Newspaper of The Democratic Advocate, April 12, 1873, Page 1

Newspaper of The Democratic Advocate dated April 12, 1873 Page 1
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$2 PER ANNUM APRIL SHOWERS. Patter— patter! Listen how the rain-drops clatter, Fulling on the shinglu roof s How they rattle, Like the rifle's click in battle. Or the charger's iron hoof! (’uol and pleasant Is the evening air at present. (lathering freshness from the ruin ; * Languor chasing, Muscle, thew, and sinew bracing, And enlivening the brain. dost? together Draw the hands of love in weather When the sky is overcast: Eyeballs glisten ; Thank fully we sit and listen To the rum that’s coming fast. Dropping—dropping bike dissolving diamonds, popping '(ininst the chryslnl window-pane. As if seeking Entrance*welcome, and bespeaking Our otfection for the rain. u hr tmriln. From the Snow Mill Meatenger. A TRIP TO NORTH CAROLINA. From tin* days of Anacdiarsiri down to the present, it bus been customary for per sons to write an account of their travels and observations, as a means of entertain ment and instruction to those who have not visited such parts of the country. Especially is this the case, when the scenes and adventures lie in sonic foreign coun try, while the more humble realms of our own vast domain remain term inctynitu to our own citizens. Having recently made a short tour through a noil ion of a neighboring Hteto in the dead of winter, and met with some \ casualties and incidents out of the usual j routine of observation. I have concluded : to jot them down. From Oisfield I proceeded to Norfolk • The next morning I took the steamer for Elizabeth City, via Dismal Swamp Canal, which canal we reached ot Deep Creek mid entered the first lock of about six feet ■ iq height. This canal is about 40 miles lung; has 4 feet of water, and admits boat* 18 foot wide. On the west side it is one unbroken swamp chiefly of cedar or juniper, hut has been worked out and burned out for many years, except some portions west oflake Drummond, in which ' Messrs. Bain! A Roper arc o)erating. i On the east side of the canal there are j several very large and fertile farms, f or some miles after leaving Deep Creek, and then it also becomes swampy and appar ently worthless. Here I saw the ruins of a Peat Factory that had beea in o|ieration some years ago, but it would not pay. Here I saw u lot of ground enclosed arid said to contain 3.000 bee hives owned bv one man. When we got opposite the feeder from Lake Drummond we had as- j vended 18 feet, the highest point, and 1 from there we descend till we reach South Mills, where we entered Pasquotank River, and thence to Elisabeth City, which place we reached about 11 o'lock at night. The next morning I took the hack for | Hertford Then* is some good country i around Hertford, and they now make cot- 1 ton their chief paying crop, when* before they made none at all. My next point was Kdenton, and I hud for my companion an Episcopal clergyman : who was quite entertaining. He told me j he was on a begging tour to raise $40,060 for the support of the Episcopacy of that Diocese. 1 reached Edenton for dinner, and saw gentlemen t< whom I had refer cnees and letters. This place suffered but little from the effects of the war, it being a kind of neutral ground. Hero i met with Major Gilliutn, who waa captured at Huttcrus and confined in Fort Warren with the members of the Maryland Legislature, who were made prisoners there. He named over u good many of my acquaintances who hud taken up quarters in that inevitable resort for those times. Ho is a loading member of the bar and attends the courts in the sur rounding counties. bate at night I took the steamer for Colerain, in Bertie county, and reached there about midnight all alone, one mile from the town. This was not at all pleas ant, but there was no help, and 1 started afoot, when a young gentleman in a buggy came along and took me up. He took me to a village of only a few houses, and rout ed up a clerk who told me where 1 could find lodging for the night. It was a large, bleak two-story house, ami very dreary and cold; here 1 shivered and slept the best I could for the remainder of the night. The next morning 1 called on certain parties who took me around the country, and I spent two days very agreeably. From this place I took the steamer to Plymouth, ami in the morning went by buck to Jamesvillo on the lower |rt of Roanoke River. Here 1 went out on the railroad to the Lind and Lumber Com pany's Mills. Henry H. King. Ksq. of Philadelphia, is President of the company, | who had given me a letter to G. H Ever son, Esq. the