Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune, April 7, 1867, Page 2

Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune dated April 7, 1867 Page 2
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€l)kago tribune. DAILY, TEI-WEEKLI ASB WEEKLY. OFFICh* Mo* 01 (’I.ABK»9T* art mm: oamoL* or me Taaeva Imom. lit. E.T37 niATEjac. for drcujai'oc by c»mct». newimes *acinetc»us. Sd.-TteTct-WsitcLT.'Mo&dsrt, Wed twsa«» and Friday*, for tbe calla only; and tet Wam.r.onTturwUya.ffcrUie sails and Me at oar •outer andbv Bevsoea. Terms of the Chleaa* Trlbaoe» jjailjr deUveree ta tbr euy (to- wees) g 35 Dally. 10 call subscriber* (per^wumj'para.’ ptf to adraacer ... TO-¥d*t».(i« antms, raysbieie advauce) «,ou T. foer sxmuxn. rayab> rc gF'TracttOsal ptrts or 'be year n tbc uo* rate*, remttnn* *ta ordering flve or aor« topic# of cuter the Tn-Wcekiy or Weekly edition*. n»y retain tea per ear of tbc ri’jseripnon price aa a eomaranon. none* to srascsirvu.—ib ordering tbe 0 . ronrpspen cn*a«d.*o ’iravcal delay, t* sure and ft*atr wtatedition Toa uto-woekly, Trl-Weekl* orOtUr. Alio, ctveroarrSKsErriadfatore address »?l? lo sr[LB s ' x>mt,Kxt> " u * lloae T omen, or in Registered Letter*, mar be wat at our risk. Addras. TRIBDXB CQ W Chicago. 111. SUNDAY, APRIL 7, ISCT. CITY FINANCES AGAIN c.u?oVb?^^ {"’“'•a 'J-rilt.toß,« should cost twice MiS !?, f 1! d ,° ll M valuation to rautt. o„V! enuaent of Chicago, and carry on Its nubile Ira. jreTeoent*. as u cost when /old was ov« MO® Tills U what may be called electioneering humbug, intended to mil Ignorant volera m the eve of an election. The city Govern, meet before the Sherman Administration, under Republican rule from 1857 to 1503 coet an average of $500,000 per annum, of which $350,000 were raised by direct taxa tion, and the remainder from licenses, fines, &c. Under Frank Sherman and Copperhead rale the direct taxes of ISM mounted up to $074,055, or 300 per cent In two yean. And what has the city to show for this million of dollars o! taxes spent by the Copperheads? It Is true that gold is now quoted at 133, but everybody knows that the purchasing power of greenbacks has not increased with the toll of gold. On the contrary It costs more to carry on business now than when gold bounded up to 200. Labor Is now paid 25 to 30 per cent higher on a gold basis, than it received before the war. How much much less does It cost the proprietors of the Timet far composition, reporters, editors, clerks, pressmen, carriers, paper. Ink, type,* machinery, gas, coal, Insurance, etc., than It did ,three years ago when gold was 200? The ftet Is, that while gold has been gra finally declining, those working for hire, have steadily pushed up their rates of wages, and jnst os the cost of labor advan ces, everything else necessarily grows dearer. The cost of “inmyng” a city government is no exception, for the same causes that make publishing more expensive, make mu* nici(<al government more, expensive, But If it costs the tax payer more dollars, the dot* lars come easier In the same proportion. When gold vaulted up to 200 the Copper heads were predicting that the Union was going to the “demmtlon bowwows.” The Government was in the very crisis of Its ex istence. All thoughts and efforts of loyal men were directed towards its salvation. The money, personal services and lives of onr Union citizens were offered upon the altar of their country. In municipal affairs everything was put on half allowance. The pnblie schools were conducted on parsc monions principles ; no new school houses were built. The Fire Department was in a very weak and bad condition. Its machinery was wholly inadequate to the pub lic wants; the hose-pipes were worn out and rotten; the, city owned no engine houses, hnt rented sheds for the accommodation of the Department. The police numbered but half its present strength, and there was a general discontent .at the insufficiency of the force for the per formance of the duties.required of it; life and property were not eccore and order could not be properly maintained. Public improvements were suspended or curtailed until the war would be over. Hardly a street was graded or paved ; but little sew erage or water pipes were laid; street clean ingwtsina great measure omitted. Thotwo days* labor on the streets was abolished in 18C3 and the deQcit has since been made up by extra taxation. Tbeclly ranbehlndin Us financi'B very heavily, and was obliged to raise by temporary loans at high rates ol Interest, enough money to carry it for eight or mne months of each year until the next annual taxes could $e collected ; and two-thfrda of theas cessment as soon as collected had to be paid over to bankers and others who made those advances. At last the war closed ; the Union was saved ; public confidence revived ; the Cop perhead City Government was thrown over board, uiid Mayor Rice and a Republican Council were elected. The first thing to be done was to look after the sorely neglected latcresu of the city. Everything had gotten behind during the war. There were new school houses to build, and others to he leaned temporarily. In order lo make some provision for the ten thousand children of poor parents ahsolute’y starving for the bread of knowledge. The Fire Department de manded immediate attention and reinforce meat, for on a declining gold market incendiary fires became feanully preva lent and destructive. Crime and lawlessness greatly mul >iplled with the close of the war, as always is the case after great war»; and the population ol the city swelled at the rate of SO,OJO souls a year. As a con sequence a large Increase of the police force became an Imperative ikccssUt* The post poned public improvements were resumed. The pressure upon the Board of Public Works and Common Council became infect ly Irresistible lor legal authorization for sin tt grading, paving and other Improve mints; tor new walks; more stiwet cleaning; more sewerage and water extensions; new gas lamps ; new river bridges; for park Im piovctnents; for fire-alarm telegraphs; for new station houses, engiuo houses, school houses; for public health purposes; for ad ditions to the Reform School establish ment; for new dock lines and river dredging, etc., etc., etc. The public neceiaUles require and must have a certain amount of service. What Is post poned one year or four years must be added lo the ensuing years. Since the close of the war the city administration have had not only to provide for the current and ever in creasing wants of a rapidly growing city planted on a swamp, but also lo bring up the postponements and deficiencies of the war period, thus entailing a large extra load lo carry and care for. Of course wc can not expect the Copperhead demagogues who a:e famishing for a dive at the Treasury, to treat these things fairly or honestly,or to ex plain the facts to their followers. It would be against their Interests to do It, and they neverallow truth, principle, or fairness to stand In the way of their partisan aspirations or tLdr chances of getting a grab Into the public fluids. I'BAKCB PIIDSSIA, A very exciting debate occurred ia the French Corjtfl Leglslatif, on the ISth ultimo, In which the violence of Messrs. Butler and Binebem, in their recent encounters In the House of Representatives, was quite sor pas: « d by that of M. Rouheron the one hand, and of M. Thiers, doles Favre, Ernst Picard and others on the part of the Opposition. The ep s thvt of* rebel’* was freely hurled to and fro by the excited partisans. Toe Minis ter, bovine In substance declared that the Opposition members were no belter than r« bels. M. Picard replied ; *• It Is von who arc a rebel.** The 2d of December having been alluded to, a scene of the utmost excitement and confusion ensued, in which M. Thiers shouted out: Do not st>cak of the 2d ol December in the presence of those whom it proscribed I’* and in which the Minhsterdenounccd the Opposition mem bers as “ madmen.*’ Bat the debate in quea tiun has been ‘ made more memorable by subsequent disclosures than by the sneer and violence which characterized It. It was a discussion on the foreign policy of the Emperor, and K. Thiers had denounced that jt-iicy, contending that the consollda tion efthe Italians into a powerful Empire and the still more formidable development of tbc power of Prussia, menace the great ness and the ftiturc security of France. The French Minister replied to all this, and at tempted to show that the consolidation of Germans under the Prussian authority did not as yet amount to much, and that It never could amount to much. As If to answer tho speech of the French Minister and to show him tho foil; of all he Lad said; as if to sharpen the words of the Opposition and add to the reproach so bit* torlj cast upon the Emperor, almost Imme diately after the close of the debate. Count DUmark made public those secret treaties with Bavaria and Baden by which Prussia recures the command of tho military forces of those Kingdoms In time of war. Tho French Government was utterly Ignorant of the existence of any inch treaties until it was boldly announced by the Prussian Min ister, who evidently thought the auspicious moment had arrived for making the real power and jKtsltlon of his Government. It Is tort unalc that the Intelligence of those al liances did not arrive In tho Imperial presence simultaneously with the visit of the Rev. J. B. C. Abbott, for in that event (be woild would probably have been deprived of the epccch tho reverend gentleman delivered on that occasion. The Paris Temps, pointing oat the gravity of the situation, says France Is no lunge «• in the face of a Prus-la ol twenty-nine mil- Hons of people, but of forty millions, until, In tbe course of even is, they become fifty millions." It adds: "It only remains now for the King of Prussia to get tbe Imperial Crown decreed to him, and to Invito the Austrian Germans to take their scats la the! German Parliament. This will bo the crown.' inj» of the edifice.” It Is 1 imposslbleXor Jbo' Emperor longer to .conceal the humiliation ho has suffered; It .-remains; to he seen' whether he will go to war to regain hh ores tlge. It has been his belief that he was dcs by a'P'omcj that which other rulers seek with the sword • hi. ambition has been to lire and die the arbiter of Europe. It would be folly tosay heVeeS plea that position at present • nor wa. lt ??' Bible for him to cone"., aui ff e,h«“ is e’b. war” Il'c e ea? Ult ,° f ““ Ter „r u °“ y moke hlm «lf mas .ler of, the situation, by a ,„ c «f formidable dimension. .at th^^m.'i”^ 41 Üb,c t 0 lco<l to oomblnatlons that may at any moment imperil his dynasty. |'“j,“ l<i ° n ‘ s ° ,d . oot so old In years as fn bodily infirmity, and the diseases to which he Is a prey doubtless contribute to his re inctancc.to engage la war. What -alliances he might be able to form. If ho should d eter nitoe to go to war, is a question that the future must solve. There teems to he agen eral anprehension that the coming summer will witness the beginning of a contest iu some part of Eu.