Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune, April 6, 1867, Page 2

Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune dated April 6, 1867 Page 2
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Cnjicagu DAILY, TBI-ITEEKLT AND WEEKLY, OFFICE, Ho. 91 CLAEK.BT, Thee are three edino&B of the Texbukb lasned. Ist. Every morning, tor circulation by carrier*, newsmen and the malls. 2d. TbeTm-WxxsLv. Mondays, Wed Bsediye and Friday*. for the mails poly; and the Wsxklt. on Tbnr*<uy«. for the malls and sale atom gotmter and hr newemcn. Term* of the Chicago Tribune * na nr delivered in tbe city (per weet) g 3S - “ ** ** (per Quarter)..., 3.29 ttaUv. to mail euDsenber* (per >gtinm. ntr*- " {flelo advance) 177!.:..... 112.00 3ri.Wee£ly.(pcr annua, payable in advance) B.OU Weekly, (per annum, payable in advance) £.OO %F Fractional parts ol the year at tbe same rater. Person* remitting and ontertne Eve or more «opiei of either tbe Trl-Weekly-or Weekly edition*, nur retain tea per cat of the sabecrlpaon price ss a I.o not to Subsceiebxs.— la ordering the address 01 your paper* changed, to ure vent delay, be sure and specify what edition yea take—'iicekly, Trl-Weckly, pr p»uy. Also, give your j-RKsEXTapd future address IB" Money, by Draft, Express, Money orders, oris ‘Bscl6teredLeuerß.2DsybeseßiatoarrUjE. Adaw^ TRIBUNE CO„ Gbicasc, HI. SATURDAY, APRIL C, ISC7. X QUESTION FOR THE LEGISLA- TURE. Wc publish this morning a letter from the Hon. B.C. Cook, one of the Illinois delega tion in Congress, which brings to light a very important matter, and one so deeply affecting the financial interests of this State that the people will look with anxiety for some explanation from tbe State officers or members of the Legislature concerning it. The act of Congress relating to National Banks assumes that they may be taxed by State authority, provided that the rate of taxation shall not exceed that imposed by State laws upon banks created by State authority. The officers of the Stale ol New York assessed a tax upon the capital stock of the National Banks of that State, and that action was confirmed by the New York Court of Appeals. The Supreme Court of the United States, in the case of Van Allen vs. The Assessors, decided that while tbe State had the power to tax the interest or prop erty of tbe shareholders of the National Banks, it had no power to tax the capital itself, because the capital consisted in part of the bond- of the United States, which were exempt from tax ation. This decision was made more than a year ago. While that case was pending, a similar one arose In Peoria County, in tills State, when the Supervisors refused to assess a State and county tax on the shares of Bradley & Howell in two of the National Banks of Peoria. The Auditorof Public Ac counts appealed from the decision of the Board of Supervisors,and the Supreme Court ofDlinols decided that the shares were liable to taxation. TMs case was carried to the Supreme Court of the United States, and the decision of our Supreme Court was reversed, not because of any want ol power la tbe State to tax tbe shares of individuals in the National Banks, but because the tax assessed was not authorized by the statute of Illinois which provides for taxing the capital stock and surplus profits, and does not authorize a tax upon the shares held by individuals. In the decision of the United States Su preme Court delivered In the case from New York, Judge Nelson suggested that the tech nical distinction between taxing the capital and taxing the shares of the banks was not an Important one, because the States, by their otrn legislation, could remedy the error and thereby secure aU the revenue from that source- This suggestion seems to have been thrown away so far as this State is concerned. The Supreme Court had plainly told the authorities ol sll the States that their laws imposing a tax upon the capital stock of the banks were inapplicable, and that to secure a revenue from a tax on the National Barks all that was necessary was to change the State law so as to tax the shares held by in dividuals, Instead of the capital of the bank. Other States, Including New York, whose law on this subject needed this slight mod fication to secure this revenue, promptly followed tbe suggestion of the Court, and made the necessary charge in their laws. No such action was bad in Illinois, and the people will be glad to know why. The law of Dlinols of February, 1557, provides for a tax on tbe capital of banks, and not upon the shares held by individuals. This law the Supreme Court had notified the State, In order to be operative and applicable to the National Banks, should be changed so as to Impose the tax on the shares, and not on the capital. Mr. Cook very earnestly regrets that he has not seen any act of the Legisla ture of Illinois making this change, and the people of Illinois will share with him in the regret. No such legislation has been had, and this eleven and one-half million of dol lars of taxable property is again exempted, and will remain exempt until 1803. Mr. Cook gives some very interesting figures as to tbe revenue which has been lost by the omission of this necessary legis lation. The shares were taxable for State and county purposes, and we suppose the amount of revenue estimated by him is not beyond what tbe facts warrant. For the two years, 1807 and 180 S, the revenue from this source alone would have been $102,803—a1l of which is to be lost through tbe neglect, carelessness, or unseen engineering of some body. "Who Is responsible ? "Why was not this subject b:ought before the Legislature ? The revenue to the State alone, (exclusive of county and municipal taxes), under the rate of 1800, would be over SIOO,OOO for the coming two years. The people of Illinois have lo:t this sum of revenue, honestly theirs, conceded to them by the laws of the land; and they have the right to know who is responsible for the fact. Can the Auditor of Public Accounts throw any light on the subject ? Can the Governor inform the people whether the Legislature was advised ot tbe necessity of this Important legislation? Can the members of the Legis lature give any satisfactory explanation upon this subject? Con the lobby enlighten us? Can the State Douse and Southern Peniten tiary rings solve the mystery ? This Is a grave question, and there Is a heavy responsibility somewhere. The failure of riiis legislation involves a loss to the people of the State of a quarter of a million of dollars per annum from their lawful rev enue. Such an act Is of no trifling conse quence. It cannot be hidden. The frets cannot be suppressed, and the responsibility belongs to somebody who will have to bear It publicly. MILITARY BE33OVALS FROM OF FIL'£. It is reported from Washington that the President is of opinion that the new Recon struction Law conferred no power on General Sheridan to remove Mayor Monroe and others from office in Louisiana. If each are Mr. Johnson’s present views, they have un dergone a marked change since the fid of March last, when he, or Mr. Stanberry,wrote the message vetoing the law in question. In that document he said: “ The power thus given (by the Reconstruction Law) to the “ commanding officer over all the people of each State is that of an absolute monarch. “ Sis mere uiU is to take the place of all law. «* ** * places at his free disposal all the “ lands and goods in his District. He may “ distribute them, without let or hindrance, “to whom he pleases, being bound by “no State law, and there being no “other law to regulate the subject. 11 He may make a criminal code of “ his own, and he can make it os bloody as “ any recorded in history. * * * If any “ State or Federal Court presumes to exer “ else its legal jurisdiction by the trial of a “ malefactor without his special permission, “ he can break it up and punish the judges and “jurors as being themselves malefactors. “ * * * It is plain that the authority “ here given to the military officer amounts “to absolute despotism; bnt to make it still “more unendurable, the bill provides that it “ niay be delegated to os many subordinates as “ he chooses to appoint; for it declares he shall “ punish or cause to be punished.” Fully ono-fourth of the entire veto mes sage was devoted to such denunciation of the bill as we have quoted—denunciation founded solely on the assumption that the act conferred unlimited power on the commanders of Districts. In the extracts we have given the President as serts that the will of tbe General is to take the place of all law; that he is so supreme in power that he can even distribute the lands and goods of the people according to his own wishes; that he can make a criminal code of bis own; that he can break up State and even Federal Courts and punish their officers as malefactors; and, finally, that he can delegate his authority to as many subor dinates as he pleases. If the Commanding General is clothed with all this power by the Reconstruction Law, as Andrew^Johnson as serted four weeks ago that he is, then it would be very strange if he has not the pow er to turn out a Mayor, ao Attorney General •and a Judge avowedly hostile to the law, and notorious as rebels, and put loyal men in their place. He is a poor “ absolute mon arch” if be cannot do that. The power to turnout Judge Abell, in fact, is expressly admitted ln-tbat part of tbe message above quoted in which it is said the General can “breakup”a State Court. Bnt if he can break up a State Court, has he less author ity to remove the Attorney General, the prosecuting officer of the State, on whose fidelity and zeal the administration of crim inal justice largely depends, in these very courts which the President says may he broken up in the arbitrary discretion of l the commander of a District? And if he has power to break up a State Court has he not equally power to remove a Mayor, especially when tbe President admits that be has the power to appoint one ? For Mr. Johnson now to call in question the power of the Commander to remove from office, tmdcr the provisions of the now Reconstruction Law, is equivalent to a con fession that all he said about the tyranny of that law in his veto message, was only the ap* peal of a demagogue to the worst prejudices and passions of the ex-re bcla. Such, in tact, we pronounced it to be at the time it was first published ; but we scarcely expected that within one short month the President would himself admit it. So far as the power of ‘the Commander of the District to*rcmove'find appoint officers at discretion is concerned, the question seems to be a very simple one. The lawmakes the Commander responsible for the administra tion of justice and the maintenance of order. It declares that no legal State Governments exist In the South, and pro hibits the Interference of any pretended State authority; and, as the President has shown in his message, clothes the military officer with the power to delegate Ms au thority to subordinates. He is, In fact, clothed with the full power of a military commander, and required to perform certain specific acts—to take certain steps to re-es tablish civil government. If, in the dis charge of his duties he finds the law is ob structed by pretended civil officers—if he finds a Mayor or a Judge avowedly and bit terly hostile to the law he is required to ex ecute, it is difficult to see why he has not a perlcct right to remove him summarily, and put a man in Ms place who will aid and not retard the enforcement of the law. Mr. Johnson, it is said, has called on At torney General Stanberry lor an opinion, and Mr. Stanbeny’s opinion is Mr. Johnson’s opinion, and both concur in the belief that the Military Generals have not the power of removal. It Is possible that Mr. Johnson has been so emboldened by the Copperhead victory in Connecticut that he is disposed to raise all the obstacles possible, instead of executing the Reconstruction Law in good faith. If he argues from the Connecticut election, that the people of the North have changed their mind; that they have altered their inflexible pur pose, or are more willing to ac cept Andrew Johnson and rebel supremacy now than they were in tbe autumn of 1800, he is greatly mistaken. If he thinks the peo ple are willing that such men as John T. Monroe, General Herron and Judge Abell shall hold places of trnst and power, he is equally mistaken. And, finally, if he thinks he will be permitted to trifle with the law he is sworn faithfully to execute, and to hinder the work of reconstruction, he will assuredly learn the contrary. The people have in no sort changed their purpose; they support General Sheridan In his removals, and desire that every disloyal office-holder in the South shall be brought down, and that the work of reconstruction shall proceed as It has begun. THE PKEBIGTEU REACTION. It is laughable to heir the boasting of the Copperheads over their little local victory in the Connecticut election, and more amusing still to notijc the vast hopes it has inspired in their hearts. They pretend to believe it is the premonitor of a grand Bour bonlstic reaction in which the two wings of the “Democracy”—i. e. rebels and Copper heads—will sweep the country, elect their President and come into power, when the work of undoing the acts of the last six years will commence, and radicalism he pulled up by the roots, slavery re-established, and the old Southern oligarchy restored to place and power. They deduce all this from the narrow premises