Superintendent. This com-! pauy has a large lumber yard on Roanoke River, from which their railroad runs hack eleven miles in a straight direction for ( Washington, and only Oj miles from the | the lust named town, on the Puiuplico Ri ver, which they will probably reach this year, or ut an early day. Mr. Everson told me this eleven miles cost the company $90,000. They have two large saw mills, one at a cost of $30,000 and the other $20,000. In one of these mills they haven muley saw, gang saw, circular, double ed gcr, crosscut, plaining machine, grist mill and shingle mill. They turn out 32,000 j feet a day. A store house in connection sells $24,000 worth a your; there is also : a blacksmith shop, hotel, Ac. They have ‘ an immense tract of land lying i Martin county, covered with pine, cypress and ju- i niper. From there I hired a private conveyance | across to Washington, whore I arrived be fore night, and stopped at the only hotel, kept by a Mr. Adams. I had references to •certain gentlemen in this place. One of j them, Colonel C. the Marshal of the State, was home on a visit and rode around with mo and offered every kindness. Messrs. B. & G. also invited me to their Scupper - oong wine establishment, where they have about 5,000 gallons on hand. The? make a light Champagne wine, also brandy from the same grape, which is a native of this Elate, and highly prized. The country is diversified and quite poor to general, though there are many fertile sections. Washington suffered more from the late war than any place I saw. More than half the town was burned, including all of ( the business portion, and there are many { of the chimeys still standing like disman tled musts of a stranded ship, though there •re quite a number of new and tasty resi dences now built and others in eontempla- 1 lion. Bath, a few miles below here, was once the scat of Government for this State. There are but few houses there now, and very little commerce, though there is a belt of good lao 1 around it. Washington is a wood fish market, and I ate shad during * "J ' ~ - ■ • --■• 11 m)t umorratit my stuy there every day—say 22d of Feb ruary and fur several days. They also i excellent oysters in large supply down to the eastward and along the sound. I left here in an oyster Imat manned by J apt. Day and his son ; and with a fair ! T®® 10 w ,° reached Goose Creek about ‘lurk, too late to go ashore that night a distance of 40 miles from Washington. ; Next morning we went ashore and stopped lii Mr * C 7~r' s ’ w,iu very hospitable. ( Ine people here seem contented and are quite primitive in their habits. They dres* in home-made clothes and live in a plain way, and have never learned the extravagancies that ease and luxury beget. I was told that there never had been a law 1 *ult in this whole community, even before a magistrate ; and their smoke houses and I corn cribs were never locked, and larceny was a crime unknown to them. Some of ( our fust folks who pretend to the greater . refinements f modern civilization would ( call these people behind the age, and so j they arc. and so may they ever be, when . the age thrusts forward mental culture at the expense of moral worth. When the time came to leave, we were unable to find a buggy to take us, and so we got into a mnall cart drawn by n pony like our benchers. Thus we jolted and jogged along a distance of 23 miles to Bay River, nnist of the time on foot far ahead of the pony cart, which came along at a snail- pace seldom getting out of a slow walk. At Bay River I made the acquaintance 1 ° f I>r A. and a very tall N. C. preacher. Rev. H. who told me he was only 6 feet ■ 3| inches in his stockings, and that he knew of seven men in his county—Green 1 feet 7 inches tall. That portion of N. I • that lies between the table lands and the tide water region, is noted for its tall, ' bony and muscular people. This jmrt of Craven county has been recently sot off. i ufu l formed into u new county, called , Fumplico. The location for the county j S(>u * w Hut yet fully determined, and the laconic around Bay River want to make it at the junction of Ray River and Trent i R*V(*r. A beautiful site it ia for a town, with good navigation on both rivers, and j ce *RPal for the whole county. I then went out some two or three miles j* n a southerly direction and saw some as good land as I ever saw anywhere. A gentleman told me he made 2522 lbs of seed cotton, or 840 lbs lint, per ucre, which at 16 cts. per Ih. would he 8134.40 per acre. Rut this was an exceptional crop. I met a Mr. A. however, who told mo he could pay SIOO per acre for cleared land, around there, in five jears, without ; having a dollar to pay down. He said the land raid from S2O to $33 a year per acre, rent—and 1 thought so too, "from what I saw. Many persons told mo the average product in corn was from 40 to 60 bushels per acre, and no manure—though after •bout six crops manure is beneficial. An afflicted man dost.