to recome of the vocation of such as Ur. Gough himself. Xheiroccupation will be certain ly gone, for every sensible man knows that the people of Chicago have hitherto been driven Into the arms of Back and LIU by the utter impossibility which existed, when men thirsted, of finding any other beverage with which to quench their thirst, than such as they supplied. Many a man and woman baa been,, m thf« city, doomed lor years to look f ar ont lake wards and repeat despondingly that despairing cry of the forlorn ondcut mariner, which it would be now nauseous to Quote. Then alter looking forth longingly and hopelessly, they could bat torn back Ido the city, and plunge headlong mto lager. And now the city Is safe from anyfurther panic; such os those by which it has recently been dis tracted. The canine race heard for weeks in every direction, talk about water, and straight, way it began to lake spasms and jestingly he come bydoraphohie. The authorities and popa-' lace tamed on them spasmodlsally, with exter minating intent, and they disappeared. The cholera also, which tor now two years has been blinking leeringly and ominously at onr filthy beverages, and eke at onr unclean city, may be - expected also to take the alarm, and conclude that it will be utterly unavailing for It to attempt to estaolleh the merest temporary reign amongst 1 us. Chicago baa m a hundred ways cause tor re joicing over the completion of tbis mighty work. THE CELBBBATIOX. It was judged fitting to the dignity of the occa (•loo, that there should be a dvic celebration, and arrangements were made therefor on the occa sion ol the two events—the first gush of pore water through the supply pipes of the cUv, and ttaclayin? of the comer stone of the new Water Works. The display was not so Imposing nor the arrangements so extensive as they wonld nave been were the conductors moro ambitions. They, in their modesty, had at first determined on a smalt Masonic display only, and were startled after wards into a recognition of other claims. Some other people would havemade a month’s prepara tion over the celebration of an event or for less magnitude and importance—this was allowed bnt two days. The first rough draft of the programme was nut drawn op at noon on Saturday lost, and the Chief Marshal of the procession was not cho sentiil some boors later. It eeemei as if the par ties having the matter in charge had been delving in the bowels of the eartnso long, in ineir search for that subterranean passage. that tbey had become unable to bear tne light of day. Hot so thought not the people. They looked on the occasion as one worth more than a passing thought, and never was a call to arms answered with greater slamity by a regiment en tntouais than was tne summons together on Monday, responded to by tbc people of Chicago, it was an occasion of rejoicing and the people to regarded if, and tbongh ibat celebration was guiltless of tbc banqueting which is alien deemed indispecaable to ojuLtice, the good feeling was as universal and exnbeiont as thoogh the Laze Tunnel had hooded the city with champagne and oysters, instead of pure water without little fish. Early in the morning the city was all alive. Ko formal proclamation bad stopped the people fxora their labors, to watch me ceremonies wuica would attend the ushering in of the new water era, bnt the citizens generally recognized the importance of the occasion ana turned oat in great numbers to witness the procccdirga and participate in them. The streets along the intended Una of nmrcu were early filled with a throng, every mem ber of which was anxious to witness the really fine display of the procession, and from every part of the c:ty tha people were moving towaids the bnetne-s portion, where the procession should form. The day was all that could nave been desired at this period of tne year. It was cool, bntdry, and the underfoot portion of (he pro giamme was wonderfully good. In view of the snow-fall of but a few bonrs previous. The R round was not bard, bnt the mad was only ehal >w, and it was not painful or unpleasant to walk through it. Thu tun shone nrtg'ally at times, but coldly and coyly, like tbc love »nule of a young maiden, as should *>e on the 251 h of March-Lady Day. There was a Jubilant feeling, notwithstand ing the chill. Everybody was In good humor at too IdfS that good water was here at last, and operations laid cut for the day were very general ly postponed. THE PROCESSION. Soon after nine o’clock tne component parts of the procession began to assemble at the different places ol rendezvous. A detachment of police formed on the south side of the Court House, and after executing sundry evolutions in fiuc stylo, under the orders of drill-master Thomas Moore, marched upDcotbotn afreet to near Randolph. In ttatir rear, in front of the Masoolc i'emple, the dlflcrenl bodies of Masons were finally