Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune, March 27, 1867, Page 2

Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune dated March 27, 1867 Page 2
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(Eljicagc tSxibime. DAILT, TKI-TT Ei’EXT iSD WEEKLY. off ick. Ho. »rmnH.»T. there are varee editions or me Twao** uaoei. in. Every moraine, for circulation W earner*, newsmen and the ■malls. 2d. TbeTu-Waxxi-v, Monday*. Wed neadaya and Friday*, for the main only; and the Weielt, on Thursday*, tor the rsatlt aafl aalootonr •outer «Tui br !)»■«■ amen- - , - Terms of tee C’hlciuto Tribute: '" DUIT toiTmain »■» >Jg Dally, to m*U subscriber* (per aurnm, pay*.- bleto advance) 111.00 Trt-Wctily. fper anrnm, payable In advance) «.00 Weeny, (per anrnm. payable 1c advance) ‘.£,00 fT Fractional part* ot me year at the same rate*. gW Person* remitting and ordering five or more copies of either the Xrl-Weekly or Weekly editions m*y retain ten pet cental the subscription price as a commission. H ones to Bcbsceiwes.—in ordering the address of your papers' chanced. «o prevent delay, be sure and specify wbatedition yea take—'Weekly, Tri-Weekly, or Dally. Also, BlveyonrjßßsxxT&ndfntore address VT Money, by Draft, Express, Money orders, or In TnnyhffamtatQTirrtSfc. Address, THIBDNE COh Chlccgo. HI. TVEDNESDAT, MARCH 27, 1867. FINANCIAL QUESTIONS. It should be understood by our public men, that & special knowledge of the questions upon which they are called to act Is no dis paragement to their general qualifications for the discharge of legislative duties. It is all very well for men to be ready at a moment’s notice to make arguments upon reconstruction, upon impeachment, and upon the next war, but the country has a enrnlos of that school of ability, and would be * thankful If those to whom her interests are entrusted, would perfect them selves in a knowledge of the more important and vital questions of taxation and national finances. One of the most lamentable defi ciencies of our public men is their ignorance of political economy, and the obstinacy, if not impudence, they display in refusing to ac* quaint themselves with the question which, of all others, is of the deepest concern to the whole country. During the war the country needed soldiers to lead our armies. The war being over, the need of mere soldiers for active dnty in the field no longer exists, and those - who served the Union honorably in that capacity, have since engaged In those civil duties for which ' they were qualified. When the army was in the field, it required men of strong moral convictions in the national councils to fight slavery, and to apply the strong hand of the law to destroy that institution. Slavery is now dead, and many of these men, educated merely to one idea, and who seem to have no capacity, or wish to be qualified for any other duty, arc really incumbrances In Con gress, and in due time the people will re place them with others, who do know something of the living issues of the day. A member of Congress who at this time confesses to an ignorance of financial questions, and to a distate for them, should have the grace to follow that confession by an immediate resignation of his office. The great question -of the day, and the one that will overshadow all others for the next* ten years, is that of national taxation, and the man who confesses his ignorance ot that subject, and who expresses his disrelish for figures, statistics and facts, can do his coun try no better service than by making room for somebody else, who can be of practical service to the nation. The practice of leaving all financial questions to a few persons in each House, and of hav ing these lead the great body of the mem bers blindly wherever they may please, is reprehensible to say the least, at any time, hut wholly inexcusable at a time like this, when the question upon which all others hinge is the regulation of the national debt and the adjustment of taxation and rev cue- The man who justly or unjustly can get up a reputation for knowledge and skill in financial matters, obtains great power in Congress. He can lead the others to their destruction for aught they know ; when he speaks they open their cars and stare with wonder ; they accept his premises as oracu lar, and adopt his conclusions as the sug gestions of wisdom. When these Bell wethers pet at loggerheads, the confusion that is produced among the flock would be amusing, if It were not painful. In such an event members are driven, not to the dnty of informing themselves upon the subject, but to decide in which of the rival leaders they have most confidence. It is for the country, like the choice between two qnacks at the bedside of a sick man; and, as In that case, it is providential if the patient be not poisoned. The National Debt, the taxation to pro duce the required revenues; the reduction of the public expenditures to the lowest possible sum, and the redaction of the revenues to that standard; the simplification of taxation to the raising of a given amount of revenue from as few articles as possible, and the adoption of a most thorough system of retrenchment; the arrangement ofthe National Banks and the adjuß’mcnt ofthe currency—these subjects all belonging to and inseparable from onr Natioi al finances, are questions to which the country appeals to Congress to give an earn est and an intelligent consideration. If Con gressmen will not do so, if they will persist in gross neglect and ignorance of the most important subject of which they have juris diction, then such Congressmen may reason ably expect that the people will find other representatives, who will apply their time and their intelligence to questions of finance. To the extent that onr present difficulties ate due to unwise, hasty, ill-considered leg islation and mismanagement of onr finances, these difficulties may be charged directly upon the real or affected ignorance of Con gress upon financial affairs, There are men in both houses who hold themselves up be fore the country as statesmen, as heroes, as orators; they thnnder loud ly as organs of Committees on Foreign Relations, upon Executive peccadilloes and reconstruction panaceas; and yet these men have the effrontery to affect a contempt for financial affaire. They woolddowcllto remember the fable of the revolt of the various members of the human body against the belly; and in the moral qf that fable they may learn that a misman aged or neglected treasury, will bring the ornamental, the poetical, the metaphysical, the fuss and feather branches of the national system to a standstill as sudden as it will he fatal. C(M>PEBITION. In our comments npon the EUjht-Hoar Movement, in ft recent article, we alluded to the “ co-operative system” as a proper and rational method to secure to labor a large return of profits arising from the combina tion of labor and capital than is now re ceived. Co-operation made Its debut Into the world of ideas about twenty-three years ago. There had been, previously, somethin' thought, and even done, in this direction, j but it was of an empirical, vague and unsta- i hie nature. It had not been systematized in ! theory, nor stamped with success In practice. Both the theory and the practice were first demonstrated to the world by the Rochdale Co-operative Society inEngland. The mem bers here associated together as consumers, and their object was to get rid of paying two or three profits to two or throe different classes of middlemen upon the goods they required, and also to avoid adulteration, shoddy, and other irands practiced upon them by the present mercantile system. This society was commenced by a few operatives— weavers they were—who, having lost all their savings for several years, by the failure of a so-called bank, resolved upon trying another system of investing their earnings, and, in addition, to secure the objects just mentioned. The principle they started upon was that of “Co-operation,” or Association; which ie the first principle of Political Econ omy. They united their small means, which at fiist amounted in the aggregate bnt to a few pounds, and purchased their prime nec essaries, in bulk, at wholesale prices, and divided among their tamllics in proportion to shares. There was a rapid increase in members and shares, and a« s<»on as the state of the finances justified them, they ndoplcd a more systematic mod-; of manage ment, which was to allow, in the first place, the current interest to each member, upon his or hershares —that is, upon ail the money he or she bad invested in shares, and tnento divide the balance of the profits of the con cern among the members in proportion to the amount of purchases which he or she had made-that is, in proportion to the amount of cash they had paid out for goods in the establishment. For example: One vho has expended for goods in the store, during the quarter, fifty dollars, will receive, or be credited with five times as muci ol this hdUinec of profits, as wHi oue who has similarly expended batten dollars. A record of the sums expended is kept by means of a pass-book, the entries made by the shop man —or by means ol small check, stamped with the number of pence or shillings, and handed to the customer as the pur chases are made, which he files away and presents when settlements arc made or balances struck, which is usually every quarter. In this mode of division exact justice is done, and this is the only way in wliicb it can be done, unless, in deed, in case of a still higher kind ol organ ization being entered into,,of which we do not intend to speak now. Tlie Kccbdale Society operates ns a savings bank, and furnishes a means of fair Invest ment even to those who do not purchase goods, and to those who do it operates both as a-savings bank and a superior Investment; for,as they say in Lancashire, “The.more you’re calm the more you’r cclin.” They sell at the ordinary prices of the trade, in the place, -to non-members as well as to mem bers and the inducement to purchase of them Is that buyers are cure of {retting an hon est article. The mode of organizing is simple. They elect boards of managers, and their ♦Seers of the ordinary kind, and in the ordinary way ol joint slock companies, or of an agricultural society, and they employ a person 'who understands the business to make the purchases and superintend the sales. The person gives security In propor tion to the amount of the capital of the con cern* Officers of trust also give security. The success of this society is most encour aging. Their paid-up capital in 1865 had reached the sum of $815,000, and the num ber of members 5.000. The amount of busi ness done in 1864 was $374,085,' on which the profits were $111,555. They had a library of 5,000 volumes of good and useful books, adapted to all classes of readers. The news room was supplied with fifteen daily news papers, sixty weekly newspapers and periodicals, twenty-one monthlies and four quarterlies of the best literature of the times, representing all classes and shades of poli tics, religion, science and social reform. The news-room and library are open dally,and free to shareholders. The Society has a snb scription “Turkish bath,” with all the mod ern Improvements. They presented a drink ing fountain to the borough of. Bochdale. They gave $6,000 to the Lancashire opera tives and have made large donations, from limc’to lime to the Manchester Infirmary,and tie Dcafaud Dumb and Blind Asylums. From a small store of flour, meat and groceries, they have increased to large es tablishments for each of the branches of trade, as drapers, grocers, butchers, shoe makers and tailors. They have erected a (louring mill at the cost of £27,000, the sales fiom which in one year amounted to £l3o,ooo—profits, £lo,ooo—and they have been able to supply 10,000 families. In ad dition, tbey have one manufacturing estab lishment with a capital of £40,000, and another with £50,000. They have seven branch stores out from their main depot. Their growth and success from 1804-5 to the present time have been as great as ever. A Leeds co-operative flour and provision society, whicb'gives five per cent on its capi tal, has, In five years, dlvided|£l2,ooo among its members. No alum or chalk was mixed with their flour; full weight was given in every transaction ; and, such was the force of good example, that other dealers had to adopt a similar plan, so that the price of flour fell, to the consumer, while its quality be came better. The general result of “Co-operation” in England, up to 1865, may be thus summed up: In 1852, there were only ten of these so cieties. Ten years after there were 300, and at this date, in England and Scotlaud, there jire nearly 000, numbering 200,000 members, and owning a capital of £5.000,000. IDE NORTH KMPIBK. A few. days ago. we published the an nouncement that Prussia had concluded a treaty with Baden and Bavaria, by which in time of war the armies of these States would be under the control of Prussia. Thistreaty, fjr ail practical purposes, adds these two S’ates to the already extended empire of Prussia. Since then alike treaty, Jt is an nounced, has been concluded with Wurtcm horg. It is interesting to take up the map of Europe and to note the. changes that have taken place in the political geography of Germany, and to mark the wonderful aggrandizement of territory and peoples by the King of Prussia. It la far easier to name the German States which have not been incorporated in Prossla than those which have. Prussia proper has been rapidly gaining in population daring the last decade. The wealth and industry which was inactive In other and comparatively stagnant States have been gradually tending toward Prussia. The result was that In 1803, the population within a few years bad Increased from 16.000. to 18,750,000. During, and as a result of the war, there were united with Prussia other States and free towns having a population of 11,300,000, making an aggregate population 0f29,700.000. Now there Is added the State of Baden, with a population of 1.850.000, and of Bavaria of 5,500,000, making a grand total of over 37,000,000. Nor is this