* by, and unable to work has three daughters who made last year witli their own labor and one small pony, 1500 bushels of corn, 4 hales of cotton and 300 bushels of sweet potatoes. The average crop of sweet potatoes is 400 bush i els per acre, and I saw some 18 inches long ami largo in proportion, and was told that 45 potatoes filled a barrel. All of this land has to be well drained, and the tim ber on it is very heavy, of pine, poplar and gum, mixed on the same soil. They have an economical way of clearing ! the laud 1 had never before witnessed; it l is thus; They first ditch the land, and then from August to March, cut down the timber; in May they burn it thoroughly, which consumes all but the bodies of the 1 trees; they then take a {stinted stick, punch holes in the ground and drop the corn. It is left to grow till about waist high, when a man or boy with a stick in bund beats \ down the butter weeds around the hills of I ; corn, and this is all the labor that crop I gets. No horse or plow is used. They i • get from 20 to 30 bushels per acre this crop. The next year the loos are cut and rolled in heaps and burnt, when the land is plowed and planted, and they usually get from 40 to 60 bushels per acre. After the land is cultivated three or four years in corn, it Is then in condition fur cotton, which pays much better. I was struck with out* remarkable for- I mation throughout this section of the ' country. Marl of marine character under lies this whole region. In some places it ero)M out at the surface; in other localities it is from one to four feet Mow. It is conqioHod of little shells fn/m the size of a grain of wheat to that of jour thumb nail, and then again there are large sea shells, oyster, clam, Ac. It has a good effect up-- on the crops, and is inexhaustible. On Sunday it was quite cold, and snowed and rained alternately ; neverthe less. there had been no preaching for eight weeks, and we must have a sermon. So off we started to church and made up a congregation of nine persons. The house was quite Urge and no Move, it was not yet plastered, and there was abundance of ventilation. There I sat and shivered anxiously expecting the preacher to omit the usual services on account of the small audience and had weather. This, I knew, | our ministers, under similar circumstances, ! usually did. But he did no such thing, l and took his text and gave us an excellent 1 sermon; yet, highly as I appreciated all that was said. 1 must own I felt great pleasure when the benediction was said. By this time 1 was chilled through and I hastened to a good fire at ('apt. B's. Mrs. B. had a nice dinner, which I enjoyed. The next day I was to start for New born, some 25 miles across the country, in a one-horse hack. When the morning came, Rev. H. said he would take me in liis buggy. This I accepted with many thanks, and we started. I soon found there was a perfect understanding between Bro. H. and his horse Dolly. Most of j the entire journey was measured in a slow walk, and when t u o beast did trot, it ap ; peared to me she went slower than in a j walk. Country only passable, and in many . j places no more than a barren heath. Bro. | 11. told mo there was a now ferry below j ' the old one, which would cut off a mile, so I | we bent our course that way, and stopped at Mr. Ls. where t!ic horse waa left, and I wc took it afoot 2| miles to the ferry. | ' Mr. L. was very kind and gave me Dome I cuttings of the Scuppernong grape, which I I brought home ; he also accompanied us ! part of the way to the ferry. This ferry and its surroundings I shall j never forget. It is owned by a Mr. Howard of Newborn, and kept by Mr. Ephraim. I Quigly. Here wo are, in sight of New- | hern, and the Ncuse River, one mile wide, j between us, the ferry boat on the town j side, the swells running high and night i approaching. Five colored men soon drop in, all anxious to pass over, hut find it too rough. Despairing of getting over i that night we hovered close to the firo and . gave over to fate. The house is a now ' one, not finished and very cold. On look ing around, saw but one bed for Ihe long j preacher, the Ferry man and myself. The j colored men hud a room to themselves. 