-ope that may involve all theprlnc Ipal Powers, acd the end of which I no one can foresee. I A CASE OF STRIKGOLATION. A few days ago, the accounting officers of the Government at Washington reached in regular order the papers In one of the many thousands of claims of the relatives of de ceased soldiers for pensions.arreragesof pay deterred bounty and the other unsettled docs of the Government to its deceased veteran*. The papers were made oat in regular form, the time and place of death of the soldier wasattested, and the cause of the death was alleged to be “strangulation.” A slight in formality in the direct proof as to the cause of the death led to a search of the original rolls of the regiment, when it was discovered that on the day named in the claim, the per son having been previously convicted of murder, was hanged. The allegation of the claimant# was true, but it was not all the truth, the little fact of the person being I hanged was smoothed over under the more | courteous phrase of “died of strangulation ” i The Democratic party of Chicago had as its veteran leader two years ago, one F. C Sherman. Just pending the Mayor’s ciec ■ lon, In 1805, a member of the Democratic party, in exceeding wrath at the defeat of Lee, the dispersion of Jeff. Davis’Govern mem and the outrage of having a Black Re publican President enter Richmond with a battalion of negro troops, avenged the “lost cause” by the murder of Abraham Lincoln. The deed.was such an appropriate and natur al finale to the treason In which the party had been involved dnrlng the preceding four years, that even Mr. Sherman was ashamed of It, and forthwith prepared a letter to the public, declining to be a candidate of the I Democratic party straggling for office over I the unburied corpse of the slain President ' But the Democratic leader# did not share his disgust at Booth’# deed. The veterans of I the Invincible Club, and of Camp Douglas I had no such horror of that awful crime! Abraham Lincoln dead, was more 1 gratifying than Abraham Lincoln livin'', I and enjoying the honors of a grateful conn* ; try. They had no wish to declare a disao- i proval of the murder by withdrawing their I ticket, they had no intention of washing their hands of any snch thing as shooting I Abraham Lincoln, whose whole official life I in their estimation had been an unbroken era | of usurpations. u Sie temper tyrannit" was j Booth’s exclamation, “ tie temper tyrannt *” I was the motto of Virginia, and “afc temper ' tymnni* ” always had been and always would be a glorious motto with the Democratic I party, and most certainly was not to he I abandoned because Abraham Lincoln was assassinated in the hoar of his victory over rebels, bv an bntraged member of the Dem I ocratlc party I They, therefore, objected to Mr. Sherman’s withdrawal.. They opposed any such concession to public sentiment. ! They demanded o! Mr. Sherman that he ' should be a candidate, that he should disturb j |he solemn woe of the people I hy parly harangues upon the 1 inviolability of the hdbeat corput and upon the tyranny ofLincoln’s minions • they demanded he should follow the funeral cor lege of the dead, ocaring banners Inscribed *Sie temper tyrannis ”/ “Low taxes”; “No more School Houses”; “Down with the Board of Health”: “No interference with nuisances”; “ Better accommodations at the Bridewell”; “ Democrats should have a share of the Offices”; “Hurrah for Democracy”. Sherman, with a knowledge of the mean nsc these men were making of him, with a full consciousness that he was required to do that which the public would not counte nance, yielded to the demand, suppressed Hie letter in which he declared his abhor rence of Booth’s crime, and while the city j was draped in mourning entered upon his I campaign in the drinking saloons of Chicago 1 inciting the voters to turn out, amt while i the respectable portion of the people were I attending the funeral solemnities, take pos- I session of the polls and ro-cl#ct him Mayor. But the people of Chicago on election day, j tried and convicted Frank Sherman and I ended hi# official life by official strangulation. 1 Last week the same men who, in 1805 I made him omit what would have been the I most ctedltablc and honorable act of his public life, presented an appeal to the peo- Mi of Chicago, praying that the pay, hon- I ora and emoluments which Sherman might I Imre had, had bis official life not been cut ehoit by the judgment of an Insulted pnbllc, he restored to him. In presenting the claim i they cooly but deliberately ignore the fact of his having been formally convicted and executed for the offences to which ho had al lowed others to drive him, and ap]>ea! to the liberality of the public promlslagon At# j-aw a total oblivion- of the past. Like the representatives of the deceased roldler, they do not deny bis conviction aud execution, but they say nothing about them. They merely suggest that he died by “stranuulailon which might have been accidental. But the record »’f Frank Sherman’s lost hours as Mayor of Chicago Is preserved. It cannot be effaced; It will not be forgotten In piteous appeal# that the past bo iorgiveu. The Democracy of ISO 7 cannot hide their motto of 1803, temper tyrannit,” under the brazen placard of “no more taxes for schools.” The Judg ment of two years ago whereby the insulted people terminated FrankSherman’spolitical life, is not to be misstated by calling it a ease of “strangulation” which he and his Ilends are willing to forget and forgive. One of Frank Sherman’s offences, and in a foiicc officer It is a serious one, is that In office ho is never free. Whenever he has had an honest, manly Impulse he has permitted olhers to crush the generous thought of him. He never was Mayor of this city in point of lact, though he nominally held the office look the oath and pocketed the salary. John Comlsky and the Invincible Club dictated, and be never, during his three years of ser vice, had the manliness nor the courage to resist and dely the mastery which these men exercised over him, the disgraceful cruelty of which he so constantly lamented in pri vate. In nominating him for Mayor there is a double purpose to be gained. If he should be elected it will be a restoration of Comls ky and the “ring” to absolute control again. Like a puppet, as theypnll the string he will dance, sing or weep; and yet to outsiders he will bewail the tyranny which drives him onward under pain of “strangulation.” TUB ALABAMA CLAIMS. The English papers announce that the United States Government bas declined the proposal of Lord Stanley to refer the ques tions in controversy between the two Gov ernments, arising out of our late war, to ar nitration. The exact grounds upon which :he refusal is made are not stated, but wo can Infer that the proposal has been rejected because It excludes a rcterence of certain questions which the United States consider o» vital Importance. We suppose that is the case, because the British papers de nounce what they call Mr. Seward’s impudence, in demanding that the Qrs * question to be submitted to the decision of an arbitrator shall be “whether the English Government were jusl • Ificd In recognizing the rebel States as bel llgcrcnts r* This question, despite the ridi cule with which It Is treated by the English press, is a very proper one. In all the writ leg on this subject the British Government has deiended Us conduct mainly upon the belligerent character of the rebel Govern ment. But who pave them that char octer? Great Britain. Waa the British Government Justified In so doing? upon that question, upon which hinges so much ofthe controversy, the British Ministry win not tolerate a discussion. Jn casc'of a rebellion in Canada, its success or failure would depend greatly upon the promptness with which the rebels might be recognized as belligerents by the United Stales. The fate of the British Provinces would depend upon the action of the United States Got eminent In that particular. As soon as the English Ministry beard that actual war had been levied in the United States, they ha* lened to recognize Jeff. Davis as a bellhrer! empower. That action the English Gov ernment will not permit to be questioned If followed by the United Stales In case of a rebellion in Canada, the Provinces would bo taken out of British hands within thirty days. The claims of American citizens for dam ages by tho British confederate cruisers arc of Inconsiderable consequence compared with the Immediate and authoritative decis ion of the obligations and duties of foreign Powers In time of civil war and rebellion. Tho whole world has an Interest In a decision upon that aubjuct. If tho recognition of rebels and Insurrectionists as belligerents is a matter resting entirely lu the discretion of foreign Powers, let it be so decided, and I the United States will accept that decision I \\ But lr recognition has £ eded by lacts and circumstances t „! au a dc “ lrc lo dismember the rot. of. n . C:1 /' - ' 1 - * n l *re suppression " bc,lio ”. then let It be so decided, and let Eneland accept the consequences. The British Government, in assuming that its recognition of the rebel stales as a belligerent power is not a proper subject for review by an arbitration, assumes tbc law and the fact governing to a great ex tent the whole controversy. Looking at the matter in this light, we bare no doubt Mr. Seward has acted properly In declining an arbitration frem which the leading question is to be withheld. REPfittLICAa phihaky .HEHr. IMiB, j The primary meetings of tic Republican j party of Chicago, for the nomination of I Aldermen, and the election of delegates to I the Convention which will nominate candi dates far Mayor and city officers, will be I held in the several wards to-morrow. The I times and places for bolding them will bo I found elsewhere. It Is always Important I that thosemeetlngs should he fully attended. I The candidates there chosen,-whethcr-voted for by few or many, are the candidates of I the whole party. After the polls close, on Monday, It will be 100 late to make wry I faces. These meetings are, in fact, the city election; for the ticket nominated by them will ho elected. Hence the proper and only place for the Republican voter to express his I: preference is at the primary meeting. I Sixteen Aldermen, constituting one half I of the City , Council, are to be nominated I to-morrow. We believe that we express the common feeling of tax payers when we say that the present Connell Is the beat one we .have bad for ten years-perhaps the best wo .cvcrbad. The members have shown tlicra sdves not only Intelligent and Incorruptible ( bnt exceedingly laborious and Industrious! The municipal year just closing has been n bard working year. Night alter night have .the members assembled for the con aiderstlon of the accumulating business of the city, often protracting their tensions till alter midnight. There have been more meet ings of the Connell held during the year | then in any other in our municipal history And during the whole time there baa not been a charge of corruption, ao far as wo keow, brought against any Alderman. It would bo wrong to nay that mistakes hare not been made. These, however, have been lew, oud of small consequence. 1 * The chancier and composition of the Council are due in a large degree to the fidelity of the people to their own interests in attending the primary meetings of the past two years. Bad men seldom get into office when the people perform their own political duties. The happy results which we have witnessed in the present. Council may be continued, if the same care and dili gence arc exercised by the voters. It Is not only easy to secure good men for the Coun cil for the coming year, but it is absolutely certain that they will be secured if all those who are Interested In good government go to tbc polls to-morrow. UTEBATUIIE. Notices of New Publications, A ?2S^.S P , S S IEKT >FIO DISCOVERT: or mdl , M° k Kf^ CU w l Sdu6Ce and Art 10.- lb& ana lcC6. hsjitri, i A! m n &Co?CLi«eo d * Un “ ln ' I * i - s. a Griffft The most important discoveries atd lm provements in mechanics, useful arts, natur al philosophy, chemistry, astrology, geolo gy* zoology, botany, mineralogy, meteorolo gy, geography, antiquities, made during the years 1805 and 1860. Here Is a most interest ing and very convenient record of the doings of men of thought and action in the most useful sciences and arts.' 7 ■ The greatest - achievement of engineering science In 1800 united two worlds by the successor the Atlantic Cable. The bald conception of the Chicago Tunnel under Lake Michigan has made an era In subterranean communication; while the -centre-rail of steep gradients will, it is thought, do away with the expense of boring through moun- I tain chains for the construction of railroads. |ln marine and locomotive engineering, the theory of surface'condensation has come Into favorable notice ; and petroleum has been practically employed for foci. The B-sscmcr process ot making steel has increased the use of that metal In ehlp-buildlng, giving sea going vessels less weight and greater strength. Captain Schultze has made powder from wood; and for certain purposes, the invention promises ' to supersede the ordinary explosive, Nytro-glyccrenc bos cornu into general requisition for blast ing ; and gun-paper bids Crlr.lo rival powder lor small fire-arms. The Ideas of light, beat chemical allinity, electricity and magnetism’ universal attributes of. matter In all Us forms, seem to be condcnclng into the notions of force and motion In comprehen sive classification. Mayer, starling from the ayuumlcal theory of heat, holds that the tidal waves of chemical magnetism put a drag upon the movement of the earth, and that a decrease in that motion may eventu ally result In disasters lo the solar system quite incalculable in the present state of science; and this retardation In tbe earth’s rotation is thought lo be a cause for the acceleration nf the mean motion of the moon. In the study of light, those who ac cept the undulalory theory, have been slg oiflcantly asked, what becomes ot the enor mous force of light lost and heat radiated in space: for force cannot bo annihilated, and u dues nut seem to return In the same form. From that extraordinary doctrine of the correlation of forces, the thinkers are devis ing means to pat In store the vast waste of the sun’s rays that Hoods the tropics and dc- I rtcrts, against the scarcity which may follow I the exhaustion of woods and coal mines. I 1 lie old theories of geological convulsions uml cataclysms to account for the breaks •ml Inequalities iu the earth’s surface, have been abandoned for the doctrine of Lycll and I others, that the