Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune, April 9, 1867, Page 2

Newspaper of The Chicago Tribune dated April 9, 1867 Page 2
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Cljicaigo <£nbnn& DAILY, TRI-WEEKLY asd weekly. OFFICE, Ho. 81 CLAEK-BT. Xbere are three editions or tae TmamrE issued. Ist. £m7Bomlne.ror circulation ny camera, newsmen god the mails. 2d. TbeTa-WE*n,Y. Mondays, Wed fcttdays and Fridays, for the malls only; and the Vzm.T,onTbaisd*ys.rorttie malls and sale»t our lobster and by newsmen. Terms eftbe Chicago Tribune - ?- Diuv delivered In the city cner wees) 3 • as Tjftiiv. to mall subscribers (per pays- He is advance) Vi,oo Tri-Weekly, (per annum, payable to advance) (i.OO •Weekly, (per annum, payable to advance) 2,00 %W~ Fractional parts ol Ihe'yeaf at the same rates. KW* Penoni remitting and ordering five or more copies of cither the Tri-Weekly or Weekly editions, may retain ten per cent nf the subscription price as a commission. Hones to Bcbscezfveb.->is oraermgtne address ot pour papers changed, to nrevenl delay, be sure and specify what edition yea tate-)<eekly,‘Trl-Weetly. Or Daily. Also, glveyoarrßßsxvTandfatoreaddres* |y Money, by Draft, Express, Money orders, ortn BrfflltrmlTifTtrri nunirnmfTniirrlrr Address. TZUBDKE CO.. Chicago. II?. TUESDAY, APRIL 9. ISO*: EIGHT HOURS AGAIN. "We publish elsewhere another letter on the Eight-Hour Movement, which is couched In a proper spirit, though not so logical and accurate as it might he. It is not true that wc have treated the movement as a mere question of more or less productive power. We have icferred to the loss of production certain to be caused by the withdrawal of two hours’ labor from the industry of the country, ns a thing which would certainly affect the rate of wages and prices, because employers cannot pay what they do not have, and if one-fifth of the produc tion of the country Is stopped the loss must he borne by both labor and capital. This is a question of political economy, and is mere ly equivalent to saying that a part of a thing is not equal to the whole. "We have not al leged that the proposed reduction o! the hours of labor would necessarily be a bad thing, but that It would be productive of certain consequences, ihe good or evil of which each laborer and each employer could estimate for himself. If the majority of la borers who reduce their day’s work to eight hoars, shall devote the extra two hours to intellectual improvement, we can see how it may be, on the whole, beneficial to society, but it will detract from the accumulation of wealth, and will diminish wages in the ag gregate, until improved means of production —whether by new inventions of machinery, the repeal of taxes, the removal of restric tions upon commerce, or the increased pro ductiveness ot the soli—shall have snpplied the deficit of human labor. The world must produce each year all that It consumes, and something more to be carried to the credit of civilization. Formerly twelve and fourteen hours’ labor per day was re quired to supply the wants of man. After some centuries of toil, mental and physical, during which the secrets of nature have been inquired into, and her forces yoked to the service of man, bad laws repealed and superstitions exploded, the ne cessity for manual labor has been sensibly diminished, while the accumulation of wealth is Increasing more rapidly than ever before. It is this, and this alone, which makes an a cight-hour movement possible. But unless some equivalent shall be added, the subtraction of two hours from a day’s labor will occasion a present loss, from which labor cannot escape any more than capital. The loss may take the lorm of a reduction of wages, or an increase of prices, <r both', but It cannot be escaped; still it Day not be on the whole an evil. Each man cm judge for himself whether it will be so cr not. We can understand a strike for hours, or a stoke for wanes, hut we canrot understand a strike for hoars disconnected from th? question otwages. The one involves the oth er Jos I as certainly as the going down of th aim involves \he absence of light. The right to strike for hjurs, or wages, or both, is In - timately secnrVi to every American citizen. For the sake'of moral effect the mea who propose to Vrlke for hours on the Ist of May should definlihcir position on the wane» question. They 0® Jose nothing by so d - By pretendii that wages have noth ing to do with it thy Jose ground in public estimation, for cverl o dy knows that wages lave everything to V, with it. No good cause loses anything IV plainness of speech, while the best cause raj 2ose strength by presenting a false Issuer REStOKiIIOV oA HT-VRIgTAV ÜBEttiy. In tie rapid political conges which have been made in Europe dtrinir the last year, and which are still progresses, the humilia tion of Austria has been a notable feature. The great Empire has been shorn of itg vast proportions. Its Italian provinces hive passed over to Victor Etnancel, and by re cent treaties the Prussian King has extended his rule over all North Germany, with a reasonable certainty that it will eventually include Holland. The map of- the Empire of Austria has "been considerably reduced by thescproceed incs, and at present the territorial extent of the Empire consists principally of the large domain of Hungary. Hungary proper, or os the Kingdom, now. stands divested of the provinces and dependencies it once claimed, contains about ten millions of people, em bracing a variety of races, and about one half of them are Magyats or Hungarians. The history of Hungary is-, replete within* terest. In former ages It was a power among the nations of the world, and for centuries was the bulwark of Christian Europe against the Saracen. Even tually tom by civil war and intrigue, and be trayed by its rulers, it passed under the do minion of Austria. But while losing Its na tionality, it preserved its character as a distinct Kingdom, the Emperor of Austria always being sworn as a King of Hungary. It had also an independent Ministry and Par liament, and its local legislatures and offi cers within its own control. The Austrian rule, however, had been oppressive and destructive of the liberty of the Hungarian race. The Diet, therefore, for a number of years previous to 1543 had been laboring to recover and preserve the domestic freedom of tbe Kingdom, and, whether any other measures looking to the independence of Hungary were intended or not, affairs were brought to a crisis in 1848, by tbe Austrian Emperor decreeing tbe abolition of the Hun garian Diet and ol all its internal govern ment, and placing it absolutely nndet the rule of Austria. The unsuccessful revolu tion that followed was a protracted and bloody contest, in which the popula tion of the various adjoining prov inces that were formerly dependencies of Hungary united with Austria against the Magyars, who were eventually subdued, and since then Hungary has been ruled by the sword as a province of Austria, and all ves tiges of her former independence have been destroyed. The people ol Hungary, how ever, have not abandoned their hope fora restoration of their ancient Kingdom and their own Parliament, and the laws aud official records in their own tongue. They have cot, it is true, attempted since then to recover these by armed revolution, but they have nevertheless cherished the hope, In the face of the most depressing events, tb&ta day of retribution would come. The -defeat of Austria by Prussia, the loss of sev eral of her provinces, aud the assurance that the war lor the mastery in Europe was not yet over, and may at any time break into a conflict involving all the great Powers, have produced that result in Hungary which a few years ago appeared beyond the limits Of pi obabillty. Tlie Emperor of Austria, consulting his ovn interest, and knowing tbit in a general war he shall want the cordial snpport of all the people of his Empire, has voluntarily restored to Hungary her ancient liberties— has restored to her the character of a King* dom, and will proceed to Bnda la a short time to he crowned King of Hungary* Her cherished Parliament Is to he restored, and the people once more are to be governed in their domestic concerns by their country men, speaking their own language and shar ing all their national feelings. This arrangement includes another. In the Hungarian DicUthe smaller provinces ol Cro atia, Transylvania, Sclavonia and Illyria are to be represented. Hungary in this way will not only again become a Kingdom, but a Kingdom which will form the centre of an immense political and military power. The Hungarian Ministry arc to have the exclu sive internal government of that Kingdom; they are to have a separate treasury, and are to levy and collect their own taxes. The utmost good feel ing prevails between the Austrian Emperor and his recently discontented and menacing Hungarian subjects. It would look as it he sought to strengthen himself against his German enemies by these liberal concessions to the Magyars and Sclaves. He is bent upon the consolidation of his military strength. Crown lauds are of little value unless they produce reliable fighting men In time of war. Austria proper is now power less among the nations oi Europe. By the consolidation of an army of the various races, and by making it an object of national pride in each to drive back those who would ex tinguish them, he may, when a general war ! docs come, be able once more to raise the banner of Austria and extort for it a respect which it docs not now com mand. This Is no time for Austria to keep alive a war of races, and a recol lection of the cruel past. The military power of Hungary is essential to prevent the annlhUatlon of Austria, and free, contented and friendly Hungary will be a hundred fold more efficient than enslaved, sullen and re bellions Hungary could ever be. Those who can recall the eventful time of the Hungarian struggle In 18«, and the bloody and relentless manner In which Ihu revolution was anppreesed, will read with surprise that the Austrian Emperor in 1857 has voluntarily restored the liberties he took away in 1848, and has made concessions to Hungarian nationality which were not even asked for by the revolutlonis’s of that day. This Hungarian revolution has been as noise* lees as it has been peaceful and effjcsual. TBS U7ZEBNB COUNTY BIOTS. Certainlaborcre In the coal m‘n- sof Lu zerne County, Pennsylvania, the other day, went on a strike. Of the precis-nature or merits of the controversy, in its ineipiency, we are not informed. A portion of the la borers decided to keep on working at the rate of wages agreed* upon between them selves and the employers. A majority of the workmen, however, were engaged in the strike, and these not only refused to work themselves, bat banded together and at tempted by violence to prevent the others from working. The trouble grew to a seri ous riot, in which the power and authority of the Sheriff were set at naught, and in, which it was found necessary to call out a military foiec and hold it in readiness for action. It ia a popular saying that this is a free country; and if the saying ia true every man has an equal right to use or dispose of his property, hia time or his labor as he sees fit, so long as he does not violate the rights of others. Upon this right all society rests, and to the maintenance of it the whole power of a free Government is perpetually pledged, for without it there can be no freedom. The miners of Lnzeme County had an undoubted right to strike— the same right that a merchant has to put a price upon his goods. But it was equally the right of the employers of these men to say whether they would accede to their de mand—as much their right as it is the right of the easterner to any whether he will buy the merchant’s goods alter they have been marked up. And in determining whether or not to accede to the demand, the employers were bound, of course, to take into consid eration the circumstances of the case, the prospects of the business, the values in mar ket—in short, the amount of profits to be re alized. No man or set of men cau be expect ed to carry on business at a loss; and If the prospects of the coal business would not jus tify the rate of wages demanded Joy the la boreis, then the employers could not be rea sonably expected to grant it. "Whatever the reasons, it seems that the employers In this case reinsed the demand. And after they had so refused, it was certainly the right of every laborer in their employ to decide whether he would keep on working at the wages allowed, or stop. This was a question which, as a freeman, every one then and there had a perfect moral and legal right to decide for himself; and with that decision no one else had a right to interfere. If one thought he could do better elsewhere, and improve his prospects by a change, it was his right to try it without let or hindrance- If another thought he could not better his condition by a change, or found that his cir cumstances would not justify an attempt to make one, it was equally his privilege