all. Wurtemburg, which is territorially situated with reference to Baden and Bava ria, as Vermont is to New York and New Hampshire has also yielded to that dip’omacy which has made Baden and Bavaria virtually parts of the Prussian Empire. Her with the exception of that part adjoining Switzerland on the south, is completely locked, in by the pos sessions of Prussia. Her union with Prussia will complete the formation of the grand Empire of Prussian Germany, with a present population of nearly millions of peo ple. Austrian Germany and 'Switzerland alone remain unappropriated by Prussia of all the German States east of the Rhine. There Is, however, another German State which it la but reasonable to suppose will In time obey the laws ot gravitation, and be included practically within the dominions of Prus sia. This State is Holland, thus making a continuous boundary line with Prussia on the one side and France on the other, as Belgium will gravitate to France. Germany will then be divided between Prussia and Austria, but there can he little expectation that the Slavonic race will long continue subject to weakened and powerless Austria, aud they may in time assert their independence and form a Gov- eminent of their own, which their popula tion and territorial extent will .well justify. Prussia, in the meantime, will have risen to a power second in all the elements of greatness to no other in Europe. She will rival if not excel Prance. She will have a homogeneous people, taklog a national pride in the supremacy of their race. She will have an army of fighting men unsurpassed in military excellence. She will have a vast foreign trade, and to her various porta will come the commerce which has heretofore languished under the separate Govcro- ments of three dozen Kingdoms. There will he union and the vigorous progress which is always its result. There will be civil and religions liberty; sectarian animosities, which arc fostered under exclu sive religious establishments, will be forgot ten In the freedom to which the entire people will bo admitted. The Catholics of the Protestant States, and the Protestants of the Catholics, will soon learn that freedom and toleration arc not inimical to religion, but are conducive to its growth and its influ ence. The military and the educational sys tems of Prussia, which are of the most thor ough kind, will extend all-over the Empire, and will be sure some day to bind the hearts and affections of the people to that Govern ment which promises to lift the German racclrom their factional and divided state, and revive in all Its grandeur the grand Idea of a united German Em pire, holding a commanding position in the affaire of the world. The idea of a united and mighty German power collected ruder one imperial head, has al ways been the ambition of the German peo ple. The success which has hitherto attend ed the progress of Prussia, and which has made her the centre to which Germany Is rapidly gravitating, is due to the wisdom, sagacity, firmness and statesmanship of Count Blsmark. He Is unquestionably ne- ccssary to the completion of the work which he has begun, and which Is dally progress ing under his hands. Should his Hie be spared to Prussia for another decade, he will present his country, cmorac ing all Germany from the Baltic to Lake Constance, and including the Atlantic prov inces between France and Denmark. With Prussia thus constituted, lying between France and Russia, and superior to cither in all the elements of national greatness, with a united people, numbering over fifty mil lions, and all feeling a personal pride In the grandeur and power of their Government, the map of Europe will be reformed, not only in the geography of States, hut in the relative power and greatness of the nations XfiK BRIDEWELL LOT. tt is not tie grand system ol Improvements In Chicago which »s the cause of high taxes. Il ls .he system which purchase*, at four times IU value a met of land for a Bridewell, In the mid dle of a swamp, one-naif the >car underwater, and bv reason of Us m«cr unfitness sells tt for one-fifth wlwt It paid, and enters the market to re seat the wonderful speculation.— limes. Sec how a plain statement of facts will put this falsehood down. Ist. The tract of land, and the only tract purchased by the Common Council for a Bridewell, is lot four, in canal sub division, t'ouudcd on the toith by Thirty-first street, and contains ten acres of ground. It is located within thirty yards of the canal, and within 400 feet of the Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, and about GOO yards west ol lie Bridgeport--rolling mills. 2d. There is erected ou it a large brick building, worth from five to six thousand dollars, which can lie used for the accom modation of Bridewell Inmates, which will ►ave that much expense In the construction of buildings. 3d. This ten acre let,.witli building there on, cost the city SI2,OCX). Subtract the value of the building, and the land cost S7OO per acre. The Mayor and Special Committee of Aldcttncn, charged with the selection of a I location for a Bridewell, searched the city aud Its snhurbs over, and could find no tract of land as well located and suited for the purpose, for less money. 4th. The lot in question has net been sold foronc-fiflh of what waspald for It, nor for two-fifths or four-fiflhs—it has not been sold at all, but remains the property of the city to-day. And there la no intention ol selling it, unless a better location is offered at a suitable price. If the Council should fiud another lot that is more convenient, and rel atively as cheap, the city can readily sell the ten acre lot which it no* owns for all it cost, and mere too. olh. The lot is no more “in the middle of a swamp” and no more “under water one half the year” than the rest of Southwest Chicago. It is neither higher nor lower than the average of the Fifth Ward. And when the canal Is deepened according to the pres ent plans, the whole lot will hive from five to tlx feet of drainage—that is, the surface of the lot will be that much higher thau the surface of the canal, and of coarse all the objections on the score of overflow or drain age will terminate. It is highly important to have the Bride well located on the river or canal. In order to supply it cheaply with materials for the employment of the The rcal and only solid objection to the site selected is the distance from the location of Courts and jails—lt being four to five miles from the Public Square. The ground now occupied by the Bridewell Is hardly large enough for the and besides it belongs to the Fund and costs the city government six per cent interest on its valuation, which*ls fixed by appraisers once every five years. For the city to purchase a suitable piece of ground on the river as near the public square, would' cost a very large sum of than the Council feel warranted In expending for that purpose. If a better lot, all things considered, can be found than the one now owned by. the city, it Is the intention of .the Mayor and Connell to buy it -andsell the .lot on Thirty-first street; but it will not be offered for sale un til a more suitable locational a reasonable price can be obtained.* IBS PHE-HOUNT ANI> THE AD JOURNMENT. A correspondent inquires if the President of.thc United States has not the constitu tional power to adjourn Congress In certain cases, and if a case has not now actually arisen, in which he can exercise that power. In reply we have to say that section third of article second of the Constitution, declares that the President may, “on extraordinary “ occasions, convene both Houses, or either “ of them ; and in case of disagreement be “ tween them, with respect to the time of ad “ journmctst % he may adjourn them to snch “ time as he shall think proper.” It will be seen that the only case In which the President is invested with this authority, Is when there is a disagreement between the two Houses of Congress “ with re spect to the time of adjournment.” As yet there has been no disagreement be tween the present Senate and House of Rep resentatives on that question. The point of controversy has been as to the time of re convening—not the time of adjourning. No difference on this point, however serious, can afford any pretext for interference under the clause of the Constitution we have quo ted. On Monday a resolution passed the House which provided for an adjournment on the SSth Instant. It went to the Senate, wbeic action upon it was postponed, in view of the President’s power ; for had there been a disagreement on this question, It would have afforded him a pretext to adjourn Con gress to any time be might think fit, between this and the first Monday of Decem ber next; and the President’s disposition toward that body, leaves no doubt that he would select the furthest day possible. This power of the President has never yet been exercised, nor ought it to be, except in ex traordinary circumstances. But Mr. John son would not hesitate to use it on the slightest pretext. It is not likely he will catch Congress napping, or find the coveted opportunity. Apropos of the subject of adjournment, It assumed a new phase on Monday. There has been an evident determination on the part of a majority of Congress to adjourn until the regular time of meeting In December, or, at least, until November, but it seems that the Secretary of War and General Grant are in possession of information which makes U de sirable cither that no adjournment shall take place, or that Congress shall hold itself in readiness to meet at an early day. What this information Is we are quite unable to say; bnt it seems certain that both Mr. Stan ton and General Grant deemed it of such importance that they used their personal in fluence to prevent a long adjournment. Neither of them would do this without good and sufficient, and even urgent, reasons. General Grant, especially, won!d not do It unless urged to it by the clearest and most earnest convictions that the good of the country demanded it. Congress evidently took this view of the subject, for the mere hint given by these distinguished men was sufficient to influence, and even change, the determination of the majority. SOtTfIEBN OPINION OF BECOX STRUCT I ON. The New Orleans Times, one of the most enterprising and perhaps the most influential paper in Louisiana, comes out boldly In favor of accepting promptly the new plan of re construction, and of proceeding to organize government In accordance with Us provis ions. In an article headed “what shall ho done?” It says; “We have pondered much and seriously on this matter, and in view of aU the circumstances, feel It our duty to urge such an acceptance of the situation as will enable our people to organize our State Government in some practicable, enduring form. Only one plan of organization is now open to ns, and that one makes Impartial suffrage a con dition precedent. * * * Though the course we suggest is an unpleasant alterna tive, it Is still the only one left; wo must accept it now o» look with a fearful certain ly for still harder terms." The Times has heretofore been among the most bitter and virulent of the rebel papers in the South. Its change of front is an encouraging symp tom of the growth of public sentiment. The Richmond Whig has become very decided in its advocacy of the reconstruc tion movement in Virginia. In a recent article It fays: - “Belre under the Government of the United States, it is for ns fo eay whether we will remain where tbe war placed u>, bearing its burdens wlihont enjoTine Its benefits, or whether we trill lendeavor to recover our suspended rights and f M'Ctus's, srd exert an Influence in restoring tbc Gove, sweat to its old foundations, in re-i cct to -hi* matter, our mind Is tiee from every cloud of d nbt. “Tbc hope of the South is in her young men Ihtir minds bare not yet become so Used In tbi •ut of old cabrs and prejudice* as be unable to cxtr>cate thcuieclves from U. Nor are they troub led by vnga'lo4 or by a consciousness of having foiled In their antics during the war. Their honor ds faiiallL’d. They fought bnvcly, sacrificed every thing to duty and honor, and feel satisfied on that point. They leave It to some of the old politi cians and to those who were non-combatants during the war to raise points of boror. The hopes, happiness and political well-being of the young depend upon a prompt and energetic com pliance with ibe law now tn operation In the &outh. We hope they will nut be blind to their Interests." The Atlanta (Ga.) Intelligencer also takes ground in favor of Governor Brown’s move- ment. It Is one of the ablest and most in fluential journals in tbc State, and has here tofore been intensely rebel in its tone. The Southern papers that do not recommend action, are utterly at a loss what to recom mend. They admit that the South is help less, and that unless the Supreme Court saves them they can do nothing but submit. These old fogy notions, however, cannot prevail. The Southerners will not stand aloof from politics so long as the field is open to them, and we have little donbt that the elections next fall will he participated in by the great mass of the population, black and white. JOHNSON’S TWELFTH VETO. One day last week the President of the United States returned to Congress the sup plemental Reconstruction BUI with his veto, and the proceedings thereon show how ut terly that exercise of Executive prerogative has fallen into contempt. The veto message was received in the House of Representatives and read; the House proceeded to consider the bill; no one uttered a word in favor or against the veto, and the hill was Immedi ately passed. The proceedings In the Senate were ol a precisely similar character, and with as little delay as possible the bill was -made a law. There was a time when a veto by the President was an event of such national im portance that It never failed to produce a great sensation. It aroused the country ;11 startled Congress, and on more than one oc casion induced that body to reverse its action by rejecting the hill U had previously passed. Andrew Johnson has, however, brought the veto power into disrepute. He has divested it of all the respect and consideration which as an official act of the President and of one of the constitutional branches of the Govern incut, it bod always previously commanded. He has reduced it in the public estimation to a mere malignant attempt by a reckless and disappointed President, to arrest the legislation of the country. He has repeated this veto operation so often, that the coun try and Congress have ceased to regard It otherwise than as an ordinary proceeding; have ceased to pay the slightest deference to his ftilminalions; and the people expect that Congress will go on with Us business without any more attention to the President’s wishes than the law requires, and Congress has gradually adopted that line of proceeding. The veto has lost Its sensational character, ind the country generally accepts with favor the result. £s?