of the little Copperhead success in the little wooden-nutmeg State, cn All Fools’ Day. Pity their silly souls! They arc as blind as bats, and don’t sec what is going cn all around them and right before their eyes. In that South where their great strength lay in the days whenHhe “Democ racy” ruled the nation, a mighty Republican party is In process of organization, so pow erful, harmonious, united, determined, that it makes the hearts of patriotic men leap with joy, and sends a cold chill to the marrow of the enemies of the Union. Predicting reaction—what nonsense and folly! They might as well talk of the Mis sissippi River turning In its course, and flow ing up stream. They mistake a.littlc eddy, an overflow of surface water into a bayou, for a reaction against the great and glorious party cf Equal Rights and Universal Liberty. It is only a few weeks ago that 40,0)0 Re publican voters were added to tbe Radical party In Tennessee. When has the Copper •hcad faction received such a reinforcement? It exceeds the whole Copperhead and “ cork leg” vote in Connecticut. Read the cheer ing news from North Carolina. A “bran new” Republican party is organized in that State, which will consist at the outset of 65,000 colored and 26,000 white voters, ag gregating 80,000, which constitutes a clear majority of the whole population. "Where have the Copperheads received an accession o! 80,000 voters in any State ? The news from South Carolina, Alabama, Virginia, Louisiana and Georgia is equally cheering. Thus the ball rolls on, and be fore the remaining months of ISC7 expire there will he an Invincible Republican party organized in every Southern State, con tending with the “democratic” rebels not only for the mastery of each of those States, but fortbe control of every county, city aad Congressional district. In the eleven States which seceded, the radical Republican par ty now in process of organization will cast at the ensuing elections more than eight hun dred thousand votes',"and carry at least six of those States, and elect Congressmen in each of tbe others. Talk aoont “ reaction ” in the face of such facts as these ! The word is forward. And the movement of the mighty parly of Free dom is as irresistible as the grand march of Sherman’s army to the sea. It, too, ccca sionally lest a skirmish, or had au outpost driven in, but the great column rolled on until it brought its enemy to bay, sur rounded and captured him. That Is the In evitable fate of tbe copper rebel Democracy; they will be defeated and driven from field to field, until at lost, surrounded and despair ing, the wretched, guilty survivors will lay down their arms, accept their pcrolcs, dis band and disperse. That will be the end of the once proud and dominant, but now treason-stained and dilapidated, Democratic party. yin. A. C. BESING. The Chicago Times yesterday devoted a column of its accustomed abusive slang to Mr. A. C. Hcsicg, one of the proprietors and pub lishers of the Chicago Stoats Zeitung. Tbercis hardly a public man in Chicago who enjoys the respect and confidence of the community— certainly no man holding any official position of trust, honor or profit—who has cot been time and again subjected to the indignity of having his name and character dished np in the fetid literature of the Chicago Times. Candidates for office, whether they are Re publicans or Democrats, shrink from the commendations of that paper, anJ always feel an assurance of their election when it undertakes to vrllify them. Mr. Hesing has been subjected to the abuse of that paper too often to feel any annoyance at what it may say of him personally. A man must have ‘ a very fragile character who can imagine an injury to it from the abase of the Chicago Times. Bnt, in addition to the ordinary vocabulary of vinification, it yesterday made the allega tion that Mr. Hesing was a candidate for the Republican nomination for Mayor, and that . he was engaged in an intrigue involving the employment of all manner of disreputable means to force himself upon the Republican party asiis candidate for office. It is hardly necessary to say that this is utterly false. Mr. Hesing is not a candidate for that office, is not engaged in any effort to have himself nominated, bnt, on the contrary, is an earnest, heaity friena of Mayor Bice, and, in com mon with the Republican party generally, will aid In having that gentleman re-noml naled and re-elected. Wc make this contra diction upon authority, and in making it as we do, wc give the strongest and most direct answer to the whole string of calumnies upon Mr. Hosing published in the Times. pgr* The Txubcne asserts that the Bridewell is one of the Institutions ofChlcaco that is cbledy patronized by tfie Democracy. It is one of tbe very fewpnbllc institutions In Chicago which pays as much to the public as tbe tax-pajera arc made to pay toward Us support. Democrats always pay their own way.— Times. This Institution, so liberally patronized by “Democrats,” don't pay its own way by $20,000 a year. More than $15,030 of this sum, for the support of the “Invlncibles” in the Bridewell, comes out of the pockets of the Republican tax-payers. Itcosts a “heap of money ” to provide for all the Democrats who become the guests of the city in the various reformatory and correctional institu tions, sjich as the Bridewell, Jail and Peni tentiary, and the money mostly comes oot of the pockets of the Radicals. C37* It Is to be hoped that the mileage system will be changed before the Russian possessions in North America become a part of the United States. Themllcagc drawn by a Delegate la Congress from Washington Territory Is about SII,OOO for each session. The Delegate from the Territory of New Archangel would be entitled to $20,003, which, added to his salary, would make his compensation equal to that of the President of the United States. This wonld make pol itics lively among the Esquimaux, pgyXhe Fenians are not inactive. They seem to be, more than ever before, earnest and zealous in preparing for the conflict which must finally, sooner or later decide the fate oflrish nationality. The New York Tribune of Wednesday remarks: Tbe Fenian Senate la still In session, and «111 probably remain ro lor a few days, until the basi licas ot the campaign which they propose to Inau gurate shall have been transacted. A, Secretary of War has been appointed, it Is said, m secret session, and although hie name ia'withheld at present, It is romorvo that he bolds high rank in the army of the United States. Preparations are being made in all the different cities of the Union to answer the call of the Senate and President of the Fenian Brotherhood as toon as. the military orpandKation receives orders from headquarters. In the meantime great numbers of breech-load ers arc being masatACtarod for the reman army. TAXATION OF NATIONAL BANK SHARES. Decision of the United States Supreme Court in the Case of Bradley vs. The State of Illinois, Letter from Hon, B. C. Cook. To the Editor of the Chicago Tribune: In the case of Van Alien vs, The Assessors (3 Wallace, 573,) the Supreme Court of the United States decided that the States possess the power to tax the whole of the interest ol the shareholder in the shares held by Mm in the National Banks within the limit pre scribed by the act of Congress creating the National Bonks. One of the limitations pre scribed by the act of Congress is, that the tax so imposed, under the laws of any State, upon the shares of the National Banks shall not exceed tbe’rate imposed upon the shares of any of the banks organized under the au thority of the State where such National Bank is located. Intb&tcase the Court of Appeals oi the State of NcwTork had decided that the National Banks in that State were taxable by the Slate under the law of New Yoik. The Supreme Court of the United States reversed this decision, because, by the laws of the State of New York, the National Banks were taxed upon their capital. Mr. Justice Nelson, In delivering the opin ion ox the Court, says: “Although the act “of Congress provides that the tax on the “ shares of the National Banks shall not ex “ cecd the par value, yet, inasmuch as the “ capital of the hanks may consist of the bonds “ of the United States, wMch are exempt “ from State taxation, It Is easy to sec that “ this tax on the capital is not an equivalent “fora tax on the shares of the stockhold “ ere. This is an unimportant question, how* “ ever, as the defect may be readily reme* “ died by ibe State Legislature.” In the case of Tobias S. Bradley et al. vs. The People of the State of Illinois, Mr. Jus tice Nelson delivered the opinion of the Court. This Is a writ of error to the Supreme Court of Illinois. The case came before that court on an appeal from a decision of the Board of Supervisors of tbe comity of I’eoria, by which they had refused to asicss a Mate ana county tax on the shares of Bradley and Howell In the First and Second National Banks of Peoria. The appeal was caieu by tbe Auditor of Public Accounts m behalf of the State. Tbe Supreme Courlrcwrecd this decision of the Boaid, and held the shareholders liable to the tax. The ground of exemption relied on, both before the Supervisors acd the Supreme Court, was wont of antnorjty is the Board, within the forty-flm section of the National Bank Act ot June, 1601, and particularly w.thin the second proviso of that section, which declares that the tax “shall not exceed the rate imposed upon tbe shares la any of the banks organized tmdcr the authority of the States.” Tlic act of tbe Slate dated February 14,1557, provides lor taxing tbe capita! stock ot tbe batiks, together nhh the surplus profits or reserved funds. .No tax is Imposed specifically on tbe shares held by tbe stockholder. This question came before ua in tbe case of Van Allen ts. The Assessors (8 Wallace, 573, SSI), from New York, where the statute taxing tbe State Banks was substantially like that of Illinois. We there held the tax unauthorized lor tbe defect stated. It was in that case attempted to be sustained on the same gzoued relied on here, that the tax on tbe capital vas equivalent to tax on the shares, os re spected tbe shareholders. But Ibc position was answered that, admitting It to be so, yet. Inas much as tbe capital of the State Banks may ou st-1 of the bonds of tbe United States, which were exempt from State taxation, f. was not easy io sec that the tax on the capital was an equivalent to a tax on the thaics. Wc see no distinction between tbe two cates, and the judgment ol the court be low must be revei sed, and the proceedings re niauacd, with directions to enter a judgment afliimmg the decision of the Board of Super visors. By these two decisions tbe law is settled that the capital stock of a National Bank can not he taxed, but that the interest of the share holders in the shares of the National Banks may be taxed. The law of the State of Dli nois which provides for taxing the capital stock only cannot be enforced, and there is no luw in the State, unless one was passed at the last session that I have not seen, pro viding for tbe taxation of the shares of the banks which might be and ought to be taxed. The number of the National Banks In Illi nois Is eighty-two; the amount of the capital stock paid up is $11,570,000. Ido not know the percentage ol State aud county taxes, but suppose it to be not far from two per cem, 0r5261,400, per annum. If the law of the State of Illinois should remain unchanged lor two years, until the next regular meeting of the Legislature, the less of taxes upon the basis I have assumed would be $402,800. The property thus exempt from taxation is the most pro ductive property in the State, best able to bear taxation, and it Is peculiarly unfortu nate that this immense capital should be ex empted unnecessarily when the burden of taxation is pressing so heavily upon men of limited means and small productive capital. It is possible that there has been some leg islation upon this subject during the last session of our Legls’oture which has escaped my attention. I have examined the question in the hope that some legislation might bo had in Congress to relieve the difficulty, but this is evidently impossible. Congress can not authorize the taxation of the capital of the banks which consists of United States bonds, aud the law of the State docs not piovidc for the taxation of the shares the only way in which they could be taxed. B. C. Coon. SPRING ELECTIONS. Illinois. Peoria. —Bender, the Democratic candi date for Mayor, has 100 majority, while Palcrhuugh, the Republican candidate for City Attorney, has 85 majority. The entire vote for Mayor was: Bender (Democrat), 1,442; Thompson (Republican), 1,330. Last year the vote stood; Baldwin (Democrat), 1,(323; McKinney, (Republican), 1,144; Dem ocratic majority, 619—a Republican gain of 413. The vote is increased 52. The loss of the Democrats is 180. The gain on the Re publican vole Is 232. The aggregate result in the city is the election often Republicans and nine Democrats. One more such vie toiy as this will put the Democratic party of Peoria under the ground. Peobia County. —As far as heard from, the new Board of Supervisors stands II Re publicans and 13 Democrats. Tazewell County.—As we stated yester day, Pellin went Republican on Tuesday by majorities ranging from 14 to 100—a Repub lican gain of 350. Groveland and Tremont have also elected Republican tickets, while Elm Grove went Democratic by a small ma jority. * Jacksonville.