marsnaU cd, and behind them the military and the civic oOxers. The Fife Department formed on Wash ington street, east of Laballe Before the marshalling and arranging of the constituent paita of the great procession, unutterable coeJusiod and excitement prevailed. Bands dme • marching from different quarters; Marshals gal loped holly to and fro; Masons with iheir plain white aprons or their gorgeous trappings hurried singly to the rendezvous; fire engmce and hose carts rolled forward covered with sturdy firemen In tbelr great haia and blue uniforms, and drawn by tbelr powerful horses.looking as tf they wanted to bteak into a run to the fire which must have called them out; men, women and children crowded the sidewalks in a state of excited admi ration, making pedeatrlanlsm almost impossible; while oumihnses, carriages, trucks and drays, on business intent met most vexatious delays and obstructions at every rod, and were often forced to work long detours In order to pass the living mass. As nsTuu, the hoorappointen for taking no the hue of march was lung passed betore order was brought out of Una chaos, and the command ‘Tor ward’ 1 was given. At eleven o’clock the bead of the procession startednp Dearborn street to Lake, thence west to LaSalle, south to Washington, where the Fire Department fell in to the rear, and the great organization being complete, the march np Clark street began. At tho van rodo Chief Marshal General A- C. Ducat, with aids, decorated with scarfs and ticciy mounted. Then followed a body of sixty police, selected from tbe forces of Cap. tains Hickey, o' the South Division; Kennedy of the Weal Division; and Sherman, of the North Division, and under the immediate command of tbelr respective Sergeants. The men were trimly and handsomely nnllonned and bora themselves in a very soldierly maimer. Next came the Light Guard Band of some sixteen pieces, playing their most respiting music, and followed by the promi nent feature of tbe procession, a grand body of Masons from some eighteen of the differ ent lodges of tbe dtv, with tbelr ' officers of various decrees, decorated with showy regalia, and numbering, all told, somo five hun dred men. The order was as follows: Apollo Commandery Knights Templar, about eighty men, under V. L. Horlbat, Eminent Com mander. Subordinate Lodges of F. & A. M. in the follow ing order: Tylers, with drawn swords. Stcwatds. Master Masons. Secretary and Treasurer, wardens. Masters. M.W. Grand Lodge F.&A. M- Stste of {lllinois, constituted as follows: j. 1L Gorin. Decatur, Grand Master, supported by Deacons with rods. D. C. Cregtcr, Chicago, Deputy Grand Master pro tem* with sliver vessel of corn. Charles Fisher, Springfield, Senior Grand Ward en, with stiver vessel ot wtne. GUt mm Dinwi »Maci vi nwiwi J. Ward Ellis. Chicago, Junior Grand Warden pro frtn, with silver vessel of oil. • D. A. Casbman, Chicago, Grand Trcosaer pro tan. 11. G. Reynolds. Springfield, Grand Secretary. J. J. Jennings, Chicago, Senior Grand Beacon pro tem. „ , „ J. B. Bradwcll, Chicago, Junior Grand Beacon Chicago, Senior Grand Steward Kohn, Chicago, Junior Grand Steward nro tem. , „ O B. Tiffany, Chicago, Grand Chaplain. J.W. Clyde, Chicago, Master of oldest Lodge, carrying Book of Constitutions. G. W. Barnard, Chicago, Chaplain, carrying Bi ble, square and compass. w R. Mills, Chicago. Grand Sword Bearer, jiro tan., with drawn sword. G. S. Baistow, Chicago, Grand Pursuivant. Zlcrry Turner, Chicago, Grand Standard Bearer, pi o tem. W. W. Boynton, Chicago, Grand Architect, pro fan., with square, level and plumb. J.P.Fenis,Chicago,Grand Tyler,withdrawn sword. Then came tbe Chicago Commaadcry of Knights Templar, fifty strong, led by W. M. Egan, Emi nent Commander, preceded by the Great Union Bond. ice regalia and personnel of both bodies of Knights xemplar was splendid; tbe plumed hats, the drawn swords, the stately bearing and tbe unusually tall and symmetrical foims of tbe gal lanlKnigbts forming an array that called forth in voluntary compliments from many a “ladye taire.” The standard bearer of tbe “‘Appolo’g,” whose banner bore the device, "In hoc tinno vineet," was a substantial gentleman about six and a half feet high, and weighing something less than three hundred pounds; while bis supporters;on the right and lett would have measured possibly ove feet and weighed a hundred pounds or so cacn. Aa an illustration of contrast the ee I ecll on a w ere finely made, and caused considerable pieasMuy. The Masonic display was throughout anMMuy Imposing, the uniform ot the chiefolflcts j> *cry brilliant. The Oim4 coracU new ana LandEome rcs«llfjgf MSt, CapUlii Con> mlM g ecre i ar y of Iho Board. rtlv Engineer and First Assistant. a,J Contractors of Machinery and Buildings. Judges of the United States Court and otter Uu- . , led States Officers. Judiciary of tts city of Chicago. Beads of Dcj imatnts