changes of the past I have occurred In the gradual manner of those oilho present day; and this Idea adds weight to the Darwinian theory of species, which appears to be paining ground. Mr. I Croll has a new Idea of the great winters I and summers of our northern and southern hemispheres, making the intensity of the I heat or cold depend in a good degree upon whether the earth were In aphelion or peri helion ; and he says It most he a hundred thousand years since the last glacial epoch. Physiological research tends toward the notion of uniform development by cells In all nature,—the oak plank, the lion’s claw, the muscle, the brain, a unit in the inscruta hie growth. Organic chemistry Is revolu tionizing medicine and crowding out some of I the dogmas from social science. Think of It; men are able to calculate how much work a person has done In twenty-four hours by the chemical changes that have occurred in his body! Still more astonishing: the so-thonght exploded hypothesis of sponta neons generation has been reopened by Mr. Child; and it seems to be admitted that some of the lower forma of life come Into being Independent ofthc laws of reproduc tion I In meteorology It has now come to bo an acknowledged fact that the Interplanet ary spaces are filled with meteorites, moving round the sun and planets, and differing In no essential degree from the larger bodies of the solar system. But this is enough to show how deeply alive to human progress arc the men who stand In the front of the movement. While one philosopher goes away down tbc scale to carry this idea of God through the ani mal and vegetable to the primeval rock, an other takes to the future and belittles the mind of man by contrast with the incoming uolden age of dembgods on earth. The men of ISC7 can do greater deed* than the Greeks ascribed to the Dictyl This volume is appropriately adorned with n likeness of the Hon. David A. Wells Spe cial Commissioner of the Revenue, who has edited the “Annual of Scientific Discovery” for fifteen successive years, and who has re signed it to the charge of Dr. Knccland, to assume the duties of his present position. OF IS6 »- People’* Edition tmtiisdcg also the Household and Homestead Exemption Law* of the Northwestern Stales. cc « John WclUnnoa, ofChictgo. Pam -6 Sjcr^ch.naiS““““ U ' “• A very useful and cheap book, embodying the bankruptcy oct and the present condf tion ol the exemption laws of Illinois, In diana, lown, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nevada, Ohio, Oregon and Wis consin. This useful work needs no commen dation. 15 nS K t-!! 0^: Pbotoprsahed from the “Jcilt>el ” & H wa! l- »• W*oo, M. J>. anth. Pares hew\ork: Robert ii. DeWIU. Western J'ews Company, Chicago. western A queer book, by au erratic mcdlcinc-man A medley ol saucy prescription and dicta tion. Positive, Independent and honest talk about the sins against the science of the body, and the cheats of learned and Ignorant quackery. The author is no “sleek-headed man who sleeps ©’nights," hot a lighter hand and glove with misery, a live doer in the unsentimental mission of “muscular Christianity." He has real sympathy with the sorrowful shades of this lift; but like the grave-digger in Hamlet, ho has a stock of jokes and grim jests; and It most be owned the light humor has no contrast In tho pro fuudlty ot the King of Denmark. However, the “laughter euro" U missionary, as well as the “n ater euroand Dr. Dixon knows, with King Solomon and Dr. Holmes, that “a merry bcart .doeth good like a medicine." Pills and jokes are more remedial than pills. Uona Woma* Aimqimts.—loeihsnstiblo Komo bat lately yielded some extremely lutercst- Ing anuqnuc* discovered under dan CrWono.a very cortoaa cfaurce tn the Trastevcrc. which la supposed to date from tbe UmeufCoßitanUse tbe Great. The Discoveries constat ul vaulted cham bers covered with Inscription! In lead • * tomb conlalalng tbe skeleU-n of a young girl, tad some very carious objects of Jewelry. This church Is supposed to occupy the station of tbs Seventh Cohort of tho Guards, THE PARIS EXPOSITION The Imperial Scheme and How it is Realized. A Memorable Industrial Congress of the Nations. The Exhibitions of 1851, 1853, 1855,1862 and 1867. Plan of the Present Enter- prise. Description of the Form, Size, Dis tinctive Features, and Pros pective Contents of the" French Palace of Industry. The Buildings and Grounds, One Oimdred and Thirty lores De voted to the Exposition. I [Special Correspondence of ihe Chicago Tribune.] ! v . „ . Mt pAIU8 ' France, March 21. I >o more striking evidence of the great ami general progress of modem mankind no on Urn highroad of civilization can be found than those vast competing concourses of the productions of human skill and genius that under the name of “Universal,” or “World’s Expositions,” bare oflato years become such prominent incidents in the intercourse be tween tbe various peoples of the earth. Those grand International reviews and tour naments, so to speak, upon the arenas of art science and industry, are proving the most powerful agencies In bringing about that solidarity of intellectual, moral and mate rial Interests, through which the highest destinies of the human race arc to be worked out. They tend to level the barriers of pre judice, jealousy and ignorance of each other that still separate even civilized nations! They establish an interchange of Ideas and things of Inestimable benefit to mankind at large. They re sult In transplanting what there is good, beautiful and useful In the achieve meats of any people and country to all parts of the globe. They make all human ity share in the triumphs of any portion of it in any branch of human activity. Hence the growing interest felt In, and the more and more colossal proportions assumed by these grand reunions of the civilised world, for purposes of competition and mutual In struction in the arts of peace. tub iiisTonr op world’s rams. It is but sixteen years since the first Uni versa! Exposition was organized by the neo* lc that holds the foremost rank in com merce and industry In the Old World. As a first attempt to unite the industrial and ag ricultural products of all civilized nations Into one grand mart, the London Exposition of ISol was a very great success. The im pulse It gave to International commerce In Europe was Immense, and it proved the first step towards the establishment of those in. timatc and enlightened commercial relations between France and England, that have contributed so Infinitely to the prosperity of thetwo countries. - The next general Exposition—that In New York in 1853 was more specifically American—was that held in this great city in 1855. The ambitious ruler that had revived the Empire In Franco was not disposed to let England monopolize the glory and advantages of Universal Expo sltions. lie succeeded in astonishing ex temporaneous mankind by prodneing some £s* r than the Crystal Palace of iboi, with Us wonderful contents. While the London Exposition comprised but 14,837 Ex positors, and covered a surface of but 75,000 square yards, that of 3855 numbered 34,*000 expositors, and afforded one-third more space. England, on her part, was not con* tent to be outdone by France, but again set to work,, and for the second time succeeded in attracting the attention and exciting the admiration of the public of the world by the Exposition in the Palace of Kensington .lu 1602. But this last industrial jubilee was not to be the last of the rivalry between France and England. On the contrary, it only gave rise to a resolution on the part of the Emperor Napoleon, to or ganize an universal concourse of Industry in the French Capital on the largest practicable scale, that would be a far more exact and comprehensive concentration ol the material achievements ofall nations, than any Expo sition yet held. The resolution was not only conceived, but carried ont In the grand pro portions that characterize most of the under takings of this bold and able monarch. A most stupendous work It was to erect the great Temple of Industry, that Is to be thrown open to the millions ol pilgrims from all quarters of the globe in the Ist proximo. And inhere were no other proofs of the great capacities of Napoleon 111., this mighty re sult of his creative power would alone suf. flee to convince the world that hU Is no or dioary mind. TUB lUI'EUML SCHEME. The flrst step taken towards the realize on of the Imperial scheme was the orcanl lion or an EiecnllTe Committee (Commislon lapmnl,) by an Imperial; decree pro nmleated on the let or February, led... The duty flrst devolving on It wss Uie seieelhmor a suitable locality for 111© Unhcml Exposition of 1607” within lb© confines of Paris, and the preparation of plans for the construction of the necessary edifices. The committee, which was com posed of the most eminent scientific and In dustrial authorities ofFrunce, after exhaust ing Investigations and protracted deliber. aliens, concluded to recommend to the Em peror to authorize the use of the Champ dc Marsi (Field of Mars), the historical scene of grand military reviews and national festivals for the purposes of the Erimsltlon. The committee’s selection was approved. As to the necessary edifices, the committee united In a recommendation that, not ©ermanent but temporary structures be erect’d. To this conclusion it was led by the experience of both the English and French Expositions, which taught that Exposition buildings could not be profitably used' after having served their original purpose. The keeping up of the “Palace of Industry,” erected In 1655, has preserved a fine ornament to Paris, but already Imposed a net loss of fifteen millions of francs (three millions of dollars) npon the Government. The progress of modern in dustry is so vast and rapid that an edifice, though sufficiently capacious for an Univer sal Exposition at the time being, cannot be exacted to be large enough for one that may be held a few years later. On this ground and that of economy, the committee considered It best to advise against the per manency of the Exposition buildings, and the Government accepted its conclusions. In order to attract the greatest possible number oi expositors from abroad the Gov eminent resolved, that no charge whatever should be made to expositors for occupation of space In the Exposition buildings, and that the whole expense of erecting the latter should be borne by France. The Corps Leg islating winter appropriated six millions of francs for this purpose. The municipal authorities of Paris voted an eqail amount out of the city treasury. In addition a private association of capitalists offered to contribute eight millions more on condition that the tight be conceded to It to collect the re ceipts for admission, until they had reached the amount advanced, with interest added. The offer being accepted, the work of con struction could bo commenced with a build, ing capital of twenty millions of francs or four millions of dollars. The main edifice was begun In the early part of last spring, a:,d the whole of the Immense, wonderful structure completed in just about sis months that is, between the months of April audXol vember. THE SITE. The Champ dc Mars is situated on and di rectly adjacent to the left or south bank of the Seine, In tbc extreme southwestern part ofthe city. Tbc ground Is naturally level, and forms a rectangle about three-eighths of a mile long and half that distance wide. Though in a remote part of the city, it is easy of access from all Its parts. In its vi cinity Is the Hotel des Invalldes, or Old Sol diera’ Rest, where the remains of Napoleon I. rest In a magnificent tomb. Immediately adjoining U is the famous “Ecolc Mllltaire.” The other surroundings are of a rather meaner order, being narrow, dirty streets, with insignificant buildings. The centre of the Champ do Mar* has also become t be cen tre of the vast and curious conglomerate of mnllirorm structures and Improvements of every kind that hove sprung up around It. TUB PLAN OF ORGANIZATION Beftre entering nponiho detailed descrip tion of tho marvels, architectural and other wise, on the Champ do Mars, that I propose to attempt, let mo sketch. In a few words, tho plsn of organisation adopted and pnr sued by the Imperial Commission. The fun damental idea underlying the Utter—tho “philosophy of the Universal Exposition of ISC7," It might be styled—ls to Instruct by comparison. Accordingly ibo means far nlshcd by the genius and Industry of the various nations ftr satisfying the multiform wants of the human kind, are to be brought out In the strongest possible relief and In their natural connection and to bo made to Illustrate by their arrangement In tbe Expo sition, tbe success lu particular branches of human activity, and through It the degree of civilisation attained both by tho race at largo and by par- Ucular members of the humen