— The Republican majority ranges from 79 10 453, an average of about 300. Ottawa.—At the town election in Ottawa on Tuesday, there were three tickets run— the regular Democratic, the “Bolters,” and the People’s. Tbe Democrats fared rather ronghly, losing four of the principal town officers. Bcueau County.—As far as heard from, the Republicans carry mne towns, and the Dem ocrats one. Marshall County.—ln the towns of La con, Henry, Whitefield and Saratoga, the only ones heard from, the Republicans elect their tickets. Enos County,—The leading feature of the contest in this county was the removal of tbe county seat from Knoxville to Galesburg. The Galesburg Press claims two majority in tbe new Board of Supervisors in favor of Galesburg, while the Register figures out a tic. DeEalu.—The election on the question of dividing the “honors” of the county scat of DcKalb County between Sycamore and Sand wich, as provided by an act of the late Leg islature, took place last Tuesday. The re sult was the defeat of the half-shire proposi tion. It was the most exciting contest ever known In that county. Sycamore retains the monopoly of the county seat of DeEalb at least lor the next two years. Nebraska, Plattsmouth.—The city election was held in Plattsmouth on Monday last, and the Republicans elected their whole ticket, with two exceptions. Last year the Copperheads carried the city, but this time the colored people were allowed to vote, and the Cop perheads were driven to the wall. Ohio. Youngstown.—The city of Youngstown elected the Republican ticket throughout, both for city aud town officers. The major ity for Mayor Is 182—last year 115, the same persons being candidates each time. Bbooklyn.—This time elected the entire Republican ticket by a sweeping majority. Danduuy.—The Republican ticket elected fourteen officers. Last year Democratic. Ravenna.—Union ticket elected. The vote of Columbus for Mayor was James G. Bull, Democrat. 2,873 uauen u. wi-u. General Charles C. Walcult, Republican 3,310 Bull's majority. Last tali on no heavier vote the Copper heads carried that city by nearly 1,100 ma jority. The “ reaction” seems to be the other way In the capital of Ohio. fnissoarf. St. Louis. —The entire vote polled at the recent city election was 13,701. Mayor Thomas has a majority of 2,779. The Board of Aldermen stands 13 Republicans, to 9 Democrats. New York. The New York Tribune publishes a reca pitulation cf the results of the town elec tions for Supervisors in that State for the year 1567, so far os received. This shows the electron of 003 Republican Supervisors to 313 Democratic in 18G7, against 002 Republi cans to 319 Democrats last year—again of six for the Republicans, with an equal loss to the Democrats. michican. Giukd Ruuds.—lt appears that the Mayor was the only officer that the Demo crats elected at the recent charter election and he by only fourteen majority. This they were enabled to do by coalescing with the “ Dabor Union ” ticket. On the balance of the ticket the Republican majorities tango from 6 to 317. Graves* majority for Supremo Judge Is 440. Kansas. Lsxtbkwtobtq,—The Democrats are shout Ing lustily over the election of Mr. Halder man. The Leavenworth Bulletin says Mr. Haldennan is as free from partisanship as any man that could have been selected. He is neither a Democrat nor a Republican. In 1604 he published a letter in the Bulletin, In which he said: “ McClellan is supported by men who have no heart m our cause, and who to-day % TO V , 1 9 sympathy for the Government at Was king ton than for the imitation at Richmond. * • Such men were in the majority, and were the ruling epinta at Chicago, else we Chicago platform would not bare been leauea, to instill the loyalty and patitoUsm of the American people.” WASHINGTON. The New Congress. New Ecprcsentativea and New Senators, Some Personal Gossip. air. Sumner’s Influence in tbe Sen ate on tbe Wane, [Special Correspondence of tbe Chicago Tribune.] WasmscTos, D. C„ Match SO, ISC7. The first session of the Fortieth Congress is at an eud. The Senate will remain about a fortnight for the consideration of execu tive business, and perhaps a score of Repre sentatives will stay here ten or twelve days to look after the appointments in their re spective districts. THE KEW REPRESENTATIVES. Tbe present House has about sixty mem-. bers who were not in the lost House, though a dozen or more of the number have been in some previous House. These new members have generally borne themselves modestly, choosing, as was proper, to let older legisla tors shape the laws. There arc about a dozen who have taken some part In debate and business—Butler, Wood, Brooks, Van Wyck, Covode, Judd, Logan, Holman, Williams of Indiana, Wnshburne of Wisconsin, Pile of Missouri, Van Trump of Ohio. Holman returns to resume the role ha played in the TUlrty-eightU and Thirty seventh Congresses, v'z., that of the Great Objector. Sitting just in front of the Speak er, he untiringly watches the Republican side of the House, and Interposes Ms short and curt “I object” to at least half the motions requiring unanimous consent that are nude. A good many members think Mm an unmitigated bore; but, generally speaking, we could better spare a better man. Opposition is vexing, bat wholesome, nevertheless. Logan has made a good impression on such persons as now see him in Congress for the first time. Politically ho has allied himself with the extremest radical Radicals, whereby the Democrats get much chance to “stir him up” with malicious reference to his record. lie doesn’t often come out second best, however ; if the attack is one that cannot fairly be resisted he knows how to defeat it by a counter-attack. Wood comes about os near being a wholly independent legislator os any man on the floor of the Douse. De is a Democrat of the worst sort, hnt ho very frequently votes with the Stevens-Butler Radicals; and while aspiring to the leadership of the Opposition, stiiliy, and with Chesterfleldian formality, refuses to be bound by the voice of the Op position unless it is an echo of his own. Brooks Is the real Opposition leader. Do doesn’t waste himself on small matters. Eldridge and Boyer and Marshall head tne skirmishers; but he is always overlooking the forces, and Boutwell and Schenck arc sure to find him at the front when grave issues arc to be decided. Butler has both succeeded and failed. Do failed in his darling desire to get a place on the Impeachment Committee; but he suc ceeded in making a sensation, and in put ting himself in the fore-front of newspaper talk. Yet his position isn’t a favorable cac he assumes the style of a dictator—and, cowardly as an average Congressman is, there-are a good many members who arc sore to oppose whatever they find him favoring. ; THE NEW SENATORS. There arc ten new members in the Senate, though two of them have been there before. With one, or at most two exceptions, they have borne themselves as old members think new members should. Mr. Darlan and Mr. .Cameron arc easily excused for prompt speaking, for they are old in Senatorial service. Mr. Ferry and Mr. Cole and Mr. Patterson have observed a studious silence, though they are men of ability and good judgment. Mr. Morrill and Mr. Corbett have spoken very briefly and modestly on two or three occasions. Mr. Conkling’s friends look upon him as Great Expectations. New York hasn’t had much to do of late in shaping legislation, and they demand that he shall give her such voice as she deserves in the upper branch of Congress. There is danger fora man in such demands and expectations. The young Senator is doing well. Deis thus for clear and sensible in his speech, ami his rebuke ot Doolittle’s wild harangue abo'ut the Chair man of the New York Custom Douse Inves tigating Committee was cmlucatly severe and dignified. Governor Morton’s friends hint that he has Presidential aspirations. Ue is a strong man anywhere, and at this session has sue* ceeded in a remarkable degree with the measures he has pressed; yet it may, on the whole, be worth while for him, when he Is inclined to apeak, to ponder on the fato of Drake. The new Senator from Missouri has got one very importuLt lesson to learn before he can become cither a useful or a successful legis lator —he must learn tv hold his tongue. No body denies his ability or bis earnestness ; but it Isn’t necessary that any Senator should speak upon every question that ccmesup—and Mr. Drake has talked more at this session than any other member of the Senate. SUMNER-ON-THE-DRAIN. Mr. Senator Samner is apparently a much greater person in the eye of the public tlian lie is in the Senate. Ten. chances to one ho is the first man a stranger entering the gal leries wants to see; yet he is far pnough from having a commanding Intelligence . among his colleagues. His “ best hold” is on new members. The older heads profess themselves weary of his vanity, his dictato rial egotism, and bis sopbomorlcal platitudes; hut new Senators of a certain calibre arc sure to begin their service here by coddling under his wing. I Shall not exaggerate If I say that he “lays himself out” for these gen* tlcmcn—pats them on the back with praise that Is not always well-timed and com. pliraents that are not always delicate “ Samner-on-the-braiu” Is a malady well known to all frequenters of the capital. This Is a peculiar disease, not generally af fecting more than one Senator at a time, running its course In from one to three years, defying all medical treatment, finally killing itself on what it feeds. Governor Sprague had a severe attack soon after he came here. lie-got a scat near Mr. Sumner, and, for a time, seemed to live on that great man’s smiles and compli ments. His kind word led the bashful little General up to the height of the argument, and his approving nod was sufficient re* ward for the most'labored of laborious ef forts. But there came a time when Mr. Sam ner’s adoring patronage conld no longer en chant and fascinate Mr. Sprague’s Intellect, and we saw with wondering delight that he was tearing down his idol. Ho tamed his hack on the Massachusetts mentor, he got snappish and petulant with his love, finally he moved his scat to the other side of the chamber, and where erst was such tender admiration is now only cold formality. Senator Conncss also suffered badly daring the first year or more of his term. He spoke often and seemed to delight in being the echo of Mr. Sumner—who, for his part, was constant in season and out of season with orotund and elegant praise, not to say flat tery. The attack was unusually violent, and consequently Mr. Conness was led Into many rather foolish exhibitions of Idolatry. But he got over it—the malady fed Itself to surfeit; and since then who so ready to mount Samner in debate as the clear plucky little Californian? I doubt not he smiles with himself sometimes, now that he is disenchant ed, when he remembers how be courted Sum ner’s favor during his first year. Be makes up for his excessive zeal, however, by slapping Sumner in the face now-a-days as hardly no 'One else dares or thinks worth while. “Mr. President,” said he the other day, when Samner had been cracking his whip rather loudly, “Mr. President, I- do hope to see the time when wc shall escape these lec tures. This thing of advertising to the conn try that there is but one man in this Cham ber who can perform a duty fearlessly is an ungracious presentation of a case; and 1 hope that wc shall hereafter bo allowed to express onr opinions and record oar votes without being subjected to these continuous strictures.” Think of throwing such words as those at the great Samner! Mr. Conncss, yon see, has got over his fever. Mr. Stewart was a victim, too, and, for that matter, is still a victim, though he shows decided signs of convalescence. He was a good deal inclined to conservatism when he came here, and shoots olf in that, direction occasionally yet; but he had “Sum* ner-on-the-braln,” even when his Johnson ism was most strongly developed. Mr. Drake is the latest sufferer. Mr. Sum ner made a bid for Governor Morion one af ternoon —a strong bid, at the expense, most Senators thought, of good taste —certainly in each' .9. way as to provoke Mr. Fessenden into a sharp rebuke; but the Governor doesn’t yet take the bait, and I think he’ll escape without any very serious difficulty, * But Mr. Dtake is in for it, sure enough. Mr. Bnmncr compliment* him very handsomely, and he rushes ahead for new compliments la 'the most eager fashion, apparently. > Ho out radicals the Radicals, and-doesn’t seem to ho wholly satisfied with anybody bat himself. Whether the fever will ran its coarse la his Qaee and then die oat, or whether it will bo come a permanent malady remains to be seen. Mr. Sumner, in hts way, is a good Senator, and bos done the State some most excellent service; but these echoes and Idolaters arc of little account till .they get out of his lead ing strings. We owe him something for right words often said—especially for killing the Louisiana Reconstruction Bill in the summer of 1804; but be Is a man of words rather than of acts, and one -may even have too mnch of a good thing, Israel. THE FAHJI AND GAUDEN. Prospects of the Frelt Crops |q South- ernlllln-l»—Tho Ciircnifo r ond How to Destroy It—'THe Apple I,’r.ip audit* XSncniy, tue| codling |nmh-Wlutcr Wheat and Spring -Wheat— Orchard ing—The Yield of Small Praiu and their Shipment. [Agricultural Correspondence of the Chicago Tri bune.] Champaign, HI., Hatch 27. THE PEACH