to go < n with his work also without let cr hindrance from his fellow workmen. If this is not * true every maxim of personal liberty is false, and so far from being a free country, this Isa country in which one laborer is the slave of another. The majority of the workmen de termined that those who were willing to work, or found it necessary to do so to sup port their lamiliea, should not have the priv ilege ; and when these peaceiul and well-dis posed men attempted to resume their tasks, the majority assailed them with deadly weapons and drove them away. The civil officers attempted to uphold order and main tain the rights of the minority; but they were overpowered and the mob was triumphant. The Industrious and peaceful-minded, whose families, perchance, could not well spare the wages of a single day, were driven to Idlcness'bv the tyrannical majority, and by actual physical force deprived of one of the chief privileges of a citizen—the privilege of disposing of one’s own without interfer ence. Is this freedom ? Is this the boasted Justice to the laboring classes of which so much has been said of late? We say, no! We say it strikes at the very foundation of liberty; It erects a reign of terror of which capital and labor are alike the victims; it subordinates society to the unreasoning will of a mob, and deprives them of both liberty and property without the shadow of process bylaw. It is a despotism of one portion of the laboring class over another portion. If the whole troth were known, it would probably appear that all this trouble In Lu zerne is the work of a few demagogues who, underguise of sympathy for the laboring men, have Insinuated themselves into their good graces, controlled their organizations and taken charge of ell their cash contribu tions. Such men are found everywhere. Chicago is not without her full share. They are men whose vocation it is to stir up dis content among the laboring men, and strife aid enmity between them and their employ ers, and ate really the enemies of both. We, of course, know nothing of the merits of this quarrel, so far as it involves the sufficiency or insufficiency of the wages. We know that, anthracite coal, which has been retail* Ing in Chicago at sll per ton, is now retail* toglbr $9. Cheap coal is an inexpressible boon to the whole country, but especially to the labor ing classes, and while the law should notin terfere to make coal either dear or cheap, it is undeniable that the greatest good to the greatest number results from having fuel abundant and cheap. When the Luzerne County laborers organize to prevent men from working In the coal mines, they assail not only the rights of the laborers who are driven away, but of all the other laborers in »hc country, for all laborers need coal, and four-fifths of all the machinery which gives employment to labor is driven by coal. The only practical results of this Pennsyl vania strike will he a scene of prolonged tumolt, perhaps some bloodshed, suffering among dependent families, and a general injury to the interests and prospects of the laborers who engage In it. A recent strike in Ronbaix, France, resulted more disastrous ly to all classes. The strikers failed to se cure an increase of wages, and the strike as sumed the form of a riot, in which the manu factories were burned down. Of course this deprives the laborers of work altogether, and, we arc told, has excited a universal feeling of reprobation among the working classes throughout France. Any association or combination that as sumes to say that men who are willing to work shall not he permitted to work, oAhat apprentices shall not be taught in the art and mystery over which they seek to estab lish a tyrannical control, or that says the sober and Industrious mechanic shall not be permitted to do more work in a day than a lazy shiftless one; or that labor-saving ma chinery shall not be Introduced; or (as In California) that men of a particular color shall not work, is an organized outrage on the community in which it exists, opposed to the plainest principles of justice and com mon sense. The livery stable keepers of Chicago have as good a right to combine and to employ violence to prevent the sale or Setting of horses below a scale of prices on which they may agree, or that no private citizen shall keep his own horse, as the la borers in Luzerne had to say that no one should be permitted to work for less wages than they had demanded. The principle in 'be two cases would be the same. TVe will go as_jar as any in defending tbe rights of the laboring men; none wilt rejoice more heartily than we in their general im provement ; but it must not be forgotten that all men have rights, and that no one class or coterie is privileged to limit the rights of any other class. Oppression is on pression, whether it be In the slave-driver Hogging bis human chattels to unpaid toil, or the autocrat banishing innocent men from iheir homes; whether it be an unjust combination of capitalists to depreciate la bor, or by an equally iniquitous combination cf workmen to prevent other workmen from earning an honest living. TBE THEATT WITH RUSSIA. Washington despatches state that there is a growing feeling in the Senate in favor of ratifying the Seward treaty for the purchase cf the Russian territory in the Arctic re dons of this continent, but that Senators arc anxious to learn the sentiments of the people in respect to this acquisition. The people can hardly be expected to form a definite opinion until they have read the proposed treaty and know its terms, and on what conditions the Russian territory is of fered to us. The price is stated to bo §7,500,000 in gold. What are we to get for this money? The territory Is supposed to possess considerable value for its fisheries and furs. But how many perpetual righto of fishing and hunting has the Russian Emperor already ceded to the British? Docs the Russian Government under take to cancel the claims and privileges acquired by English companies? It would be rather a poor bargain to pay seven and a half millions in gold for that territory, and find it covered over as thick as its own ice and snows with “vested rights” andspeclal priv ileges In the hands of British or Russian cap italists to trade, hunt and fish all over the grounds and waters fit for those purposes. We do not assume that such Is the fact. It may be possible that the Russian Govern ment agrees to give us o perfect title, clear of all Hens and incumbrances, but the peo ple are in the dork on the subject and need light. It is not a “quit claim” the United States wants, but a warrantee fee simple deed, in which the Czar of all the Russias shall engage to warrant and defend the title. And it may be set down os a thing certain, that the House of Representatives will never appropriate the sum of money called for by the treaty if they find the territory encumbered by grants of special privileges and monopolies to British for or fishing companies. If the territory is offered to us clear of all Ileus or leases, the main question to consid* er will be whether It Is worth the money de manded for it; and as the Anglo-American race have a hankering after “ real estate,” even though it be mountains, icebergs or arid deserts, the probabilities arc that the prevailing sentiment will favor accepting it at the price asked, and take the chances of its being worth anything. A correspondent writes to ns in the follow ing enthusiastic terms in favor of closing the bargain at once: To the Editor of the Chicago Tribune: The telegraph from Geacral Halleck to Secre tary Stanton, published on Saturday morning, in 'recard to the treaty with Russia, I have no doubt expresses the earnest and tfacucanfmons opioiin of the entire Pacific coast To our States and Territories there the acquisition is zcvaiuable. It has recently been demonstrated that the cod and other fisheries on the northwest coast of America are among the most extensive and important upon the globe, and the early com pletion of the Pacific Railroad will bring them -intoclosecommunication with the manufacturing and commercial interests of the entire Union. The harbors will lumlsb suitable depots for oar Immense whiling fleet upou the Pacific, while the for trade of the interior districts will beaaoarce of great wealth. So for as I- koow, the moun tains of Russian America have never been explored for the precious metals, bat. as they are an extension ot the gold districts of British Colombia on the Frasier River and the Sierra and Cascade ranees of Calilornia and Oregon, there is every probability that tbc territory m question contains some of the richest and most valuable mines in the world. Every consideration, there fore, of national courtesy and sound public policy seem to require a speedy ratification of the treaty by the Se:ate. Tbc opinions ui Generals U-illeck and Meigs, and Commodore Rogers, are based on a knowledge of the groat value of the territory to tbc Republic, and express the news ofail those who understand the subject. It may be worth while to inquire whether polit ics! considerations do not enter largely into the delay in the ratification of the treaty. Mr. John son and Mr. Seward have rendered themselves so thoroughly detestable to the American people that there may be a disposition to oppose what good they accomplish, lest it should restore them In some measure to the confidence and respect of their fellow-citizens. But will it not Justly give them more consequence to reject the good they do, on personal grounds, than to accept It and give them doc credit therefor f The day has gone by when such men, by a single act, can atone for the treachery they have shown to tbs new and the great principles officcdom on which they were elected. Ihe nation can well afford to ratify the treaty, acd* even be gratefnl to Mr. Seward for negotiating it. If it leads. In any measnre, to re store him to tbegcod opltxon of bis foliow-citi zcn?. so much the better. He needs it badly enough in all comclcncc. Louisville.—At the charter election in Louisville on Saturday last, tbc nominee of the Radical Unionists for Mayor heat tbc Cop pert cad Democratic candidate by 2,018 votes, ju; nil poll. This is a tremendous gain for tbc -Dion cause since last summer, when the Copper-democratic ticket swept the city by over 2,000 majority. Last year the Radicals supported the Con servative ticket headed by Hobson and pilot ed by the Louisville Journal. But more than half of the Conservatives abandoned their own ticket and voted for the Democratic rebel candidate, Duval. The treachery of the Conservatives opened the eyes of the Repub licans to tbc meanness and rottenness of the Conservatives, and they resolved to have nothing more to do with them, bat hence forth to stand on their own platform. The wisdom of their resolution is seen In the result of the municipal election on Saturday, when the whole Union ticket was elected by upwards of 2,000 majority. All tbc loyal men in the city rallied to the support of the Radical candidates, while all the Copperheads and rebels voted for the so-called “ Democratic” ticket, with the - following result: For the Radical ticket 5,518 For the Democratic ticket ...3,530 Radical majority. The Republican party of Kentucky Is justly elated at this opening gun of the campaign, and they begin to have strong faith in their ability to carry the State In August, and elect more Radical Congressmen than the Republicans lost in Connecticut. The “ re action” seems to be the other way in Ken tucky. New Supbeme Coubt Marshal.— Hon. Richard C. Parsons, of Cleveland, Ohio, has been appointed Marshal of the Supreme Court of the United States, by a vote of the Judges thereof. This is a most excellent se lection, and could hardly be bettered. Mr. Parsons, for a number of years was the law partner of Hon. R. F. Spalding, M. C. He was elected twice or thrice to represent Cleveland in tbc Ohio Legislature, and was elected Speaker of the House. He was af terwards appointed Consul to Brazil, where he went for the benefit of his health, which was had. On his return President Lincoln appointed him Collector of Internal Revenue, which office he held until tnroed out by the renegade A. J. be cause he refused to swing around the circle with him. Last fall his friends presented his name before tbc Repub lican Convention for Congress, and he came within an inch of beating hla- old legal confrere, Judge Spalding, who was suspected of being slightly tainted with *‘A. J.lsm.” By vigorously protesting his innocence, pointing to fals early and life-long radical ism, the party, with many misgivings, con cluded to try him again; but the young men of the district were enthusiastic for Parsons, whom they call “Dick.” He is a warm hearted, open-handed, enthusiastic and gen erous spirited Radical. He was among the first to join the first Republican club which commenced the organization of the present Republican party. That was In the win ter of 1552-3—a few weets after the defeat of General Scott, and before the supporters of the "Whig party would acknowledge its hopeless overthrow. The new Marshal is largely Indebted to the friendship and favor of Chief Justice Chase for his appointment. But he will honor the office more than it will him. The receipts from customs for the menth of March amounted to the large sum of sixteen millions of dollars. Last year daring the same month the receipts were but eleven millions. The tariff has been twice increased since then, notwithstanding which the imports are greater than ever. We have tried to make the protectionists realize and comprehend the fact that in creased duties on imported goods furnish no “ protection” to American producers, but, on the contrary, oppresses and injures con sumers, by increasing the cost of living and making every tiling dearer and more difficult to obtain. If the object of protectionists is to keep foreign goods from coming into the country, they can accomplish that end by the simple method of making It a penal offence to import any product of a foreign nation which can be produced in the United States. A prohibitory law inflicting heavy fines and imprisonment Is the remedy against importation. High tariffs notoriously and utterly fail to effect the desired purpose of preventing competing goods from flowing into the United States. More foreign fabrics are imported under a sixty per ceut tarifi than came in under a fifteen per cent duty. Prohibition and legal punishment provides the proper platform for the “pro tectionists” and no other device will do. what is wanted. Maute-Lawism.