* A correspondent, whose letter we print elsewhere, thinks we did injustice to ; Generals Logan and Butler in some remarks which wemade recently upon the passage at-anns between those gentlemen on the one ; side, and Mr. Woodbrldge, of Vermont, and Mr. Bingham, ofOhio, on the other. Upon a closer examination of the debate we are constrained to say that the provocation given to Mr. Logan fully warranted the retort which he made to the gentleman from Ver mont, and that the imputation of “arro gance” docs not apply to him in any degree whatever. We have received a copy of General Logan’s speech on the question of appropri ating $1,000,000 to relieve the alleged desti tution in the South, which we shall shortly publish in foil. Mayor Rice’s address at the Tunnel celebration on .Monday lust was a model of precision and well chosen English. It Is rare in these tlmes,to hear ah oration which commences with the subject in hand, sticks to that subject, and ends when the subject is finished. We commend the Mayor’s address, to the rising orators of the day as an exam ple of straightforward composition, worthy of their study and emulation* CURRENCY AND TAXATION. Legal-Tenders and Specie Pay- fcl'CßtS. How to Establish Our Finances on a Substantial and Perma nent Basis. Importation and American IVlanufticturos. Necessity of Reforming Onr System of Taxation. St. Paul, Minn., March 15. To Ihe Editor ot (be Chlcaso Tribune: The New York Tribune, In its leading edi torial of March 6, has, with transparent dls- honesty, attempted to make you seem re sponsible for a communication which ap peared In your Issue of February 21, over my signature. It is to bo expected that .a journal which never admits in Its columns opinions conflicting with its own, or Jostling the prejudices of Its readers, should be un able to appreciate a more generous line of conduct. But Us dishonesty docs not. end here. By the cheap trick of combining In one, two separate passages’ll has entirely J misrepresented my position. Allow ine an opportunity of clearing myself. . That which seems to have stirred to its depths the Ire of your contemporary is the proposition that to pay the National Debt in greenbacks would be according to contract.. This it attempts to stigmatize as repudiation. To many minds it will appear just to pay a debt in the currency in which It was con tracted, and the refusal to pay In a more val uable coin, so far from being repudiation, would seem a jnst defence against robbery. Snch It Is. There is no moral obligation to pay the National Debt In other currency than that in which It was contracted. Is there any legal obligation to the contrary? The law making Treasury notes a legal-tender Is in these words: “Such notes shall he receivable in payment of all taxes, internal onliefi, excises, debts and de mands ot every kind dno to the United States, ex cept duties on impoits, aud of all claims and de* mauds against the United States of every kind whatsoever, except for interest on hoods and notes, which shall ue paid in coin; and shall also be lawful money and n legal-tender in payment of all debts public and private, within the United States, except dntlcs on imports and interest as aforesaid.” It wUI be observed that the principal of the funded debt Is not included in the ex ceptions. Treasury notes, therefore, are a legal-tender in payment of that claim against the United States. The private individual who, having the option ol paying his debts In the currency in which they were con tracted, should, nevertheless, insist upon paying them in coin worth one-third more, would justly be called a 1001. Will the Now York Tribune explain why the same rule docs not apply to the nation. The Nation al Debt, then, beim: payable in greenbacks, It Is desirable to know if there is any ooliga tion to redeem greenbacks In gold. A Treas ury note is m these words: “The United States will pay the bearer one dollar.”. Not on demand, or at anv fixed time, bat simply “will pay.” When'? How? Certainly not iu gold, lor Treasury notes were issued ouly because the Government could not pay gold. The manner in which the payment is to be made is contained In the law which creates these notes, and to which the note itself re fers. The law provides for their payment in two ways: First, By receiving them for taxes and debts doe the United States, as mentioned in the above quotation; and, Second, By receiving them for loans, ns pro vided in these words: * And such United States notes shall be received the came os coin, at their par value, in payment for any loans that may ho hereafter sold or nego tiated by the Secretary of the Treasury, and may be reissued from time to time, as the exigencies of the public interests shall require.” A greenback, therefore, is not an agree ment to pay gold or money, and Is not “an unconscious liar.” It is Horace Greeley who would make them open liars, by Increasing their value one-third above wbal people be lieved It to be, when they contratcd debts ’payable in lime. But this pattern of morality asserts that greenbacks “are an instrument of robbery that to pay debts with them Is “a fraud;” and adds, that if we wish to avoid the propo sitions of swindlers, and the evils of swin. dllng; wehave to go back ter first principles, and define what swindling is.” Let us do so, and discover who is the swindler. The elementary principle in question seems to bo this: Pay what you have agreed to pay. Pay your debts In a currency of the same value os that lu which they were contracted, taking gold as the standard. When, at the beginning of the rebellion, the United States borrowed gold, then passed tho legal-tender act, and paid the debt In paper, greenbacks were “an instru ment of robbery.” When New York paid the interest on its funded debt in paper, it committed a fraud. (Massachusetts be it remembered, paid in coir, and saved its honor.) When creditors were compelled to receive greenbacks in payment ol debts con tracted before the passage of the legal-tender act, they were robbed. The only palliation of a law which permitted such injustice was overpowering necessity. That necessity has passed. Let us now see whether debtors have any rights, and whether there is any overpowering necessity to rob them. It Is admitted that, by depreciating a legal-tender currency, creditors are wronged. Suppose tho process reversed ; suppose tbirty-flvo per cent added to every debt iu the country—who would be robbed it hen? The debtor class would be ruined. tand the only excuse for their ruio would bo ‘the fact that creditors had previously been robbed. Can one swindle Justify another ? Do two wrongs make ft right ? Yet this is what tho New York Tribune proposes. In its editorial columns Immediate resumption Is clamored for. The Washington corres pondent, on another page, would force re sumption by repealing tuc legal-tender act, any reservation of past contracts. .Either course would add thirty-three per cent to every debt in the country, and would produces state ot depression and bankruptcy bevoi-d the power of language to describe. ■ It should be remembered that creditors during the inflation could protect them selves. When prices were rapidly advanc ing. it required bnt little capital to make a fortune, and, notwlthftandlng many, cases of individual hardship, the inflation has enrich ed the capitalists of the North. But against coutraction-thcrc is no dctcncc. Its burden will fall on those least able to. endure it; the young, the active, the enterprising. It will ruin all who arc in debt. It will blight the industries of tbc nation. It ought to doom to political perdition any party that advocates it. The plan 'which I proposed in voor col umn?. and which your amiable namesake in* slnuates Is a swindle, was simply this: Re peal the local-tender act, not, as the Wash ington correspondent of that paper would do, without any regard to vested rights, but with a saving clause, leaving contracts made belore the repeal, public as well as private, payable In greenbacks. Then Keep in circu lation for a few years enough greenbacks to pay taxes and settle old contracts. Green backs would also continue current in fu'nre traDfcnctlons, quoted at a discount, Instead of gold at a premium. As the next step, offer to the bondholders, as their bonds fall due, their choice, either to receive payment of them in greenbacks, or to accept a new at a lower rate of interest, at the same time holding the printing press in terrorem over their heads. It Is certain that they would be glad to accept the new bonds. The interest could then be put at whatever rate seemed just, and the gold value of n greenback would be fixed. It would depend on tbo rate of interest yielded by the bond Into which the green back could be converted. A five per cent bond would, probably, sell at par; a four per cent bond at about eighty; a three per cent bond at about sixty. All doubt being removed as to tho final disposition of the Na tional Debt, its market value would range higher than at present. . Legal-tenders are now quoted in Sao Francisco at seventy-five. If the above method of consolidating the debt, and the rale of interest fixed at from three to four per cent, the actual gold value of a greenback would not be materially changed. Ttat Is, all debts, both public and private, would be settled at tbelr present told value, without any Injustice to anyone. That the bond holders should object, and their organ howl, Is to be expected. But what right would they have to com plain? Goldisthestnudardofvalne. Five twenty bonds arc now worth In London about seventy-three.. Our Government re alizes for them much less. It now their price he raised to par, two hundred and sev enty dollars will be added to every thousand dollar hoed, and about ?075,(XX),0CK) to the whole debt. To whom shall this som go? To the tax-payers or the bond-holders ? No one proposts to deprive the latter of their own. The question Is simply whether or no they shall pain the amount of prospective profit. The foreign banker who nought his bonds at lorty, aud bos ever since received fifteen percent on his investment, makes a profitable speculation when he can sell at seventy five. He will have uo right to talk of repudiation when he misses the remaining thirty three per cent of speculative profit. This scheme of settling all debts at their current gold valuation is just. It is based ou the plain truth that seventy-five cents are not as valuable as a dollar. The scheme of contiactlou is based ou the stupid lie that seventy-five cents are equal to a dollar. Which is the swindle? But there are other interests to be con sidered In lifting the nation out of the finan cial slough In which it is wallowing. It can be proved that nothing will give prosperity to onr manufacturers but a reform of our system of taxation, and a return to specie payments. Tho taxation of a country, whether by an excise or a tariff, enters into the price of Us products as a component ‘part. When, therefore, manufacturers of different nations meet in a foreign market, other things being equal, he cau sell : the cheapest who Is taxed the least: at home. It follows that the manufacturer who wishes to compete in the markets of the world must have at home wise taxation , and a low tariff. Before the war many of onr manufacturers had reached that stage of development, hut since the adoption of our present financial svstem they have been almost entirely shut out from foreign mar kets. Commissioner Wells Las shown in bis report that the export of heavy cotton : goods to India and China has fallen from j about dacn mUlivns to a nominal sum. Mr.■ Morrill, in his late speech, invites attention ! “ to our diminished expo-t trade In cattle, • 'horses hogs, beef, butter, cotton and man-) ufacturcs of cotton, Iron, copper and brass, j -with -numerous other articles.” and inti-j mates that he is afraid to give the details.' If our manufactures are to bo permanently profitable, they must have tho power of ex panelon which a foreign market gives, febut up at home they will prey upon oue| another. CompetitionwUlspccdllybrlng t their profits to a minimum. •But the less of the foreign market Is not their only danger. It is doubtful whether they can retain the control of the home mar- kot 4he> had in 1860, prittabnt a radical change of oar whole financial system., "What Is the prefont condition of our in dustry?' Hr. ‘Wells hasishown that ship bhlUlccv i«. extinct; American commerce is swept from the eea«, thatTbook maklbg-hts neatly coated. .--American; books are lanrely printed In Holland. That fully, one-half of < the new machinery for cotton manufactures, I and the refining U of foreign cou- I struct ion. That th»* manufacturer of nm- I b't-llas, worsteds, and ccitaln woolens has been transferred abroad. The Pittsburgh and Boston papers assert thatmanufacianog has ceased to pay as well as formerly. Mr. Morrill laments over “our Idle factories, forges, ♦brnaces-and foundries.” And oyer all stand&this fact, that m ISCO our foreign import* amounted to 5350,775,835. and last year to $487,638,000. Notwitbi'andlog the eleven additions j made to the tariff, our imports have steadily | increased, since the- first shock of the rebel* lion until, under cur lightest . tariff, our im ports have been the greatest and the coudi- I lions of our manufactures is the most un- I satisfactory. _ ; - The two principal defects in our present : system, which give the foreign manufacturer i a decided advantage over the home mauu i facturer in our markets, have been pointed out by Mr. Wells. 