family For this purpose the CommUslon concclvl cii the happy expedient of arranclne the productions to bo exhibited accordion to the nature of the human srants they are intend ed tosrallfy. Itdertiodanumberol groups each of which Is to comprise the kindred productions of all countries relating to the same wants of man. Thus the simplest nal oral wants, such as food, clothing and habl tatlon, are each to mark separate groups, showing the kind of eating, clothing and dwelling houses used .by each of the nations represented. Again, the so-called highc aants of man, to the grullacatlon of which the highest order of mechanical skill and the various branches of art and literature are devoted, are to form the natural divis ions of a corrcspondlcg number of additional groups. It was anticipated that the multi tnde of productions to be thus placed In juxtaposition would be so great as to render a subdivision of the several groups necessary. This contingency was provided for In advance by dividing each group Into a number of classes like wise made up according to sameness of qnal- Hy. In addition to the task of devising this system of homogeneous groups, the Com mission set itself the difficult problem of combining it with a distinct division of the exhibited productions according to nation alltlos. To effect this combination required the highest Ingenuity. It was rendered practicable by the plan of construction adopted for the main edifice. It constitutes an entirely novel feature, not known In the preceding Universal Expositions, In which the arrangement of the exhibited articles ac cording to nationalities was alone observed This innovation will form one ol the chief merits of the coming Exposition. Inasmuch ns It will greatly facilitate both a general survey of the whole and a study of details. TUB DUILBIKO9. But to come now to my main tnbjcct—the Palace of Industry" with Its vast and di versified appurtenances, as It stands to day This treat monument of modern enterprise rises, as already stated, In the middle of the Champ dc-Jtars. It covers a space of no less than one hundred and forty-six thon. sand and dye hundred and elghty-el»ht trench square metres, or very nearly flirty acres of gronnd-abont twice the surface covered by the Crystal Palace of 1851. The extent of Its outer circumlerencc Is lust about one English mile. Its shape Is not as It Is commonly claimed, that of an ellipse or a circle. Its outlines consists o( two straight ’‘“f™ ‘l™, <>PP«slte sides, two hundred and sixty feet lon*, connected by two semi circumferences. Between the farthest points of the two latter Its width is sixteen nun -1 “Tcntsen feet long and between the two straight lines twelve hundred and thirty-live feet. The whole structure has but one floor, though the height of Us dlf tercet divisions ranges from forty to seventy live feet. It Is built entirely of Iron, with the exception of the floor and the divisions assigned to treasures of art and historical curlosrtlea. the walls of which are construct brick for greater security’s sake, lalfibt for the whole Immense interior Is provided by the glass roofs that cover every part of the edifice. 3 INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT OP THE PALACE OP txDusxnr. pie Interior arrangement ol the Palace la this: In the middle there is a vacant, ellip- Ucal, uncovered space, some five hundred and fifty feet long and two hundred feet wide, which has been transformed Into a garden, adorned with flower beds, swardy spots, fountains and stat hes, and surrounded by a portico and richly decorated colonnade. Here vis itors can rest and get a breath of fresh air in passing from one side of the building to another. From this central por tion four grand passages radiate equidls tantly, and run In straight lines through and beyond the Palace, dividing It into four grand sections of equal dimensions. Be tween each of these four grand passages three smaller ones radiate from the garden to the periphery. The width of the grand passages Is from thirty to forty feet; that of the smaller uniformly fifteen. Each of the sixteen outlets has been given a separate name. Parallel both to the 1 garden and the outer periphery of the build ing and excentnc to the one and concentric to the other, run, at equal distances from each other, six galleries, intersecting or rither Intersected by each of the radial passage ways. These circular galleries the Commission have designated as avenues and severally named as such. Whlie the radial ways produce sixteen divisions resembling In form, to use a trite comparison, the slices of a pic, the galleries divide each of these di visions again into t-lx parts. Both together thus divide the edifice into ninety-six sec tlonsor compartments. ! WUh the rpace of the Interior of the pal ace thus divided, the realization of the plan of the Commission to unite all kindred pro ductions in certain groups and classes, and at the same time keep them aggregated by na tionalities, was rendered practicable. While the radial ways will serve to keep apart the productions of the several nations, the galleries afford the means of arranging them according to their mutual relations of quality. A visitor entering any of the gal leries and making the round of It, will be hold the articles relating to the same brand* oflndustry, contributed by the producers of all the natlous rcprcaculed, all lu one con tinuous row. He will find, for instance, all the textile fabrics contributed by the manu fucturcrs of England, France, Germany and all other countries displayed In close con tiguity to each other, so that a walk around the gallery will disclose to him everything on exhibition in this branch. And so with all other productions. In taking, on the other hand, any of the radial ways and fol lowing It to the Inner or outer periphery he will be able to view the whole of the pro ductions of every kind contributed by a sin gle nation. Tirr. DIPFEKRXT OROUP3. According to the regulations of the Com* mission, six croupe, of kindred productions are to Do formed In the galleries of ttic main building. The gallery nearest to the ecn r ** 10 Ixl occa Pied by prodnctlons ortho fine arte, onch aa modern palatines In oiland water, cartons, and drawings gene ■ ally, paintings on glass and porcelain; modem scnlptnral works, statues, has reliefs, medals, and cameos, architectural designs and engravings. The next gallery Is to be devoted to the trades and to include the productions of the printing olllcc and publishing trade; of bookbinders and manufacturers of paper and writing material generally; of the decorative arts'• of photography, as well as to musical ln stinments; the mechanical appliances used In medical science; mathematical and astronomical instruments ; moneys, weights and measures, besides scholastic apparatus and utensils for Instruction in geography natnral philosophy, mathematics, and the discipline of mind generally. In the third gallery all articles pertaining to house-fur nishing, both necessaries and luxuries, will be arrayed, including furniture, upholstery, tapestry, kitchen utensils and the table, as well as clocks and other bronzes, fancy ornaments, together with the appll ances for heating, lighting, airing, washing bathing and other household psrlormancea! The fourth gallery is assigned for the display oi the ditferent varieties of wearing apparel and all articles of personal use. This group will comprise fabrics of every description of cotton, tlsx, wool and silk, worked up Into clothing as worn by the young and old of both sexes, and besides shawls, laces em broideries, Jewelry and hair work. In’addi tion to these it wiU contain all kinds of arti cles for purposes of travel, hunting and fish ing. Every variety of game and firearms will also be represented In It. In the fifth group and gallery the raw material will he exhibited. It will comprise metals and min erals In general, with some crude produc tions therefrom, together with chemical ele moms, drugs, and the products of the forest in the form of timber for vari ous purposes, as well as the contrlhu lions of Lnuters, fishermen and sailors to the mass of material fashioned by indns try into articles of use and consumption, such as furs, fish oil and bones and the like The same group will contain raw cotton, hemp flax, wool and silk, vegetable oils, tobacco grain, hay and other agricultural products used for feeding domestic animals. The sixth group and gallery—the last within the walls of the palace—is intended for the exhibition of every variety of mechanical appliances used in the different manufactures, including the machinery worked by steam. It Is bv ISr the largest of the six galleries, being no less than a hundred and twelve feet wide and seventy-five fee: high and a mile In extent Ttithln a sort of elevated walk has been erected for the benefit of the public. It ruts on Iron pillars, fifteen feet loom the ground In the middle of the gallery, and follows lu entire length. From It the slght-seers win be able to see the wonders of a world of ma chinery underneath with entire sslcty and to' the greatest advantage. Resting against the enter wall, bnt out side ol the edifice proper, there Is a seventh group, in a corridor under a kind of arcade which Is Intended to illustrate the different species of solid and liquid food used bv nan It wm comprise the various cereal, aud a “i the other products of the farm and garden iron, every put of the globe, thst form p„; ol the human substance. Both vegetable snd animal food, as well as wines, him "J liqui rs, are to be represented. It will in c udo. also, all condiments, teas, coffees' chocolate, sugars in every Ibrm, prea. fruits and vegetables, preserves-in short everything serving to satiety thc.ppcHie or simply tickle the palate. In th c t .“ : group the modes of preparing food, followed by the leading nations, are also to be near tlcally Illustrated. For this purpose a great number of restaurants will bo opened under the auspices of experts, representing various nationalities, which will offer tbs best possible opportunities for profound and extensive gaattonomlcal studies and com- ptrlsons of tlie relative excellences ol na tional “ cuisines.” It was certainly a hap py Idea, In keeping with the universal char acter of the Exposition, to enable the Englishmen to dine a VAnglaise, the German a VaUcmande, the American on ‘'pork andbeans,” pumpkln-plesandlike Yankee delicacies, and’every other visitor of whatever nationality according to his liking. These restaurants are distributed all arouod the buildings In the ontcrgallery referred to, and tap-rooms so Interspersed with them, that the weary sight seers cannot possibly find themselves at a loss where to rest their limbs, and at the same time satisfy their banger and quench their thirst. They open upon a roofed promenade, sixteen feet In width, that also stretches all aronnd the place. All the radiate ways lead to It, and to the grounds and buUdlngssnrroundiag the Palace on all sides. The four ground radial passages, above described, extend beyond the periphery of the main building and through Its immediate surroundings to the outer en closure of the Exhibition, where they [ter minate in fonr grand gates, through which the great tide of visitors will pour Into the palace. The largest of these entrances Is that on the western side. Ills to be the “en trance of honor.” It Is close to the bank of the Seine, facing the Jena bridge. The gate itself wHI bo a sort of triumphal arch, emblemati cal of the victories of the arts of peace, and or rameuted In the richest style. Through it one will pass Into a grand vestibule, eighty feet wide, extending to the periphery of the Palace. All princely personages and other distinguished ex officio visitors, will pass through the “entrance of honor.” The other three gates—the lour together corre sponding exactly to the extremities of the great and small axes of the Palace will be likewise finished in fine style, bat not so elaborately decorated as the first mentioned. Their vestibules will also have smaller pro portions. THE EXTERIOR, The exterior of the palace, with its regular streets, avenues, uniform divisions of space, and public square in the centre, may well be likened to a miniature modern city. The comparison will become, of course, more apropot when the vast interior will be filled with the evidence of human genius and the riches of nature teem from morning till even ing, with myriads of visitors from all parts of both hemispheres. Theslmilesecms Justl* fled not only by the wonders, created for the purposes of the Exposition on the