— The city of Davenport contains a radical Republican majority of 800 to 1,000 voters. At the recent election the platform of Republicanism was laid aside and political temperance thrust forward in Us place. Result: The anti-Maine law tick et was elected by over COO majority; and now tbe Copperheads arc crowing about the elec tion and claiming it as a victory over Repub licanism, when, in point of fact, the sole cause of defeat was, that the issue was Maine- Jawism and not Republicanism. A similar result occurred in Cleveland. Maine-Jawism was substituted for Republicanism, and the anti-Malnc-law candidate for Mayor was elected by 500 majority in a city which gives 1,000 majority against Coppcrheadism when ever that is in issue before the people. CiTWhen our brave soldiers were fighting to sustain the honor of our lias, the editors oi the TmscKE belonged to the home guards. Respectfully yours, j. W. Connett. Union men were needed at home to take care of the firc-in-lhc rear guards, com manded by such “braves” as Captain Cou ncil, who resolved that the war was a “ fail ure” and that the rebellion “could not be put down;” and, to make good their pre diction, undertook to put down the Union. The “home guards” had all they could do, while feeding, paying, equipping and rein forcing the brave boys in the field, to keep the Copperheads from attacking them in the rear and seizing the Government, stopping the war, and acknowledging the independ ence of the rebels. Illness of tlie Prince Imperial. [Paris (March SI) Correspondence of tbe London Star.J I am sorry to commence my letter with a sad piece of news. Once more has the poor little Prince Imperial been operated upon. Anxiously had we hoped to see him oat in the Bois de Boulogne, and each day we at tributed bis non-appearance to the unfavora ble state of tbe weather. Such, alas! was not the cause af bis absence. Tbe J Conseur % always so guarded in its communications, Is now obliged to confess that the rc establish ment or the Prince Imperial’s health has been retarded by an attack of fever—adding, however, that there is a decided improve ment in hla state, which no longer excites any uneasiness. Meanwhile, the Monileur m . ?? ,* a r Eludes to this recent operation, .which 1 am told the child bore with immense fortitude, asserting that ho only dreaded the suffering It would cause its mother. During tbe first operation he was chloroformed, iu compliance with the earnest entreaties of the Empress, but he steadily -refused to allow this to be done on the second occasion expressing but one hope, and that was, that the Emnrcss should not be informed of the - bour at which the operation was to take’ place. Kclaton performed it wilh h*s usual success, and we only hope that no further ' necessity will arise for his services. . EMBLAND. A Tempest of Political Agitation, The House of Commons on a Night of Eefonn Debate. Disraeli and Gladstone Contrasted. Interesting Sketch of Their Speeches on the last Re form BUI. notices of Other Prominent Mem bers in Debate. ISpedal Correspondence of the Chicago Tribune. London, England, March 20. Political life In England Is strongly agi tated. The waves are rising high and there are signs of tempests in the air. Let me give yon an idea of the scenes which take place almost nightly in Parliament. From one, you may learn of all. TITR DOUSE OF COMMONS ON A NIGHT OP BE- FOBM DEBATE. When I reached the House, the night be fore last, there was barely room forme even in the privileged quarter to which I am ad mitted. Facing me were peers, bishops and archbishops, standing with a disappointed air, wearily looking from aide to side for a spot on which they could rest their limbs. There Is no respect of persons on an occasion like this, and it was with difficulty that the Duke ol Cambridge squeezed his bulky figure into a little gallery belonging to members of Parliament. The strangers’ quarters were full, and some of the occupants were gazing through opera glasses at the members who were strolling to and fro on the floor. Short ly after 4 o'clock Lord Cranbournc, the clever Tory nobleman who retired from the Ministry the other day because the Reform Bill was too “ revolutionary,” came in, looking rather bashfully round, as though undecided whether to take his place in the “ upper seats,” where the more immediate supporters of the Ministry sit, or lower down, with the rank and die. At last he selected a corner among the latter class, and soon was Joined by Mr. Roebuck, the waspish es-Radical, who, after defending the Canadian rebels a quarter of a century ago, writing in the Westminster lie vine, and attacking the Whigs, got mixed np witli speculative companies, toadied the Tor!es, and is now a soured politician, who persists in sitting amongst the Liberals while seeking for applause in the opposite ranks. He chatted In an animated way with Lord Cranbourne, laying down the law with all the gesticulation he coaid command. Lord Elcbo, the stilted chief of the Volun teers, came lounging In and joined the pair; then a Tory member, who when at Oxford stabbed a fellow-student, and bos had the name of “the assassin” ever since. On the same bench was Mr. Beresford Hope, the chief proprietor of the Saturday Jteview , a AnicalPascyite, who has an eye-glass perpet ually in the eye-socket, and Is as weak and ftissy as an old maid la a country village, and whose consistency does not forbid him while setting np an oratory la his house, from pos sessing a journal of which scepticism on the ological matters Is the distinguishing trait. Sir Ronndell Palmer, the amiable and learn ed Attorney General of the Gladstone Gov ernment, bad his arm in a sling, and looked 111. Mr. John Stuart Mill was in his usual place among the Radicals, and to him came Lord Amberley, the heir of Earl Russell, and one of the most thoroughgoing of tb«. school of reform ere. The young Lord chatted also with Mr. Bright, who was just In front, leonine In look, but generous in his power. Mr. Lowe, the most persistent enemy Reform can find la the House, was near Mr. MID, shabbily dressed, as be affects to be, and blinking at the light with bis physical vision, u, -n-ttu the eyes of his mind, he turns away from the blaze of modern ideas. In a narrow scat near the door were Lord Robert Montague, a member of the Government who is waiting re-election by his constituents, and the Bish op of Peterborough, Dr. Jcanc, a model of the time-serving, political, compromise-lov ing Churchman. The House was crowded, but not so moved by curiosity as on previ ous nights, for the details of the Government proposals had leaked out. Perhaps half the members wore tbeir hats; some white, some black; others sat barc-beadcd. The effects of our second winter—of onr streets thick with melting snow, and our cutting cast winds—were to be traced In the constantly, recurring coughs, from the galleries above, and at the right hand and left below. MB. DISBABLI. On entering the House Mr. Disraeli as sumes the air of perfect indifference. He bolds his bat a little way from him ; buttons his coat across his chest; and saunters with a slow but meaning step to his scat. Though holding the key to everything on Monday night, aud essential to the beginning and the end of the proceedings, h!s only recep tion was a general stare and smile. Even when he rose to deliver the address of the night, there was but the faintest of cheers. A few Tories behind him—good fox-hunters —raised a cry of “Hear! hear!” and pro longed it painfully, the paucity and perti nacity of their voices serving to make the absence of enthusiasm more distinct. Mr. Disraeli’s task in proposing Reform In the British Constitution would, in his peculiar circumstances, require superhuman qualities to obtain success. He has to con vince his supporters that what he Is urging will be no change whatever; and hla Liberal and exacting opponents, that the work will be a very .great change indeed—both achievements to bo made at the same time. Aud so wc had to listen to him on Monday dwell upon the difference between what he calls “ popular privileges” and “democratic rights.” We had to hear him declaring his “ God forbid !” It should ever bo the late of this coun try to live under a democracy; and in the same speech to witness his attempt to show that, practically,theproposltion he was about to make, would have a distinct tendency In that direction. We had his usual specious pleas that one proposition which he was about to expound, had already been ac cepted by the “unerring Instinct” of Parlia ment; while another he was about to omit, had been adopted by the House, purely by accident. He was trying to sit composed while he patronized the clergy as “men who entirely devote their lives to solace, or to elevate the sense of existence;” but we felt with him when, in protesting against tbe newspaper criticisms upon his bill, he re vived the feats of his earlier days, by re marking in a parenthesis : “I do not wish to speak slightingly of newspaper leading articles; I have written them myself;” aud something like sympathy was touched when be dwelt upon the “great chagrin and morti fication ” he had suffered at having been compelled to change his tactics so often, and when he glanced at tbe difficulties thrown in his way by “a high-spirited party called up on to make what to some was a sacrifice of principle, much sacrifice of senti ment, and much sacrifice of interest.” We noticed that he glided over the part of the Government plan which gives two .votes to people of property, and one to people without. It was clear, moreover, that he was not carrying hla party with him. The cheers were very slight and at long : distances apart. Bat . Mr. Disraeli, It must be confessed, betrayed few signs of discouragement, and kept his temper. In theconrsc ofhißspecch,ayounc nobleman went,out to fetch him a glass of water, and brought it in under his hat, walk inc carefully up the floor that none might be spilt. Mr. Bright was extremely attentive throughout, abstaining from taking any share in the ironical interruptions from the Liberals around. He knows too well thv real motive of much of the hostility to the Government to have for it much respect. His own dissent is of a different kind, and will be expressed In a different way. Lord Cranbonrne looked up to the celling most of the time. Mr. Gladstone watched his an tagonist with a closeness which would have shaken the nerves of a less confident man than Mr. Disraeli, and took notes as the speech went on, in a method which indicated that his intentions were serious and syste matic. At length, as Mr. Disraeli sat down, h!s friends rallied for a cheer, which was speedily lost in the vehement shout which, as he sprang to bis feet, greeted MR. GLADSTONE. This night Mr. Gladstone broke through the control he has preserved since the begin ning of the session. It would almost appear that he is able to maintain an attitude of Im partial coolness only so long as be keeps to silence, or the fewest possible words, and that when he gives reins to his feelings he must Be, towards Mr. Disraeli at least, scorn ful, vehement, denunciatory. The truth, I believe to be, is, that he has au utter con tempt for the Conservative chief; regards his affectations of philosophy, his historical lore, bis manifest insincerities, with a dislike he cannot conceal. For my part; I venture to think it would better were Mr. Glad stone’s emotions more under his mastery. He is so crushing in his manner towards Mr. Disraeli; is so careless to hide his passion, that a certain sort of