1 i Wo sat up talking till near midnight, and ’ | when wo could do no more we went to j 1 bed. There were few dreams and but | little sleep by one of that party that night ; 1 assure you. The next morning the > wind was blowing as fierce as ever, and no ' * prospect of crossing. WESTMINSTER, MD. SATURDAY, APRIL 12, 1873. In convenatlan with one of thorns eolor -0 ™ “en. “ }"uth of eighteen yean, I found n he eould read and write, and' to iny sur priae repeated the whole of the 3d chapter )r of Matthew by memory, I holding the r book, at the time, and ho made no miatake. t I asked him if lie went to aehool, he said • no, had never been to school a day in bis '• life, but kept his book with him wherever J he went and if he stopped along the road '• or in the field, hut for a moment, he studied e hia book. He eould also sing well, and 1 carried the different parts of music : this seemed natural to him. - About 11 o'clock tile five men left in a row boat, and promised to send the ferry boat for ns if they got over. They did not ' get over, but came near being swamped, i and were covered with ice and the boat y half full of water when they reached shore. I About 3 o'clock the wind abated and we V got across. Here I saw the largest man ■ in North Carolina. Hia name was Jones. i from Green county. He is six feet high i and weighs a little over GOU pounds. For 1 all lie is so large lie is ijuite active and at- J tends to business. He has a wife and sev -1 oral children. It annoys him very much to be gazed at. and when on a recent trip J Jo New York City, the boys followed him 1 in such gangs he had to take a buggy to . escape the annoyance. As 1 am now ' about to leave this section of the country, ■ I will close my remarks with a brief sum mary on some matters of which I have not ! spoken. Of course this is an old section of conn - try, being one of the original 13 States, s But through much of it the population is • very sparcc. When slavery prevailed, large tracts of land were owned by indi- I viduals at mere nominal prices. The own , cr generally resided in some town, where I society and educational facilities abounded, . and his slaves, under an overseer, were I sent to tile lands, whore small log cabins ' and slick and clay chimneys were erected, ! and there put to work, bleeding pines and ’ making naval stores generally. No more t thnn small patches of ground around the , lints were opened for corn and potatoes, I which the women and children worked, while the men bent all their energies to 1 the production of turpentine—crude, and • spirits—tar, ire. A good hand at this i business would make from 87011 to 8900 a • year, which paid better than other pur ■ suits; But of course tills kept the couu • try in a forest condition, and the fertile belts 1 of country were not valued for the worth 1 of the soil. That industry, through the I section I have traversed, is now exhausted t —the long straw pine or turpentine pine, ! is only found in small bells and will soon . be extinct—though there arc in North i Carolina vast tracts of such pines, but not ! in the eastern slope of counties. This be i ing the ease, labor has taken a new direc ‘ lion in the last twenty years. .Steam mills i for lumbering have been erected In many • places, furnishing the means to build bet r ter houses, and exhiting more taste and , comfort. Tlie soil is now sought fur what -1 ever it is productive, and a better class of : society is settling the country, and draw ing around them religious, educational and > commercial influences and advantages, that must develop that hitherto obscure section t of the old Bay State. True, then- arc drawbacks to this region 1 of country ; it is generally malarious, and chills and fevers and bilious derangements ; prevail to a groat extent, from July until - December. By observing the laws of I health as to diet and exposure, I do not ' think our own country has any advantages over that in a sanitary point of view. ' Again, there is another drawback of some i importance, hut which can be overcome by a small outlay of means—l allude to the I drinking water. As before observed, tills > j country is underlaid with marl almost ev j crywhere, and a well of good water is a ' | rare thing. Usually they dig down into ' ! the marl and can go no farther, and the 1 , water is of a hard brackish taste, unfit for dringking. Must of the people have cave 1 guttcre to their houses which catch ruin ' water in a cistern pre|red for the pur pose. This furnishes good drinking water, 1 while horses and other stock use the well • water. Mos<|uitoes and gnats arc quite troublesome at certain seasons of the year. On the Albemarle Sound and its tribu ' taries they eatoh fish in large quantities with seines from one to three miles long, drawn