surface of the Champ de Mars, but also by the extraoidlnary amount of work done un derneath it. For under the Palace proper there is a vast subterranean system of vaults cellars, canals, sewers and air, gas and water pipes, extensive enough for any second-class city, the contemplation of which, If practi cable, would astonish the beholders hardly less than the small world above It. THE COUP D’tEIL. Taking it as a whole, the effect prodnead .by the palace Is rather Imposing by the mas slrencss than pleasing to the eye by the gracefulness of its proportions. The archi tectural characteristics of the several build iugs, used for the expositions of 1551,1855 acd ISC2, seem to warrant the theory that t‘je steady growth of the dimensions of Uni vcrsal Expositions has been accompanied by a steady diminution of the attractiveness of the form of the edifice erected to contain them. The first and smallest of these the fairy Palace of ISSI, was a model of architectural beauty. The Palace d’lndns trie, of 1855, was already a decided deteriora i °?.V.P e brlck Palace of tbe last London Exhibition marked another step backward. Lastly, the stupendous structure on the Champ de Mars, while astonishing by Us hugeness, is entirely destltnte of beanty of form. Viewed as a whole, the main edifice presents the appearance of an enormous gas ©metre on the largest conceivable scale miniature copies of which can be found In any gas factory In the United States. The dark-reddish color, with which the iron frame of the building has been painted throughout, strengthens this Impression. A bird’s eye view makes the immense undo lating glass roof appear like a wildly agitat ed Jake, shut up within the basio of the outer gallery, the upper portion of which, rising as it docs some thirty feet above the rest of the building, looks like a huge, surrounding wall, tossed against by unruly waves. PROGRESS OP TUB WORK. As mentioned before, the Palace of the Champ do Stars had as early as November Inst reached the point of completion at which the Imperial Commission had deter mined to tnrn the work over to the exposi tors. The French Government had un dertaken only to construct the foundation and frame, that Is the subterranean appur tenances, the main walls, floors, and roofs of the building. The completion of the In terior was to he accomplished according to the judgment and at the expense of the ex hihlting cations, which could flx up the space assigned to them, for their respective purposes os they liked, restricted only by the required compliance with the reglemont of the Commission. Accordingly, the work In the Interior during the winter progressed under the auspices of the special commls blons delegated by the several countries. The partitions, ceilings, show-eases, tables and other requisites for the display of the various productions, together with the or nnmentnlinns adopted for the different de partments ol the different nationalities, were nearly all flnlahed when I last visited the Palace, and there can be no doubt, that, with tbe exception of the machinery, the putting up of which had hardly commenced, every thing to be exhibited In the Interior of the building will he In Its proper place on the day ot the Inauguration. TUB ALLOTMENT OP SPACE. It IS but Datum! that the nation, in whoso country aud capital and at whoso principal cxpvDse the great International enterprise Is to take place, should claim the largest por tion of the space lu the main building. But, tieverthulens, it can hardly be considered just and fair that the French expositors should be permitted to occupy only one thirty-second part less than onc-half of all the available space. Yet such is the case. All that part ofthe Palace cast of the Cen tral Garden, with the exception of two nar row strips assigned to Belgium and Holland will be monopolised by the productions of France, and French Industry is thus enabled to make the greatest quantitative display. The country most favored, next to France, Is Great Britain, which will occupy nearly one-clghth of the building. Germany has the next largest 6] ace. In regard to all other countries, the rule seems to have been followed to assign space to them, not according to the rank they hold In the industrial world, but in proportion of the distance they are removed from the place ol exposition, and this, no doubt, on the ground that the difficulty and cost of transportation would limit their par ticlpatlon in the measure of their respective remoteness. Under this rule, the United States have fared very badly, having been al lowed no more, than one forty-eighth part of the space, which will give them no more ex hibition room than would be afforded by one of the large public halls of Chicago. It can not, therefore, be expected that the great Trans-Atlantic Republic, whose Industrial triumphs are relatively as great, If not great er, than those of any other nation, will be very worthily represented. Any Slate Fair at home can give a better idea of American Industry aud agriculture than will, in all piobabHily, be conveyed by the American department on the Champ de Man. It seems certainly absurd, and looks almost con temptuous, that the United States should be no more favored than some of the third class States of Europe. INCIDENTAL ATTRACTIONS. With the foregoing sketch of the form, di mensions, economy of space and prospective cements of the great temple of industry on the Champ de Mars, I hare by no means described all the attractions of the coming Universal Exposition. For tho Palace will be surrounded by an outside exhibition. greater in extent and as Interesting and in structive as that within its walls. The total area of the Champ de Mara Is five hundred thousand French square metres or about one hundred aud thirty acres. Of this surface the Palace as already stated, occupies a cen tral portion of about forty acres. All the cround is likewise devoted to the purposes of the Exposition, and Is undergoing trans formation into one of the most remarkable creations or rather combination of creations ever conceived by the human mind. The vis itor to the ground will as yet perceive but a chaotic mass of things to be. He will ob «rve buildings ot the most variegated character in a more or less advanced state of erection. Including Curistlan churches, pagan temples, engine-houses, models of school-houses, workshops, and dwellings of every description, from the palatial abodes of occidental and oriental potentates down to the simple habitations of the mechanics and peasantry of almost every European nation. He will sec a large light house arising from a foundation of artificial rock lu the midst of an as jet dry Ukc. He will discover long rows ol shops and stables that are to contain respectively vast collec tives of agricultural Implements, for which room could not be found in the south group above described, and for the domestic anl mals of every species to be exhibited. He will find an embryo horticultural exhibition that will comprise useful and ornamental plants from every portion ol the clol-e. Ho will come across immense hothouses, sqnarla, stalactite and other grottoes, pagodas, a variety of summer houses, fountains, and cascades. He will be able to trace an artificial rivulet, that Is to meander through the whole ground and supply water wherever It will be needed. He can follow circular walks and drives for miles. He can watch the transfer of hun dreds of mlly developed trees to the ground, that will soon servo to (orm shaded avennes. lie will see hundreds of men tt work planting ahrnbhcry and preparing awards and flower-beds, and he will come to Ue conclusion, that the outside exhibition will bo as attractive as that inside of the Palace. The Commission has designated these described surroundings ol the main building as the “ Park.” But as I have abown.lt is rather a mixture of park and garden ; of town and country ; and of art and nature. Lest this letter may become too long and wearisome to your readers. I have confined myself to this general sketch of the “Park.” A full enumeration and description of its dl* versified features I shall give m my next. To judge from the very incomplete state in which it still is at this hour, the first of Acril will hardly find it la a finished con dition. extravagance. A Woman’s Protest Against the Tices of Fashionable Society* Chicago, April 6. To the Editor of the Chicago Tribune: Scarce a week passes by that we do not have a chance to read In some magazine or newspaper something In regard to the pres ent style of dress and living of the ladies. Some hold the subject up In a financial light, others In a religions one, while others still strive by ridicule to stem the tide of fashion ; In witness whereof, notice the late raid on ehignon* % and the terrible picture held up for ladies to gaze upon. The two first arc worthy of consideration. Inasmuch as they each bear vitally upon the subject; neither ought they to be entirely separated while under consideration, for they are too closely allied to bear such separation. Financial and religious interests twine and intertwine, and in separating we weaken both. Men devoted to business entirely look aghast at the record, as It is presented from time to time, of the present-day style of Ur ine, and ask, in astonishment and wonder, “WhatwiU the end of all this bo?” An other class of men, business men likewise, but the firm religious element pervading their hearts, with their minds and souls ac tively employed In trying to benefit their fellow-men, look with horror on the fearful inroads of fashion, cxiravaiianco and folly of the people, and, with pain at heart, ask again and again “WhatwiU the end bo?” It is a question to make the stoutest heart tremble; It Is enough to make every woman in the land seriously ponder her ways. Alas, of what possible use is it to write and talk and lecture upon this subject, until words take a more tangible form ? How much has the evil abated during the post year, and how many can bo found to day who will fay, ‘*l was convinced by this or that lectnre, by this or that article, that it is true that we are ruining our country and our soula also, and I, for one, will set my face against the cvU?” I ask, how many could be found who would truthfully and candidly say that they had been influenced by anything they had read or heard spoken, to retrench their expenses and live in plainer style? When this snbject is looked at iu its true light it Is enough to make one sick at heart. Aye, more—it is enough to make one sick of humanity. But just emerged from a sea of blood through which we struggled for four long years, and in which perished so many of our noble brothers, we, their wives, their daugh ters and sisters, seemingly forgetful of The sacrifice we ourselves made, pollute the al tar of our country, still warm with the smouldering ashes of the costly offering, by laying thereon the gaudy trappings and foolish vanities of a fa*Monable life! Fashionable life! Those two words express nothing that is noble, pure, unselfish or good, but, on the contrary, envy, Jealousy, discord and hatred arc Inscribed on Its ban ner. And under this banner a large majority of our women enlist, and fight the battles of fashionable life as long as wealth lasts, and then retire to give place to those who have been impatiently waiting for a chance upon the stage. And so the play goes on. Months and years go by, and still the butterflies fiit bitherand thither, decorated and bedaubed while now and then is beard the crv. What will the end he? But not alone In this whirlpool of destruc tion do they plunge. Flitting abont a fash ionable woman may bo teen little somethings —called by way of convenience, men, but In reality a long remove from that title—who know jnst enough to smile, and flatter, and admire, to pick np a handkerchief or adjust a shawl. The most pitiable of all pitiable objects on the face of the earth. Is such a creature, and one which no sensible woman would ever think of marrying. Diverging? Not at all, fora fashionable woman is so closely connected In brain* with the above named species of the mascnlioe gender that you can’t think of one without thinking of the other. What wonder is It that one grows sick at bean ? You need go but to one fashionable party or gathering to have painted on the tablet of your memory forever the sicken ing scene. And what will the end be? I ecu written, as with the flnucre of a man’s hand, upon the wall, destruction, desolation ruln/orevtr I That Is the answer. But Is there no remedy ? Is there not something that will check this tide of sin and fully, and bring our people back to their senses ? Where is common sense ? Will that teach us anything ? Yes; bnt we reftise to learn. Will financial ruin throughout the length and breadth of our country be the only lesson we will heed ? Then welcome bankmplcy ! Must the angel of death go through the land breathing upon ns the poisonous breath of the pestilence until there shall be one dead in every house, be fore we heed the warning ? Then fly, thou rider on the pale horse, and do thy mission I This Is uo idle talk, no time *- r u , cleM p.»y. We may put olf the day of reform-., 1100 one day too long. And now to tlio noble men and noble women among u, w i lQ have not bowed down to the goddew of fashion, wbo will not stain tbo aoula that are wltbln them by being leas than noble— lo yon I aay, stand cloae together, and keep the enemy from breaking through your ranks. It behooves every one who feels and knowd hif duly to gird on Lis armor and prepare for aggressive warfare, Who will do It? The evil will never be cured by quietly talking about it; but by vigorous blows dealt by acts, as well as words. There is no use of compromising the matter. If Christian men and women cannot see to-day the evils grow ing out of such a conformlte to fashion then they never will, and the only way is to strike telling blows, regardless of whom they hit, so that they hit where they are needed. Fashionable society is rotten to tho core* and, though the outaidemay be painted ever so beautiful, like the apples of Sodom, they who taste will most truly find the ashes. Let every woman whose eye may chance to fell upon this, think of these things. On you devolve the rc-maklngand remodelling of society; of placing it on higher and nobler ground, and of crushing at once and forever all advances toward tho present foolish and wicked mode of living. Will you do it ? ; Will you dare not to do it ? Mrs. F. S. R. B&Atlit’s “Sophism* of the Protective Policy.” CHAPTER 111.