sympathy runs toward the weaker of the two. To night, the tempt ation was great; bnt I fancy Mr. Gladstone made his case stronger than the facto. With out bothering you os to the elaborate details of the Government .scheme,! may- say that the two parts most objected to are the dual vote, to. wbich Thave already referred, 'and 'another' provision, which limits the tight of voting to tbe payment? of certain rates by the tenant, which rates in the cose of the poor arc at present ■ paid by the landlord. Mr. Gladstone In sisted that such provisions were a mockery, and that it would be lathe power of any Tory landlord to keep his tenants without a vote; but he should have waited; I think, until ho had made sure that ttfere was no in tention to compel the landlords to allow the tenants to pay the rates themselves and de* duct the same from the rent they have hith erto paid, and which included the rate. Bat the right honorable gentleman sparest nothing. Some Tory v opposite him In an allusion to’a meeting at Lord Der by’s, and he retorted with a rcboko of that nobleman for holding a little' Parliament of his own and confiding to his friends the de tails of a measure before he bad laid it on the table of. the House. As he proceeded, Mr. Gladstone grew warmer in his words and his style. “We have .used, the language of re serve long enough,” he aald. The proposal of dual voting was of “all innovations the most innovating, of all new franchises the most now fancied.” Mr. Disraeli had 'not supplied the House with “a rag of informa tion'’—and I can give no idea of the scorn in his voice when that word “rag” was used— as to the number of the extra votes which were “to he put os arms Into the hands of one part of the community to he used against the other. “ How many were they ?” "Here be turned to Mr. Disraeli and asked him the question “Is It 300,000 ? Is It 400,000 ? Is it 500,000?” and ho paused; but Mr. Disraeli sat with folded arms, and crossed legs, look ing at the point of his foot with the utter blankness ot expression he can always as sume, and uttered not a'word. “No reply I” exclaimed Mr.Gladstone,and the exclamation was taunting enough to have stung the most case-hardened to anger. “I am bound to say,” proceeded Mr. Gladstone, “ that I do not suffer so much from the want of reply as might he supposed. To this dual vote” and at this stage he deepened his voice and increased In fervor—“from this moment, he the numbers largo or small, I for one record” —and he struck the table with the palm of his hand as ho spoke—“ an implacable hos tility.” To give a second vote to those who paid twenty shillings a year in certain taxes was simply equivalent to a proclamation to every man with a parse la his pocket, that he may make votes on any scale ho pleases at that rate of payment. “ The day you place In the hands of the rich man, under the notion of fortifying his position, this weapon to use against his poorer fel low-countrymcn that day you seal the doom of the old British Con stitution that day you sow dissensions that never can abate—that day you destroy the confidence that unites all classes of the community—that day If you could pass this a w, if yon could promulgate it to-morrow as an Act of Parliament In the terms in which tbc right honorable gentleman has proposed it—you would light up a flame the most dangerous and formidable that cycr menaced, tbe safety of a State.” The ap plause which these words created fed the llame of his wrath. He treated the daal vote as dead already; “was completely gone as if it bad been a proposal of Lord Stratford and Charles I.” ; and concludcd,wUh a flash of indignant triumph, as if the Liberal vic tory was already won. While Mr: Gladstone was speaking there were unquestionably cheers from the Tory side, cheers from men who want no bill this or any other session. Lord Cranbonrne sat drumming bis fingers upon a blue book, as if enjoying to his heart’s content the excite ment which his “right honorable friend the Chancellor of the Exchequer” was under going. am w. DEArncOTE, sir o. uowter, mu. tiios. BARING, MU. LOWE, MR. BOEDUCK, BTC. Sir W. Heathcote, a Tory colleague of Mr. Walpole in the representation of Oxford University, was the first to give utterance to the discontent on the Government side of the House. He spoke in a sententious, deliber ate way, like the fine old Tory gentleman he and told Mr. Disraeli that the measure was disliked by more members on that side than the right honorable gentlcmaoanpposcd. Mr. Lowe addressed tbc members from a bench among the Radicals—proclaiming again his belief that the present system coaid not be improved, and particularly condemn ing this bill lor creating “ a sort of bastard, plebeian oligarchy ” and setting up ** where there Is no guuourjtial difference, a difference of power,” Mr. Lowe eiatida <>rcct and mo tionless, his arms hanging straight down by his sides, as he speaks. His voice, too,though distinct cnongh, has} no change of tone, so that be obtains his Influence solely by intel lectual superiority—by the sharp cleverness which gives characterto his words. But you must look to the words and not to him, for there Is nothing in his style to indicate that he Is uttering sarcasms instead of the com monplaces of an ordinary man. The renowned family of the Barings is represented in Parliament by its head—the now somewhat old and tottering Thos. Bar ing—the stubborn opponent of every civiliz ing measure Introduced into Parliament in modern times. Representing the millionaire interest, he is tortured by anxiety as to what would be the lowest amouut of power the people would take, to bo quiet. He spoke In this debate with pathetic earnestness, cast-, lug up both bis bands and imploring the House to do something to stay an agitation which was actually beginning to shake tbc money hags in the city. He did cot like the Government hill, it was clear; bat rather that than give those dreadful Reform League people any excuse for their terrify ing demonstrations. Among the remaining speakers, Sir. Bernal Osborne, a wit of Jewish extraction and a personal friend of Disraeli’s, condemned, from the Liberal side, Mr. Gladstone’s poll-, cy, and contended that tho hill might be im proved at a later stage; Mr. Roebuck spat his venom against the Liberal chief; Sir Geo. Bowyer, the Roman Catholic chieftain, made himself a laughing stock by the child* ishness of his nonsense—and two disappoint* cd Tones, savage at their exclusion from of fice, attacked Mr. Disraeli, who was sitting at their elbow, with long pent-up bitterness. Lord Cranbonrne, the ex-Mlnlster, fell hack upon the House of Lords, which, ho was glad to say, he was certain would reject the bill if It had the least tinge of democracy. At last we had THE CHANCELLOR OP THE EXCHEQUER’S REPLY. Though he had given no signs while the darts were being thrown at his irmor, Mr. Disraeli showed, when bo rose to stm up tbe matter and adjourn the discusilon for a week, that ho was not Insensible to the as saults of his foes. There was more of bis old fire in this response, than I have seen for many a day. True, he kept bat to the sur face of the objections,—contenting himself with brief, off-hand personal remarks, which are instantly understood and supply so many opportunities for cheers. His short, syste matic sentences were clenched, one after the other, by his party with rounds of applause. Tbe Tories revived under the now confidence of their chief. Hegave them a glow of hope which, alter the trials ol the night, they hardly dared to expect they would again enjoy. In a public point of view, however, the only important feet to he regarded in connection with this second address, was an emphatic declaration, drawn from him by an interpellated remark by Lord Cranbourne, —that tbe Government would never, under any circumstances, consent to propose household suffrage, pure and simple, to the House of Commons. It must be di luted of all that would make it a reality be fore it would be pressed as the basis of their measure. Time will show. As I left the Honae I passed by Trafalgar Square—the “finest site In Europe,” as it has been termed, I found myself in an alto* gether different scene. A platform bad been extemporised at the base of the Nelson col* umn, and speakers of the extreme democrat* ic school were talking as near to treason, as the presence of the reporters made safe. Some of these street orators, I am persuad ed, mean mischief, and if once more the re* form in our Parliamentary representation Is .rendered impossible by mutual jealou sies,and by a common fear of popular rights, we may find the Duke of Cambridge as ac tivcly employed as Lord Straithnaine, and the Government of the day called upon to preserve the peace in England, as well as in the country of the Fenians. 'lbc New BrlmU B<-form BUI, ; The following is a copy of that portion'of the new Reform Bill to which the Derby Ministry has committed itself, .which relates to the qualifications of voters, and dual : votiug: • A nil! farter to amecd the laws rela'lnc to (be Wolcß* !n,aUOn ° f tbc pcople ,0 and , Whereas, it Is expedient to amend the laws re laliig to the representation of the people in Eng land and Wales: H Be it Inrther enactedl by (ho Queen's Most Ex cclknt Majesty, by and with the advice and con fent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Common?, m this present Parliament assembled and axihoriiy o! the same, as follow*: «k 1^ BAclEba,lbe cite,t for Purposes as • The Representation of the People Act, 1887 ” 11. This Act shad not apply to Scotland or Ire laud. nor to the Universities of Oxford or Cam bridge. PART 1. TSAHCmBBS. , in. Every man chan be entitled to be roister ed as a voter, and, when registered, to vote “for a member or members to serve in Parliament for a boiongh, who Is qualified as follows; that is to - 1, la of foil age and not subject to any legal in. capacity; and * ; 2. la on the last day o f July in any year, and has during the whole of the preceding tan years been an Inhabitant occapier, aa owner , boroSSh-’«Sa Mir dwcW ° Bl,ol,Bo WlUlin 1118 3. Has daring the time of such occupation been rated In respect of the premises eo occupied by him within (be borough to all rales at any) made for the relief of the poor in ra sped of. sunn premises; and 4. Has befoie the twentieth day of July fo the same year paid all poor rates that hav© be come payable by turn m respect of the said January 1 ° P 10 P recodm £ fifth day of ■ IV. Avery man shall be entitled to be registered as a voter, and. when registered, to vote for a number or member* to serve In Parliament tor a ; county, who la qualified as follows; that Is lossy; •2. Is of full age, and not anblect to any legal In capacity; and S. Is on the lost day ot July In any year, and bos dome the twelve months immediately pre ceding been tbe occupier, as owner or ten • ant, of premises of any teams within the comity of the ratable value of fifteen pounds or upwards; ami 8. Has daring tbe Cme oi *ueh occupation been rated in ie*pect of the premises so occu pied bvh’mtoall ra»es (if auy) made t-w Ire cellar of the poor tu respect of the said, premises; and 4. Has before the twentieth day of July la the same year paid all poor rates that nave be come payable by him la respect of the said premises up to the’preceding filth day of , January. V.Eveiy nan shall bo entitled to be registered, -and When registered, to vote at lbs election of a member ortoampera to serve In Parliament fora -county or bordirfft, who is of full age, and nor eubject to ariy-legal Incapacity, and Is on tbc last day ot July in any year and uas, during the year immediately preceding, been resident in such county or borough, and la possessed of any one or more of tbe qualifications following; that Is to sai • 1. Is,. and: has been daring tbe period of each residence, a graduate or associate in arts of any university of the United Kingdom; ora male, person who has passed at any senior middle ciaes examination of any university ot the United Kingdom; 2. Is, and has been during tbe period aforesaid an ordained priest or deacon of the Church of England; or 8. Is, and has been daring the period aforesaid, a minister of any other reunions denomina tion appointed either alone or with not more th»n one colleague to the charge of any registered chapel or place of worship, and Is. and has becu daring aach period, ©del ating as tbe minister thereof; or i. is, and has been daring the period aforesaid, a sergesnt-at-law or barrisier-aNaw in any of the Inns ot Court In Euqlstd,ora certi ficated pleader or certificated convey ancer : or 5. Is, and has been daring the period aforesaid, a certificated allorrey or solicitor or proctor in Ergland or Wales; or 0. Is. and has beer daring the period aforesaid, a duty qualified medical practltloccr, regis tered tinder the Medical Act, 13o3; or 7. is, and baa been during tbc period aforesaid, a schoolmaster bolding a certificate from the Committee of Her Majesty’s Council on Education: Protidtd, That no person shall be entitled to be reclaimed as a voter or to vole In respect of any oftbe qualifications mentioned In this section in more than one place. VI. Every man shall be entitled to be regis tered, and, when registered, to vote at the election of a member or memoers to servo In Parliament foracoiuityorborounh, who la of fall ace, and not subject to any legal Incapacity, and ia on the first day of July many year, ana has during the two years immediately preceding been resident In snch count? or horuneb. ana Is possessed of any one or more of the qualifications following; that is to say: 1. Has on the first day of July ie any year, and Unshod daring the two years immediately Srcc.dinp, a balance of not less than 60/. eposltcd In aomc savings bank In bis own