by steam engines, stationary on i shore, where they frequently catch 100,- i 000 herrings at ortfc haul. Rock, perch, i shad, blue fish and mullet (which wc call . flat-backs) abound in great quantities in , their season. Wild fowl, such as geese, ducks, brant and swan, an- also numerous' Oysters and clams are found generally in I the Sounds and Rivers and their tributaries, ■ and are of excellent quality. Wild game, I such aa deer, bears, some wild turkies and i wild eats, foxes, ’coons opossums, squirrels, i rabbits, otters, muskrats and minks, furnish • sport and profit to the huntsman and trap l JKT The turpentine business that used to he I of first importance is fast giving way to t other pursuits in Eastern N. C. I learned I some facts, however, connected with it, . ( wiiieh I here give. During the month . I of February a man goes into a pine forest . 1 (none but lung straw will do) and with a t long narrow bitted axe, proceeds to box the 1 ! trees by cutting deep hollow cups that will I ! hold about one quart. These arp made on I two sides of the tree and sometimes on I four sides. Five hundred of such boxes are | considered a day s work for one man. The 10th of March they begin to chip the - [dues which is done by a sharp, crooked j i iron, fastened in a staff or polo ; and one 1 ! rake each way bringing the angle down to | • the box, or in that dire ;tion, is done at I ' that time. The tiirpinlinc runs down into j 1 the box. 10,000 turpentine trees is oon i sidered a task for one man to chip, and r this must be done once a week to October. | Another set of hands come around and ! - dip out the turpentine from the boxes by j i using a thin flat, iron dipper; the turpeu ■ ; tine is put into barrels, and at a proper j ! time is carried to the still, where from 15 I ' i to 30 barrels are poured up and distilled > 1 at one time The spirits are put into I barrels weii glued inside, and the residuum I 1 is drawn off into barrels as rosin. 300 ■ j trees will drip one barrel of turpentine, i I and this dripping must be done seven times i j n year. 1 j I witnessed the sotting of a tar kiln also. ' The wood that makes tile tar is generally I; cut from the turpentine trees after they I ! cease to be useful for turpentine. The ■ J one I saw was about 20 feet in diameter. ■ and I was told it would run 60 barrels. . j Two hands can set and burn a kiln of this i j site every month. When you meet with a sprain, wet the . injured part with flannel dipped in hot I water; if the sprain he very painful, wet , the flannel with laudanum and cover the whole with a dry cloth. Then, with the , I arm in a sling, if it be the wrist that is , sprained ; or the leg in a horituntal posi it,on if't be the ankle; wait and see if It | l be necessary to send for the doctor. A shrewd old gentleman once said to his daughter: “Bo sure, my dear, you nev ;j cr marry a poor man; but remember that ' | the poorest man in the world la one that i has money and nothing else.’* i sr (DUo. r | r' ™ L - - i The Blind Preacher. . \V ilHum Wirt, one of the most celebrated ] Maryland lawyera of lim dav, aay* in hia t | RritUh Spy : I waa one Sunday travel- , ing through the County of Orange on the ( . eastern side of the Blue Ridge, when my , eye waa caught by a cluster of hones tied ; ueur a ruinous wooden house in the forest, * not br from the roadside. Having fre- , quontlv wien such objects before I had no 1 ‘ difficulty in understanding that this was a , place of religious worship. Curiosity to hear the Preacher of such a wilderness in- | ! ducod me to join the congregation. On , ’ my entrance I was struck with his super- , ■ natural appearance. He was a tall and ! very spars old man i his bead, which was , 1 covered with a white linen cap, his shriv ■ oiled hands and his voice, were all shaking ] ' under the influence of palsy ; and a few J moments ascertained to one that he was | perfectly blind. It was the day of the Sacrament. His subject was the Passion | of tin* Saviour, and he gave it a neater ' and more sublime pathos than I had ever | before witnessed. When he descended i 1 trom the pulpit to distribute the mystic symbols, there was a peculiar, a more than human solemnity in his voice and manner, , j which made my blood run cold and my whole frame shiver. His peculiar phrases had that force of description that the original scene seemed acting before our . eyes. We saw the very faces of the Jewa; the staring, frightful distortions of malice 1 and rage. But wiicn he came to touch on the patience, the forgiving meekness of our Saviour; when he drew to the life his blessed eyes streaming with tears, hia