1. Oar, Internal taxation is crude and op pressive. It Is modeled after, the barbarous system that existed In England thirty years ago, before the genius ot Gladstone bad per fected the art of taxation. Wo tax every, thing that is produced,- or that enters into production, directly or indirectly, by stamps and by licenses, by an excise or by a tariff. We not only tax the raw material, but each stage of its manufacture, and culminate in taxing the final product. Taxes are dupli cated, aud reduplicated, and the consumer has to pay the Interest, and a profit on every tax that has been paid, before the article reaches him. The opposite system consists' in concentrating taxation on a few articles, 1 taxing those thoroughly,- and letting the I great mass go free. In England, the chief weight ot taxation has been thrown on not more than a dozen, articles, and while the sum annually raised has not been mate t ially diminished, the burden of taxation has been reduced one-half. , • 2. The tendency of an Inconvertible cur rency to impoverish a country is too' often lost sight of. This tendency proceeds, not only from the stimulus that is given to spec ulation at the expense of labor, but Irom the manner m which prices are enhanced. Prices are raised to a’point corresponding to the highest fluctuation of the currency,and are limited only by the endurance of the public; while a further addition is made, as insurance against the uncertainty and inse curity of the currency. The effect of which is to odd to the cost of manufacturing, as well as all other branches of production, and to make prices relatively higher in our coun try than in foreicn countries. t 8. To these should he added another fact which gives the foreign manufacturer an ad vantage over the home manufacturer in the American market, and that is the low pre mium on gold. It Is a mistake to suppose that the premium on gold measures the dc i predation of the currency. The true raeas ! ore is the average advance in general prices, I and not the advance In any single article of i merchandise, such os gold. And in estimat ing the advance, other causes, such as taxa tion and a war demand, must be left oat of view. The prices of many articles are above that average, of others, below It. Gold was above that average when the Stevens hill drove the.whole supply of It out of the market, while leaving an active demand for It to pay duties. At the present time gold is below that average ; for the controlling In fluence in regulating the premium is the de mand for our horde in the European mar kets. The premium on gold now measures the value of our bonds, and not the depreda tion of the currency. If the above conclu sions are true, it is -evident that to estimate the precise depredation' of the currency, is Impossible. -It seems certain, however, that the price of gold (135) is much lower than that of most other articles of. merchandise. It should also be remarked that gold Is not taxed. , From these causes It follows that a dollar )□ gold wUI buy less in these United States than in any other country on earth. This f onntry, therefore, is a good country to sell n ; and the foreign manufacturer, having a gold currency, equal taxation atd a low tariff at home, finds the American market lone of his most profitable, notwithstanding pur enormous duties on imports. Nor could the tariff be raised to any point that would ielievo our manufacturers of the disadvan tages resulting from the above causes. Be sides, a further rise of prices would damage the home market by diminishing the amount of consumption. < The true remedy lies in another direction. Return to specie payments—not by contract ing the currency, but by settling all post debts, that of the cation included, at tneir. present actual value, and then begin anew. Let the dead past bury its dead,” while we provide for the future. The manner in which that can be done I have already sug gested. By adopting that method of settling all post debts in greenbacks, the annual In terest on the national debt could be reduced ; to less than $100,000,000, and, as gold would be the standard of value, economy would necessarily become the order of the day; the expenses of the nation could then bo re duced one-half, and a just system of taxation Inaugurated; the articles taxed would be few, but those would be taxed efficiently, whiskey and tobacco could be made to bear oce-lhiid of the burden; while the desire of the manufacturers to compete in the mar kets of the world-would ultimately settle the taniff question In favor of a moderate revenue tariff. The demand of the manufacturers for a return to specie payments is right. The clamor of the bccd-holdcrs, on the other hand, proceeds from a desire to hag the re maining thirty-three per cent of speculative profits. The just claim of the one ought cot to become u foundation for the swindle of the other. _ Manx. HEW OULEAHS. The Political Situation-Rebel* on the Bnmpacc—Tnc Threatened Impeach- i mrul of Governor AVella—Favorable Crop Prospect*—The Frecdmcn—Uni- : renal Suffrage and Voting bf Ballot. , New Oolkanb, March 81,1567. •To the Editor of ihe Chicago Tribune: 1 Our political hive is buzzing at a famous ' rale, In spite of thoassertlon of that eminent- ; •|y loyal sheet, the Times, that the much af flicted Southern people are “calm and don’t ' : care a cuss what their Northern tyrants in- ; diet upon them.” The .rebels here are a .good deal in the position of the profane ash cart driver, who after painfully tollingto the .top of a long steep bill, discovered that his ' ' taU board had dropped out somewhere about the bottom of it, and his load was scattered ; in ungathcrablc atoms all along the road; and who with a sigh declared tnat swearing . could not do Justice to that subject. Thanks to that eminently slow body, tho now de funct Thirty-ninth Congress, swearing can not do any good. Loyal men are, however. Jubilant, and see bright daylight ahead. Bui ; through what pain and sorrow, and expend iture of blood and treasure, have we at last reached the goal of truth and justice. Through what awfhlly slow moving years . have some of ns passed who saw all this at the beginning of the contest, and thought wc then knew that to this It most come at last ! Our murderous rulers are as ferocious as wild beasts, and thanks to the Impunity granted them by A. J., they turn to rend all , within their reach. And they would do so • were It not lor the Federal bayonets, with a little fellow named Phil. Sheridan behind them. Though Governor Wells was the rebel candidate for Governor in 1805, they now turn upon him and endeavor to impeach him for being a defaulter to the State twenty-six years ago, and they seek to prove it by the present State Auditor! The Gov ernor, a true type of the milk and water Southern Unionists, with Jost sense enough to know at the start that rebellion could not possible succeed, has falily broken down in the effort to carry water on both shoulders, aud persuade the loyal lion to lie down with tbc rebel lamb, that a little child might lead . them, lie will be but too happy to resign his shadowey sceptre to tbc strong arm of a military Goveinor, who we are all praying may be little Phil., tbongh that is almost - too much to hope for. Bat a truce to poli tics. Tbc whole subject is disgusting. New Orleans bos always been as odorous m • corruption os New York City, without any restraining virtuous rural districts to keep herlwithm the hounds of decency, and just now, New Orleans Is Louisiana, and the blood-thirsty hyena, the murderer Monroe, is virtually If not in fact, our Governor. Notwithstanding the bad political out look, our people have gone vigorously to wotk. They are now two, If not three months abeucl of last year with their crops, having done a vast amount of fall plowing, which is necessary here where the winters are so very wet. Our winter has been ex cessively cold, and all old planters predict a bounteous cotton crop, in consequence, as they declare, this is always'the result. I know It was so in 1859, and hope it will bo so this year, as never did a people need a good crop more than tho present distressed and half savage citizens of tho South. The negroes are working faithfully, beyond ali fault-finding from oven their iato masters, who begin to have a dim damning, through their obtut-e heads, that there is yet a mine of gold among those millions of black mus cles If but properly managed, said manage ment only consisting of decent treatment, lair play and barest dealing. Nothing can bring ns out of the ashes but a fair test of negro suffrage, when even radi cal Republicans can carry several. If not all of the Southern States, and bring these law less, God and man-defying rebels to a sense of their line condition. Give us, too, tho ballot, none of yourviuu t<oce votes, such os have always prevailed through the South, and bound the poor, hand and foot, at tbc fectoi thciicb. This is a very important point, which Congress should carefully guard against, and which tho rebels will struggle for with the despair of a drowning man clutching at a straw. It is, of course, difficult to perfect so comprehensive a meas ure at first, and if this point is : overlooked, of enabling tho loyal men of the South to vote by ticket as you vote In tho North, in stead of by open voice, os has always been • the custom here, you may find sad resnlls from it which you do not now anticipate, i Away with yonr “impartial, qualified, par . tlal,” or any other kind of suffrage, hut the real kind, universal suffrage, aud a vote by ticket. This is what wo want, and most have, to ensure success. For tho present, ‘ : V aic. Refugee. Connecficnt. Governor Hawley’s newspaper, the Hart ord Press, of the 20lh instant, sends forth these cheering words; “Wc arc able to say to union men that the canvoss promises us certain victory. TT< have the votes to beat Mr. English high and dry. Nothing but the most shameless apathy: can defeat Governor Hawley. Tet ho can be beaten by Idleness and indifference. With the full number of votes exhibited by our canvass, we shall give Governor Hawley a handsome majority. • “The only condition of victory is wort.; The tide is in our favor. .We have ail the enthusiasm of a good cause. Wo ask our friends to'wrrk. lo every school district; and neighborhood see that no volets lost.; See that no vole is -fraudulently given. Sift; the list of voters. Work up the canvass. If; you do this earnestly in every town you will beisurprlscd at the aggregate majority. '.lf; you fold your arms you will have a .surprise, of another sort. Wo trust you will not, for every indication irsplres ns to wlu an old fashioned victory.” WISCONSIN. Business in ike State Legisla ture. ; What has Been Done, The New Assessment Law. The Bill for the Reflation of T ..." Bailway Chorees. The Railway Consolidation Schemes. [Specie! Correspondence of (he Chicago Tribune. Madison, Wia., March 85. 7 The Legislature Is still with ns, -and is likely to be for a fortnight or more yet. ; The members still take their regular recess from Saturday morning to Monday evening, with a day or two more occasionally, and, while in session, more or less of the members are constantly absent on leave. While It was supposed that this Legislature had little to do, it is managing to seem to do a good deal, and will enenmber the statute books with as many or more enactments, mainly of very little consequence, as any of Us predecessors. Lost year the Introduction of no 17 business was cut oJT about these days, but the flood* gates this year are still open, and a stream ofnew bills runs In every day. The number of bills introduced in the Asssembly Is already somewhat larger than last year, but the number In the Senate is very much less. The amount or business Introduced is as fol lows : In the Senate the number of petitions presented is 101; of resolutions 45, —last year, 57; of joint resolutions, 34,—last year 20; of memorials to Congress 9 ; of bills 333,—last year, 457. In the Assembly the number of petitions presented is 219; of resolutions, 81,—last year. 103 ;of Joint resolutions, 40,—last year. 81; of memorials to Congress 22 ; of bills, Gol, —last yearC24. PERQUISITES. The Legislators have lately manifested considerable hankering after extra per* quisltcs. The 'Senate the other day, by the votes of all the Democrats, and a portion of the Republicans, voted Its members $2» of postage stamps, in addition to SSO already received, and a copy of Webster’s Dictionary. The latter was not obtained, the Superin tendent of Public Property sending word that he had no such documents, nor money with which to buy them, thereby sorely dis appointing the Senators who had dirtied their fingers in the grab-game business to no purpose. The amount of postage stamps voted thus far Is $7,550, each Senator having had $75. and each Assemblyman SSO. ! The Assembly tried its hand at the sta tionery business, the other day, having passed a joint resolution* voting to each member of the Legislature twenty dollars of stationery, in addition to thirty dollars already received,.which would have mode the total $0,700, and in which a copy of the coveted Webster’s Dictionary was to be in