of the City ot Chicago cad . principal Assistant*. Hembcta of the Common Council. Clergy Members a the Press. Rz.Mavora. Board of Education. Police Board. Officers and Pnncipal Assistants Coaneclod wiffc Beard of Public Works. Ex-Water and Police CommLwionere. Band. This body was followed by a pttve escort, the •* Quackerbos Collegiate Gcjias,” eonahuagof twerty youth* from ten to sixteen yean of age, dmed m closely fittim; caps with tassels, gray coats and pants, and black belts, bearing youth' fat looking guns, and matching to the music of Ibelr otn> small bat d. ihe Chicago The Department, In fUH force, fol lowed, and made a most imposing array, with tbelr stalwart men. the hairy, shining steamers, drawn by two end four horses, and the trucks, bofe-cails, coal-carts, and other paraphernalia. Ibo oraer wa-: Dock and Ladder Company, “Tempest” hose cart, “Aroenca”bcßo can: steamers “Long John.** “Enterprise.’' “Island Queem” “U. P. Harris,** “Util.- Giant,” “Liberty,” “Economy.” ‘*aTl>. Ttlswonh,” “J. B. Rice, “Frank Sherman.” all with Lose-carts; “Atlantic” hose-cart; steamers “A. C. Coventry,” “T. B. Brown” and “Fred- Gnnd," with tbelr hose-carta. This powerful body of fiir-ficbteis attracted great attention, and gave the spectators a mater feeline of security sgatn>t (be destroying element than before. Chief Fire Marshal tJ. P. Barrie, and Chief of Police Jacob Kehm, rode in the procession la Chi'se ottheirrespective depa tmcnl*. The grand procession was dosed up by a large force ot da* sens who marched wrh cheerful step, inspired by the strains or the merry bands and toe excitement of the scene. Ihe lone body, brilliant with Its diversity of col ors audits emblems cl authority, skill and power, moved at a free pace through the streets, Imoa with thousands of people on the walks and cor ners. In door-ways and windows, on roots and fences, all wearing an exhilaration of countenance which showed that the great events which the dis play Indicated were of vital interest ami happy mporttoall. At the intersection of Clark and lake streets, where the great fide of business al ways rolls most strongly, an impassable barrier was tor a few moments presented, caused by the throng of vehicles of ail descriptions which bed not Ume to move away before the body was upon them*, and in the haste, an tndlscnbable hubbub arose; policemen, marshals and drivers all ahoudugat once; horns forcing themselves wlldlramong the chaos of wheels in the vain attempt to move for . ward, and each retard tag the other by their iranUc haste. Finally the opposing elements were separated and dispersed, and the procession moved on, tbiouph the animated crowd* of spec tators, up Clark itrcct. Theproaramme laidihe erder of march tbsnee east by Chicago avenue to the grouses, bn! the mad wsafoutidio be so profound and tenacious on that much travelled iborounblaro that, out of respect to boots and unmentionables, ttec accommodating bodies of tie army concluded not to fieht it ont on that line, but to turn off upon Eric street. Here also the lace of mother nature was found to be too yielding for comfort, and so the sidewalk was re sorted to, somenbat impairing the dignity and nnifonnlry of tbo procession, bat improving its : good nature, which bad begun to wane a mere trifle; though as a «hnie tbs doughty body of ■ emit ent and substantial men stood thefiUgne of i the march with great complacency. Beaching i pine street, Ihe body turned north, and the head ' ot the column baited at a quarter before twelve m * front of the Water Works. aovsra to tux onocyns. Kotth Clark street, an kroaod Uia Tiddly oT Chicago avtnne, was is a state of eoid cxale-* meat from eleven o’clock, by which tins* the peo ple were waned by the distant sound ot mtulc of tbe approach or the procession. Then the stream oi citizers began to - (low m the direction ot the Water Works Tbe tall chimneys ot Lltl’a brewery, and or the adjacent establishment seit forth streaming black banners of smoke trhQetbe old Gag •‘with thirty-six stars on It” was display ed from tbe nonsetops and from rations windows aronnd the seme. From the immediate neigh borhood tbe ladles tamed ost pre'ty nberally to participate m the celebration, bat owing to the chilliness of ibe weather, very few residing at a distance ventured to come. On approach- rine street ibe crowd were obliged to come to a stand-still, the passage to the grounds being rcarded by policemen, and a rope stretched across lot the purpose of keeping them clear till the pioccsaion arrived. TO* SCENE AT TUB WATER WORKS. The new lower la sheared Immediately to the of Pine street, between Chicago avenue aud Peirfon street. A wooden platform bad been erected at the east side or the tower facias the old Water Works,'for the accommodation ot the Bprakers, and tbo corner-stone w*a at the aortbi ast corner of iho stincture. Between that and the