voice | breathing to God the gentle prayer: ■ “Father, forgive them, fipr they know nipt , what they do,” tlte voice of the preacher, j I which all along had faltered, grew fainter I and fainter, until his voice being entirely obstructed by the force of his feelings, he raised his handkerchief to his eyes, and 1 burst into a loud and irrepressible flipod ppf I (-Tn’f The effect was inconceivable. The , whole house resounded with mingled groans, and sobs, and shrieks. I could not 1 imagine how the speaker could let his au dience down from the height to which he ‘ had wound them without impairing the solemnity of his subject, or shocking them | by the abruptness of his fall. But the 1 I descent was as beautiful and sublime as the < elevation had been rapid and enthusiastic. | The tumult of feeling subsided and a death- | ( like stillness reigned throughout the house, when tlie aged man removed his handker chief from liis eyes, still wet with the tor-! rent <pf his tears and slowly stretching forth j his palsied hand, he exclaimed : “Socrates' . died like a philosopher," then pausing, | clasping his hands with fervor to his heart, ( I lifting his sightless eyes to Heaven, and j pouring his whole soul into his tremulous i voice, he continued : “But J onus Christ! died tike a God." Had he been an Angel i I of Light, the effect could have scarcely been more divine. Stupidities. Under this head Dr. flail. In his Jour , so/ uf Uenhh for March, 1873. humorously , | discourses on the tendency of the times as | I' follows: It is really a great wonder that every-! body is not dead and buried, and the world itself used up entirely, if the thous uuth [part of wltat is told us about micro scopical and other “discoveries,” so called, t is true. One man will have it that the 1 glorious Union over which the stripes and stars float so pruuldy will soon become depopulated, because respectable people | doit t have children: another has discovered myriads of bugs in the chatelaines and waterfalls of the ladies, boring into their skulls and sucking out all the remaining brains of the dear dclightfuls. A German seven now tells us that every sip of tea we take is full of oily globules which get into the lungs directly, weaken them, set up a cough and the person dies of consumption. Another man has found that the purest spring water, clear as crystal to all appear ance, if let alone will deposit a sediment which generates typhoid fever; hence ho proposes that everybody shall quit drinking water. Another says’ that bread has so much lime in it that it is turning us all to hone, and makes us all stiff at the joints, that being the reason wc have no lithe, sprightly old men now-a-days; hence we are full of limps and rheumatics long be fore our time, therefore w had better pjuit eating bread altogether and live on rice and sago and tapioca. The water cure folk assure us that pork and beans, and 1 ham and eggs are full of abominable trichina, and that if one is swallowed and \ gets fairly nestled into the system, he. she or it will breed a million more in a short time, and that roast beef has juvenile tape 1 worms in it. And here come Tom, Dick | and Harry, all in a row, loaded down with 1 microscopes “nd spy glasses, which shew ' as plain as day that the air is swarming ' with living monsters and putrid poisons, 1 which fly into the month and crawl up the ! nose and creep into the ear; hence it is ! death Up breathe such pestilential air, that the best way is Up keep the mouth shut, plug up the nose and ram cotton into the ears. Ever so many learned professional gen- 1 ( tleracn have been torturing poor figures 1 1 I for years to make them tell the stupendous i ; fib that everybody is either eraiy or soon ‘ ‘ will be; that the annual increase is ten j | per cent., consequently in eleven years I; ! everybody will be eraiy, and more too. ] Tne fact is that the people who spend I their time in hatching out the lomfuuler- ' cries, ought to be put to work and be made * Ito earn an honest living. This world has ' been pretty well taken core of for some j thousands of years, increasing in comfort 1 “'id wealth and life, the average length of 1 which has doubled within two centuries, 1 and the population increased perhaps three- ] fold; and the presumption is that the Great Maker of all will so arrange all the ‘ antagonistic forces of life for the future aa eventually to make “the wilderness and solitary place Up be glad, and the desert to rejoice and blossom as the rose." and the race be happy still. . ( There are persons who emerge from j every affliction and trouble and vexation, , purified like fine gold from oat of the j furnace. There are others—and they are , more numerous—who are embittered and t soured, and made despondent and apathetic. Wc think the latter belong to the class ,