CROP, The severe weather of the 13th and 14th instant seriously damaged the peach crop of tbc State. In Central Illinois, although part of the buds were killed In January, enough were left for a good crop, but the late freeze has ruined a large part of those left. The budded varietiesare nearly all gone, and but few of the most hardy of the seedlings are left- and those only in sheltered situations. The peach orchards at Cobden are also se riously injured, not one-fourth of the bads being left sound. FromMokena the report is similar. The only hope of a crop la that section will depend on the vigorous warfare made on the curcuffo, and that can only be, done by the use of Hull’s “ curculio catcher,” a sort of Inverted umbrella, into which the insects arc shaken and destroyed. There Is no patent on this implement. If there were it would bo put to a more vigorous use, for some good talker would visit every peach orchard and talk the owner into buying the right, and impress upon him its great value. Just a year ago tbc peach crop in that part. of the State was in the same condition as at‘ the present time, “ blossom enough left for a goop cropyet the fruit prospect melted away day after day from the insidious atlacks of this insect. Not a sound peach will come from the peach orchards of the “Grand Chain,’’unless the curculio is kept in check. Now is the time to get the Implements ready. Some one should manufacture and keep them for sale. They arc as much needed in the peach and plum orchard os the cultivator in the ora field, for the crop depends on their use. If tanners hud to make their own cultivators, there would be some rough specimens of workmanship as well as a less number of them. Good and perfect implements come from the workshop— not the farmer’s tool house. Hundreds of these Implements are wanted ; thousands upon thousands of dol lars of the peach crop depend upon their use ; no “ curculio catcher” no peaches. You may plow, dig, hoe and prune, and your peaches will present a dissolving view, without this implement. With this implement plums can also be saved from this insect. The implement can bo made so as to fold up, and thus occupy a small space for shipping. Dr. E. S Hull, of Alton, is tbc inventor, and, no doubt, he will be pleased to give directions to any person wbo is desirous to go into the manufacture. The implement has become a necessity and must be put into the list of orchard Implements, and kept on sale. The curculio is not going to die to accom modate anyone, and wc must wage a steady war on him. It was this insect that destroyed the crop lost year and will as certainly do it this year, unless kept in check. No other remedy has been found of any value; while this is reliable. Dr. Hull saves his peaches, apricots, plums and heart cherries year after year by its use. His orchards teem with sound, luscious fruit, while many of his neighbors bavo light crops of wormy fruit. While his great rosy checked peaches command six to eight dol lars a basket, his careless neighbors are glad to get three to four fur their wormy samples. Ten years ago the writer saw the practical workings of this Implement, then In a crude state; since then it has been im proved, and uow it needs only to be adapted to shipping, and to occupy small spam for storage. There is no time to be lost-'Dy the tenth of May the “LillleTnrk” will begin at the bank account of every peach-grower in the southern of the dtaie: then will you not make au efibrt to head him olf? THE APPLE CROP This crop promises to be a large one. The trees made a good healthy growth, tho buds are In good order, and the iatcncss of the spring is favorable. Tbc codling moth is becoming exceedingly injurious to this crop. Thu egg* of the insect are laid In the blossom end of the apple when small, and the worm Is hatched and remains in the fruit. A large part of it drops from the tree before ripe, yet often remain in after* put up lor winter use, when with a smooth outside, wc find Ibis werm inside with the apple nearly mined. Fires in tho orchard In May, during the night, when the millers arc doing mischief, will destroy large numbers of them, aslLeywill fly luto the flames. Now that wo have a State Ento mologist, charged with the study of our insects, we may hope to make some bead against them. WINTER WHEAT. This crop is In the beat possible condition, and, if no further misfortune befalls it, will be tbc best lor years. 1 have never seen a better stand. SPRING WHEAT is becoming more and more popular, and an unusual bitadth is being sowed. ORCHARDING, Tbc tree-planting mania snows no symp toms of abatemeu*, the apple and early Miy cherry taking the lead. In this county twelve to fifteen thousand tree? ot this cherry are to go into tuc orchards this spring, aud all of them are grafted on theMorello chcny stock. Those who have had orenard experience with this cherry, on Muhaleb and Mozzard stocks, would not plant the trees if given to tnem. Persons who cannot get the grafted trees arc setting oat the Moreiio stocks with a view to top-grafting them, winch is a very good way ol getting up au orchard. It Is now too late to give lists of varieties to plant, as most of the orders have gone to the nurseries. FRUIT REPORTS. The Slate Horticultural Society, at the last meeting, appointed acammittceto visit seve ral points in tbe State during the fruit season, and to report the results of their investiga tions. The writer lias the honor of being a member of that committee, aud will report from time to time on tbe subject, his private views, if not those of tbc committee. Tbc Legislature at the last session gave this Society $2,000 for its use, and we may now look for an organized effort to diffuse useful knowledge on the subject of horticul ture. The transactions of last year will soon be ready for tbc public, or at least ought to be, though of the fact the public have no announcement from those having the matter In change. SMALL FRUIT BOXES. Competition Is rife in this direction, aud the prospect is that wc shall have at least cheap boxes. The llalicck box is the best that I have seen, when ail things are consid ered ; but the rage is for a cheaper box, one that can go with the berries. This is cer tainly desirable ; no one likes to buy fruit in an old mouldy box or package, and it is probable that tho trade will settle down to the new condition of things. Crates in which the quart boxes arc shipped can bo used several times, as they must be made strong. Fruit boxes arc mostly made in the south ern part of the State—at least there tbe ma terial is cat ready to be put together, and shipped in bulk. The yellow poplar Is tbe best timber for this purpose, and Is al most excinsively used. Baskets and boxes, made at the East, of bard wood, attract lit tle attention among our fruit-growers. No doubt the moye northern small fruit-growers will buy and nse tbc coses that come from tbc south in the early part of tbe summer, thus saving a large expense. 'A case for a bnshel of small fruit costs say thlrty-two cents, and thirty-two quart boxes the same, making the cost of case and boxes sixty- fbur cents a bushel, or two cents a quart dry measure. This is not a large ontUy. The cost of returning these cases to the south part of the State Is no small item, and it is probable that tbe dealers will sell them at a low rate. But this is not all. Up to this time a large part of the small fruits sent to Chicago has been consumed In that city; not so ot the future. Chicago Is to be the great central distributing points to the North, West and East. The strawberries gathered at Cobden, Jonesboro and Mokcna in tbc forenoon are shipped on the afternoon train, and reach Chicago the next morning at seven o’clock. The transfers are made iu the original pack ages to the out-going morning trains, and the fruit reaches tbe villages and cities of the north within twenty-four to thirty hours alter picking from the vines—in fact, almost as fresh as that brought lu from tbe country a distance of a dozen miles. By the 10th ol May, and sometimes by tbe stb, strawber ries reach the north from the southern part of tbc State, some days before they are in bloom at the north. The cases and boxes in which this fmit is shipped can be saved by. the local dealers and sold at a cheap rate in the neighborhood for local use. Farmers who do a small busi ness can have these second-hand boxes scalded with hot water and thus made use ful. I hope none ol them will ever he sent back to tbc southern part ol the State. the weather. Late !n February spring came up with a merry laugh and with the song of the birds of passage; but she and the birds went back again, and tbe thermometer closed be hind her to tbe tune of zero. The birds have come back again and spring returns with faint smile. But tbe sun is getting high in the sooth, and the plow will be busy in a few days. Tbe sand hill cranes are croaking, and their cioaking is always a call to the field. Late, cold springs, like the present, .are always favorable to winter and spring wheat, as well as to crops in general, I never find fault with them, for they give us better promise of abundant crops. Of course they are not agreeable to tbc shiftless farmer, whose stock is sheltered behind a rail fence, with tbe bay stack presenting a daily dis solving view. Rural. Alexander B. Stephens’ Advice to the .South, The Atlanta (Ga.)J?ra thinks the published statement that Alexander H. Stephens has ‘‘counselled the South to do nothing, bat to wait,” dees him injustice, and says: “So far as we are advised, that distinguished cllirenand statesman gave no public intimation of his views; but, Irom what was known of them before the war, and just previous to Us disastrous close, we think there is no reason to doubt his agreeing wim the Era, and the prominent leading minds of the day, that acceptance of the recon struction measure', and an active participation by all who are entitled to do so, in our political reor ganization and restoration to the Union, is the true and wise policy.” MILL ON EDUCATION. Remarks of John Stuart Hill, Esq., on . the Classical Course in Colleges, Extract from Eia Address to the Students of St. Andrews . University. The following extract comprises that por tion of Mr. Mill’s recent address to the stu dents of St. Andrews University, Aberdeen, which relates to the study of Greek and Latin in English schools and colleges: Let us understand, then, that it should ho our aim in learning, not merely to know the one thing which is to be our principal oc cupation, as well as it cun be known, bat to do this and also to know something of all the great subjects of human interest; taking care to know that something accurately; marking well the dividing line between what wc know accurately and what we do not— ami remembering that our Object should bo to obtain a true view of nature and life in tieir broad outline, and that it is idle to throw away time upon the details of any thing which Is to form no part of the occu pation of our practical energies. It by nomeausfullows.however, thatevery useful branch of general, as distinct from professional, knowledge, should be included in tbc curriculum of school or university studies. There are things which are batter learnt out of school, or when the school years, and even those usually passed in a Scottish university, are over. Ido not agree with those reformers who would give a regu lar and prominent place in the school or uni versity course to modem languages. This is not because I attach small importance to'the knowledge of them. No one can in our lan guage be esteemed a well-instructed person who is not familiar with at least tbc French language, so as to read French hooks with case; and there is great use in cultivating a familiarity with German. But living lan guages are so much more easily acquired by intercourse with those who use them in dally life; a few months in the country itself, if properly employed, go so much farther than as many years of school lessons, that it Is really waste of time for those to whom the easier mode is attainable, to labor at them with no help bat that of books and masters ; and It will In time be made attainable, through international schools and colleges, to many more than at present. Universities do enough to facilitate the study of modem languages, if they give a mastery over that ancient language which is the foundation of most of them, and tbc possession of whicn makes it easier to learn four or nve of tbc coutinential languages than It Is to leara one of them without it. Again, it has always seemed to me a great absurdity that histoiy and. geography should he taught in schools; except in elementary schools for the children of the laboring classes, whoso subsequent access to books is limited. Who ever really learnt history and geography ex cept by private reading ? and what an utter rauore a system of education must be, if it has not given the pupil a sufficient taste for reading to seek for himself chose most at tractive and easily intelligible of all kinds of knowledge? Besides, such history and ge ography as can he taught la schools exercise none ol the faculties of the Intellect, except tbc memory. A university is Indeed the place where theetudentsboutdbeintroduced to the philosophy of history; where pro fessors who not merely know the fuels but have exercised their minds on them, should initiate him Into the causes and explanation, so far as within onr reach, of the past life of mankind in Its principal features. Histor ical criticism also—the test of historical truth—is a subject to which his attention may well bo drawn in this stage of his edu cation. But of the mere facts of history, as commonly accepted, what educated youth of any mental activity does not leara as mnch as is necessary, if he Is simply turned loose