cluded ; but some meddling chap made such unkind remarks about it in the Journal that the members thought better of It, end on' the evening of the same day several Repub licans, who bad their eyes opened thereby. Joined with some who saw the folly of it in the first place, reconsidered and indefinitely postponed the resolution, the Democrats, however, with one consent, stickling for their stationery and their dictionaries to the last. TORNADO LEGISLATION, The Assembly did a stroke of business last week in disposing of the bills on its general file, some of them without any particular consideration. On Thursday It passed the largest number of bills 1 have ever known to go through at one sitting, having ground ont in two or three grists about 100 bills. THE ASSESSMENT LAW. . The Senate devoted the week largely to the consideration of the bill to revise and consolidate the laws for the assessment and collection of taxes, and, after divers amend ments and considerable discussion, passed it by a vote of2o to 5.' It Is a long bill, and, if the Assembly undertakes to examine much Into its details, It is doubtful whether, at this late period of the session, after all the labor spent upon it by the Commissioners and by the Senate, It can become a law. THE RAILROAD BILLS. The two railroad bills which have caused most discussion, —that authorizing the St. Paul Company to issub more stock and con solidate with railroads in Minnesota and lowa, and that authorizing the Prairie du Chlen Company to extend the South ern Wisconsin line from Monroe to Da buqc,—having passed the Senate, and the Senate having nothing of special Impor tance on hand, it can rapidly dispose of the batch of bills which the Assembly bos sent in. THE BILL FOR TOE REGULATION OF RAILROAD - OUAROES. • The only bill of much consequence now before the Senate is that which has passed the Assembly providing for a uniform tariff of charges for trogbt and passengers on rail roads. Able reports for and against the bill have been presented from the Railroad Com mittee. The majority of th 6 committee, start ing out with the proposition that adequate transportation rates for railways and Just rates for the people are what arc wanted ; that insufficient rates for railroads tend to discourage such enterprises; that oppres sive rates tend to discourage production; that seven per cent is a fair return for the use of capital—show, that under existing rates, the earnings oi the railroads in the State only range from'2to percent, averaging 4 per cent, and that to diminish this wonld no unjust, and destructive to railway interests ; that the difference in situation and circumstances of the different roads is such that a uniform rate could not be established that would be just to all. and ,tbat the cost of handling on a short distance is so much greater in proportion than for a long distance, that it wonld .be unfair to ■ make the rate of transportation the same. Tho majority also urge, os an objection to the bill,that it is an interference i with the vested rights of those who have en gaged in railroad enterprises,, under the en couragement of liberal laws, and will crip ple existing roads and prevent the construe lion oi others, the mere proposal of snch legislation having already frightened away men who wonld otherwise have used their .capital In building railroads in the State. ; The committee, allowing that there arc dl> rections In which the railroads arc really 'oppressed by- exorbitant exactions- more properly demanding legislative Interference, which no one thinks of applying, conclude by recommending the Indefinite postpone ment of the bill, having certainly made out a very strong case. The minority of tho committee maintain that the .Legislature has the undoubted right to establish by law the rates to be : charged by railroad corporations for trans portation, and to protect the people from tbelr exactions whenever they become op pressive; and by statements of tbc cost of operating railroads In tho United, States, under military dhection, and of tbc rates of transportation in England and in tbc East, ! undertake to show that Wisconsin railroads arc practicing iniquitous extortion on the people, and that relief is imperatively de manded in the shape of legislation which shall limit rates of transportation and pre vent discrimination between individuals and 'localities. There is no probability that the bill will pass the Senate. RAJLWAT CONSOLIDATIONS. The contest relative to consolidation still rocs on, hinging mainly on the hill to facil tatethe construction of a railroad from Monroe to Dubuque, which passed the Sen* -ate seme time since and is now before the Railroad Committee of the Assembly, which body bos passed a hill with professedly the '.same object, hat which is by no means satis factory to the railroad men. Several. argu ments have been made before the Rail road Committee by attorneys represent ing the different Interests involved. The chief point of opposition to the hill is the .-power of consolidation alleged to lie hidden nthc fifth section of No. 37, giving to the Directors of the Prairie da Chica Railroad the powers heretotore granted to the com pany, but not to bo exercised without a vote of two-thirds of each class of the stockhold ers. Various propositions for a compromise have been made, but none that are satisfac tory all around. I venture to predict, how ever, that the railroad men will come oat ahead, and gain substantially what they want.- WOMANHOOD SUFFRAGE. Tbc Assembly has gained some notoriety lor the Stale by voting, simply as a joke on cue of its members, Mr. Dow, to submit tho question of extending the elective franchise to women to a vote of the people. The reso lution was reconsidered ana indefinitely post poned tbc next day. THE BOOTH CLAIM. Mr. Booth is still here, urging his claim for compensation for his expenses ft resisting the laws of the United States, in connection with the famous Glover rescue case. Notwith standing the'favorable report of the Judiciary Committee, there are too many Republicans unable to sre the distinction between as suming that debt and tho Southern Stales iifsuniing their share of the rebel debt, to admit of Mr. Booth getting what he so bold ly asks. . PROPOSED REMOVAL OF THE CAPITAL. There begins to be some stirabout a bill to submit to the people the question of remov ing Ihc capital to Milwaukee for the conven ience of tbc railroad lobby, and it is claimed that a majority of Senators can be secured for it. More Anon. General* Logan and Hotter* To thb Editor oftbo Chicago Tribune; In your issue of Saturday last is an edi toiial entitled “ Unwarranted Arrogance,” ■Will you allow mo to reply to it ? You com mence with tbe assertion that two mem bers who served in the army, were betrayed into claiming superiority on that account.” : No such claims were made (I read tbe de bate carefully,) either by General Logan or' General Butler. The facta are as follows :, In the debate referred to, Mr. Woodhridgoj charged that the resolution of the ossocia-! tions of the Grand Army of the Republic • proved them to be “ men devoid of the first; quality which distinguishes bravo men from 1 cowards.” I am not a member of the “G. A. R.,” though I was a soldier during the war, Mr. Woodbridge knew when; he made the charge that the ‘*G. A. R.” was! composed of returned soldiers, and that Gen eral Logan, a fellow-member was one of its chief officers. Was It not natural for Gen eral L., or any other soldier, when ho heard his companions thus wantonly attacked and Insulted to come to their rescue with all the sarcasm he" possessed ? General Logan, nor any other soldier, has ever “claimed superi ority” on the floor of Congress on account of. their military services; nor ever alluded to, them except wheii they or their fellow-in-' arms were attacked. General Butler, too,' was stung into the remarks .he made by Mr. Bingham’s ungenerous taunts both in caucus and the House about- his Fort Fisher failure. The failures of a brave sol- dler when trying do ht» duly arc of themselves sufficiently mortift ing, and we could hardly expect men pa tiently, lb endure to be launtedwlth them* AndGenei-al Butler claimed no' 1 ‘*auperi orityiV, b'nt merely said that while ho hid the, approval of the men who.-fought and failed with him, he coulddo without that of those who'did not. •; • » No one denies the merit of that brave pha lanx of congressmen (of which Hr. Wood-: bridge was an honored member,) that stood so nobly by the flag, and saved the Govern ment at home, while the soldicra.savcd it in the Held ; nor is there any class more ready ‘to accord them all the honor due than the returned soldiers. At the same time It 111 becomes them to question the bravery of the soldiers, or to sneer at a fellow-member be cause some of bis expeditions were less suc cessful than those of other officers. POPULAR OPINION. One Protectionist Converted. To the Editor of the Chicago Tribune As there is great Joy in heaven over one lost one found, so I don’t know when I have been more gratified than with reading the frank and candid communication of yoor Peoria correspondent. He admits that be had the old Whig views of that question, and that ho at first felt sore at the course you took ; hut the sledge hammer blows of the Tribune, In the cause of truth and right have convinced him of his error, and he hopes you will continue to give the public more of the medicine that cured him. He states the whole case truthfully, simp ly.and exhaustively. Special Commissioner ■Wells only exceeds him In terseness, when he declares that the tariff “ legislation is clearly in the direction of higher prices. If this result docs not in general follow, then the end sought for by those who ask for the increase in question is not attained.” There isfthc whole truth in a nutshell, not to he disputed by any man. In fact none have ever attempted to dispute It, or to answer the other truths made public by the advo cates of a revenue tariff as opposed to pro hibition or protection. 3lr. Lincoln confirms this In his peculiarly forcible, yet simple style, iu his letter re cently published. He acknowledges tbathis school bos been thoroughly beaten on this question, a fact which some men have not yet found out, and he even declares himself opposed to makimr the great question of prices of all mercantile commodities and ne cessities consumed by the people ** a per petual subject of political strifes, squabbles, changes and uncertainties.” The Protec tionists Lave had It all their own wav the past six years, and a pretty mess they have made of it. Let entirely alone, they have fairly shown what selfish and corrupt hu man nature is capable of doing, and they are not yet satisfied, as their conduct shows. If the country could possibly bear it, the best way would bo to give them a free rein and run the question clear, out. while they are about it. Of one thing all may rest satisfied. Protection Is taxation, pure and elm ole; tax ation—not for the benefit of Government, or fbr the purpose of raising revenue—bat tax ation to go into the pockets of nlrcadv enor mously rich mannfiictarers. who don’t give the people even a shadow of return for their enormous gains. This Is indisputably true, despite the high-sounding declamation of their lobbyists in Washington, and writers and speakers elsewhere. One of the People. A National Project for Cheap Transpor tation to me Seaboard. | Chicago, March 33. To the Editor of (ho Chicago Tribune: ; The successful trip of the steamship Colo rado from Ban Francisco to Japan and China and return, as announced in jour columns this morning,suggests anew the Importance of more ample accommodations for freight and passengers between the Mississippi River and the Atlantic Ocean. For passenger travel, If reserved exclusively for that (except for lo cal freights), the present lines are ample, or will be when each line shall have its full com plement of double track. But to add to these roads through freight to be Jammed along, os best it can, at such a speed as to make it very destructive of the superstruct ure of the roads and dangerous to passenger trains, is no longer practicable. What then is the great means of relief? It is a grand Rational Road, built in the most substan tial manner, with heavy rail and double track, from some polut on the Missis sippi River to the seaboard at or near New York. Let this be done bv the authority and capital of the nation, whereby no local. State legislation shall interfere with the great and beneficent work Intended. Upon this road allow nothing bat freight and emi grant trains, and require all trains to move at a uniform speed, not to exceed ten miles per hour. The tariff upon this road should be so adjusted as to pay the interest upon the debt created for its construction, making it thereby simply self-sustaining, not money making. This should be under the control and management of three directors, ap pointed at Washington, and one from each State touched by the road. j it can be demonstrated that snch a road, moving trains at a uniform speed, has a car rying capacity four times that of the Erie Canal. , The speed of tho Erie Canal is one and .one-half miles per honr, while the freight can move upon this road at eight or ten miles per hour. Practical engineers assert that trains run at the low rate of speed be fore mentioned, can be placed on the road each half mile, whUornnniog as proposed at a uniform speed. > It Is believed that the tariff oi prices npon tliis road need not exceed the present rates of the Erie Canal, mile for mile. With this gram! thoroughfare to the sea, what is not possible in the future for the great fertile ;West. A New Yorker. irxissoavl Bail road Enterprises. i Laoixde, Linn County, Mo., March 83. iTo the Editor of the Chicago Tribune: ‘ As the subject of railroads is engaging tho attention of the people of Missouri at this (time, 1 have concluded to pen a few obser vations for your readers, especially Chicago capitalists, contemplating Investing In rati iroad stocks in this country. That it wonld [be a great enterprise to ran a line of railroad • from Scdalia, on the Pacific Railroad, to (some point on tho Hanntble & St. Joseph Railroad, with a view to tapping the Central [line In lowa, is indisputable. The question, then, is, where is tho best and cheapest (route ? : The best and cheapest route wonld be •irom Sedalla to Brunswick, on tho Missouri River, and thence to Laclede, on the Hanoi ,bal & St. Joseph Railroad. This road could Rebuilt SIOO,OOO cheaper than;any other route, aud wonld pass through the very heart of Missouri, opening np some of the finest (country the sun ever shone upon. The peo ple of this section aro alive to the subject of railroads, and will bend every energy to this project. They