that try to stand alone daring the atorms , of life, instead of looking above for aid. . When one can truly say, “He doeth all j things well," the sting is taken out of , affliction, and courage ia given to bear ( 1 what the future has in store. This we | think, makes the great difference between , these two clauses > a* i After Hoyle—-The “heart" ia the best I i card ih the chance game of matrimony; 1 nevertheless, it is sometimes overcome by diamonds and knaves, often won by tricks, occasionally treated in a shuffling manner, i and then cut altogether. { What U a Chxomo. j The American AyrU nUurUt give* am | I interesting account of* the manner in which i chromoH are produced, and n* this style of i picture Is very popular just now, wc tram- j fer the account to our columns, feeling sure that it will interest the reader. The 1 stone used is a peculiar limestone, capable ! of receiving a polish, and yet absorbent of water. To paint a lithograph, the stone 1 is first polished, and then, whatever design ■ is required is drawn upon it with a pencil made for the purpose, and which contains some greasy matter. Let us suppose that the artist draws a picture, or, what is sim pier, prints out the words American Agri culturist. The stone is then wetted, and the water sinks into the pores everywhere except the place where the greasy ink j formed the words. Ink, or paint, is then applied to the whole stone with a roller just os it is to types. This ink does not adhere to the stone where it is wet, but to the words drawn with the greasy pencil the ink will stick. Then a sheet of paper is laid over the stone, and the whole passed under a press; when the paper is lifted off it will be found to have taken up the ink left adhering to the words upon the stone. This process can he repeated over and over indefinitely by inking the stone and keep ing it wet. There must be us many stones os there arc colors and tints in the picture to bo copied. One stone must have all the red parts drawn on it, another-all tlm blue, another all the brown parts of the picture, and so on. Sometimes one color is printed over another to get the proper shade, so that, to reproduce the picture the chromo has to be printed a color and a bit at a time, on from ten to twenty or more stones, every touch of the painter being faithfully copied. When the chromo picture ha* received sixteen or eighteen different paint | jugs on as many different stones, so that it | is shadowed every way like the original, it j is finally pressed upon a clean stone, which has been cut in grooves like the threads of canvass, and it now has all the appearance of being real painting on canvas. The reader will see that it is an immense work I to prepare the different stones at first, so i that each shall have some of the picture in ' just the right place and color. It takes three to six months to prepare a set for one picture, even if but one copy was to be printed. But after the stones are once prepared, copies cun be transferred toother stones in a few minutes, and after that they can go on and print as many thousand, or i tens of thousands, as are desired. Calling Boys in the Morning. I Calling a boy up in the morning can I hardly be classed under the head of j “pastimes,” especially if the boy is fond of I exercise the day before. And it is a little singular that the next hardest thing to I getting a boy out of bed is getting him ! I into it. There is rarely a mother who is 1 a success at rousing a boy. All mothers , know this; so do their boys. And yet the | mother seems to go at it in the right way. | She opens the stair door and insinuatingly observes: “Johnny.” There is no response. “John-ny. Still no response. Then there ! is a short, sharp “John,” followed a moment later by a prolonged and emphatic “John Henry. A grunt from the upper regions j signifies that an impression has been made, i and the mother is encouraged to add, j “ You d better be getting down hero to your j breakfast, young man, before I come up j there an’ give you something you’ll feel.' ; This so startles the young man fbat he j immediately goes to sleep again. Aud the operation has to be repeated several limes. A father knows nothing about this (rouble, lie merely opens his mouth as a soda bottle ejecta its cork, and the “John Henry" that cleaves the air ul that stairway goes into that boy like electricity and pierces the deepest recesses of his very nature. And he pops out of that bed and into his clothes and down the stairs with a prompt ness thst is commendable. It is rarely a boy allows himaclfto disregard the paternal summons. About once a year is believed to be as often as is consistent with the rales of health. He saves his father a great many steps by his thoughtfulness.