into a historical library ? What he needs on this, and on most other matters of common information, is not that he should be taught in boyhood, but that abundance of books should he accessible to him. The only language, then, and the only literature, to which 1 would allow a place in the ordinary curriculum, arc those of the Greeks and Romans; and to these I would preserve the position In it which they at present occupy. That position is justified by the great value, lu education, of knowing well some other cultivated language ana literature than one’s own, and by the pecu liar value ol those particular languages and literatures. There is one purely intellectual benefit from a knowledge of languages, which I am especially desirous to dwell on. Those who have seriously reflected on the causes of human evil, have been deeply impressed with the tendency ol mankind to mistake words for things. Without entering into the metaphysics of the subject, wc know how common it is to nso words glibly and with apparent propriety, audio accept them con fidently when used by others, without ever having any distinct conception of the things denoted by them. To quote again from Archbishop Wbately, it Is the habit of man kind to mistake familiarity for accurate knowledge. As we seldom think of asking the meaning of what we see every day, so when our ears are used to tbc sound of a word or a phrase, we do not suspect that it conveys one clear Idea to our minds, and that we should have the utmost difficulty in defining it, or expressing, in any other words, wbat wo think wo understand by it. Now it is obvious in wbat manner this bad habit tends to be corrected by the practice of translating with accuracy from one lan guage to another, and Uuntingout the mean ings expressed in a vocabulary with which wc have not grown familiar by early and constant use. I hardly know any greater proof of tbc cxtraoidinary genius of the Greeks, than that they were able to make such brilliant achievements in abstract thought, knowing, as they generally did, no language but Ihcir own. But tbc Greeks did not escape tbc effects of this deficiency. Their greatest intellects, those who laid tho ioumlation of philosophy and of all our in tellectual culture, Pluto and Aristotle, arc continually led away by words ; mistaking the accidents of language for real relations in nature, and supposing that things which have the same name in the Greek tongue -must be the same in their own essence. There Is a well known saying of Hobbes, the far-reaching significance of which yon will more and more appreciate in proportion to the growth of year Intellect: “Words are the counters ol wise men, bat tbe money of fools.” With the wise a word stands for the fact which it represents; to the fool It is itself the fact. To carry on Hobbes’s meta phor, the counter is far more likely to he taken merely for wnat it is, by those who are in tbc habit of using many different kinds of counters. But besides the advantage of pos sessing another cultivated language, there is a further consideration equally important. Without knowing tbc language of a people, wc never really know their thoughts, their feelings and their type of character; and unless wc do possess this knowledge or some other people than ourselves, we remain, to the hour of our death, with our in tellects only half expanded. Look at a youth who has never been out of his family circle; ho never dreams of any other opinions or ways of thinking than those he bus been bred up in; or, if ho has heard of any such, attributes them to some moral de fect. or inferiority of nature or education. If his family arc Tory, he cannot conceive the possibility of being a Liberal; if Liberal, of being a Tory. 'Wbat the notions and habits of a single family are to a boy wbo has had no Intercourse beyond it, tbe notions and babits of bis own country are to him who is ignorant of every other. Those notions and habits are to him human nature Itself; what ever varies from them is an unaccountable aberration which he cannot mentally real ize ; the idea that any other ways can Do right, or as near an approach to right as some of his own, is Inconceivable to him. This docs not merely close his eyes to the many things which every country still has to learn from others; it hinders every coun try from reaching the improvement which it coaid otherwise attain by itself. We are not likely to correct any of our opinions, or mend any of our ways, unless wc begin by conceiving that they arc capable of amend ment ; but merely to know that foreigners think differently from ourselves, without understanding why they do so. or what they really do think, docs but confirm us in our self-conceit, and connect our national vanity with tbe preservation of our own peculiari ties. Improvement consists In bringing our opinions Into nearer agreement with facts; and wc shall not be likely to do this while wc look at facts only through glasses col ored by those very opinions. But since wc cannot divest oarselvcs of preconceived no tions, there is no means of eliminating their Influence but by frequently using the'dlffer ently colored glasses of other people ; and those of other nations, as the most different, are tbc best. But if is so useful, on this account, to know the language and literature of an; other cultivated and civilized people, the most valuable of all to us in this respect are the language and literature of the ancients. No nations of modern and civilized Europe ore so unlike one another, as the Greeks and Romans are unlike all of us, yet without being, as some remote orientals are, so total* ly dissimilar, that the labor of a life la re* qulred to enable us to understand them; were this the only gain to be derived from a knowledge of the ancients, it would already place the study of them in a high rank among enlightened and liberalizing pursuits. It is of no nsc saying that we may know them throuch modem writings, wc may know something of them in that way; which Is much better than knowing nothing. But modern hooks do not teach us auclent tnonght; they teach us some modem wri ter’s notion of ancient thought. Modem books do not show ns the Greeks and Ho mans, they tell us some modem writer’s opinions about the Greeks and Romans. Translations are scarcely better. When we want really to know what a person thinks or says, we seek it first hand from himself. We do not trust to another person’s Impression of his meaning, given m another person's words; we refer to his own. Much more is it necessary to do so when his words are in one language, and those of his reporter in another. Modem phraseology never con veys the exact meaning of a Greek writer; It cannot do so, except by a diffuse explana tory circumlocution which no translator dares use. We must ho able, in a cer tain degree, to think in Greek, if we would represent to ourselves how a Greek thought; and this not only in the abstruse region of metaphysics, but about the political, religions, and even domestic concerns of life. 1 will mention a further aspect of this question, which, though I have not the merit of originating it, I do not remember to have seen noticed in any hook. There is no part of our knowl edge which it is more useful to obtain at first hand—to go to the lountain-head for— than our knowledge of history. Yet this, in most cases, we hardly ever do. Our con ception of the past is not drawn from its own records, bat from books written about It, containing not the facts, bat a view of the tacts which has shaped itself In the mind of somebody of onr own or very recent time. Such books are very Instructive and valua ble ; they help us to understand history, to Interpret history, to draw just conclusions from it; at the worst, they set us the exam ple of trying to do all ibis; but they are not themselves history. The knowledge they giro Is upon trust, and even when the; have done their best, it is not-only incomplete, bat partial, because confined to what a few modern writers hare seen in the materials, and have thought worth picking oat froai among them. How little we learn of oar ancestors from Home, or Hallam, or Macau lay, compared with what little wc ka»w, If wendd to what these toll-ns even a little reading of cotemporary authors and docu ments! The most recent historians are so w ell aware of this that they fill their paces with extracts from the original materials, feeling that these extracts arc the real his toiy, and Ihcir comments acd thread of narrative are only helps towards understanding it. Now, it is part of * this great worth to us of our Greek and Latin studies, that in them we do rand history in the original sources. We are' in actual contact with cotcmnorary minds; wo are not dependent on hearsay; we have something by which we can test and check the representations and theories of modem historians. It may be asked, why then not study the original materials of modern his tory ? I answer, it is highly deslrablefto do so; and let me remark, by the way, that even this requires a dead language ; nearly all the documents prior to the Reformation, and many subsequent to it, being written in Latin. Bet the exploration of those docu ments, though a most nscfnl pursuit, cannot be a branch of education. Not to speak of their vast extent, and the fragmentary nature of each, the strongest reason is, that in learning the spirit of our own past ages, until a comparatively recent period, from cotemporary writers, we ieam hardly any thing else. Those authors, with a few excep tions, are little worth reading on their own account. While, in studying the great writers of antiquity, we are not only Team ing to understand the ancient mind, bat laying in a stock of wise thought and ob servation, still valuable to ourselves; and at the same time making ourselves familiar with a number cf the most perfect and finished and literary compositions which the human mind has produced—compositions which, from the altered conditions of human life, are likely to be seldom paralleled, in their sustained excellence, by the times to come. Even os mere language, no modem Euro pean language Is so valuable a discipline to the intellect as those of Greece and Rome, on account of their regular and complicated structure. Consider for a moment what grammar is. It is the most elementary part of logic. It is the beginning of the analysis of the thinking process. The principles and rules of grammar are tbc means by which the forms of language arc made to corre spond with the universal forms of thought. Tbc distinctions between the various parts ol speech, between the cases of nouns, the moods and tenses of verbs, the functions of particles, arc distinctions in thought, not merely in words, single noans and verbs express objects and events, many of which can be cognized by the senses; hat the modes of putting nouns and verbs together, express the relations of objects and events, which can be cognized only by the Intellect; and. each different mode corresponds to a differ ent relation. The structure of every sen tence is a lesson in logic. The various rales of syntax oblige us to distinguish between tbc subject ana predicate of a proposition, between the agent, the action, and tbc thing acted upon ; to mark when an idea is Intend ed to modify or qoulify, or merely to unite with, some other idea; what assertions are categorical: what only conditional; whether tbc intention is to express similarity or contrast, to make a plural ity of assertions conjunctively or dis junctively ; what portions of a sentence, though grammatically complete within themselves, are made members or subordinate parts of the assertion made by the sentence; Such things form the subject matter of uni versal grammar, and the languages which teach It best arc those which have made the most definite rnlcs, and which provide dis tinct forms for the greatest number of dis tinctions in thought, so that if we fail to at tend precisely and accurately to any of those, wc cannot avoid committing a solecism in language. In these qualities the classical languages have an incomparable superiority over every modem language, and over all languages, dead or living, wnich have a liter ature worthheing generally studied. But the superiority of tbc literature itself for purposes of education, is still more marked and decisive. Even in the substan tial vslue of the matter of which it is the vehicle, it is very far from having been super-, seded, and as much of them as is still valna able loses nothing by being incorporated In modem treatises; but wbat does not so well admit of being transferred bodily, and lias been very imperfectly carried off even piPcc-mcal, is tbc treasures which they accumulate of what may be called the wisdom of life; the rich store of experience of human nature and conduct, which tbc acute and observing minds of those ages, aided in their observations by the greatest simplicity of manners and life, con sigred to their writings and most of which retains ail its value. Tbc speeches in Thucy dides; the Rhetoric, Ethics and Politics of Aristotle; the Dialogues of Plato; the Ora tions of Demosthenes; the