are only waiting the response of Chicago men no make the matter a success, j The natural advantages of Laclede arc far above those of any other place on tho road. It la situated on the great thoroughfare north and south, surrounded by some of the finest farming lands In the State, and the citizens here, and all along tho proposed route, will respond liberally to the call of -capitalists from a distance. Brookfield is laboring under many disadvantages. Nat urally low and marshy. It Is surrounded by a poor country, and to extend a road north to the lowa Central, would ncltherho practical (nor politic. Advise your capitalists to confer with leading spirits In this place. The com mittee for conference Is composed of P. F. Felt, O. W. Elliott, Dr. John Poison, John L. Reynolds, Ralph Smith, J.'M. Quinton. Geo. Sanford. Quincy Wh\g and Sepubliean and Muouri Democrat please copy. Scrvant-gal-Urn, Wawahit Avenue, March 34. To the Editor of the Chicago Tribune ; I wish to express my approbation of the ‘ldeas advanced in yonr article on “Scrvant gal-l&m, n iu Sunday’s issue. I consider yours tho very best remedy for the evil spoken of yet suggested, and I would further recom mend that a general meeting of sufferers Horn “servant-gal-lam” ho called, and com mittees he appointed to visit on every street In tho city, soliciting the names of ladies to a paper binding themselves not to hire a ser vant who could not furnish the certificate described in your article. lam quite posi tive that there Is scarcely a lady in this city who would refuse to sign it. This would be only Justice and protection to-good girls, and strangers, If of the right stamp, could usually obtain them from former employers in other places, while green ones, as your ar ticle suggests, would be hired at their proper Va Lct*thls he taken In band by some of our enterprising ladles, and our chief trial and annoyance will be greatly modified, if not entirely removed. Let there be notices in all the dally papers, and handbills scattered over the city calling a meeting for this pur pofco, and 1 promise you the ladies would inm out cn matse. I heard in my own kitchen, the other day, a girl who - had worked as cook and laundress in a highly respectable family of five persons, on Mlcbl can avenue, say that she had left because the washings were too hard, and besides she didn’t get a very good “rccommlnd of ’em” when she went there. . One who das Suffered. Ascent of the Peak of Orizaba, A correspondent of the New Orleans Picayune writes an account of the adventures of a party who attemnted, in January last, to roach the top of Orizaba. His entire de scription Is very vivid and Interesting, but we have only room for the closing para- now nearly sixteen thousand feet above the sea level. Distinctly, as If at our elbow, tbe sound of the guide’s feet striking Ibo solid, drill, one thousand feet away, fell upon the ear. Evidently, the In dian pilots did not count undn onr advancing so far, became alarmed ana indicated a wish to return. But General S—urged.them forward, taking himself a narrow conical ledge, pushed after towards the summit. “Two-thirds of our party were out of sight down the slope; three alone beside the affrighted guides held their way. Blood oozed from cars and nostrils and month, and veins stood out on tbclr forehead like great black Hues. Our footing became more and more uncertain; the ascent more abrupt; the stones constantly turning and crumbling away, and betimes huge masses of earth and' boulders and scoria loosened by the melting snow, came thundering and hissing from above, fairly flying past our heads, on to the next projecting edge, and great snowdrifts, broken and crumbled by the colliding rocks, avalanched down upon our heads a perfect storm of snow and icicles and black earth and lava dust. One of-the guides, smitten by the passing drift, rolled, half-dead, three hundred feet down the slope, and was buried for a while in the debris of snow and earth. Colonel C ,aWestPolnter,was thoroughly *4b£as’ed7»Pd mode «s> iecobetcnt speeches as % toper la hlrf list stnugles to maintain consciousness. His broken sentences, low feiidirdiscreet, were indicative of scenes on t htsChicka*.ominy, mustering squadrons In cold wcu'he r . Down'- the moan.tln side, I almost under tbe clouds, lay our English friends, completely demoralized, and seem ingly dbcnfS eg on a lava bank sundry bnt ties of cognac, cnc'n-cions of the dangers threa*n>ing, their fellow voyagers in tneir rerilons journey ootbe cliffs above. The -miidatme cascidea disappeared: even the 'drippirps disappeared from the rocks; for wo had passed tbe line of thaw. Snow was bea*en cown hard and comp ict. end glisten ed like ice a* the son fill upon it- Bat an abundance of loose rocks lay on tbe surface, poised f«r motion at the slightest touch. The guide started .more than one as ho picked his way some distance in front. We heard the footfids that the cour ageous S was pushing 00. He was within five hundred feet of the top. turniceintoa shallow gnlley to avoid the falling boulders, when a sliding, tumbling noise was heard, then a heavy, dull click, then a fall, and in a moment a heavy bonlder came whizzing by on Its downward course, some one called out, • s has fallen I’ Tho rock struck him on the shoulder, breaking it, and hurled him a hundred feet down the steep gnlley. Tbe guide reached him soon after, and we bore him slowly down the steep slope, abandon ing for the time our enterprise.” During the war with Mexico a South Car olina officer undertook this ascent. He fell paralyzed at a height of 15.000 feet. A flag staff was erected on the spot, which was still standing at the last ascent. Geuold. B ECONSTB U CTION. Tlie Supplementary Deconstruction Bill as Finally Passed* The following is tho Supplementary Recon struction Bill os finally passed over the Pres ident's veto: am act supplemental to an act entitled an act to provide lor the efficient Government of the rebel States, passed March 2,1867, and to facilitate restoration: j ß«it That, before the first day of September, 1607. the Commanding Geceral In eaeb District defined by an act entitled an act to pro vide for tbe more efficient eovernmentof the rebel States, approved March 2d, 15GT, shall cause a registration to be made of tbe male citizens ol tbe United States, twenty-one yean of age, and up ward, resident in each county or parish in lae State or states included In Ins district, which reg istration will Include only those persons who are qualified to vote for delegates b/’Leacl aforesaid, and who shall hate taken and subscribed to tho following oath or affirmation: “I, —, do solemnly swear, or affirm. In the presence of Almighty God. that I am a dozen of the State of ; and that I have resided In said Slate for- months next preceding this day, and now reside In tbe county of—, or the parish of—in said State, as the case may be; that I am twenty-one years old: that I have not been disfranchised tor partiepattan to any rebel lion or civil war against the Bolted States, nor for felony committed against the laws of any State, O) of the United States: that I have never been a member ot any State Legislature, nor held any executive or judicial office [in any State, and afterward encased in insarrechoo or rebellion against the United States, and given aid or comfort >o the enemies there oi; that I have never taken an oath as a member ■of Congress of «be United Staler, or as an officer of the Uni cd States, or as a member of any State Legislature, or os an executive or jndlc’ai officer ofanyttiatc, to eupoort the Constitution of ibe United States, and afterward encaged in insur portion or rebellion against the United States, or riven old or comfort to the enemies thereof; tost I will faithfully support the Constitution and obey the laws or the United States, and will, to the heat of my ability, encourage others to do so; so heln me God;” which oath or affirmation may Co administered by any registering officer. - Seo.2. i batafter the completion of the registra tion hereby provided for in anr State, at such time and places therein as the Commanding Gen eral shall appoli t and direct, of which at least thirty days of nabiic notice shall bo given, an election shall be held of delega’es to tConvcation for the purpose ol establishing a Constitution and civil Government for such S’ate loyal to the Union; said Convention in each State, except Vir ginia, to consist ol the came number of members as (hi meet numerous branch of the State Legis lature of such State in 1800, to be proportioned among the several districts, counties or parishes of snch State by the Commanding General, giving to each representation tn the rauo of voters regis tered as aforesaid, as nearly as may be. 1 Xbe con vention in Virginia shall consist of the same num ber of member* as represented the territory now constituting Viramla in the most numerous branch of the Legislature of said State in the year 1860, to be apportioned as aforesaid. • Szc. 3. That at said election the registered vo ters ol each btatc shall vote lor or against a Con vention to form a Constitution therefor under tiits act. Those voting In favor of a such Conven tion shall bare written or printed on the ballots oy which they vote for delegates, as aforesaid, me words “for a Convention, and those voting against snch a Convention shall have written or printed the words •* against a Convention.” The persona appointed to superintend said election, and to maze return of toe votes given thereat, as herein provided, stall count and make return of the votes given tor and against a Convention; and the Commanding General, to whom the same shall bavobeen relumed, shall ascertain and declare : the total vote in each State lor and against a Con vention. If a majority of the votes given on that 'question shall he lor a Convection, then snch Con tention shall be held, as herein provided; tut If a majority of said votes shall he against a Conven tion, then no such Convention shall he held under this act, provided that snch Convention snail not be held unless a majority of all such regiat'red voters stall have voted on the question of holding such Convention. ' Sic. 4. That the Commanding General of each district shall appoint such loyal officers or per sons as may he necessary, not exceeding three In .each election district. In any Slate, to make and complete the registration, superintend the elec tion, and make return to him of the votes, list of .voters, and of the persons elected a i delegates by a plurality of the votes can at said election; and upon receiving said returns be shall open the same, ascertain the persons elected as delegates according to the returns of the officers who con ducted said election, and make proclamation th reof; and if a majority of the votes given on that question shell be.for a Convention, the Commanding General, wilhin sixty days from the date of election, shall notify the dele gates to assemble in a Convention at a : time ana place to be mentioned in *he notification, -and solo Convention, when organized, shall pro ceed to frame a Coieillution and civil govern ment according to the provisions of inis acL and the act to whica this Is supplementary, and when tho same fball have been so framed, raid Cons 1- tution shall be submitted by the Convention for 'ratification to the persons registered under the piovisions of this act, at an election to he con ducted by the officers, or persons appointed by the Commanding General, as hereinbefore pro video, at d to bo held after the expiration of thirty oaye irom the date of notice thereof, to be given of said Convention, ana the returns thereof shall be made to the Commanding General of tbedif trict &xc. 5. That if according to said returns, toe Constitution stall be ratified by a majority ot the votes of the registered electors qualified as herein specified, castor said election, at least one-halt oi ail Ibe registered voters voting upon the question of such ratification, the President of the Conven- lion shall transmit a copv of the same, duly ceiti fled, urihe President of the United States, who shall forthwith transmit the same to Congress, U then in session, aid it not in session then imm«dl ' andifitshaii more over appi ar to Congress that the election was one at which alt the registered and qualified electors in tho State bad an oppor'tuiity to vote freely and without restraint, tear, or the influence of fraud : < and LT tho Congress shall be satisfied tha» such Constitution meets the approval ol a majority of ail qua’lfied electors hi the State, aud if the said Constitution shall be declared by Congress to be in conformity with the provisions of the act to whica tins is supplementary, and the other pro vi- lons of said act shall nave bsen complied with, and the said Constitution nball be approved by Congress, the Sta'e shall Ikj declared entitled to representation, and Senators and Representatives shall be admitted lh' refrom as herein provided. Szc. 6. That all the elections In the States men- Honed In tbc said “net to provide for the more efficient government of the rebel States ” shall, during the operation of said act, be by ballot; and all officers making registration of voters and con ducting said elections shall hclore catering upon : the discharge of their duties, subscribe an oath faithfully to p'erform the duties of their said cilice, arid the oath prescribed by the act approved July 2.1862. entitled “An act to prescribe an oath of office Provided, That If any person shall knowingly sod wisely lake and subscribe any ' oatn Is this act prescribed, such person so offend ing. ana being thereof duly convicted, shad be subject to the pains, pcnal’lts and which by law ate provided for tbc punishment of ' the crime cf willful and corrupt perjury. azo. 7. That all expenses incurred by the sev eral Commanding Generals, or by virtue of any orders issued or appointments made by them un der and by virtue of this act, shall be paid out of .any moneys in tbc Treasury not otherwise appro priated. Sec. 8. Tbattbe Convention for each State shall , prescribe the fees, salary and compensation to