• sole name and for his own use; or 2. Bolds on tbc first ray of Jnly in any year, and has held daring the two years immedi ately preceding, to the oooks of (he Gover nor and company of the Band of England or Ireland, in his own sole name and tor bis own use. any Parliamentary stocks or mads of the United Kingdom, to tbe amount of not less than &0/.; or 8. Has during the twelve months immediately nrcccdmg the fifth day of April in any vear been charged with a sum not less than 30s in <be whole by the year for assessed taxes ard Income tax, or either of each taxes and boa before the twentieth day of Jnly In that ycarpaldall snch taxes doe from him up to the preceding fifth day of January: ivorlcfetf. first, tnat every verson entitled to vote In respect of any t the qualifications mentioned in ibis section shall on or before tbe twentieth day of July in each year claim to be registered as a voter; secondly, that no person shall be entitled to be tcglslcrud as a voter or to vote In respect of any of tbe qnaliflcarions mentioned in this section fur more than one pheo. Vl I. A verson registered as a voter for a bor ough by reason nf bis having boon charged with ana r aid tbc requisite amount of assessed taxes and income tax. or el’ber of sneh taxes, shall not by reason of being so registered lose any r!g»t to which be maj he entitled (tf otherwise duly quali fied) to be duly registered as n voter for the same borough m respect or any franchise Involving oc cupation of premises ana payment of rates, and when so icclstcred In respect of such doable qualification he shall be entitled to give two voles for the member, or (if there be more than one) for each member to bo returned to serve In Parlia ment for the said borough. The Blcht-Uoar Question. To tbo Editor of the Chicago 'Tribune; Having been for many years a constant reader of your paper, and prond to endorse, for the most part, yoor fearless and radical utterances, I have from this cause been all the more surprised at the manner In which, from its Inception, you have treated labor reform movement. H in this matter you are to be judged by your published arguments, Ik la evident that yon see In it nothing beyond a reduction in the hours of labor, and disturbed business relations. Is this a comprehensive view ot the subject, or a superficial one? Is It not possible that these are the merest Inciden tals, while the movement is, In reality, a part of the great national upheaval which, during the last few years, has through war taken the flrat steps toward converting human cattle into reasoning men? Thongh its financial relations cannot he ig nored, and for the time may result In a large amount of friction, which Is inseparable from all radical changes, yet I will venture the assertion that, in Its highest and most imme diate bearings, it is not, in any sense, a ques tion of production or of money making, bat one of education. Tbo rnn«t active movers and supporters of the eight-hour law look upon It not as a method by which to avoid labor, but as in creased means for the attainment of knowl edge. The laborers are thoroughly con scious that the reason why they occupy so low a position In the social scale, is for the want of systematic education and thought, and, that to be able to Improve their minds in any considerable degree, they must have not only time but freedom from that physi cal prostration which accompanies over work. Baring arrived at these conclusions, and also to the unalterable resolution to elevate their own caste up to the conditions of the highest mentality, they cannot bo sup posed to have much interest in the special claims of.capital, which Is nothing more or less than accumulated and transferred portions of their own earnings. They have long Intrusted their interests to the care of capitalists, without being able In any great degree to acquire that intelli gence, which Id uli cases governs the world. Hence, they have adopted this motto: “If you wish to have your business done, do it yourself.” They see employers enjoying all the ad. vantages of wealth'and'education, while the paucity of their wanes compels the occu pancy of the poorest "houses, the consump tion of the cheapest lood, and the accept* ancc of those educational crumbs .which happen to lull in their way. l>ow our system of government, whose nominal chart is the Declaration of Indc* dcndcncc, has, as partial liberty always docs, made them Impatient of inferiority, and Kindled the aspiration to rise oat of it by combining study with manual labor, which, as a separate commodity, always brings eo small a price. Knowing that men really great are indebted almost equally to mental and physical toil tor their success, they readily see that a system into which both enter as equal Ingre dients, mast be productive of better thoughts than at present result from exclu sive mental training. With the multitude of examples our civilization is constantly creating, it is not at all wonderful if the masses should attempt to reduce the republi* can theory to practice. The vaporings of politicians, and men who do not work, upon the dignity ol labor, are loosing their power to ilattcr. If there is dignity in labor, those who do the work propose to assume it, and to exhlbrt it in tbe self-appreciation of a whole class, instead, os heretolore, through individual off* shoots. The workingmen of Chicago have believed the Tribune to bo In earnest—have taken you at your word; yonr teachings for the last few years have not been In vain, , and they now demand that equality of intelli gence yon haveso long and nobly advocated. While this war for equality was con. fined to Southern soil, you had no undue re gard for rights of property, as opposed to the rights of manhood. The workingmen regard freedom as but a poor pittance, if it docs not eleval# tnem very tar above the slave, by surrounding them with physical comlorts as well as making them thinking freemen. Even if the contemplated change from ten to eight bonis should curtail in some slight degree the unwieldy profits of capitalists, would this be on their part a just cause for complaint ? It mlcht be in Europe, but onrs is another civilization which is striving to break the European shackles it was forced to inherit. But, ii the capitalist is wise, tbe bight-hour system will result in increased production. Under the wages system, why should the laborer care for more than to irzi his $2 or $3 per day? But give him a direct interest in every blow he strikes, and there Is tot a shadow ol a donbt that he will ac complish vastly more in eight hours than in ten while occupying the position of a hire ling. If employers will give the selfishness which underlies all efficient action a chaocc to become operative, If they will ftoknovvledue and practice the princi ples of co-operation, they can, at the same time, help to increase physical production and aid the growth of an education which must far exceed the most sanguine hopes. All this can be done while accceding to eve ry demand now made by the laboring classes. ’ Eighty-five per cent of the nation’s inven tions are the embodiments of their thoughts, and, since the working time was reduced from twelve to ten hours, it has Increased , with the rapidity ofa geometrical series. The success of the eight-hour law is inev itable. It Is one of the first steps in the le gitimate outgrowth of the printing press .and the reign of ideas. . That its introduction will be attended with some unpleasant Incidents and details, is as certain as that no innovation of the past has been exempt from them. But t hese amount to nothing like the proportions of an argument against it or the time of its adoption. Every enterprise has its objectors who cannot be overcome by any thing less than accomplished facts. Were we to wait a hundred years, the petty In conveniences attending the change would not be lees. As a body, the workingmen are not foolish enough to expect any sudden financial pros perity. They do not think to reap before they sow. If need be, they will os surely cast their bread upon the waters, as they did when giving time and risking life to subdue a great slaveholders rebellion, that after generations might taste the sweets of liberty. Their conflict with capital cannot be permanently settled, except upon each principles of justice as makes a brotherhood of interest. As “ Mechanic” truly says, it is at present a partnership of “turkey and buzzard.” A bare wages system can never call out the best efiorts of the employed. Only when, to some degree at least, they become self-employing, will greatly increased pro duction be forthcoming. No greater error conid, by any possibility, be committed than the overlooking of this private individual stimulus. t That society cannot exist half slave and half free is beginning to have a far greater significance than when Lincoln first made the assertion. Law and custom most give to all persons approximately the value of their earnings, or the name of freedom Is a mock cry, and incipient republics a failure. H. H. Uißsa. NEW YORK. Curiosities of Nomenclature. Noticeable Features of the New Academy of Muaic. A Xiooh at the Honse. Its Architectural Anomalies Be ylewed and Contrasted. The Last of Winter Garden, and Sir. Booth’s Loss. {Special Correspondence of the Chicago Tribune.] New Yens, April 3,1867. WHAT’S IK A NAME? Why, in the Hret place, an Opera House should be called an “Academy of Music,” when it does not possess one of the attributes of an academy, is a question doomed to re main unanswered as long as Americans con tinue in their present state of indifference to the real meaning of tbe English language, which receives more kicks and cuffs than Mrs. Stowe’s Uncle Tom ever dreamed of. Misnomers are so mnch in fashion that to call u thing by its right name is to be ac cused of affecting tho English; hence, among other peculiarities, instead of making a dis tinction between “riding” and “driving,” we never drive, bat always ride, and are particularly fond of “riding on horec-backj” All shops ore “stores;” houses arc gen erally “to rent,” and rarely “to letlatch-keys are “ night-keys,” al though they are used every hour In the day; a good-natured fellow is called “clever,” and a really clever peison is said to be “smart,” this last word never being employed properly, and consequently made most detestable by its present use. Every body is an artist, and nobody is an artisan. We have and at the Fifth Avenue Hotel there is a col ored gentleman upon whose card one may read tlfc euphonious came of “George Wash ington Jenkins, Artist in Polish,” said Jenk ins being ready at any moment to “shine your boots” for the valuable consideration of ten_cents. All hotel keepers are “Colo nels,” all teachers, from cooking to lan guages, are “professors;” nobody is a man or woman, hut everybody is a lady or gen tleman, and all children arc masters and misses. Jones is not Mr. Jones, or Plain Tom Jones, but Jones Esquire, and honorublca are as plenty as office seekers. Colleges me transformed into Universities, and Universities become Colleges in a most miscellaneous manner, while Boston beasts ef two Conservatories of Music, when neither of them are Conservato ries but merely day-schools for musical'ln struction. “ Cunning ”is used in the sense of “pretty such “a canning little thing” being an expression of admiration. In the eves of young girls all things are “splendid;” baiter Is “ beautiful ” and Ice cream “ ele gant;” but why pursue this endless subject further? “Let them keep their limbs whole, and hack our English” while I return to THE ACADEMY 07 MUSIC. When the Fire King saw fit to make a hearty snppcr off of the old Academy, one evening lost May, with mingled 'feelings of joy and regret I exclaimed, “Adieu thou dreary pile.” I regretted the loss of property, I rejoiced at the possi bility of a new Ooera House that architecturally would be an honor to the country. There were men here capable of designing a fine building, and to them my deluded soul believed the aspiring boildiag committee would go. Hope told a flattering tale. The Fbccnlx has arisen from his ashes, bat the plamage of this irrepressible bird is none the more brilliant for the fiery ordeal. Viewed from the exterior the Academy is uglier than ever, for. In addition to its origi nal bldcousness of form, the eye is offended by the blotchy appearance of the red walls, occasioned by putting new wine into old bottles, or, to be more Intelligible, by the working together of old and new material. They look as though suffering from an attack of rash, or as If they had not recovered from a cutaneous disease. The portals are pro tected by the cheapest of all wooden struc tures, and thecntrancereminds one ofschool and primary meeting bouses. The possessor of an orchestra seat Is obliged to descend the parquet not by a gradual inclined plane, as in most theatres, but by a series of stops, which ore admirably adapted to stumbling, and even when well mastered, produce an uncomfortable sensation, to say nothing of an ungraceful hitch In one’s walk. Once seated, inspection of the interior begins. It Is better and it Is not better than the old Academy. It is better In construction, and much worse In decoration. With all its faults, there was a richness of ornamentation In the former auditorium that covered a mul titude of sins. Cheapness and poverty, barrenness and obniimr ni.it.