—EFFORT—RESULT. ]TRANSLATED FROST TUB FRENCH OF PR. BAS TIAT.] We have seen that between ourwantsand their gratification many obstacles are Interposed. We conquer or weaken these by the employment of our faculties. It may be said, In general terms, that meuttry is an effort followed by a result. But by what do we measure our well-being? By ibe result of onr effort, or by the effort Itself* There exists always a proportion between toe ef fort employed and the result obtained. Does pro gress consist in the relative increase of the second, or of the first term of this proportion? Both proportions bate been snsttined, and in political economy opinions are divided between them. According to the first system, riches are the result of labor. They Increase In the same ratio as *he remit does to the effort. Absolute perfec tion, of which God Is the type, consists in the In finite distance between these two terms In this relation, rlx., effort, none; result. Infinite, Ihe second system maintains that It Is the ef fort Jlseii which forms the measure of, and con stituteaour riches. Progression Is the Increase of ihe .proportion of the effort to the remit. Its Weal extreme may be represented by the eternal ar.d fraiileae efforts of Sisyphus.* The first system tends natmliy to the en couragement of everything which diminishes dif ficuihee, and augment* riches—as powerful ma chinery. which adds to the strength of mao; the exchange of nrodnee, which allows ns to profit by the various nilnral agents distributed in dif ferent degrees over tho surface of onr globe; the intellect which discovers, experience which proves, and emulation which excites. The second as logically Inclines to everything which can augment the difllcalty and diminish the product; as privi- leges, monopolies, restrictions, prohibitions, sup pression of machinery', sterility, etc. It is well to remark here that the nnlversal prac tice of men Is always guided by the principle ol the first system. Every man iu hts private capacity, whether agriculturist, manufacturer, merchant, soldier, writer, or philosopher, devotes the strength ofhis Intellect to do better, to do more quickly, more economically—ln a word, to do more with tea. The opposite doebine is In use with theorists, deputies, editors, statesmen, ministers, men whose bnaihesi Is to make experiment* upon eoclrty. And even of these we say observe, that is what personally cotcern* ib«msclrcs, they act like everybody else, upon the principle of obtaining from their labor the greatest possible quantity cl useful result*. 11 may be supposed that 1 exaggerate, and that there are no true hlsyphlats. 1 grant that in practice the principle is not poshed to it* extremes! consequence*. And this tmisi alwtri be the case when one starts upon a wreig principle, because tbe absurd aad injuri ous results to which It leads, cannot but check it in Its progress. For this reason, practical Indus try never can admit of AsypAlfm. The error ta too quickly followed by It* punishment to remain concealed. But la the speculative Industry of According to Grecian mjtbolefT. Slaypbot was condemned by tbs gods to roll a Urge alone to the lop of a bub mcoauin, but each UmeUiithe approached tee tumult It eluded bla grasp and west back to tbs botu.m. We win, therefore, for the taka of con cuvneia. dnlfnate this spates under the term ShypMm, theorists and statesmen, a false principle may bo lor a long time followed op, before tbc complies* tlonofits consequences, only half understood, can prove Its fulfil y; and even when all la re* vtaled, JnstiflcaUoD la sonebt la the incompara bly absnrd modern axiom, that la political econ omy there la no principle uniter sally troc. Let oa see, then. If the two opposite principles I have laid down oo not predominate, each in It* tarn; tire one in practical industry, the other m industrial legislation. i I have already quoted some words of M. Bn seana, bat we mast look apon If. Bageand la *wo separate characters—the agricnltnrlst and the legislator. As an agriculturist; 1L Bngeaud makes every cfloit to attain the double object of sparing labor and obtaining bread cheap. When be prefers a food plow to a bid one; when be improve* the quality of hia manures; when, to loosen hi* soil, be substitutes as much aa possible the action of ihe atmosphere ,ior that of the hoe or the bar row ; when be calls to his aid every Improvement that science andexperfence have revealed, bo has, and can have, but one object, nr. to dlmtmril the proportion of tin effort to the remit. We have, indeed, no other means of Judging of the success of an agriculturist, or of the merits of bis system, but by observing how far be has suc ceeded in lessening the one while be increases the other; and as all Ibo farmers In the world act upon this principle, we may aiy that all mankind are Miking, no doubt for their own advantage, to ob tain at the lowest price, bread, or whatever other article or produce they may need, always dimin ishing the effort necessary for obtaining any | given quantity thereof. I This incoutestlble tendency of human nature, j once proved, would, one might suppose, be suffi cient to point out the true principle to the legis lator, and to show him how be ought to aaslat in dustry (if. indeed, ft fa any part of bla business to assist it at all), for It would be absurd Co say that the laws of men should operate In an oppo site direction from those of Providence. - Yet we have beard U. Bngeaud, to bis character of Deputy, exclaim: »‘I do not understand this theory of chcapcesa; 1 would rather see things dear, and labor more abundant." And, conse quently, the Deputy from Dordogne votes In favor of legislative measures whose effect Is to shackle and Impede commerce, precisely because by so doing we are prevented from procuring indirect ly, and at low price, what direct production can only furnish more expensively. Non If Is very evident that the system of Sf. Bopcaud the Deputy, is directly opposed to that ofil. bugcaud the agriculturist. Were be con sistent with himself, he would, as legislator, vote spslnst all restriction; or else, aa farmer, be would practice in his fields Ihc same principle which be piodalms In ihe public councils. We would then see him sowing his grain in hia most sterile fields, because he would thus succeed In laboring much to cltaln little. We would see him forbidding •he use of the plow, became he could, by scratch ing up the soil with bis nails, fully gratify his double «isb of “ dear bread and abundant labor." Eegtnctlon has for its avowed object, and ac knowledged effect, the augmentation of labor. And again, equally avowed and acknowledged, its object and effect are, the Increase of prices; a synonymous term for scarcity of produce. Pushed then to lie greatest extreme. U Is pure SUynhiem, as we have defined it; lot or incite : remit nothing. baron Charles Dupln, who Is looked upon a* the made of Ihe peerage In tho science of ooliti cai economy, accuses railroads of injuring ehip. jiinij f and It fa certainly true that the.most per fect means of attaining an object must always limit the use of a less perfect means. But rail ways can only lojir.e shioplug hy drawing trom It articles of transportation; this they can only do hr tiansportlngmorc cheaply; and they can only trassport more cheaply by dimlnithinu the pro portion cf the effort employed to tht remit ob tained; for Ills In this that cheapness consists. When, therefore, Baron Duplu laments the dimi nution of labor In attaining a given result, ht maintains the doctrine of SteypMem. Logically, if he prefers the vessel to the railway, he should also prefer the wagon to the vessel, the pack-ead dlc to the wagon, and the wallet to the pack-sad dle ; lor this is, of all known means of transporta tion. Ihc one which requires the greatest amount of labor, iu proportion to tho result obtained. ? " labor coEsllintca the riches of the people," said it. do tialnt Cricq, a minister who has laid nota few shackles upon our commerce, ihls was no elliptical expression, meaning that the results of labor consulate the riches of the peo ple." No—tble statesman intended fo say, that it Is tne Intensify oi lab'jr, which measures riches; and the proof of ibis Is. that from step to step, from restriction to restriction, he forced on Prance > land In so doing believed that be was doing well,) to give to the procuring, of, for Instance, a certain quantity oi lion, double the necessary labor. In i England, Iron was thenat eight francs: in France It cost sixteen. Supposing the day’s work to he worth one franc, it Is evident that France could, by barter, procure a quintal of iron by eight days’ labor taken from tho labor of the na tion. Thanks to ihe restrictive measures of 11. de t'amt Crtcq, sixteen days* work were necessary to procure It, by direct production. Here then we have double labor for an Identical resnlt; there fore double riches; and riches measured not by Ihe re-nit but by the Intensity of l.bor. Is not this pure and unadulterated Sisyphitml That ibore may bo nothing equivocal, the min cer cameo his idea still farther, and on the same Principle that we have heard him call the intensity of labor, rlches % wo will find him catling the abundant result* of labor, and the plenty ol every thing proper lo the satisfying ol onr wants, por eriy, “Everywhere,’’ be remarks, ‘‘machitrry has pushed aside manual labor; everywhere pro duction Is i-npe/abnndam; everywhere tbc equi librium la destroyed between the power of pro duction and that of consumption." llere, then we sec ibal, according to M. do Saint v.rlcq, If Prance was in a critical situation. It was because her productions were too abundant; there was 100 much intelligence, too much efficiency in her national labor. We were too well fed, too well clothed, 100 well supplied with everything; tho rapid production was more than sufficient for cur warts. It was necessary lo put an end to (bis calamity, and therefore it became needful to force ns, by restrictions, to woik more, In order to oh lam less. I also touched upon an opinion expressed by another minister of commerce, M. d’Argoul which is worthy of being a little more clorely looked into. Wishing to give a death-blow to the beet, be said: "Tbocnltnre of tho beet is no donbtcdly useful, ftuf Mia tuefulnett iettml'ed. It m mt capable of the prodigious development* which have been predicted of it. To be convinced of ibis, 11 is enough lo remark that the culuva lion of It must necessarily be confined wllbiu (ho f oo,n, spUoa. Double, treble, If you ’ ' present consumption of France, sod vow mil etlllfihd that a very email portion of far toll mil office for this contump(ton. fTralv a most singular cause of complaint lj Do yon wish the proof of this? Uow many hectares were planted with beets in the year IW ? 3,130, which Is J-itbiOihof onr cultivable soil. Dow (many are there at this time, when onr domestic sugar supplies ono-tbird of tne consumption of (be country? 