Satires, and espe cially the Epistles of Horace: all the writings of Tacitus: the great work of Quin tilian,a repertory of the best thoughts of the ancient world on all subjects connected with education; and, in a less formal manner, ail that is left to ns of the ancient historians, orators, philosophers, and even dramatists, are replete with remarks and maxims of singular good sense and penetration, appli cable both to political and private life; and tbc actual truths wc find in them arc even surpassed in value by the encouragement and help they give us in the pursuit of truth. Human invention has never pro duced anything so valuable In the way both of stimulation and of discipline to the in quiring intellect, as the dialectics of the an cients, of which many of the works of Aris totle illnetrato the theory, and those of Plato exhibit the practice. No modern writ ing comes near to these, in teaching, both by precept and example, the way to Inves tigate truths, on those subjects, so vastly important to ns, which remain matters of controversy, from the difficulty or impossi bility of bringing them to a directly experi mental test. To question alt things; never to turn away from any difficulty; to accept no doctrine cither from ourselves or from otter people without a rigid scrutiny by □cirative criticism, letting no fallacy, or in . coherence, or confusion of thought, slip by unpcrcelved; above all, to insist upon having the meaning of a word cleorly.uuderstooQ before using it, and the meaning of a proposition before assenting to it; these are the lessons we learn from the ancient dialecticians. With all this vigor ous management of the negative element, they inspire no scepticism about the'reality of truth, or indifference to its pursuit. The noblest enthusiasm, both for tbescarch after truth and for applying It to its highest uses, pervades these writers, Aristotle no less than Plato, though Plato has incomparably tbc greater power of imparting those feel ings to others. In cultivating, therefore, the ancient languages as our best literary education, we are all the while lay ing an admirable foundation for ethical and philosophical culture. In purely lite rary excellence—m perfection of form— the pre-eminence of tbc ancients Is not dis puted. In every department which they at tempted, and they attempted almost all, their composition, like their sculpture, has been to the greatest modem artists an exam ple, to be looked up to with hopeless admi ration, hat of inappreciable value as a light on high, guiding their own endeavor, iln prose and in poetry, in epic, lyric, or dra matic, as in historical, philosophical, and or atorical art, the pinnacle on which they stand Is equally eminent. I am now speaking of tbc form, the artistic perfection or treat ment : lor, os regards substance, I consider modem poetry to be superior to ancient, in the same manner, though in a less degree, as modem science: it enters deeper ■intonature. The feelings of the modern mind arc more various, more complex, and manifold, than those of the ancients over were. The modern mind is, what the an cient mind was not. brooding and self-con scious ; and its meditative self-consciousness has discovered depths in the human soul which the Greeks and Romans did not dream of, and would not have understood. But what they bad got to express, they ex pressed in a manner which few even of the greatest modems have seriously attempted to rival. It most bo remembered that they had more time, and that they wrote chiefly for a select class, possessed of leisure. To ns who write In a hurry for people who read in a burry, the attempt to give an equal degree of finish would bo loss of tlmo. But to bo familiar with perfect models is not the less important to ns because the clement in which we work precludes even the effort to equal them. They show ns at least what excellence is, andjmuko ns desire It, and strive to get as near to it os is within our reach. And tnis is the value to ns of the ancient writers, all the more emphatically, because their excellence docs not admit of being copied, or directly imitated. It does not consist In a trick which can he learnt, bat in the per fect adaptation of means to ends. The secret of tbe style of the great Greek and Roman authors, is that it is the perfection of good sense. In the first place, they never use a word without a meaning, or a word which adds nothing to the meaning. They always (to begin with) bad a meaning; they knew what they wanted to say; and their whole purpose was to say it with tho highest degree of exactness and completeness, and bring it homo to the mind with the greatest possible dearness and vivid ness. It never entered -into their thoughts to conceive of a piece of writing as beauti ful in itself, abstractedly from what it had to express : its beauty must all be subservi ent to the most perfect expression of tbe sense. The eurlosa felicitas which their critics ascribed in a pre-eminent degree to Horace, expresses the standard at which they all aimed. Their style is exactly de scribed by Swift’s definition, “the right words in tbe right places.” Look at an ora tion of Demosthenes; there is nothing In It which calls attention to itself as style at all; it is only, after a close examination we per ceive that every word is what It should be, and where It should be, to lead the hearer smoothly and Imperceptibly into the state of mind which the orator wishes to produce. The perfection of the workmanship is only visible in tbe totalabscnce of any blemish or fault, and of anything which checks the flow of flbought and feeling, anything which even momentarily distracts the mind from tbc main purpose. Bat then (as has been well said) it was not the object of Demos thenes to make tbc Athenians cry out “What a splendid speaker I” hat to make them say “Let us march against Philip I” It was only In the decline of ancient literature that ornament began to be cultivated merely as an ornament. In the time of its maturity, not the merest epithet was put In because it was thought beautiful in itself; nor even for a merely descriptive purpose', for epithets purely descriptive were one of the corrup tions of style which abound In Lucan, for example; the word had no business there unless it brought ont some feature which was wanted, and helped to place tho object in the light which the purpose of the com position required. These conditions be ing complied with, then indeed tbe intrinsic beauty of the means nsed was a source of additional effect, of which it behooved them to avail themselves, like rhythm and melody of versification. But these great writers knew that ornament for the sake of ornament, ornament which at tracts attention to itself, and shines by Its own bean’ies, only does so by calling off tbe mind from tho main object, and thus not only interferes with the higher purpose of human discourse, which ought,. and gener ally proteases, to have some, matter to com municate, apart from the mere excitement of the moment, bnt also spoils the perfec tion of the composition as a fine art, by de efrovlnt the.nnity of effect This, then, la the first leason' In composition to be learnt from tLo classical authors. The second is, not to be prolix. In a single paragraph, Thucydides can giro a clear and vivid repre sentalloc of a battle, such as a reader who las onco taken it into his mind can seldom forget. The most powerful and affecting piece of narrative per haps In all historical literature, fo the account ol the Sicilian catastrophe in bis seventh book, yet bow few pages does l r . fill! The ancients were concise, because of the extreme pains they took with their compo sitions; almost all moderns arc prolix, be cause the; do not. Thegreat ancients could express a thought so pcrlcctly in a few words or sentences, that they did not need to odd any more: the modern?, because they cannot bribe It out clearly and completely at once, return again and again, heaping sen tence upon stntence. each adding a little more elucidation, in hopes that though no single sentence expresses the full meaning, the whole together may give a sufficient no tion of it. In this respect lam afraid we are growing worse instead of better, for want of lime and patience, and from the necessity we are in of addressing almost all writings to a busy and imperfectly prepared public. The demands ol modern life are such—the work to he done, the mass to be worked up on, are so vast, that those who have any thing particular to say—who liave, as the phrase goes, any message to deliver—cannot devote their time to the picdnctlou of mas terpieces. But tliey would do for worse than they do, if there had never been mas terpieces, or if they bad never Known them. Early familiarity with the perfect makes oor most imperfect production far less bad than it otherwise would he. To have a high standard of excellence often makes the whole difference of our work good when it would otherwise be mediocre. For these reasons I think it important to retain these two languages aud literatures in the place they occupy, as a part of liberal education, that Is, of the education of all who are not obliged by their circumstances to discontinue their studies at a very early oge. CONNECTICUT. Beanie of the Elcetlon. The following table exhibits the result of the recent election in the several counties of Connecticut on Monday last, with a compar ative statement of the result in the same counties one year ago; ror. oovebsob. r- —ISG7 > > ■ IS6C ■—\ Counties, Rep. Cent. Rep. Deis. Bawlcv. English. Hawley. English. Pah field 5,090 5,256 7,091 7.337 Hartford 8,801 9,422 8,613 8,937 Litchfield 4.4C8 4,523 4.771 4,658 Middlesex... .3,839 8,144 3.206 2,939 New Haven... 9,111 31,420 8,630 10.754 Ntwlondon~9,*9s Tollai d 2,302 2,070 2,479 2,032 Windham 8,784 2,430 3,506 2,114 Total... 42,120 42.709 43.974 43,433 English’s majority|m all bnt three towns SSO. These three towns, East Lynne, Somers, aud Weston, if voting the same as last year, will make English’s majority CTC. Majori ties are given in 15 towns. Ihcfullvote will be about bC.OOO. CONGRESS. We have returns nearly complete from three districts. A despatch from the IVth District says that F. T. Barnaul is defeated, W. H. Barnum’s majority being about COO, hut fails to give the figures. D«mlntf.Hubbar4J3eimßg.nobbard Hist. Rep. Hem. Rep. l)cm. I. Hartford 8,790 9,445....8,206 6,379 Tolland 2,276 2,111... 2.418 1,«54 Total 11,066 11,556.. .10,619 8,033 Hubbard, Democrat, has 527 majority. Russed. Warner. 3,0 3 2,278 8,233 7,243 11. Middlesex- New Haven. Total 31,236 9,521 Hotchkiss, Democrat, has 3,800 majority. Starkweather. Martin. Branda<ee. Allen. Rep. Dcm. Rep. Dem. 112. New London* 5.U2S 4,007....5.165 3,008 Windham 3.1 SO 2.431.. .8,411 1,231 8,808 7,038....8,506 4,3-19 Tefal.... •Incomplete. Starkweather. Republican, has 1,770 ma jority. Hubbard. Taylor. 4,835 3,778 IV. Fairfield.. Litchfield. Tefal 11,747 9,113 William H. Barn urn, Democrat, has about COO majority. THE LEGISLATURE. The Senate will stand II Republicans, 10 Democrats; Republican majority, 1. In the House, the Republicans will have a majority of about 35. Last year tbe Republicans had a majority of five in the Senate, and 4G In the Bouse. Diet. Diet. 1.. George Beach. XH..Wro.C. Street. 11.. Albert Austin. XIII. .Amos J.Gallnp. lII.V. O. I'/ulns, Jr. XlV..W.H.Chandler. 17 ..James Gallagher. XV..Bobt. Plerpont. V..Jeaae T. Booers. XVI..E. Buckingham. Vl..Whitney Elliot. XVll ..MlleaT.Granger WlUiama. XVll!.. EorogeJotmaoju V111..1005. Clark. XIX..C. Brainard- IX. E. D. Brockway. XX. .E. A. Converse . X. . C. Clarke. XXI..Wm. Dorrance. Xl. .liter JI. Cornen. Total K. ll;TotalI). 10. Republicans In roman; Democrats In italic. THE ABBOTT ABROAD. Atthc Tuilorles—Tbe Clergyman In a Court Ureas— Ills Gradual Approach to tbo Imperial Presence—Bad Pros pects fortbo Unborn Biography—Gas uiscstcemed Tne HU ulster's Allu sions to Petticoats, Hair, Terpsichore, Bacchus, &c«, Ac, „ _ Pajus, March, 1867. My Deab Sib: It Is impossible by any skill in word painting to convey an adequate idea of the brilliancy of a grand party in the palace of the Tuheries. 