~4 >• greet the eye in almost every direction, and were it not for the red background of the hoses, nothing could preserve a sensitive spectator from an attack of ague. As it is, I don’t know a better place in which to catch a good heavy cold. The draughts arc many, and all are payable at sight. The large chandelier In the centre of the theatre is common and tawdry. But there are virtues, and they shall now he enumerated. The proscenium, with its tiers of warmly tinted boxes—there beingone small and two large boxes on each tier—is very pleasing in effect and is the only por tion of the theatre that looks complete. The “family circle,” that “mezzo cammin'* between tbe fashion and the gods, has been entirely removed, and, in the place of its un couth horse-shoe, a row of cosy little boxes occupy about one-half of the arc of the circle. This excellent change has produced: a still better one in the lower-’ ing ol tbe gallery which Is for more comfortable than ever before. The Impecunious and lover of music 1 can now listen to opera without danger of asphyxia. The worst air from tbe Academy stage was purity itself compared with the air breathed by the cherubs that sat up aloft iu the olden time. Taking the Academy then “by and larger and all round,” as a Vermonter would say, it is an improvement upon Itself, butit Is a miserably economical improvement that docs no credit to the wealthy gentlemen upon whose taste and purses Hew York depended for an opera house worthy, of the metropolis of America. To expect anything better now is hopeless. The internal ugliness must remain, yet the walls can receive several additional coats of paint, and perhape that at some future period those coats will not be fiery red. It is also possible to fresco the interior walls out of a little of thcintbarcfacedncss. Greater improvements than these must not be thought of. Another fire will be the only means of attaining tbe ideal, and as, owing to the carelessness of an attache, the Acad emy came very near being again burned np last night, it may.yet be obliged to once more pass through a fiery ordeal. How wretched are the provisions for any such event is best told in the following communi cation taken from to-day’s Herald: Deab Sin; I consider It my doty to request you to cab tbe attention of the nubile to tho dan ger alt arc liable to who may visit the family circle at tbe new Academy of Music in fourteenth street. The wnterwas there last evening for the first, and probably also lot the last lime. The only means of passing ont are by two stairways ®kout six feet Wide. There were in tho clrdoat least hundred per-oas, about two hnndred ladies. Should the building take fire at sneb a time, or even an alarm be raised,]tbc loss of life would be frightful. I trust you will send one of your reporters to visit this place, and let all who patronize tbe 'family circle’ at tbe Academy realize tbe mk they ran ofbemg cither crashed or burned to death. THE LAST OP WINTER GARDEN. Reference to this hot*breathed monster re cols the latest calamity that has befallen the drama in New York;i- e., the horning of the Winter Garden. Thought of in connection with Mr. Booth’s loss, which amonnts to $75,000, and with the suffering entailed upon the theatrical company, thrown out of en gagements at a season when it Is almost im possible to obtain employment, the destruc tion of this theatre is certainly greatly to be .deplored. That Mr. Booth was not fully in sured seems strange, indeed; yet when it is remembered that theatres are subjected to ; the enormous rate of eight percent, and that the Winter Garden was watched night and day (but marry, how ?) surprise decreases in this respect only to dilate upon the fact that Mr. Booth should have allowed h!s own val uable wardrobe and that of his illustrious father to be kept in so inflammable a place. It is a sad pity, bat what’s done cannot be .undone, and certainly Mr. Booth bears his loss most bravely. Viewed m any other light, the burning of the Winter Garden is a “blessing in dis guise.” It Is . about time that the unwar rantable practice of building places of amuse ment in connection withholds, were brought to an end. This late lesson has quite con vinced the public of its danger. Yhen again, in all New York there was not a dirtier, ug lier and more nnsypathetic theatre than this same Winter Garden, which reminded one very strongly of winter and not at all of garden. Now, there is some chance of “time bettering days,” for Mr. Booth himself intends to hoild a theatre, and having the Drama really at heart,, we may expect to realize more beauty, com fort and taste than otherwise it would be well to dwell upon. Already Mr. Booth has agents on the alert, and it is likely that the ne w temple of art—l call It thus in the hope that it may warrant the name—will he loca ted somewhere between Union and Madison Squares. As the tendency of New York life Is to drive amusements up town, there coaid not be a better or more central situation than the southeast corner {of Broad way and Twenty-third streets. Bat wherever Hr. Booth. builds, it Is quite sure that he will make- a. good selection of property, land being willing, to expend several hnndred tnonsand dollars 'ln' the construction of bis theatre, it will be a sad disappointment if in so doing he does not become a betcfactor to the dramatic profes sion. "WlUr*. first-claw theatre, a flrst-clasa company ana - a first-class manager, Hr. Booth will bare it in bis power to do more for the good name and fame of the histrionic art than any actor in Americi. It is a con summation devoutly to he wished for. MERE MENTION. Personal Kt-ms. There is now living in Laurence County, Ohio, a gentleman who separated from bis wife. In Pennsylvania, many years ago. He came to Southern Ohio, and married a P ,of Marietta. After the second wife's death a daughter by the first marriage brought abont a reconciliation between'hcr father and her mother, and they were remar ried more than twenty years after the date of their separation—the first wife becoming the third. At the Fnrim hall in New Tork, last week, Mrs. W. J. Florence, the eommediennt, wore a notably rich dress. It was a very heavy white Lyons silk, low in the neck, with a long train. The skirt was heavily embroi dered with gold, designs in flowers and gold tassels being prominent. Banning with the gold embroidery was lace work in black silk, also put in with needle. The top of the waist or corset was deeply fringed with pearls and edged with white point lace. Over the whole, and falling gracefully from her neck and shoulders, was a rich lace shawl of the richest design. This dress was made expressly for the Paris Exposition, and was worn that night for the first time. A duplicate dress is to be made and sent to Paris in ita place. The portrait of Qnccn Victoria, to be pre sented to Mr. Peabody, has just been finish ed in London. It is painted In enamel, and is an oval miniature fourteen inches by ten. Tbe enamel is on a stont gold plate, and re presents the Queen seated, half length, tbe armsand bands thrown ont admirably from the black dress. Her Majesty wears the blue ribbon of the Garter and the George; the is represented In a Mary Stnart cap, sur mounted by a coronet, and her black dress is relieved by a trimming of ermine. It la a good likeness of the Queen, and very hand somely framed in deep maroon velvet, orna mented with fine ormolu. Above the por trait are the royal arms, at each side the rose, thistle and shamrock, and beneath the inscription, which was riven by the Queen herself—“ Presented by tbe Queen to George Peabody. Esq., the Benefactor of the Poor of London.’* A celebrated character has disappeared from the Palais Royal, Paris, Rene Lartigue was a Swiss, and a man of abont sixty. He spent the third of his life at dinner. Every morning at ten o'clock be was to be seen going into a restaurant, and in a few mo ments was installed in a corner, which he only quitted abont three in the afternoon, after having drunk six or seven bot tles of different kinds of wine. He then walked up and down the garden till the clock struck five, when he made bis appear ance again at the same restaurant, and al ways at the same place. Hts second meal, at which he drank quite os much wine as at the first, invariably lasted till half-past nine. Therefore, he devoted nine hoars a day to eating and drinking. Southern Items, The planting season in Tennessee is un usually backward. Grasshoppers have destroyed the wheat in Blanco and Kendall counties, Texas. The city of New Orleans has abont fonr millions of dollars in circnlation of city money. Florida will pay half a million dollars In ternal revenue tax on her cotton crop of 1860. Doable the area of ground will be planted this season. The Nicholson pavement is pronounced a decided success in Nashville. The annexation of West Florida to Ala bama is extensively mooted. The papers of the two States arc fall of the project, and the general opinion seems to be that it will advance the interest of all concerned. The Louisiana papers call attention to the fact that one hundred and fifty steamers lie rotting In the Red River, and declare that unless New Orleans hnilds a road to the head of Red River navigation, she mast “go un der” commercially. An exchange says pointedly: “It seems that the roll of Robert Toombs* slaves will be called at r a Georgia ballot-box, instead of at Bunker Hill.” The New Orleans papers report several alarming crevasses below Natchez. The Augusta (Georgia) Chronicle and Senti nel estimates the number of the disfranchised classes in that State at 8,773. The Mobile Tribune calls the Reconstrnc tion and Supplemental Acts “The Hammer and the Spike.” Seventy-five new buildings, twenty of them saw mills, have been built in Fensaco* nvuyw, CUIbC.UtB nV. .. A .Mississippi paper says that emigration passes through that State to Texas mainly on account of the lack of breadstnfla. Arkansas offers a premium of $40,000 a mile for the encouragement of railroad building la that State. Hcace the transfer of the Mississippi terminus of the El Paso and Pacific Road from St. Lonls to Memphis. Thousands of white swans are to be seen In the Lower Potomac. The Dismal Swamp Canal is suffering from the recent floods. Several of the singular eect-ealleed the "Bankers I’ have recently left Southwestern Virginia and gone to Indiana, They were all devoted loyalists during the war. A great Masonic “revival” Is in progress in Charleston, Virginia, and in that neighbor hood. Several new admissions have been made. Northwestern Items. The 'Wisconsin State Wool Growers’ and Sheep Breeders* Association will hold Us second Annual Fair and Sheep Shearing, on the grounds of the Ripon Agricultural Asso ciation, at Ripon, on Wednesday and Thors-, day, May Bth and Otb. On Wednesday even ing there will he a meeting to disease promi nent interests relating to sheep husbandry, A few days ago, Mr. Hugh Andrews, Sn perinteudent of Public Instruction, at Jones boro, HI., administered upon the person of a young man named FlnkDishon, a number of earnest blows with a cowhide, under the im pression that young Dishon had insulted, by means of an anonymous letter, a young lady to whom he, Andrews, was paying his ad dresses. Both parties to the allair stand high in the community, and it is believed that the matter may lead to serious consequences. A lawsuit is looked upon as a certainty. Arrangements have been made between the city of Aurora and the Chicago, Burling ton & Quincy Railroad, whereby the city furnishes some thirty acres of land for rail road purposes, the company agreeing to pay therefor SSOO per acre for the same. The company design to commence immediately the erection of another round house; to build In the future an extensive rolling mill; and eventually construct all the works at Aurora necessary for the manufacture of their iron and the construction of their locomotives;. thus giving employment to thousands of men to whom they will pay monthly over SIOO,OOO. General Shermaa’a Leave or Absence. Nxw Yobs, April 2,16G7. To the Editor of the Chicago Tribune: I have just received a letter from Lieuten ant General Sherman, of which tho follow ing is a copy. It may Interest your readers. Truly yours, “ C. C. Duncan. . . „ „ “St. Lotus, March 23. “Captain C. C. Duncan, 117 Wall street, New 1 otk: - “Dsah Sm l am now folly authorized *o act, both General Grant and the President baring con sented to my leave for the summer. You roar, therefore, register my name and that of my daugh ter Minnie tor your excursion. 