10,700 hectares, or MDTsth oftbeculti -1 vabk soli, or 15 ccmiarles, for each commune. Suppose that oar domestic sugar should monopo lize tbc snppiy ol the whole consumption, we still would have but 49,000 hectares or i-ffifth of our cultivable soil In beets." There are two things to consider in this quota tion—the facts ana (he doctrine. Tho facta go to p.ove that very little soil, capital and labor, would be necessary for the production of a large quantity ot sugar; and (bat each commune of Prance would be abundantly provided with It by giving np one hectare to ita cultivation. The pe caliarlly of the doctrine consists in the looking npon this facility of production as an nniortnnste circumstance, auff the regarding Ihe very frontal nesa of this new branch of industry aa a limValion to i'a uttfulnets. It Is not my purpose hereto constitute my*elf the defender of the beet, or (be judge of the sin gular facts stated by M. d’Argont; but It is worth the trouble of examining into the doctrines of a statesman, to whose judgment France has for a long time confided the prosperityot her agricul ture and her commerce. 1 began by anylrg that a variable proportion exists, In all industrial pursuits, between the ef fort and the resnlt. Absolute imperfection cou sins in an Infinite effort, without any result; ab solute perfection In au unlimited result without any effort; andperiectablllly. In the progressive diminution ofibe effort compared to the resnlt. But Jl. d’Argont tells ns. that where we looted for life, we shall find only death. The Importance ofany objectof industry Is, according to him. In direct proportion with its feebleness. What, tor Instance, can we expect from the beet? Do yon not see that 48,000 hectares of land, with capital acd labor la proportion, will suffice to furnish tngarto all France? Ills then an objector llm- Ited ueefulnete ; limited, be it understood, in the work which It calls for; and this Is the sole meas ure, according to our minister, of the usefulness ol any pursuit. This usefulness would be much more limited stiff, If, thanks to the fertility of the soil, or the richness of tne beet, twcotr-fonr thousand hectares would serve Instead of the for t)-elght thousand, if there were only needed twenty times, a bandied times more soil, sore capital, more labor to attain the tame remit— oil! then come hope* might be Toothed upon this article olfadnstij; it would be worth/ or the encouragement of (be State, for It would open e vaet field to national labor. Bot to produce moch with little Is a bad example, and the laws ought to *et things to right*. What la truth with regard to eucar, cannot be false with regard to bread. If, therefore, the nse faints* of an object of Industry Is to be calculated, not by the comlorts which It can farm*h with a certain quantum of labor, baton the contrary, by the Increase of labor which It requires In order to famish a certain quantity of comforts, It la evident that we ought to desire, that each acre of land should produce little com, and that each grain of com should furnish little nutriment; fa other words, that our territory should be sterile enough to require a considerably larger portion of soil, capital, and labor to nourish it* population Ibe demand for bnman labor could not fall fa be fa direct propcrUon to this sterility, and then truly would the wishes of Messrs. Bogeaud, Saint Criccj, Dnpfa, and d’Argont, be satisfied; bread would be dear, work abundant, and France would ’ be rich—tlch according to the understanding of these gentlemen. All that we could have farther to hope far, would be that human Intellect might sink and be* come extinct; for, while Intellect exists, It can* not but seek continually to In setae the propor tion rf fheer.d to ttit meant; of fht product to fit* tabor. Indeed, it I* fa this continuous effort, and fa this alone, that Intellect consists. Sitypkitm has then been the doctrine of all those who have been entrusted with* the regula tion of the itdostry of our country. it would not be Just to reproach them with this; for thu prin ciple becomes that of our ministry, only because It prevails fa the Chambers; it prevails In the Clambers, only bccaoso It 1* scut there by the electoral body; and the electoral body Is indued with It, only because public opinion Is filled with it. U: me repeat here, that I do not secure such men ;s Wests. Encrnud, Dnpln, etc., of burnt absolute!} and alwaja il.pp.luu. Vet/ certatall thej are cot aucbln tbelr personal tran-actlons ttu tettsuolr csch one or them will procure foj UiMelf by barter, wbat bj direct prodvettan would be attainable onlj at a blither price. But X maintain that tbcjr are SUrpblsta wbon Ibor Jlfnc'lple? "° m ANlC, iDiansciron.-In a cate tried recenllr fa * cw \ork where a married woman sued a rail resulting from an ia b " ,b ii a ' ' ,ho **' WIUI W* wife at tie Umc or tic acctdcot, waa allowed to testltr Kl. UIU WM oMrni >«<i He Court dccld -1 cf tb,t sl,, ° ® b "' l! admitted s *° bl * °’ m '■'"•lt. did not permit Urn to teatti}tnbtbairorhia wife. EUROPE. The Hntterings of War. Critical State of Affairs on the Continent. Prussia's Secret Treaties and Beal Designs. Napoleon Menaced by Forty Mi lions of United Germans. Political Agitation in Paris, Berlin and Vienna. EFFECT OF THE PRUSSIAN SECRET TREATIES— FEELING IN FRANCE AND AUSTRIA —NAPO- IEON IN THE FACE OF FORTT MILLIONS OF UNITED GERMANS. (Prom tho Paris Temps, March 22.] There is longer a south and north la Germany. We are no longer In the face of a Prussia ofai.O*), oo° of people, but 0f40,000,- uuo until. In the course of events, thev be come 50,000,000. And that there may be no mistake as to the military character of this powerful agglomeration, that there may re mum no doubt that It is entirely in the bands of M. dei BUmark and his royal mas ter, we learn that an amendment having for Us object the security of the fundamental liberties of the German people. esDcciullv the freedom of the press and iLe right of public meeting, was yesterday rejected bv the Parliament of the North. It only ri mains now for the King of Prussia to gel the Imperial Crown decreed to him, and to Invite the Austrian Germans to take their seats in tho Gorman Parliament. This will be tho crowning of the edifice. niSMARK’s REPLY TO M. ROUQER’S SIXBECIZ— INCITEMENT IN PARIS. (.Pans (March 42; Correspondence of tho London t. . . Times.! It is useless to deny that the disclosures made by M. BUmark in the Parliament of the new Conlcdepatlon. on the union of Northern and Southern Germany, and of tho alliance, offensive and defensive, without conditions ; in other words, of the subordi nation of the smaller German States to the direction of the Gorlin Cabinet—have pro duced us deep and general impression In Paris as they probably will throughout France Th a alliance is not recent. It dates from the conclusion of the war between the twocreat German Powers. The treaties whlchhave been ratified were, it veems, to have been kept profoundly secret; and it is a siguifi caut tact that the moment chosen by M. BUmark for divulging them was when the debate on tbe interpellation In tbe French Chamber was brought to a close. The parties to these treaties mutually guar antee the Integrity of their respective terri tories, and bind themselves, in case of war to place tbelr armies at the disposal of each other, so that the King of Prussia, on whom devolves tbe superior command, will hence forth have at his disposal the united forces of Bavaria and Saxony. These facts are I repeat, considered as of Immense Impor tance. There is no longer a Southern Ger many and a Northern Germany; no longer a Prussia with it),0)0.000 of population but with near 40.000,000, and likely to be more. German unity is a completed fact, in the teeth of M. Ronher, and Us ‘‘three distinct branches ” or troncons; and it was at the very moment that M. Ronher was demonstrating the Impossibility of the unltv that the Prus sian Minister answered him with facts which demolished all his reasoning. Had this news reached Paris while the debale was going on In the Legislative Corps the effect may be easily Imagined. No one would now be m hast surprised at hearing that the King I ofPrnsslaassumedwithout turtherdelay the Imperial Crown, and summoned the Ger- I mans of the Austrian Empire to come and i take their seats in the German Parliament, ion may judge of the mortification which thete events have caused here. It was lon~ agosafd that the Emperor had been dune 3 from the outset by M. BUmark: It Is now pretty clear that his diplomatic agents have been, w hat indeed was suspected, either very 11-lnfornmd or grossly deceived; for while the Southern stales were soliciting the friendly offices of France, and France was expressing herself us flattered by thesollcita tlon, and pleased at having contorrcd obli-a tiens on them, the same States were securing to Prussia tbe co-operation of the military orres. The treaty with Bavaria was signed i l **V m - B da >' wlli ch the French Minuter of I oreign Affaire was, with candid slmpllcl. i ty, enlargicg on the satisfactory effects ol I «.‘!. go ? d j lU £ e *‘^ ln f avor of tho Southern Statee, and the Munich O-izdtf accompanies | the Treaty with ironical compliments to £jim CO w r. er . ~anl3m* f orimlo,' a li tiw- “It is difficult,'’ observes a Paris journal, “not to | sec In tbU unexpected publication the answer o. I russiu to tbe i rerch interpellations; ami If at arnwr, it cannot be dtoeirMfL ft crwAmo \ jvr uur jioltcy.” ■* CRITICAL STATE OP AFFAIRS ON TIIE CONTI* NENT—PRUSSIA’:* URAL DESIGN—TUB M VSK THROWN OFF. slk [Frnia the Londoa Morning Post, March 23 I Ihc prospect of affaire on the Continent is not encouraging. A twelve-month since tho horizon was scarcely more overcast than it Uat this moment, and we know what the summer brought forth. With the conclnsloS 5 Austro-lrusslau war many were m- Si «h d ’»? l? llcvo lhal the settlement effected by the belligerents was fiual, ami that in be. ni B i r^? B °f Sorlhem Germany the ambition of Prussia was satisfied. The am parent readiness with whlca that PowSr stopped short in its victorious career, and i which It assented to the « D t^. r °wo out by France that tho lice of the Main should mark tho sunthern fSnJiSSS °Lk L .° Nortl,( -‘m Confederation, furnished what were supposed to be ample grounds for such a belief f ™ nce ;i J“ . capacity of S tor, stepped in between the com batants, and then, and since then, has con gratulated herself on tbe success with which ‘he persuaded I russia to temper tbe rl-oi of her demands with fitting moderation It now turns out, however. Wt, whilst tn pV,ffi. a S C n ?.> t .° ld, ‘ oß 6hort thQ Malu Vf '» “LV ulu * extending her frontiers Ju the Alps. Ihe secret treaties concluded between her and Gavnria and Baden, now mr the first time shown to have !:L ,^l‘ t ‘ la, ° JOflf8 smhllancously5 m hllan co usly with tho treaty ofNlkoUburg, Drove that everything either a nr € '.‘l, e vr 0 . 1 ’ 5 " Prusm » a respect to the line of the Main, was simply a blind to cover her real designs. The time, however has row cntim when Count BUmark con j ►lucre that the true position of Prussia In , Europe may conveniently bu disclosed, and persons have noticed, as a curious colncl der.ee. that this disclosure has been made Immediately olt*-r the rather remarkable de i’. a, . e which followed the lalcrpellation ofM. Ihicrein the Corps LeglslaUf. It was the uu ora of the old school of diplomatist* to \ ell their designs in the greatest sccresy, and never to afford tho slightest Inslghtlnto their policy until that veil had been tom away bv the liresistibletldeofevents. Count oisroaik has long since emancipated himself from the trammels and traditions of this school. He conceals his policy only so long as he deems it expedient to secure its suc cess, hot he invariably forestalls events bv openly proclaiming what It l# that he Intends »?i W A 6 which he adopt ed both in the Dano-Gcrman andthc Austro nMfiMn»Wars ’ ""'hllat it seemed still im l? PT, o *.*™* the of Europe by H«r*i d ,w dip A° t mac 7> Goun t Blsmark de- D °thlng less would satisfy Prns tlVfim 1 ?-* absolu te withdrawal oi Ant }J ,a if?? Ge ™any. Prussia aimed at being the mistress of a united Germany, and be forc a single shot was fired her leading candidly declared to Europe that such erobJect ; ow *K*ln a question him arisen respecting her views and her Inten pipnn Go ° n . t . Bisniark hastens to make a clean breast of it. The organ of the French Government havingpivea it to bo understood deba * e that the line of the mar A ed the southern frontier of that portion of Germany which acknowledges the supremacy of Prussia, Count BUmark hastens to correct so serious a misappre hension. The Elngof Prussia he points out S** «>™plcte a control over thearmles of nv < OVCI ‘ thos * Northern Germany. He Is, m fact, tbe UenenilUisimo of the forces ot all Germany, and in the war can dispose of’them as he thinks fit. The River Maine France and Europe generally are given to understand is slmpfy a geographical fact, and by itfeilVu ence and position no more affects the iolnt thnn th°Di rt s. ern and Southern Germany iml MWdteex 111 " that ofS^ n^ e .??vf 8i i m ? IIl) , lßterls * 00 d onbt, a be liever In the logic of accomplished facts and the P Whl™ p C tfCEties of alliance with tbn* K« i.nv ra p °wers, he probably thinks be ,wßl carry conviction to the mind of people from whom he has any reason to apprehend danger. It Is better that France shoald understand once for all isHHpMt. mftanltn f e . of the P oWer which has suddenly sprung into existence on her east aD« should abstain from what l^H ldb ® a Tain eftempt to prevent It estab- SSSSIf J tß «eccrity. It is thus that Count DLmarck reasons; and, whether his concln- ? 