1 send, however, this brief account to my fx lends in New Haven, fully conscious that it reflects but the lalntcst image of the splendors of the scene. Four thousand guests thronged the suite of magnificent apartments thrown open upon this occasion. Abont sixty per sons, from the different nations, in diplo matic relationship with France, were to be honored by a presentation to the Emperor and Empress. The Invitation to each was sent on a large card about six inches square, and was as follows: , BBSSZHTATIOir. By order of the Emperor, the Grand Chamber lain has the honor to finorm Mr. A. that he la in vited to pass the evening at the Palace ofthe Toil enee, Wednesday, the 29th or February, at 9 o’clock. Duke ns Bassamo. in court dress. • Please exhibit this card at the entrance. WHAT ABBOTT WOBE. The conrt dress In which it was necessary for gentlemen to appear, consisted simply of a broad band of gold lace down the legs of the pantaloons, a black dress coat embroid ered with gold lace, white vest and cravat, a dress sword hanging by the side, and a cha peau bras, or cocked bat, in bis hand or un der the aim. HIS COMPANION'S. Two ladies, formerly of New Haven, of whose dress and appearance I had occasion to be proud, were my companions. As our carriage emerged from the court yard of the grand Hotel do Louvre, into the Rue Rlvoll, we saw mounted soldiers stationed for a long distance through the brilliantly lighted streets, to prevent any vehicles from entering which could impede the thousandaofcarriages which were to convey the guests to the pal ace. As we entered throngh the Carrousel into tjio Conrt of the Tnllerlcs, the Innum erable lights which illumined the spacions court revealed many soldiers on patrol, and officials In gorgeous costumes, and servants lu showy liveries, ready to minister to every want and to rescue from every embarrass ment.' IN THE VESTIBULE. Alighting nuder cover, upon the carpeted vosttbole, wo entered a spacions lower hall. Ten servants were there, literally covered with gold livery, picked men, of dignified and imposing mein. They took the enter garments of the gentlemen and ladles, gave them tickets In exchange, while other ser vants, who stood near by In large numbers, received the garments, folded them carefully, and placed them upon shelves. ON THE STAIB3. Ascending the magnificent flight of marbla stairs, one passed, at the distance of every few yards, a living statue cosed In shining steel armor, with helmet and breast-plate. These were all men of majestic stature, and they presented a very imposing appearance, as they stood, at intervals, each apparently as motionless and insensible as marble, with his bayoneted gun by his side. QAS AT A DISCOUNT—ABBOTT’S SUBPBI9E THEBEAT. Arriving at the top of the stairs, a scene of almost bewildering splendor burst upon the eye. Strange as it may seem, in Paris gas is not considered a genteel light. It is suitable lor cafes, and restaurants, and shops and streets, but not for a lady’s parlor. I have not seen a single parlor In Paris light ed by gas. The magnificent ball-room of the Hotel de Vllle is lighted by three thou sand wax candles. ABBOTT IN THE PABLOB3. A scries of the most magnificent apart ments, with lofty ceilings, and the most costly adornments which painting and glid ing and rich furniture could give, and illu minated by the soft light of wax cannles, which seemed to be in numbers without number, was opened to view. I think there were seven of these soacious apartments thrown open, besides various smaller ones. Those who were to be presented to the Emperor and Empress were conducted to the presentation room by a private passage. Each ambassador presented those from his own nation. About ten o’clock they were all formed in line around the room. A sig nal was given that the Emperor was about to enter the room. All was hushed silence. A door was thrown open, and the Empero entered from the throne room, and follow* ing him a few steps behind came the Em* dress, like a vision of fairy beauty. The ladles may be interested to know how the Empress was dressed. ABBOTT AS A MAX-MILLIXEB. She wore a robe of rich white satin, em broidered in.whltc silk, and confined at the waist by a wide sash of ribbon, terminating in a large bow. The border of the skirt was of two box pleated rallies, with a wreath of tea roses, sparse in leaves, bat studded with brilliants. The ceinture was covered with three strands of diamonds, in detached rows, but connected in the centre with a white rose. A fourth string of diamonds was worn os an ordinary watch chain. The robe of tulle and satin was lavishly decorated with diamond pendants, and a luxuriant string of pearls hung from her neck. he gets nr ox euoexte’s baib. Her hair was dressed with puffs and small curls high on the head. A lew white roses, like those on the robe, were laid carelessly among the hair. Encircling the forehead there was a massive coronet in diamonds, with a central robe brDllant with these im perial gems. NAPOLEONIC BBTICENCE. As the Emperor walked slowly down the line, the name of each individual was men tioned by the ambassador ol his country. There was an exchange of bows, bat not a word was spoken. In bat two instances did the Emperor address the individual who.was presented. The Empress passed through the same formality with inimitable grace,' occa sionally addressing a playful remark to the ambassador. This ceremony being-con cluded, the Empress took the arm of tme Emperor, and a door being thrown open, they led the way, followed by members of the court, the diplomatic corps, and the per sons who had been 'presented, through one of these thronged saloons, into what la called the Ball ol the Marshals, which room alone, it is said, will accommodate tight hundred guests. This room was also crowded with the glittering throng.. The Emperor and Empress and the Princess Ctotbildo took saats in gilded arm-chairs, upon a platform slightly elevated, and immediately a bind of music in that room, and also in another far ther beyond, sttnek up their animating strains and In small places which had been cleared dancing began. tee lusts of the ete and tub pride of LIFE. It was cow about eleven o’clock. For an hour the spectacle was dazzling even to those somewhat accustomed to such scenes. Tbe magnificent apartments, the rich dresses of the ladies glittering with ail orilliant gems, : ar d the attire of the gentlemen in military uniform, acd the gorgeous court dresses of all nations, the soft yet abounding yellow liglt the music, and the ceaseless movement, all combined to lend the scene great attrac tions. There was one large hall set apart for refreshments, where oce could co at any time and get lees and cordials and almost every delicacy which could he named. This was for transientrefresbment, not the supper table. At twelve o’clock the Emperor and Empress led the way to the other extremity of tbe palace, where doors were thrown open ard a supper table exposed to view which reminded one, in its aspect of splendor, of the fabulous scenes In the “Arabian Nights.” APEOTT CREWS AND COGITATES. As I have said, there were four thousand guests. Probably not more than two or three hundred at a time could approach the table?, which were spread around tbe halls ol the room. There was an army of servants to minister immediately to every one’s wants, and the tables were rcplcui-hcd as; fast as they were exhausted. The gnests entered at one door and went oat at anoth er. As soon as tbe hall was full, the en trance door was closed until there was again space for more to enter. At the same time, at the other end of the palace, the refreshment room was still open, provided with every luxury. awful nouns fob a clergyman. In this gathering there were the most dis tinguished men and women from all lands, ana there was very much to interest every mind. And thus the scene of music, dancing; feasting, movement and conversation con tinued till a late hour in the morning. I left with my friends at 2>£. The crowd had been shghtly diminished, bnt there was no abate ment of the brilliancy of the scene. TOO FULL FOR PHILOSOPHY. This is bnt a meagre sketch. I have no time for those reflections which snch a scene 1? calculated to Introduce to a thoughtful mind. Bnt I am already repaid for tbe trouble of writing these few lines, from the consctoosness that there are those in New Haven whom I love, who will read them with inteiest. John S. C. Abbott. LEGISLATIVE CORRUPTION. Need of a New Constitution m New Tort. [Albany Corrcspondeoce (March 26) of the -New \orlt Tribune.] It will be remembered that General Wads worth was beaten for Governor In ISG2 through the treachery of the Father of the Lobby (Thurlow Weed) and Lis coadjntors in “ijing and leprosy,” and it woald be a curious matter of inquiry how much General Wadsworth’s known hostility to legislative corruption bad to do with bis defeat. As Governor, he w ould undoubtedly hare recom mended stringent measures to check the vicious practices that have grown so com mon as to shock nobody hero now. I stated in my former letter that the New York Central Railroad had paid more than half a million dollars to promote and pre vent legislation since the consolidation in 1853. This sum is so large that doubts of its probability have been expressed by per sons who have no knowledge of the process es by which business is transacted at the capitol. At this time of day, it would be a difficult matter to furnish all the items of this immense expenditure. But some of the particulars, and the snm total paid In I&CS and ISGO to promote the passage of the hills which the Governor vetoed, will go far to show the truth oi what was reported in myprevions letter. The whole amount paid, in 1865, to mem bers of the Legislature and outsiders, did not vary much from fIOO,OOO. lam Inclined to the opinion that It rather exceeded that snm. It cost forty-odd thousand dollars to carry the hill through the Senate. It re ceived nineteen votes In that body, not more than six of which were given upon principle, and without a consideration. Ezra Cornell and Henry C. Murphy voted yea spontane ously, and without being paid for It. The twenty-five thousand dollars was the max imum, and I think $2,000 the lowest. The highest-priced Senator felt the importance of his position—and bis demand was cor respondingly extravagant. The lower pi iced men denounced nlm as unreasonable and rapacious, bat he got his money all the same. There were a few Democratic Sena tors who voted for the bill without making any terms in advance, but expecting some thing in the end; and they were not dis appointed. The Railroad Committee of the Assembly consisted of Messrs. Stanford of Schenec tady (now a member of the Senate), Hnn gerford of Chautauqua,.Webber of Schuyler, Worth of Kings, Shepard of Tioga, Lou trell of New York, and Clark of Fulton and Hamilton. Stanford was opposed to the bill from the start. Hnngcrfora and Shepard were independent and nprigbtmen, although the Father of the Lobby pat a considerable sum of money into his own pocket under pretense of making it ** all right with Shep ard.” It cost §12,000 to get the bill report ed to the Assembly. Between forty and fifty votes were paid for, at prices varying tiom SSOO to $1,500 each. The remainder of the SIOO,OOO was given to the lobby; and It might just as well have been pitched Into the river, for all that was accomplished thereby. 1 shall he constrained to devote an entire letter to an exposition of knavery of the lob by. The amount they obtain by false preten ces is inconceivable; and it is a marvel how men of experience and acuteness should trost iheir money m such hands. The Father of 'the Lobby received $13,000 nnder pretence of aiding the passage of the Central Bill' In 18C5; every cent or which be put into his own pocket, and without Influencing a single vote in either branch of the Legis lature. A MEMPHIAN HOKIiOB. mysterious IRorder of a Prominent Citizen—A midnight Assassination- Mo ('lac to the Perpetrator of the Peed. [From the Memphis Bulletin, April 3.] Another victim has fallen by the hand of au assassin on-the streets of Memphis. Gen eral Smith P. Bankhead, the gifted, the no ble and the talented, is no more. He died at a late hoar on the night of Sanday, from the cruel and murderous blows received at midnight on Saturday from the bludgeon of an unknown assassin, after lingering in the greatest agony for abont twenty-four hours. The particulars of the murderous assault may he briefly recapitulated. During the evening he had been with a number of friends at various places in the city, and while alone between 11 and 12 o’clock, be entered a singing saloon on Main street, known os the “Golden Star.” He left that place about 12 o’clock, and while passing along Main street, at the corner of Washington street, a midnight assassin, who Lad evidently been on his track, with the intention of robbing him, came np behind the General and struck him a fearful blow over the head with a bludgeon, iofllctlng a frightful wound. The blows were repeated fonr different times, and the unfortunate gen tleman fell to the ground with his skull fractured in two places, and the brains pro truding from the wounds. A policeman who was walking up Washington street at the time, distinctly saw the blows given, and rushed to the spot. The assassin, however, doubtless saw him'approaching, for be made off at so rapid a rate that he could not be Identified. Captain Waldraven, late Chief of the Fire Brigade, and William Peters, a steamboat pilot, were also at the spot in au instant after the assault took place, and although they both saw the assassin ran away, nls movements were so rapid, and the night so dark, that they only got a partial view of him, and are unable to give any de scription of his personal appearance. The three persons, immediately on coming to the spot where General Bankheadlay, did all they could to help him, and had him con veyed to the First District Police Station. Dr. W. H. White was soon in attendance and did everything In his power which medical skill could suggest for the wounded man. From the injuries he bad received. Dr. White saw the case was hopeless, as U was impossible the General could survive the very serious Injuries he had received. He was conveyed to his residence as speedily as possible, and although the most eminent medical gentlemen of the city were in attendance,{all their efforts to erelong life were unavailing. The General lay In an al most unconscious condition till a late hour on &undav night, when death came to his relief, and the spirit returned to the God who gave it. Coroner Cotton bold an Inquest on the body, and although Captain Waldraven, Mr. Peters and the policeman were all called as witnesses, no light was thrown on the mys terious murder, and no clue could be got to the midnight assassin. The jury returned as their verdict that “the deceased came to bis death by being struck on the bead, there by fracturing the'skull, by an instrument in the handsolsome'person or persons to the jury unknown.”