1 have much to do in April and May, but will be In New York pane taaliy on any day in Juneyon may appoint. “Yours, w. T. SnzsxAW. “Lieutenant General.” Disastrous floods In the lover iwt«- sisslppt. The damage to the levees on the Lower Mississippi is very great. The Natchez Courier of the 29th ultimo says a view from the hlaiT In that city shows a terribly angry and swollen stream of water. Lake Con cordia looms np like a great arm of the river. The grand levee at Morganza broke on the 26tb f turning the river into the southwestern Sarishes of Louisiana to find Us way to the nil through Berwick’s Bay. While seven parishes arethns devastated, the lower river from Bayou Bara down, will be freed from danger. The stage of water above the break is already affected. At Red River Landing, on the 27th, there had been a fall of eight inches. The closing of the Roman crevasse, nlty-slx miles above New Orleans, ia still doubtful... It has Increased to 150 feet In width, and a stream of water from six to twelve feet deep is passing through it. The devastation by the break in the grand levee at .Morganza Is very extensive in Point Coupee Parish. The richest sections are cov ered, and the Injury is said to be greater than ever before. The crevasse la four hun dred yards In width, and. on the 29tb, was growing larger. The depth of water running through was from nine to twelve feet. The eastern side of the Grosse Tete was nnder water. Details of the M order of General Joseph [Fort Scott (Kansas) Correspondence (March 30) of the Milwaukee Sentinel, i ' General Bailey, at tbc close of the war purchased a farm and saw-mills in Vernon County, Mo., near the Kansas line, and de termined to make that his future home Moving hla family down sometime last sum mer, he soon attracted the attention of all his neighbors by displaying the same en ergy and perseverance in private life that won lor him while In the army the thsnks of Congress and his rapid promotion. At the f 1 *® 1 ”? laßt , fall . the voters of Vernon County insisted on electing him to fill the important office of Sheriff, which at the present time is •Ki s l nec 2 re ’ owiD * to w»e litigation TtSi has & rown out of the b war, and the presence of all kinds of people! civilians, soldiers (Union and rebeL) bush whackers, etc.—returned to live together In a country never thickly settled, and which, durinirthe~warrwas entirely deserted, Gen eral Bailey performed the duties of his office with a restless energy and a daring that bor dered on rashness. Only the other day he excharced shots with a busbwhacker.whose horse he finally captured and a few days be fore that he disarmed two men, who threat ened hia life if he attempted it. .On Tuesday afternoon writs were placed in his bards for tee aneit of two men named P.xley, tboshwacfccis) who lived a few miles from Nevada. Several gentlemen offered to accompany him, bat he declined assistance and started alone, expecting to be gone about three hours. He reached the p'ace, found the men, and they agreed to go with him if they could borrow saddles for their horses, but refusing to give np their arms, stating that they had never been dis armed and would not be. Not fearin'* any treachery, the General consented to the ar rangement. They went to a neighborin'* house, borrowed the saddles and started for town. When Inst seen they were riflin'* abreast apparently on the best of tenn£ Not returning as expected, some of hia friends rode down to the place where he was last seen, and then returning, found the dead body of the General lying in a ra vine near the road, having been killed by a shot in the back of the neck, the ball rang, lug downward. His horse, arms, and sever al hundred dollars in money were missing, and the only trace of the murderers was found at a ford about four miles distant, where a saddle cloth had slipped off the horse of the deceased. Parties are out furnished with means and orders to hunt till they find them. The re wards offeied amount to abont $3,000. The body was yesterday brought to this place for burial, and, after an impressive funeral ser vice in the Presbyterian church, the remains were followed to their last resting place by the Masonic fraternity, of which order he was a member. And so ends the life ol an other Wisconsin soldier. K. F. IMPORTANT ARRESTS. Grand Hunt of Conbterfeltera—A Gang of One Hundred Counterfeiters Bro ken np—Tbe Parties Implicated. [From the Rochester Union and Advertiser, April 3.J Abont a month ago onr reporters were made aware that important developments were about to bo mads In tbe counterfeit business, and that two or three arrests of alleged counterfeit money shovers had then already been effected. At the request of the United States officers who effected the ar rests, we refrained from mentioning the fact for fear of defeating the designs ol the offi cers. Colonel Wood. United States Secret Detective Corps, and Deputy United States Maisbal Keeney, of this city, were aware that they bad a big job on hand, and that the utmost caution would have to he ex ercised to prevent the frustration of their plans. The gang of counterfeiters through Western New Tork Is very extensive, num bering over a hundred persons, probably, and it was necessary that all, or a majority of them should be arrested simultaneously. The members of the gang, some of them men of seeming respectability and standing in the community in which they operated and lived, being scattered over a wide extent of territory, it was necessary that many special deputies should he created, to make arrests In isolated cases. Yesterday morale" Deputy United States Marshal Keeney, with the assistance of De tectives Rogers, and Dresser, of the special police, opened the ball by arresting Henry W. Johnson, the keeper ora canal grocery m this city. The officers took Johnson una wares, and on searching him they found on his person numerous twenty-five cent and filly cent pieces fractional currency, which be made desperate attempts to throw into a stove and destroy. The officers had a severe struggle before they could iron him and con vey him to jail. Johnson has been suspected for some time, and outside the officers of the law has stood lair in the community. Special Deputy Tappley arrived here yes terday alteraoon from Syracuse, having' in enstody John Sims, of Amboy, who is claimed to be the ringleader of the gigantic band of counterfeiters, and who it is said has cost the Government large amounts of money to de tect In his nefarious calling. It is alleged that there are more than twenty young men nowin prison, who served an apprenticeship under Sims. He has been the standing bondsman, the officers say, for those of his gang who were arrested. He is reported to be wealthy and a man of considerable in fluence. The Deputy, Marshals believe that they have a “good case” against him this time, and they are mnch elated thereat. Depnty United States Marshals Wm. Hild reth, Reed Olds, Bruce, and Tucker have also acted a prominent part in making ar rests, and are entitled to credit for their en ergetic action. Warrants for the arrest of all the parties whose names are given below, were issued by United States Commissioner J. L. Clark, of this city, and they will he examined before him. Commissioner Clark has been quite active In the matter and has given advice and counsel when called upon. The following are the names and residence of the members of the gang who are now In Jail In this city ; John Sims. Amboy Centre, Oswego County; Richard H. Mowrey,Syracuse, Oaommsa County; Charles Parish, Gainesville. Wyoming County; James Bose, Syracuse, Ococdasa County; Syl vester C. Cook, Alleghany County: Samuel £l- IcUon, Jordan, Onondaga County; John Rowe, SttorlsTille, Ontario County; Edwin S. Gray. Or leans, Ontario County r Delos Reeves, Penu Yaw, Yale* County; Milton J. Main, Amboy Centre, Onondaga County; spencer Wood, Orleans, On tario county; Ezra w. Chappell, Syracuse; John Hatpin. Syracuse; John Morraty,Syracuse; Hen ry W. John, Rochester. It Is not claimed by the authorities that any of the men under arrest were engaged in the manufacture of counterfeit money, bat were buyers, sellers and sbovers of it, and that through the gang it is that the country has been flooded with the worthless Treasury notes, greenbacks. State bank bills, fraction al currency, etc. The grand manufactory is nftt tn IVHtara V«w Vrtrb finraa of tho pang have made themselves rich bv«i***i?ug in the trash, and they -win cm to their aid the services of able counsel, who, under large fees, will use extraordinary exertions to free their clients from the law’s grasp. There are many details connected with this raid, .which it would not be prndent for ns to pah-' lish just now. It Is the most extensive affair of the kind ever consummated in the United States, and it will create excitement la more than one community. To'show to what desperate straits men will resort when closely pressed, we state that some of the pang, on hearing what was going on. and anxions to get into their hands tne evidence of their guilt, repaired to Can andaigua with the necessary implements,.for the purpose- of breaking Into the United States Marshal’s office at that place. They supposed that the money taken from the members of the gang was kept in the safe in the office. Their purposes were suspected by Depnty Marshal william Hildreth, who happily frustrated their plans. They swear all sorts of vengeance against Hildreth, who' has been one oi the chief officers in working up this case. Hildreth Is enough forany fifty such men as he has bad occasion to deal with in the performance of his official duties. SEURAT. An Interview with John H. Snrratt In Prison—His Kicape from Canada Sr. Marie’s '‘Treachery.” [Washington Correspondence (April 3) of the Philadelphia Ledger.} The interest attaching to the prisoner, John H. Surratt, now in confinement at the Washington jail, charged with complicity in the assassination of President Lincoln, in duced your correspondont to seek and ob tain an interview and conversation with him. Contrary to the current reports of the close confinement ana careful obscurity in which tho important prisoner is held, I found him occupying temporarily the watchman’s lodge in the jail yard. The yard in which this rather loose prison is situated is enclosed by a b tick wail eighteen or twenty feet high. I did not examine these gateways to ascer tain if they could he easily opened, but they appeared to he fastened simply by & bar on the inside. If this was their only listening, and they coold be opened as easily as ap pearances indlcated,-thesecarityforprlßonera was not very great, as the outer yards were filled with rubbish that could quickly and readily be brought Into requisition to aid one desirous of scaling the walls. The prisoner sat in a chair by an open win dow, reading a small volume, the cnaracter of which I did not inquire- On my entrance, . he rcse, and advancing toward me with ex tended hand, acknowledged an Introduction with & very friendly smile and courteous shake of the hand. Not expecting to meet so notorious a character in such a place, 1I was somewhat taken by surprise when the 1 name was pronoqnced, and, after shaVim? hands, ventured to inquire one* amiio th* name. Surratt,” replied hiy new acquaint ance, with a smile, »** think I heard of jou before,” I remarked; to which he qui etly responded, “Very likely.” In stature X should judge him to be five feet nine or ten. inches high, rather slender in form—almost delicate, perhaps, and appar ently twenty-eight years old. His hair is very light auburn, nicely cut and trimmed, parted behind and combed forward. He wears a moustache and goatee rather more Sositive in their color than the hair on his ead; the rest of his face was carefully shaved. Altogether his appearance was that of a well dressed and venr presentable young man, and certainly the last one that would be selected fiom acrowd as a desperate char acter or a villain, pe has a very pleasant voice in conversation, uses good language, understands himself perfectly, usually wears a smile upon his face, which, however, sug gests unpleasant thoughts when we consider bis desertion of the woman that gave him birth at the time of her sorest need. After a few commonplace remarks I ven . tuied to ask him a leading question In re gard to his escape to and concealment in . Canada. Patting on one of bis most offen sive smt’es, be replied, ”1 have nothing to , say about that.” His manner of reply, more than his words, conveyed