be paid to all delegates and other .officers and agents herein authorized or necessary to carry Into effect the purposes of this act, not herein otherwise pro ' vlded for. and shall provide for the levy and col lection orsuch taxes on the property in snch State as may be necessary to pay the same. ; Sec. 9. That the word “ article” In the sixth sec tion of the act to which this ia supplementary shall be construed to mean “section.” SPIRITUALISE. Bzpotnre of Another Sham—lntereat- Ing Berelatloas in Court—Kisses ftt.m a Female Spirit. They are having on exciting time in Louis ville over ther the exposure of the spiritual mediums, T. and J. M. Church, together with E. O. Jenkins, a Methodist minister, who acted as their agent. The trial came oil ou Wednesday last. Long hclore the hour set for the hearing of the case, the large room of the Circuit Court was crowded to its utmost extent, including a number of ladies, who, with the greater portion of the remainder of the crowd, were there out of morbid curiosity. The interest was greater than ever manifested before, even during the trial of Matt Ward for the murder of W, H. G. Butler. Judge Craig adjourned his Court to the Circuit Court room, and it was almost impossible for him and the other officers of his Coart to get Into the Circuit Court room. The evidence of R. C. C. Jones, the chief witness against the mediums, is very rich, and wc select it from the testimony submit ted as well worthy perusal: J 2. V, C. Jones called—Some several weeks since I was induced, by hearing ol Church,to visit bis seance, and did so, paying the usual ire of one dollar. The manllestaiions were such as are generally given in public seances. The spirit of Xeinwaukie, big Injun came down on the floor and talked to wit- . ness. One spirit, of a little Swiss, talked, mildly. The spirit of Barton, or Boawick,; played bones finely. Little Swiss played on: bells. Goodloe fastened a cord outside of; his vest and the cord was tied through the, buttonhole and sealed. He sewed his to gether in front, as some one suggested he. would slip out, which was done-to showv that he could not. ; Afler this I had a conversation with the. accused, in which I was assured that I could converge with the spirits of loved ones, and i that the spirits of mother, sisters and wives' would come to me with gentle words and : sweet kisses. I regarded the matter os won-. dcrfnl, and intended to Investigate it. 1 at’ last prevailed upon Chnrch to sleep with me. : [Laughter.] Wo retired in the back, room of my office and went to bed. After, we were there a short time Church asked me if there was any paper on the floor, to which I answered in the negative. Ho stated that, If paper were placed on the floor dr table 1 might receive a written communication, as' the spirits sometimes would write when they would not speak. I got up aad placed pa-; per on the floor hut I could not find a pen cil. when Church suggested that he had a 1 pencil in his pocket, and got nptoget the same. The paper and pencil were laid upon the floor and we retired. Five or ten minutes 1 after we laid down Church began to yawn; and blow terribly, and at this time I saw a r small light over my shoulder moving to and; fro and dip three times, which, he said, was' the spirit rapping, and at the same time li felt touches on different parts of the face, as if some one was touchiug:me. At this time: Church remarked that be saw a spirit behind; me; and I asked him to describe It, but he| conld not. He remarked that it was a‘ female, and that she was weeping, saying at the same timethat this was nothing unusual' for the spirits; but the' tears weregeuerally those of Joyemt not of sorrow, Unsaid be saw in her bosom a white rose, which she took therefrom and placed in mine. This apifcaicd wor deifu! tome. I requested that tbe.Bplrii should apeak, but was told thatahe cciiiaaot, &a ahewas greatly agitated. but ,be would, do duuht, tbe next time. Nt-xt da; I was taking my little daughter down tbe street, and passing bj the ollicc of Chiicb, remarked tohlui sue was my daugh ter; He remarked teat he was sorry that I bad toid him, as be con d te’l Tram ber looks tbatsbe was tbe daughter of tbe spirit he had seen the night previous, while sleeping vrilbmc. She bad a strong resemblance to my Wife, and ibis Spain staggered me. The night be stayed with me, 1 gave him three dol'an*. and promised nim more if he would convince me of the same. I did not regard mote? as an object. If I conlu be convinced of the tiotli of the doctrine After tbe night Church slept with me I thought that the weight I felt upon my breast might have been his foot, and tbe next time we met I mentioned the matter, acd inquired if it was not the case, when the countenance of Cnnrcb changed, and he did not want to sleep with me any more. Paid lor visits to the seances from five to eight dollars ; went to a private seanoe, at which were the three accused and myself. After the lights were extinguished, m a short time beard some one patting Church, and be remarked that the little Swiss had come ; she kissed Doctor Jenkins, and was very kind to him; I felt slighted at not being kisstd ; but was paid back with interest. [Laughter.] Thought the kisses were the most delightful 1 ever had In my Hie. [Laughter.] Another thing which went to confirm me in the belie', was the beautiinl sentiments expressed, one of which was as follows: “ Dear Doctor : Each tear that yon have shed for the memory of y our wife is a bright jewel in the chaplet she is wearing for you ; each heart throb Is a petal intertwined among those jewels to add to Its beauty.” This almost conveited me. The little Swiss said my wife was present, aud I beard steps approaching me, and some one weep, which sounded exactly as my wife used to weep, and this increased my belief. About this time a report was circulated through tbe lower- portion of the ‘ city that X had gone crazy upon the subject of spiritualism. After this I met Church, and remarked to him that 1 wanted to see the spirits of some men relations, and not the Big Injin or the Uttle Swiss. X was told that this would be done. At last an accident occurred wnich weakened my mind in the faith. The young Church let his moustache grow, and when the j onng Swiss came to kiss me, I felt the bristles touch my nose, which made me know I was humbugged, and I wanted to expose it. . Last Saturday I determined to expose the whole matter, and went to see eight or ten friends, and on agieement was made that, at a signal from me, they should all strike lights. That uigbt the circle was formed as usual, the tape being passed through the button-holes of each of tbe persons forming the circle. I kept on my overcoat, passing the tape through the button-holes in it. There was then some singing to harmonize the circle, during which I slipped my coat aod boots off, and went to the-chair where Church should be, bnt he was not there. [Lancbter.] X then gave a shrill whistle, lights were struck, and Chnrch was discover ed in the floor, some six or eight feet from his chair, without coat, vest or shoes, which were in the chair. Church-started to tbe chair, bnt seeing me there, he became sud denly In a trance. It soon were off, and he was asked what was the matter, when some one remarked, ‘‘We have got the Illumina tion j on promised us.” AN IMPORTANT ACT. Appointment of Official Reporters for the Coons In Chicago. The following is a correct copy of the act, passed by the Legislature at its late ses-lon, for the appointment of official reportcia for the various law courts In the city of Chicago: Aw Act for the appointment ol official reporters, and for the preservation of evidence In certain cases in Cook County. Section 1. That the Judges of the Superior Court of Chicago, the circuit Court ot Cook County, the Recorder’s Court of the city of Chica go, and the County Court of Cook County, ora majority of tbem.are hereby authorized-to appoint tone phonographic reporters, to be styled “Official Reporters ot the courts of Chicago,” who shall be skilled in tho practice of their arc, and fibril bold ttelr position until removed, as hereinafter men tioned : iVorlctof, Aowfr«r.That a majority ofthe said Judges rhall have power to remove any or cltLer of said official reporters on account of mis behavior or negligence !n the discharge of ins or their said dimes; the order for the same to be entered upon the Record of either of said Courts, and any vacancy caused by such removal, and by - deatn, resignation or otherwise, to fill by appoint ment os in the first Instance. bee. 2. Id any civil action In the Circuit Court of cook County, or the bnperior Conn of Chica go, whenever either party to said action; or their counsel or attorney; shall desire a Pbort-banl re port of the evidence, or any proceedings therein, Sr tho presiding Judge shall oeem the case a fit one to be reported, said Judge shall direct, and it shall be the duty ox, sold official teporters to catuefuD phonographic notes of the same to be taken, actithe tame. If desired by eitner or both of eald parties to said cause, to be forthwith fairly transcribed. The charges for the taking of said phonographic notes, and for the transcription (hereof when made, shall be estimated and certified by the said presiding Judge,'and when so certified shall be forthwith paid, under ihe order of the Court, by the potty on whose behalf the same was ordered, and the amount so paid shall ho allowed and taxed os costs In said cause: Provided, however. That the said transcription, when paid for, shall be filed in said court among the papers in said cause subject to Du used oy toe respective parties as the Court shall direct; And provided moreover. That upon a tallure to pay said charges under such or der of Court, the party or parties so falling, may be proceeded against by attachment as In other cases lor non-compliance with the orders of the Court, Sec. 3. Whenever, in any criminal case In cither of said Courts in this actmentlaned, the presiding Judge, on behalf of the • accused, aud the Prose cuting Attorney, on behalf of the people, shall deem the cause a proper one to f«* rppnm* i m short-band, itshall be :he doty of said official re porters to c»nso full phonographic notes of the evidence or proceeding? in such case to be taken, and the same. If desired, to be forthwith fairly transcribed, ard the said transcription, when so made, (u be filed m said Court, among the papers in tald cause; the charges lor the faking of sold notes, and for the tiaoscription thereof, when made, to be estimated ana certified by the said presiding Judge and Prosecuting Attorney, and, when so certified, Ibe some shall be paid by the Coonty ’treasurer of Cook County, upon the written order of said prcaldli.g Judge or Prose cuting Attorney, out ot any contingent funds of the county on hand In his office. bzc. 4. when in any settlement of estates, or matter of probate, or any anpiication in the County Court of Cook County, itu parlies thereto, or the presiding Judge, shall deem it advisable that the evidence, or any proceeding? therein, shall be re ported in short-band, the tain Judge shall direct. Mid it sbaU be tho .duty of the said official re porter* to cause fail phonographic notes ofthe same to oe taken, and tho same, if desiren, by clibtr or both of said patties, or by said Judge, to be forthwith fairly transcribed; the charges lor the some to he estimated by tho said presiding Judge, and paid under the order ofthe Count Provided, hcicrrer. That in all matters touching ihe probale of wills, in which oral prool shall be given, where the ssmesbali be so reported, the said transcript «o made shall be filed in said Court, after being signed by the witnesses, deponent or affiant; un less each signing of such record of proof by the witnesses, deponent or affiant, shall tie waived by said Judge, in which case sucU record, alter being authenticated bv ibe certificate of such Judge, aball be deemed to he the record of any proof so taken. Szc. 6, Whenever any Master In Chancery of the Superior Coast of Chicago, or Circuit Court of Cook County, shall deem it for the interest oi the parties that evidence to be taken before him in acy case shall be taken in short-hand, he shall be at liberty to employ the services for that purpose of tfie said official reporters, whose doty it soal . be to cause full phonographic notes of the said evidence to be taken, and the same forthwith to be fairly transcribed and delivered to the «ald Master, who shall, noon such delivery, estimate the costs of the said taking and transcription, and the same shall be allowed and 'axed as Mas- UIU UJ6 CAUI. OUUI uw IM.W - ter’s costa to such cause, in addition to the amount now allowed by law to the Master. (‘EC. 6. The official reporters appointed under this act. and their successors, belorc entering, upon the duties of their office, shall severally give ;hOLd,wi*b sufficient security, mtbosomoffive thousand dollars, conditioned for tbc due and fai'bfnl pcriormaccc of saia official duties, which bonds shall be filed in the Snperlor Court of Chi cago; and, if forfeited, sole may be instituted thereon for the uae of the party injured by such forfeiture. b£o. 7. This act shall take effect and be tn force from and after Its passage. The action of the Courts, in accordance with the foregoing law, is officially an nounced as follows: We, the Judges of the Superior Court of Chi* caeo, the Circuit Court of Cook Const;, tbs Re corder's Court of tho City of Chicago, and the Const; Court of Cook Count;, under and by Tlrtnc ot the authority conferred upon os, b; tho provisions of an act entitled “ An act for the ap pointment of Official Reporters, and for the pre servation of evidence In certain cases in Cook County,” approved March 6,15C7, hereby appoint James T. Elr, Sherborne W. Burnham and Aturns tua ll Bartlett, composing the firm of 11 Ely, BnmbamlJt Bartlett, short-hand writers,” the “ Official Reporters ot the Conrts of Chicago.” Jons’ M. Wttsos, Joseph E. Gaut, Jons A. Jasesos, Judges of the Superior Court of Chicago. Eoastcb S. WmiAxa. Judge of the Circuit Coart of Cook