old worts Iny a mass of building mate- rendered access to the epos a matter oflßrue diffli'nlty. Hero piles of bricks, heaps ofT-and, temoorary sheds for the workmen, and & nmnberofsmall shanties, sorronneed tne piace, leaving very Halo open space for to < disposition oT ot a great multitude* But toe multitude were ap parenily la no basto to gather to the spot, and the policemen bud Jitlle trouble to preserving order. Thewind was bitter cold, and until lucre was an immediate prospect of a commencement of the celebration, those who bad already arrived were fate to seek the warm shelter anorded lathe in terior of the old balldifff, and thereto wait In peace till the opening of the proceedings. For a co’d water celebration tSe site chosen for suen a celebration was not exactly'ho oi.e which an advocate of temperance would have recorded as apropos. On one side stood iho huge establishment of I-iil's brewery, and on the other Sands’. Iron both of which streamed numerous banters, while the windows wore all Crowded by people eager to obtain a view of the approaching ceremonies. There wero smaller establishments of a kindred nature in the vidoitj, ana one in particular which at tracted more attention than the modesty of Us outward appearance would have warranted. This was a tmall frame building used in con nection with tbe new works for the accommoda tion of the workmen. Yesterday- it wan placed under charge of Sergeant Coarlcs Jennings of (be Ihlid Precinct who converted it mto a temporary refreshment 100 m. There was bread and cnccae and lager in abandonee, and the some were dis pensed with a liberal Land by ibe genial best or me tavern, whose beaming countenance, as be stood at tbe door, was an mdez 01 the hospitality within. The Hotel deJennlocs was liberally pat ronised during the cold hour of wa’tmg and watching for tbe head ot the procession to appear. About half past c.eves the first minute gin was find by tbe Dearborn Light Artillery, miner Cap tain James Smith, from tbe lake shore, and about the same time the round ot Vans’ Band denoted tbe approach of the procession. A trampling of tnsny feet was beard, and very soon every avenue leading to tbe grounds was filled by a' stream ol atizina, which quick ly crowded the space around toe tower. Tbe scene from mo rlationn now was highly ntctuicsque. the sand heaps and tbehrick heups, the sheds and tne small dwellings wm taken possession of, and clustered over with ewarms oi human beings. Even the stunted trees that grew here and there along tne. avenue, wore climbed by the adventurous boys,wbtle tbe plat fuim over the entrance to the old Waterworks ofiered a convenient stand for the ladles who graced tbe scene wi b their presence. In their eagerness to coin an advantageous seat near tbe platform, a number o( men clambered to tbc roof ota very fiail wooden shvd used for dress ing the stones. Suddenly the structure gave way beneath them, and about twenty luckless Individ uals v. ere precipitated into the rubbish beneath. Fortunately no oner as severely hurt, though a. number were seriously frightened, particularly three men who were standing at the moment right under the structure. inrr coxn. Shortly before twelve the head of the procession nteoc Its appearance on tie grounds, preceded, oy toe Light Gcaid Band. The Anights Templar opened die in front of the lower and allowed the dignitaries of the Fraternity to paid to the front. First came the Grand Chapter with Hon. O. B. .Mli er, the Mate 1 reasnrer, as Grand High Priest, followed by Iho Grand Council, MirD. Chamber lain, of Freeport,,as T. 1. Q. hi. ihe Chicago CommauCery formed near the platform, tbs Chi cago l odges acting as escort. The procession marched to the ground in the order above given, the Zouaves loaning tn open file la advance of the Knights Ttmplar. The olllceia of the Grand Lodge then ascenoed the platfoim, accompanied by ms Honor iho Mayor, Mr. Chesbroogh, ex jhoyor Sherman, Messrs. Dnll A Gowan, several of the Aldeimen and other prominent cl'ixens. By tht* time every inch of ground for a large space around the new tower was densely packed with spectators.* It was estimated that not less ihnn twenty thousand people were present, an immense turn-out considering that the weather was anything but calculated to draw oa( a crowd. The pioepcet was bleak and unpromising, and tbs wine so piercing cold that an orator must have labored under terrible disadvantages, while the enthusiasm ot the people was naturally Chilled. Betore the openlcg of the Masonic exercises, the gentlemen had ample leisure to inspect the new tower. It is already advanced to the heighih of 27|feet, and In the- lower basement la seen the huge cast-iron base for the receiving and difUlbndng ot the water. The a tincture is al most bidden at present by thescaffolaimr, so that lUIc idea could be formed of its proportions and