to my mind that be considered It “a good thing,” something to ooast of, a great secret that would tend ito make him famous hereafter—a mystery : for the world on and with which to-associate his name. “But,” he added, “there was no secresy about my leaving Canada. I went on heard a steamer at midday, wholly with out disguise, and with hundreds or people on acd about the wharf. The steamer tod fully two hundred passengers, with whom I .associated freely during tho voyage. No hedy recognised me, though there were passengers that I recog mzed” He would not say what steamer this -was, nor from what port it sailed, more a large city Waa one of a re S nlflr hue leaving He spoke'of meeting St. Marie In France. Ue claims that he recognized St. Marie first, and that they travelled to Italy together. He manifests no vindictiveness toward this wit ?i5 s ?,(9 r having discovered - him to the au thorities, but he considers him a “treacher ous fellow, and thinks he was mistaken In his character. Surratt says be tod informa tion of St. Marie’s “treachery” before it was fully accomplished, and was kept advised from time to time of the steps taken to se cure his arrest. Had the actual arrest been delayed one day longer, as Surratt tod rea son to expect it would be. he would have been beyond the reach of his pursuers, his arrangements for desertion and flight being nearly perfected at tbetlme of his arrest. Many poor prisoners, whose crimes are scarcely worth mention In comparison with the great crime associated with Surratt’s name, would rejoice could their lifetime be spent as comfortably as are the prison hours ot tho universally accused; sail aria. An en tire corridor, full thirty feet in length and eight in breadth, with three huge cells, are entirely al hia disposal. In this cor naorhe is excluded from the gaze of the common prisoners and the enrions visitors o> a light door, closing within the usual - t °~ “ ol> era ling whenever it is notagree !?i a seek5 eek the °P« n air of the prison t I u 1 1 ODI 7 docs he have oc %Vl-T«Vts!f\ lll .v ,i^Or9O * Conflnement i wslea he is locked in the central of the three cells —a commodious apart ment—at least ten feet B ??. aie * I* 1 ® furnitnro is scant, con sistingmeiely of a stool, and a waitress laid Ufon the stone door, though amply provided with coverings. r To while away the sometimes tedious hours of the day be is provided with a plen flfol assortment of books, embracing the field of literature from the Divine truth to tbe silliest human trash. Comfoits. and even luxuries for the toilet, are also abundant. His cuisine seems to be carefuly looked after by outside friends, and no restriction is placed upon tbe amount of variety that Is sent him. Instead of the brown loaf ana boiled beef of ordinary prisoners, Surratt has the choicest of domestic cookery, selected with the sole view of pleasing his palate. Moreover, the comforts of a home are pro. Tided for him in the frequent and protracted visits of bis sister, who calls at least each al ternate day and spends the time with him, cheering him by her presents and minister ing to his comforts. True, cn these occa sions the veteran keeper before alluded to ahmes the apartment with the brother and sister, hut the surveillance he exercises is merely a matter of form, ami for aoy re straint it exerts upon the Intercourse of the brother and sister, might as well be dis pensed with. FIST DAT IN ILLINOIS. Frcclamatlon by tbe Governor* Ap pointing* Day or Fasilng, Humilia- tion and Prayer. By general consent, the loth of April has been set aside by tbe people of our State to be observed and kept annually as a day of lasting, humiliation and prayer. As the considerations for this purpose one year ago, seem not less applicable now, the language of tbe Proclamation Issued then is repeated in the present one. There flti casons for this which will occur to all minds. A becoming Christian humility; obedience to the will of God ; a sincere and humble acknowledgment of onr sins as Individuals, communities, and as a Commonwealth, and of our reliance alone upon Divine fhvor, all unite in rendering it eminently lit and ap propriate to turn aside, at convenient seas ons, from the secnlar pursuits of life to the consideration ol those great religions and moral truths from which U is never safe to depart, which we should never cease to re vere, and which cannot long be disregarded with impunity. It is remembered os a great national be reavement, as a day of lamentation and sor row throughout this State and the whole nation, that on the 14th dav of April, lSd5, the late President of the United States was cruelly assassinated, and that on the 15th day of the same month he died of the Citat wound inflicted the day before. Is it not a daylong to be remembered? Will not its annual return bring ptofoand sorrow to all the people of onr country, and sadden the public heart again and again as time shall pass away ? Palling as it did so suddenly upon tbe nation, in the moment of tbe gen eral rejoicing over tbe signal successes with which Providence bad jost crowned the na tional arms,-is it not an event tbe remem brance of which la well fitted to arouse in the public mind a solemn sense of tbe nncer tainUes of lire. and tbe vicissitudes to which all human affairs are subject, and by its im pressive admonitions to inspire the public heart with a sense of the necessity of recur ring to those sources of consolation and hope which alone are substantial and enduring? I, therefore, in response to a very general wish, and an almost universal expectation, recommend to the people of the State of Il linois to set aside, observe and keep tbe fif teenth day of April, eighteen hundred and sixty-seven, os a day ol lasting, humiliation and prayer, by laying aside all secular con cerns on that day, and devoutly assembling in their respective places of worship: To implore the Divine forgiveness for onr [manifold sins and transgressions as a people; To Invoke tbe con tinned favor of Almighty God upon our beloved country, which He has so recently and signally delivered from the perils of treason, rebellion and war; To supplicate His ikvor uponthe President and bis constitutional advisers, and upon toe Congress of the United States, that they may all heanimated by one earnest purpose to le gislate for and administer the affairs of the Government in tbe fear of God, and in the interest alone ol truth, righteousness, Jus tice and liberty; To hnmbly deprecate the deserved judg ment of God, and implore His gracious inter position to avert from tbe people of this State and nation tbe calamities of wasting and pestilence which it is again feared are impending, and to vouchsafe to ns the usual blessings of health To ask for the continuance of the Divine favor in tbe bestowment of a fruitful season, and in rewarding the industry of the people with a plentiful harvest; To pray onr Heavenly Father to take Into His holy keying the widow and the orphan, and to bless with His protection the soldiers and the sailors of the nation, who through tbe perils of deadly wer have restored the nation to its nnlty, and peace to the coun try ; that He will teach ns to remember with f latitude tbe services and sacrifices of these rave and good men, and ever to cherish with warmest sympathy their bereaved wid ows and tender orphans; and in all things to guide and direct os in tbe paths of peace, virtue and charity. In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and caused the Great deal of tne State of Illinois to be affixed. Done at Springfield this sixth day of April, in the year of onr Lord one thousand eight bnn j.vu suu oiity-BtneQ. Richard J. Oglesbt. By the Governor* Siiaeok TrNDALE, Secretary of State, THE FEBIAJf WAR. A Genet al Armed Rebellion Imminent In Ireland— Fenlanlsm & Formidable JHoTemeai—One Klondred Tlivomkl . Btln»h Troops In Ux«j island, Ac. [Dublin *" York Ucrald | The telegraphs report the fall of snow u Bull general throughout the Island. The drifts are from ten to Ufleen feet deep. This unnatural weather will not, It is thought, continue much, longer, and when it ends'the transition from winter to spring will bo as sudden and complete as in Greenland. I hazard the prediction that hostilities will then be resumed by the Fenian insur gents. No one ofsenso in England and Ire land believes the rebellion to have really begun yet. # The Irish royalist journals af fect to think it over, and speak of the “recent insurrection,’-* while with an incon sistency they do not perceive or do not care for, they are crying out for martial law. In the clnbs of London and Dnblin the In surrection is regarded as very formidable, and not least so in the skill, experience and daring of Its leaders in the field, so many of whom have been trained to war in the Amer ican army. Lord Strathnalm is known to share in this opinion. He Is very wisely utilizing the truce the weather baa enforced In preparing for a campaign that he seems to expect will be protracted and severe. The insurgent chiefs had made their ar rangements complete before giving the sig nal /or revolt, so that now when the weather mends they will immediately resume opera tions. They have demonstrated that they can with ease elude the British flying columns in the intricacies of the mountains. Separate bodies of insurgents will take the field, tbe war will cease at one point only to be renewed unexpectedly at another, and the British troops will be exhausted by incea ant marchhur, while unable to inflict an injury on their enemy. In short guerilla war will he conducted with vigor. - On the other hand there • are sixty thou sand regular troops in Ireland now. No British General be foie Lord Strathnalm has ever commanded a purely British army of such magnitude. The police, the local corps of pensioners, with the crews of the fleet, amouD*, a t the lowest estimate to forty thousand en. Say is round numbers one hundred thou sand Pien supportingthe throne, and thlslm mer.se force Is being constantly augmented THE FRENCH ARMY. Official Exhibit of ttae Military Force of the Empire. [Farts (March 23) correspondence of the London Tiroes.} The Minister of War has just pnblished-a report on the recruiting of the army during the year 1865. From this document It results that on the Ist of January,lß6o, the army tod an effective of 395.564 men, not including 2,181 •j.fanla d* irv*p<s. Under the flag there were: In the Interior 258.000 In Africa KL93B In theP.ench division at R0me...... 8,812 lathe expeditionary corps of Mexico 30,714 At the same period the reserve vu 355,564 composed of “ Total efiecilve To which must be added ’{Ll9B men of (he class of 1659, amt to the re serve In exccTj-loD of the Ministerial Ereecripiiona of the a.th acd Slat of lecember, 1865, who so longer peer In the effective became they had been erased from the roll of tbrlr corps, and they no not jet ap pear m ihe reeerre became they were rn route to their homes... KMi efftctlve strengthen ihe Ist of January, 1666 ; BISABB The average effective force, including of ficer*, non-commissioned officers and pri vates, during 1865. was 403,834. which in 1 r & r c ?> 8 being a reduction In favor of 1865 of 11,803 men. The re-engagements In 1865 were 13,70 0, being 4,564 more than In the previous year; The nnmher of exonerations was 13.777 in 1865, and 30.566 in 1861. Out of 108,106 young men examined before the Connell of Revision, 10,000 were ex empted, not reaching the standard of height, that being a per ccntage ol 5.89. _ The pre vious year had furnished only 5.75 per cent. An Assassin Becociiized by the Flash or H l * HeTulTer* John Collins, an old man, in Louisville, was lately murdered in that city, by an assassin, while staediog In his own door, at about eight o’clock in the evening. The murderer was discovered In the following manner, as given In the Louisville Journal: *♦ About one hundred yards be!ow Collins* house the xnardercr hitched his horse, upon soft, nnpaved ground, where his tracks were distinctly visible next morning. Those tracks revealed the Cict that the horse had one bare foot, and bat half a shoe upon another one. A man’s tracks were also discovered, which revealed another tact, i. a., that some one want from and returned to the botma in his stocking feet. Thus one bet was certainly and nndenDble established. The murderer bad rid den to the vlctnliv ot bis victim’s home, had re moved bis shoes in order that hla footsteps might give out no echo, had stolen to a favorable point unheard, murdered bis man, returned to his ani mal, and lied out of the neighborhood. “But there was one who was so fortunately sit uated that, bv the flash ot the powder, when the weapon was discharged, abe saw and recognized tie features of the murderer. UisuzmaU Shep pard— John bheppard—and lea brother-in-law of the deceased. She saw him come down the opps sltc side of the street, saw him stepinto the mid .djc of the street, saw him Are upon the deceased, ►aw and recognized bis leatures by the Us b. and saw turn run oil immediately upon dl chargUg bia weapon.” CIO, 830