County. E. Vasßcuss, Judge of the Recorder's Coart of the City of Chicago. Jakes B. Buadwzix, Jndecof tbe Count; Court of Cook Count;. Chicago, March SO, 1807. THE BAHT DODGE. X Prominent Citizen of Cincinnati < Blackmailed by HU Former me tre**—s2o,ooo Claimed on Account of tue Lmle liarUor. [From the Cincinnati Commercial, March 33.] About eighteen months since the quiet, 1 family-like elide of a genteel boarding noose} on Flam street was gladdened by the advent \ to “ all the comforts of a home” of a sweet, quiet lady,angelic In face,sylph-llke Inform, : and amiability Itself in disposition. Thel self-sacrificing mother-ra-chief to this pre-j cions brood of boarding boose chicks was I made very happy by this delightful acqulai-, lion. The new-comer was modesty, pro- > prlety, gentility and beaoty all com-, bine/. At the breakfast, dinner or tea table; she was a model of perfect manners in words I and actions. In the parlor of an evening] she was always the centre of an admiring' group of ladies and gentlemen, who at the l same time envied and admired her dhUngae ! address, her perfect command of herself and; her words, and, above all, that consummate ■ knowledge ot the world that she occasional ly allowed to peep oat from behind her per fect. modesty, as she did her sonny smile from behind her gracefolly used fan- And’ the romance of a great unhappiness helped! to enhance her charms and attractions, She' bad sacrificed the wealth of her beauty of: mind and body, and of her virgin love,' in all its freshness and purity, to one who had in every way deceived her. Her hus band, a resident of the neighboring town of Lnwrencebarg, had so ill treated her that she was seeking lor a divorce, and, pending; the decision, was endeavoring to support •herself by her own mental ana physical ex ertions. Her efforts hadbeen but illy repaid. She had established herself In a millinery business on Central avenue, but was cessfnl, andhad sold oat, and on the small proceeds of the sale of her stock. Five days in the week this• estimable lady was an ever-present pattern to her admlrln^, alwayfataenL noticed that she was railed ftr, Friday evenings, by a gen always call waa fln pposed—ln a t'eman ber^eJ| D? however, one of the b p«thsm«J boarders of the house discovered fn .hi. snppo«d lawyer tbe person of a wrally merchant of this city. *“Tlmo rolled on,” as nanal. The gallant merchant lelt the city and went to Europe indwaa gone many wceba-oven months. Dorir- bia absence, the divorced woman bad nnblnsbmgly acknowledged to her horrified admirers toat, In the coarse of one cf her tripe from the city, she had been blessed—or cursed with a babv; a fair-haired boy baby, the perfect picture of his merchant father, who. alas, had no right, in law, to be Us father! Time continued to roll on. The merchant returned to the city and became a husband. One day his charmer of former day* called upon him at Lis place of business, bringing with her a small package of sturdy animal life, that chuckled and crowed and held out its tiny hands very familiarly as its mother told tier story and the bonded merchant stared at the two. In gentle tones she gave to him tbe first news of his illegitimate sun's birth—related to him the story of her shims and suffering, and informed aim that $1,300 was necessary just at that moment. The SI,SOO was paid over to her without any hes itation. As weeks and months nasseJ 00, she frequently needed $25 or s■'*)—acd she alv ays obtained it. Flcallysbe concluded that matters ought to be finally arranged. Pxemising that nls estimaole wife would be very much horri fied, and the business and social world of Cincinnati much scandalized, at an exposure of tbe affair, she proceeded to explain that $20,000 settled upon her and her son would procure her silence forever, and her signa ture to papers that wonld release him from any and ail obligations so far os she was con cerned. Mammoth drops of sweat oozed from the merchant’s expansive brow, and he asked for time—a respite of a few days—in which to consider the case. The respite was granted, Inckity for him. In the coarse of a couple of davs he was electrified wita joy at Incidentally obtaining a clue that led him to surmise that he "was the victim of the old and oft-played baby dodge— that the. putative paterni ty was all sham. He immediately placed the matter in the hands of a detective officer, who soon 14 worked up the Job” to bis employer’s satisfaction. The detective first made himself familiar with the woman’s history for years past, and then with her ac quaintances of late years. One of those ac quaintances—a married woman—had given birth to a boy-baby, jnst the age cf that for which the modest sum of $20,000 had been claimed, and he soon ascertained that the model boarder of tbe Flam street board ing-house had simply borrowed this baby and palmed it off upon Mr. Merchant as tho fruit of their love. We won’t attempt to describe the joy ol the victim to this affair. As we see him indulging occasionally in a faint smile at the St. Lawrence, ho looks twenty years younger than he did a month since. NORTHWESTERN BUSINESS FOB 1867. A Great ■Prospective Trade* (From the La Crease Republican. March 19,1 The business prospects of the Upper Mis sissippi Valley, for the year 1567, promise to be better than those of a :y other portion of the Northwest; on account of the unusually large and successful lumbering operations of Northern Wisconsin, and the extensive rail road expenditures in our vicinity- Pro duce may not be supplied to Eistem markets to the same extent as in one or two former years, from the fact that near “ home markets” are created by the thousands of people who are engaged In developing those two branches of business; but the consumption of staple articles of merchandise will be greater than ever. In addition to the demand created by the causes above mentioned, It should be stated that, daring the past two years, an immense immigration of Eastern and rorelgn people have oeen pouring into Minnesota, western Wisconsin and lowa. These new settlers have been opening up millions of acres of land, which will, in a few years, augment the productive wealth aud commerce of the Northwest. Under the liberal and at tractive provisions of the “ Homestead Law,*' thousands of poor men from the older States of the East, and from Northern Europe, have rushed Into this new, and healthy, and prosperous country, to make for themselves and for their children, homes, where they can. In common with all indus trious and frugal citizens, enjoy the privil eges and comlorts oflile, ana share in some of the luxuries, that were beyond their reach In older and more populous commu nities, in which the rich grow richer,- while the poor descend In the scale of poverty and degradation. ■ The lumbering operations of this northwestern Congressional District of Wisconsin alone, for the winter and spring of 1867, exceed flye millions of dollars, aud if the present prices of lumber, for Southern and home demand ore maintained, the total value ot our lumbering business will reach the round sum of $0,000,000. The Southern Minnesota Railroad, which Is endowed by the - richest land grant that was ever confer red upon any railway, except the Illinois Central Railroad, Is rapidly pushing forward from La Crosse to the Missouri River, and to a connection with all of the great ■ system of Minnesota railroads. The two years of 18G7 and ISOS will wit ness the construction of about seven 'hundred miles-of railway in Minnesota, Northern Wisconsin, and Northern lowo, ,with an expenditure of not less than '515,000,000 exclusive of rolling stock and Iron. The Government appropriations, for the improvementot navigation on thcUpper Mississippi aud its large tributaries, for the year 1867, already exceed $3,000,000. A mer ciless gang of monopolists, who have con cocted schemes to control the commerce of the Northwest, and bind It with iron fetters to the uncertain and fickle fortunes of the am bitious city of Milwaukee, which allows a few desperate sharks to represent it In the lobbies of the 'Wisconsin and Minnesota Legislatures, have alienated and exaspera ted the people of the northwest by a series , nf nrjnit anH —t- »i“* <U—..a with the spirit of black flag piracy ; and the result is that new and enlarged avenues ot trade are being opened, by Improving the navigation of .the Upper Mississippi; by building new lines of railway to Lake So geiior, and to points on the Mississippi tver, where connection can be secured wish the Illinois and Missouri systems of railroad. These p real works will never be complete until a new and independent line of railway shall have been opened between La Crosse and the Northwestern Railway, at Madison or Galena, or with the Illinois Central Rail road, at Dunleith ; and Chicago will never be true to itself, so long as it allows the dog-in the-manger policy of the Milwaukee and Wall street railrojd sharks to drive the com merce of the Upper Mississippi away to the Lake Superior and Lower Mississippi rentes for access to the sea. The Northwest will be relieved from cruel extortion and monopoly, by opening up these various com peting highways for'Us commerce; and we shall continue our efforts, as heretofore, in fevor of removing and preventing every shackle or obstacle that may hinder tho development and prosperity of this goodly ; portion of God’s noble heritage to a worthy ’ people. Ilie £isbt Hoar Question la the New KorK Lrsblanut. (Albany Conefpoa' , care (March 23) of the New York Herald.] Tbc whole of the session of the Assembly Ito-nichi was devoted to the discussion of the bill to fix a day’s labor at eight hoars. Mr. Keady, of Kings County, the author of ,the bill, spoke at great length in advocacy of it, and was followed by Messrs. Crihben, Oakejand Selkrec. The measure was op posed by Mr. Parker, of Cayuga. The de bate was a very warm one, and was frequent ly interrupted by applause from the lobbies and calleries, which were densely crowded. The bill was Anally ordered to a third read ing by a vote of 60 to 12, two Democrats voting against it. Both parties exercised a great deal of parliamentary gymnastics, otherwise known as dodging. The political issues in connection with this question are so ill defined as yet that many ot the members were unprepared to take sides upon it, and while some who were present In the House did nob vote cither way a large number re mained away aUosether. It Is a significant fact that nearly all the new York city Repre sentatives were absent. Tbc following is the hill as introduced by Mr. Keady and now awaiting its final passage: Section 1. On snu after the first day of May, 1867. elghthours oflabor/betwecn (be rising and selling of tbesun, shall be deemed and hold to be a legal day’s wort. In all eases of labor and ser vice by the day, where there la no contract or agreement to the contrary. Szc. 2. This act shall sot apply to, or in any way sSecl form or egrlculturai labor, or sendee performed by the year, month or week, nor shall any person be prevented by anything herein con tained from, working as many hours orertim?, or extra work, as be or she may sec fit, the compen sation to be agreed upon between the employer and the employe. Szo. 3. All other acts or parts of acta relating to Iho hours of labor which aruli constitute a day's work in this State ate hereby repealed. Trie New Liquor Law tn the State of Mew fork. The Slate Excise Bill which passed the New York Senate last week amends the law ol 1557, by requiring the same license lee for the sale of ale and beer as for other liquors, makes It a misdemeanor, nanlshahle with fine of sooj for each violation of the law. gives one-half of the fine to the person first complaining, and also allows the Commis sinners of Excise to employ counsel to pro secute for violations. The clause in the New York hill for summarily closing up places where the law Is violated Is Intrusted in the bill to the police, or In the absence of police to constables and sheriffs. It forbid? the sale to any minor without the consent of Earents or guardians; it also forbids the sale y any person licensed as herein provided, against the request of any wile, husband, parent or child, to eell, give or dispose of strong or spirituous liquors, wines, ale or beer, to the husband of any each wife, wife of any such husband, parent of any such child, or child of any such parent. The Sunday clause is as follows: “Licenced granted pursuant to this act shall not authorize an; person or persons to, nor shall any person orpersonapnbllcly keep, sell, give sway or dispose of any strong or spirituous liquors, wines, ale or beer on Sunday; ah persons li censed ss herem provided shall keep the places at wMcb they are so licensed to beep, sell* give ana dispose of alrong and spirituous liquors. wines, ale or beer, orderly and quiet, and hours of 12 o'clock at night aad sunrise, and on A Copperhead Negro. a Washington despatch to the New York TrifcznT-ajf: “Information has reached herefrom a trustworthy source to the effect that the Reconstruction ratification meeting held In Colombia, South Carolina, at which Wade Hampton spoke, toms oat to be & farce of the most disgraceful character. No freedmen were present of their own accord, with the exception of Beverly Nash, one of the speakers, and a few of his followers, who arc known to the colored men generally as “Black-Copperheads.” Nash’jLspeech was a repetition of former efforts in toe same Hue, and was made at the dictation ot certain rebel whites. He receives a salary from ■ them, and is employed for no other purpose than to work against the Influence of the Radical Union Leagues, which are In the control of white Unionists and frecd men, who denounce him as a malignant traitor .to his race. He Is a mulatto', and was a witness In the Bureau Investigations made by General Scott when General Ely was removed from the charge of the Colum bia which time he gave testimony In direct contradiction to that of hundreds of other freedmen* Since then he has been entirely Ignored by his colored brethren, and has found cousohition in the bosom of the white rebels.