style. Among the most distinguished personages on the platform was Mr. Ctesbrouzb, the man of all others on whom the eyes of the peo* pie were turned, to whose gem'is the filfreini are ao deeply indebted for the mighty work which they bad assembled to inaugurate. Be kept modestly in the background, however, and manifested no desire to take his share of the honors of the day. The tiring of minute eons always forms an Im portant part of all public demonstrations. Being an ancient and time-honored custom, no one, perhaps, cares to object to it. Yet it is a custom which would be more honored In the breach than the observance. Yesterday tbs : inmate guns from the Dearborn Light Artillery contributed much to interrupt the proceedings, breaking in every moment in the coarse ot the prayers and hymns ana speeches with most pro voking noise. Mimic cannon were also fired from time to time by the enthusiastic employes of Mr. LUI irom the windows of the brewery. TBE CEBE(TIONIES, The members of the Grand Lodge having taken their places on the platform, wi'b the Blue Lodges grouped around, the Knights Templar standing on guard, soothe vast assemblage, standing in respectful eilcrce, filling tbe whole apace en closed by the square, tbe Most Worthy Grand Master ot tbe Stale and las officers, assisted by the members oi the Grand Lodge, tbe Knights Templar and the snbordinate lodges, proceeded to lay the corner-stone, with the imposing cere monies of the Masonic Order, as follows: THE 61L1XZ> XISTZB. DeWitt C. Creeler. Deputy Grand Master of the Grand l odge, and chief Engineer of the Water Works, belt fly Introduced to the audience the 3lost worehiplul Grand Master, Jerome R Gorin, who barms taken hi* place upon the northeast corner turret, in which the stone was to ho placed, and ol which It now tonns a part, said: ia be half of the Masons of the State of Illinois, and on the part of me Grand Incase of the Stale, 1 ten der you my thanks for the honor which has been conferred upon ns la inviting as to lay this coiner-stone, and For the oppor tunity of eaylng to yon, that we are prond of this great and crowing city. We are prond of Chi cago because of the enterprise and Intelligence of ner people. We are prond of Chicago because of her vast resources and wealth; an enterprise and courage in opposing difficulties which hw been evinced on many occasions, and which cul minated in the grand conception and successful completion of this Turn el. the grandest achieve ment of the age. The idea which originated In the mind of the philanthropists has been carried Into practical operation nrder the supervision of an efficient Board* 01 Public Works, and the skill and ability ot a highly competent engineer, and a wise Mayor and city Council, and the en couragement of the truly public spirited people of this metropolis of the West. [Applause.) With such a people, the commencement of even so gieatu-work was a certain guarantee of its com pletion, and it la to-day the pride of not pay c p*- cagolans, but of every city of the State oflUiDOts, and of the entire country. Men and Brethren, we have been summoned together on tils occasion upon the invitation of tbe authorities of this city, to celebrate, with them. In a becommag iaanner the long deterred hope of the lohahhanta of this place on the Introduction of pore watertototlite » to lay the comtr-ssope of inis structure with the Sual ceremonies, according to our anriem usage. BnL besote entering upon the discharge ot Uda only It ts necessary and very proper and the rfmv of all people to Invoke the blessing SSSSwy 0& upon onr labor. Tho Gran 3 chanisln usll. acrelore, mvoke the Throne of craco and ask that the blessing of God may con tinue upon this work, uetd ns final completion, accoidlng to the origins! plan. tub invocation. Silence having been thru commanded and the necessary preparations having been made, the corner-sione was raised up, the Grand Chaplain, Rev. O. B. Tiffany, 1). 8., repeating the following Pl 2 ll’ve pray. Most glorious God. the heavens are Thy throne and the earth Is 'thy footstool, ihy name is excellent In all the earth, and Thon hast tec it above the heavens. Thou hast been our dwelling place in alt generations, lor, before the mountains v ere wrought, or Ihon hadsl tormed tne earth or tho world, even from everlasting to everlasting, Tbou art God. We recognize Thee as onr Father, our Creator, our Preserver, oar Re deemer, our Governor. We bless Thee for oar aeatlon, oar preservation, and all tbe blessings or Ibis life, and for 1 blue toegumablelorc m the redemption of onr world. We bless Thee for the means ot grace, and for the hope of glory. We have beard with our ears oh God, and our forefathers have told us the work Thou didst to then days, in ihe limes of old—how Thoa didst ame out ihe heathen with Thine band and plant ed Thy people—hou Thou didst affilcttoe people