1 . &na correct or not, no one will deny to nim the ment of displaying great sagacity In thus frankly declaring what Is the true position of aff>lre. M. Ronher let fall In bis sptech. In reply to M. Thiers, the expression mat the western Powers would readily ally themselves to prevent the realization of any ambitions ftulies on tbe part of Prussia. Count Bismark has replied to the challenge almost as soon as uttered, by ayowing that Prussia »identical, not only with Northern but with Southern Germany, and by Irani!- cation inquires whether the virtual anoro. priation of aU Germany la one of those am billons follies, the realization of which Ene land and France are ready to spring to arms to prevent. Me fear the day Is gone by when states men can speak seriously of the balance of “'™^\n“^OMr y o dWMbed S, [he ere atlon of a State numbering some flflv mil Imv-- 06 ?c Whoin we may term the oat the StawS'? In matotetalDß S!ffSri? l,Br W ince of power, they ought In Inter poacd to prevent a gross vio lation of International law; It may lie In the recollection of our readers that we, although ntany alone, advocated the cause of Ben mark, and pointed out that the blow direct ed against her was In ftet levelled acnlnat every small State In Europe. It has been frequently urged, and nut without much plausibility, that the existence of a number or small States too insignificant to maintain their own Independence, *as a source of weakness In tbe general economy of Europe. But those who hi ldthis belief will probably feel that the existence of a Slate such as Prussia has now become will bo a source of still greater danger- It mar bo asked, will Franco acquiesce In this change? Prussia will reply to such a question by saying that she mnn acquiesce. And this Is tbe explana tion of the treaties with the Southern pow cts. Is the logic of accomplished facts so conclusive as to curry conviction to the mind* of Napoleon 111, aadhiTTiZ The events of tho present Tear win 3 **? lie «oawer to this qaealion. For , au i'Plj it most be admitted that the m favor of the realization of P« wildest hopes. or Pni asU , « THI GERMAN TREATIES The following I. tho text ol'tho concluded between Prussia and Parana 1 or I’rnatia and the King of Bavari/ 11^ Mfb rontractirg parties reciprocal* t,a ibo integrity of the territory ol th.lr contitiicr. and undertake, id cue of w,f e ?P*oi»e at their Diolnal disposal the whole or faty forces. lfle « tauj. Art. 3. The Kin? of Bmria has W.,.f the case In qnestloo the superior conS {l * troops to the King ofPnualt- mm,ud °flm . Abt .?♦.Ttehighconiraciln* parties keep this treaty provisionally src!e*« ecn ?eia Art. -I. The ratification of this iieltT pluceat the the same time a« ibatofreui p.ace cocclnded this day. tiiatla to ray on £ Tof of next month at latest. **7. on the Sc Done at Berlin, this Md day of Anen«t. is*? Siened by Count Bismark and Tlsny forPruEsla and by Boron de t ten and Baron de Bray Stembcr. ;,,. n 4 ‘ rla. The treaty concluded at fcrUn the Grand Dncby of Baden U ab>ol..T‘ k Identical, and la fumed by Count and 31. de freydort L,IM rS A TEBEIFIC EARTHQUAKE Over a Thousand Live* Lo*c-u ea «- rcndmg Scenes. {Mytelene (March C) correspondent, Lerant |f a . On Thursday, the f.th, the weather had been close and unwholctomclv hut • this Is generally the case w'ith the son?s wind, rriticb had been blowing nothin); was thought of it, least of atl wTI there any fear of what followed. Thunks volcanic, as is nroved by the numerate, in., springs, the island had not daring the nr-l! ent generation been visited by caitbunak.- It was now, however, to have a terrU)! - .IT.l’ rlencc of the phenomenon. About d o m « sharp shock, lasting some flfleen or el-’utem seconds .vibrated thronghont the towV bclorc the fact was well realized was follow ed by a second, longer and much more vio. ODe ; I happenad at the moment to hi down at the pier ol the Austrian Lloiifs agency, and neatly half a minute hefore'lhe shock was felt on shore saw the sea heave and foam ont In the port aa if a atm. marine explosion had taken place. Little time however, was lelt for surprise. In mnen less time than I take to write it the 1 i 1 i qu f' cn i a tbr ‘’ l 'g , ‘ the town, d > ll S e drunken men, whole blocks ol solid stone houses collapsed as it they had been cardhouses. Tneolßces of theagencr and nearly all the adjoining hnildlnas, m eluding the Cnstom House, the Light House plhce, end the large oil-mill, thus fell. Ud ill the town entire streets similarly crumb led, bnryirg their Inhabitants by bundreda in the ruins. The tine old castle, the cathe- Oral, the Governor’s konak. the prison, the mcsqne, and, I believe, all the cocsnlar residences, more or less yielded to the violence of the shock, and arc for toe most part mere tea pa of ruing. The very eoliditv with which the town was built Lae aggravated the disastrous effects of ihe calamity a hundredfold, both as regards the less of and destruction of prot-e.lv. The most complete rutn has fallen upon the low crpartol the town, where the earth liter, any opened and swallowed a broad belt of building right tip from the tea to the slope inland. At this point a permanent subsid ence of the ground has taken place, and the st ’ a has sccordlDply encroached lap Into "hat on Thursday afternoon was one of the busiest parts of Mytelene. In fact to sum up the disaster more than half of our beautiful town—the prettiest and most lively, perhaps, of all the Levant—is a desert of rums. The worst part of the calamity is of course, the Joes of life. As jet we can only guess at the extent of this; but it is thought that from 800 to 1,000 have per ishtd, while as many more have been SifS wounden In every way. Up till to-day bedka have, I hear, been dug put of the safer ruins: but bow many nmv be buried under others which are 100 dan gerous to be approached can only be surmjsed. Such of the houses as are still standing hare all been abandoned and the whole surviving ponu'atlon is now scattered over the Lill-sidcs and among the gardens outside the town— a few of them under such covers os thev have been able to improvise, and the rest bivouacking without shelter of any kind. Any attempt to describe the scene would b« useless. Hcart-rcddlng g k-f, panic and cou i fusion meet the eye on every side. Already the want of provisions is aggravating the dis tress, and only a speedy supply from Smyrna if a ca , I ; Ilfcl a \ urt ureat additional !*» of life, Une of the Austrian Lloyd’s steam ers, and a trench gunboat from Smvrna have landed a quantity ol biscuit and some other stores, but in all not perhaps more tbai. a day » food lor the place. It is earn, eatly to be hoped that the Pone will at once send down tents, biscuits and whaitver other stores can be quickest got together. But not the town of Mvtelcnc »r,t" ! . S , U,r T d i f,oni thls great calamity ; in it i U d •? n »v><l dcatlr throughout ~,ir bO vU, n ° S‘' rn r “ n of •he iVlauJ. llaidly a village has escaped, and not mcrclv property but life has been destroyed In near* Vt icwhe'e Muilv o baa been all hut “S - several hanJreds of its O.OtU to *,OOO Inbabllauis have. It Is said K*n Cd J Q tbe X “* M - 11 IsJ . iw ‘act, no exag gcration to say that half the Island has been laid waste, with thcsucrilice of human life that may be rtcktmtd by thousands. No such disaster has ever befallen Mytelene. American Title Humm, rS f Vr.” l ri l^7“ I ' oudent uf th ° Bosto " In Kuri.po. but more especially In the cilr l 1 “-T' l . L i ,l n bu found a clas.-, spoken of Z uu fcis of America.” Tneae hh C <./ bwt^u,Wj ' btutl *c mo-i extraordimry [?• * ?nu ''-"j'i.icr fr&aa r ii d«plSe 1C a“l "iii7tT\mSic.”' fifu .’isswss, .M* fll Civil matilage with the “dor stipulated, the nmrtuiKc. wbeu it occurs, Is about » H foi iows: “J a lulr daughter of Am-rlcr. do give my virgin self, with beauty and health together Wiih —— hundred ihousat d dollars r° f U v UnUcJ Elates, bring the carnlrgß of m> hottest father to you, ilor- I ‘ !ryour utle » and a «' cc 10 cheri-h aud T?W> y % r roI,CM . CArc,ue as loa < *» j«* I!?!. J VL *. * n coiisideiatlou of anid tbonfapd dollar*, I take you aud confer upon you the title of Murciulse re irrJi n k r lo ."O'* 011 thu right to kcupamU cmimoltbVkS^ r »’ “ “ “*« Sfnibsaxon View* of Wedlock. ‘ r , »*> “Early English Texts,” nar rates the followloir concerning a volume en- Utled the “ Uuli Meldenhad.” and written in the thirteenth century * nMca The place assigned to marriage Id these pieces Is not one of complete dishonor. The author of the “Hell Meidcnhad” comnarM wedlock to a bed for the sick, and S«£w* !? bcave “ «f the married folks Is to thank God that when they fell from the height t°/rfc bood , thc * hida bed to fall‘Jiff so tha ij t^ ey *S° t t 5° more bur t than they could heal with alms-deed, “for ihi soever tall out of the grace Sf maidenhood so that the woven bed of wedlock take them not. drive down to the earth so terribly that they are dashed tS pieces, joint and muscle.” He rfrJalwn artthmetlcalscale ot the degrees of heavenly bliss that answer to the degrees on earth of . nridowhood, and wedlock. \V«dlcck ( ”besajß. “has its fruit thirty fold in heaven, widowhood sixty fold maidenhood with a hundred .fold overpasses both. Consider, then, hereby, who-oever from her maidenhood dcsceudeth Into wed* lock, by how many degrees she falletii downward. She U a hundred degrees eleva ted toward heaven while she holds to maid enhood, as the reward proveth ; and she ih»XhV , t* n iw wed * oc^»thal I*. downward to the thirtieth, over three twenties and yet more by ten.” ;v# An Importation or Irtob Sparrows Into Use United States. Tm> e r^ do « c ?. rrc8 P° nden t of the New 1 ork Time» t alluding to the emigration of a fox-hounds to America, says * Ibis week there has embarked In a Liver pool steamer a flock of several huudred apar f?**» wb ‘ ch J commend to your kind aiten lions. The Enjiibh sparrow—these arc Irish, by the way, coming irom Brltost—ls one of the pleasantest fellows In London. They live here by thousands, and ore respected by ® Tei Jbody hut the cats. Even the street boys never throw a stone at a sparrow. Tney come in flocks Into any garden at the first shake of a table cloth. They eat crumbs from the window-sill. They hold carnival under the horses’ feet at every cab-stand. They free gardens and farms from millions of grubs and insects. No doubt they eat some wheat, but children watch the fields In sowing time, and they pay well for their keep. I wish them a favorable eccUnutiza- Artemns Ward. I» he gone to a land of ro laughter, Thu man that made mirth for na all f Piotc. death but a .Ilea™ ere.“ e , ' from the sounds that delight or appall t Once closed, have the Ups no more doir pleasure theexquisite earn; heart soae$ oae o erflumng with beanty. As the eyes have with tears t * 11. K J2,\£ S?* ht .«*•, what can he surer ./?■“ l "** earth a good decays notwithearth? n S* 160 aear * « springe none ate purer Than the springs of the fountains of Ue that sounds them has pierced the heart's hollows "he places where tears are and sleep ; ror the loam-flake* that dance In lire's shallows Ate wrung irom life’s deep. He one wi*h a heart /all of gladness From the glad-hearted world ol the west.— W oo oar langfater. bat tot with mere madness, bpake Slid joked mth as, not in m»re Jest; For the nun In oar heart lingered after. When me merriment died (rum oar earn. And those mat were loadest.m laughter Arc tUrnt in tear*. —London Spectator* Two Sundays. A baby. close, la a lowly door, Whlcn climbing woodbine made atill towsi> Sat playing wl.o lilies In the »nn. 'lbe loud churcb'bella had Joat begun • The bitten pcnnced in the aparkllmr nraaw. At atealthy spiders that triea to pi»a: The big walch-dos kepta thicalenme era On me, aa 1 lingered, walking by. The Hllea grew high. and she reached on On tic 3 (ip-tocf, to each gold cnp; * n^- l i t l l f. hc { 1 dona, ind talked, and clapped IKr small blown nauda, aa the tough item shipped. And flcmm tell, till the broad bearth-atone of fl ». €ol lf. fed i ? Ld J° ,jr t,ie topwoei one Of the illlea left, luaodered gi*e - be said to beraelf, “Thal'a oicot than me I” ir. two strong men, through the lovely bower. With uneven steps the baby bore; Tdct bad set thu bier on (he lily-b. d; The Illy the left was crusted aud dead. Iho sloa sad bells bad Just tnrguc; The kitten crouched, alraid, tu the san; And the poor waten-dog, fa bewildered pals, look no notice of me as 1 Jolueu the train.