- An Alroclou* Outrage on a Toting Lady Near Cleveland* [From ihe Cleveland Herald, April S ) A lew days ago as Miss Ellen McGuire, a young, handsome and accomplished lady livin': in the family of William Higby, of Solon, was walking'leisurely along the rail way track she discovered that a negro was dogging her steps, and, fearing he contem plated mischief, increased her gait to one of more rapid pace. Seeing that be also gov erned bis movements by her speed, she be came frightened, commenced running, and fear lent her such powerful wings that she would have reached a place of safety had he not left the track and gained upon her by making a “short cat” while she followed the curve of the road. Surprised at his sudden appearance In front, he having boldly leaped out of the boshes, she seized a club as a means of protection, and commenced running in the opposite di rection. He followed, and when about to grasp his victim her foot caught upon some thing which brought her to the ground vlo lently, but before his arrival 8 “® again and tnrned upon her mined to fight herpower tn -wlplil the club- Her blows were so well directed fora lime Umt "a tojcntme Sh So shadow f‘s° IJXwproMh* v^. ( rL-ol V aOIo to stand thron-h £ri"ht nod S e£?sire “elf-defence, conld not irftld rtfek’anr lonccr, when ho Rove her a blow on the head that sent her recline and tmrprostrato and helpless (ormlike i demon of darkness, he proceeded a fearful crime, but her re flfatanco was so stubborn that, in the strug gle her hair was disheveled, her person bad ly bruised, her clothing torn to shreds, and blood ran from wounds inflicted on her face and neck until the poor girllooked almost like apj object except a woman. In the meantime, when ha fist was not battering ter mon.h, she cried for help, and help came In time to alarm the villain before his awful work was accomplished. Thev were some distance from any habitation, and the monster would probably have be**n success ful bad her cry not been heard by a former who chanced to be in a neighboring field, w blch was bid from view by an intervening piece of timber. Upon the former’s appeal ance the negro fled, and the farmer would haveEivco chase bntthe lady plead with him to retrain wjth her. He carried her to a bouse, aroused the neighborhood and by iuta*tues formed for the capture of the crim inal, they were successful in effecting bis ar rest soon after. He is now in Jail at this place, having been brought here by Con stable Chamberlain, who had to moke a flrocetic movement on the people of Solon to prevent them from lynching his prisoner. The man’s name is Prank Bummer, bis of nativity, Mississippi. He was brought to Cleveland during the war by Mr. Carran, a lawyer, of this city, by whom be was employed as a body servant in the army. Snbscqueotto his arrival hcie he was taken to the draft ren dezvous, mustered into the United States service, and was one of the substitutes con nected with the investigation of the Captain Nash, Provost Marshal difficulty. A Terrible Explosion—Five Person* Killed and Two Others Wounded by the Banting ot a Portable Ungin* Boiler. fFrora the Evansville (Ind.) Journal. April S.J The engine ol a portable sawmill belong ing to Mr. John Gilman, of this city, which was being operated by tals sons on the farm of a Mr. Denton, in Henderson County, Ken tucky, and on the road leading from Hen derson to Cnrdsville, exploded yesterday morning, killing five persons. Including tbe engineer, the “head” and “tail" sawyers, and two lads of eighteen to twenty years, named Tilltson, and scalding two others. Later. —Since the above was in type a boat has arrived from Green River, bringing the remains of two of the victims of this terri ble catastrophe. From Jack Hitch we leom the following particulars; They had just pumped up the boiler and generated steam enough to* pat tbe engine fn motion sufficient to limber the belts, and bad stopped the engine to make sufficient steam to run tbe machinery, having then but seventy-five pounds instead of one hundred and twenty, which was required to properly run the machinery. Hatch, who was em ployed to remove the sawdust, asked Ben Gilman to go a short dlstaro* from the mill to a little elevated spot to amuse themselves while steam was generating. They had been gone but a few minutes wuen tbe engineer called Gilman to him. In another moment, tbe explosion took place. Hitch saw a lad named Charley Tlllesoo, who seemed to be injured, and ran to him. when he saw Ben. Gmnan In tbe creek and rushed to his assistance, and gathered him out of the water. He found both his legs and his skull broken. He lived about half an hour. The engineer, named Manahale, from this city, was literally torn to pieces— one arm heirs driven into his body in such a manner that It could not he extracted. Be was i: sUntly killed. William Tilicson was blown up into a tree, fifty yards distant, striking It thirty feet from the ground. A negro boy and the off-bearcr were slight ly Injured. Gilman was blown fifty yards in to the creek. Jack Hitch escaped with one boot heel torn off by a fragment. The ex plosion was of terrible force. Pieces of the boiler were thrown a distance of three hun dred yards; branches were blown from the trees, and tbe trees themselves were filled with pieces of boards, iron, &c., driven into the body and limbs by the force of the ex plosion. Hitch showed ns Gilman’s knife, taken from his pocket, which was bent and twisted in an extraordinary manner, the horn being torn from both sides of it. His watch was blown literally to pieces. The fragments of the knife handle were driven into bis thigh. Had they been at work when the explosion occurred, not one of them could possibly have escaped Instant death. These explosions are becoming alarmingly frequent, we having been called upon to re cord no less than five within as many months. Seduction and Adultery. [From tbe LoulsvflJe Conner, April 4.1 Yesterday morning a man named Carrol Cook was presented “In the City Coart on a charge of adultery, bat the case was con tinued until next Friday. From what we can learn of the case. Cook is rather rakish in his inclinations. About seven years ago he was married at Madison, Indiana, to a very beautiful girl named Sarah King, and removing to this city a year or two after wards, their union was blessed with two pretty children. But Cook, although badly pitted with the smallpox and pug. nose, withal was a favorite among tbe' women, and after breaking hearts on every side for a few months he finally found himself deeply in love with Henrietta Graf, a ruddy blue-eyed German girl, of twenty years, who resided her step father, Augustine Decker, in California, be tween Seventeenth and Eighteenth streets. The girl reciprocated, and the conple were soon on terms of tbe greatest intimacy. Cook then persuaded her to move off - with him, and they went over to Jeffersonville and remained awhile, when the girl's mother dis covering her whereabouts, went and brought her home. Shortly afterwards she gave un mistakable evidence of being “how wives that love their lords long most to be," and Cook kept dark for a while, aud did not go near. Decker, however, the girl’s step-lather, was after him and finally caught him, but on Cook informing him that he was about to get a divorce from bis wife and marry Henrietta, be let him off. Mrs. Cook had by this time fonnd out the state of af fairs, and she left her recreant lord and sought a living for herself and children by work. Cook then returned to his charmer and induced her to mn off with him. She consented and they left the city and went to parts unknown. This was about seven months ago. Cook returned to the city on Tuesday and was at once arrested on a charge of living in adultery; but no clue of the girl can be obtained. The girl is said to be and easily led. The case was continued until Friday, when wc doubt not some rich developments will take place. Lynch Law-Three Negroes Banged, The Fort Scott (Kansas) Press, of the 234 ult., gives the details of the hanging of three negro men in that vicinity, a few days previ ously, by mob of Judge Lynch’s court. It seems that a negro named Eli Mackey, who was confined in jail for muder, escaped, and concealed hirosclfin his brother’s house, some six miles from Fort Scott. Learning of this, Mr. Wheaton, in company with bis son, Mr. Cbos. S. Wheaton, Mr. Beoj. Files and Mr. E. Coe, started ont to apprehend the escaped felon. •On arrivingn«ar the ricialty of the house, they were fired upon by the murderer from within. Mr. Coe fell mortally wounded, and Mr. C. S. Wheaton was soon after seiionsly wounded. It appears that the house had been loonholcd and fortified in preparation of an attack. The Inmates, when called upon to surrender to the officers of justice, refused to do so, and forcible means had to be resorted to, to obtain ad mittance. In the meantime, the murderer, well provided with firearms, bad taken re fuge In the brush near the Loose, and was chased for several hoars from point to point by the party in pursnit, who were now aided by the neighbors. At last, after having been wounded three or four times, and hav ing expended bis ammunition, the mur derer was secured, marched to the house, from which he had fled, and there delivered to the tender mercies of Judge Lynch. Be fore being despatched, he made a confession of having killed Mr. Hayford, a merchant of Fort Scott, as well as live menhefore him. He also stated that it was he who shot at Major Mefford. Two colored Individuals— one the brother of the murderer, and the other named Harry Mann—were secured and lodged in the county jail, charged with aid ing and abetting the felon in trying to es cape, as well as firing upon the officers of the law. On Thursday evening a party of fifty or sixty men forced their way Into the jail, took them ont to the outskirts of town and bungthem. Election BlotlnCherryValley^llllnolz. [From the Rockford (UL) Gazette, April i ] An extensive and bloody riot occurred at the polls in Cherry Valley on Tuesday last, growingont of an antagonistic feeling re specting a proposed bridge across the Kish wankee. below Cherry Valley. The ques tion had been proposed by the moderator, in the school-house where the election was held, and had been decided against the ap propriation. The school-house was com pletely filled with people, and many out siders were unable to enter. On. this account the friends of the appropria tion were dissatisfied, and desired a reconsideration. This was agreed to, bat on announcing the result, the mode rator cried out, “Now all you who are against the bridge, come in and vote,” or something to that effect. The fight com menced at once, and almost instantly the combatants numbered more than twenty men. For a long time It was determined, bloody and terrible. Pistols were drawn dur ing the affray, hat none fired. The poll books and registry of votes were torn to pieces, and the ballot box carried off. When order was restored, a large number of bloody heads ard bruised bodies appeared as the re sults. We have not learned that any fatal Injuries were received. The ballot box was finally recovered, and the voting proceeded, mlnos the poll hooks. The Pillory and Whipping Post In Delaware. The "Wilmington (Del.) Commercial (Union) thus sums up the condition of society in that State. It says: “A ride of thirty-five miles from Philadelphia to New-Castle, in the State of Delaware, will bring the curious to an opportunity of witnessing, at least three times a year, the active and public use of the pillory and whipping post in pur suance of the laws of the State. It is not only colored men who stand in the pillory and are lashed, according to law, bat colored women ; and not only these, but white men and white women. This spectacle is enjoyed not alone at New*Castle, but at Georgetown, in Sussex County, within sight of the resi dence of Mr. SauJsbnry, a Senator of the United States. Ana not only there, but at Dover, the capital of the State. In that town where the law-makers of Delaware sit and deliberate, they may almost look out upon the whipping and see the fill of the while the cries of the unfortunate wretches might penetrate to the ears of the worshippers in the Christian churches of the town. Decision _ Concerning ,in Important Gold and lesal Tender*. (From tie New York Tribune, April I.] In the Supreme Court of New York, Mr. Justice Sutherland has decided an impor tant question between currency and sold. The Issue turned on an agreement made to pay a certain sum at the time when gold was the ruling currency. The sum was tendered, but in legal tenders; hence the litigation. Mr. Justice Sutherland bolds that an agreement to pay In gold cannot be legally enforced, though, treating gold as a commodity, a contract for its purchase or sale Is perfectly safe and proper. He de clares that the result of the Legal Tender Act Is that gold has practically ceased to be currency, and become exclusively a com modity. The decision appears to be iden tical in principle with one recently delivered by the Supreme Court of Massachusetts, by wblcb. upon a contract for the payment of a specified sum in gold, a tender of the amount In greenbacks-was held good.