—Van hurt/ Ntici. The First Phintisii bv Steam.— In 1814, on the 28th of November, the London Timet leading editorial said: “Our journal of this day presents to the public the practical result of the greatest improvement connected with printing since ■ the discovery of the art itself;” and the editorial proceeds to describe the new machinery of a steam press by which "no less than 1.100 sheets are impressed in one hour." This is believed to be the first application of steam to the printing press. | The idea was so bitterly opposed by the old pressmen and such apprehension of violence from them was entertained by Mr. Walter, the proprietor, that he had the machine secretly constructed, and on the night of November 13th the old presses and pressmen were kept waiting with the statement that important foreign news was expected. When the impression was fin i >shcd (some 4,000 copies only) they were I informed of the grand change in affairs, with the addition that an ample police force was at hand to protect the machine. —New York Obterver. Thirty Centi ribs Old.— The oldest relic of humanity is the skeleton of the earliest Pharaoh; incased in its anginal burial robes, apd wonderfully perfect, con -1 sidcring its age, which was deposited eigh teen or twenty months ago in the British Museum, and is justly considered the most valuable of its arehioological treasures. ! The lid of the coffin which contained the royal mummy was inscribed with the name of its occupant, Pharaoh Mykerimus, who succeeded the heir of the builder of the great pyramid about ten centuries before Christ. Only think of it I the monarch whoec crumbling bones and leathery in teguments are now exciting the wonder of numerous gaxers iu Loudon reigned in Egypt before Solomon was born, and only about eleven centuries or so after Miaraim, the grandson of old father Noah, and the first of the Pharaohs, had been gathered to his lathers. Domestic Live.— The banes of domes tic life are littleness, falsity, vulgarity, harshness, scolding, vociferation, inceesaiit issuing of superfluous prohibitions and or ders, which are regarded as impertinent interferences with the general liberty and repose of the household, and are provoca tive of rankling and explosive sentiment. The blessed antidotes that sweeten and enrich domestic life are refinement, high aims, great interests, soft voices, quiet and gentle manners, magnanimous tempera, forbearance from all unnecessary commands of dictation, and general allowances of mu tual freedom. Love makes obedience lighter than liberty. Man wean a noble allegiance, not as a collar, but as a garland. The gracea arc never so lovely t* when waiting on their virtues; and where they thus dwell together, they make a heavenly home. “The hone that frets Is the one that sweats,” is in old saying of horsemen. It is just as true of men as of honss. Edge Tools. j Phcsr steel began to bo made in Shef . field in 1800. The inventions of Mushet I and Lucas iu 1800 and 1804 futher ex | tended tlte manufacture. Fork* and tcis- I sore were made by rolling iu 1806. From : this time, immense cutlery works sprang I up in England, France, aud Germany, and j the competition between the three coun , tries has been highly beneficial, for while | England stands undoubtedly foremost, yet both France mid Germany possess their peculiar excellencies. Amongst the im ports connected with cutlery, there is in Sheffield an annual consumption of more than seventy tons of ivory for the handles of knives and forks, and about 3,000 op eratives are employed iu forging and grind | ing the blades. An equal number of work people are engaged on )k‘H and pocket knives, made annually to the value of $500,000. A'cry many are occupied in fabricating raxors and scissors. French cutlery is chiefly fabricated at St. Etienne and Thiers, where many hands are employed. Table cutlery is here pro duced at a rate almoetly incredibly cheap. Germany, despite the superior natural advantages of England, exports knives and edged tools to s considerable amount. Solingen has received the appellation of the Sheffield of Germany, and has, ainee the middle ages, been celebrated for its cutlery, being especially famoua for it* swords, the blades of which sometimes sell for SSOO. In Austria, scythes, sickles, and table knives sre made annually by millions, at an exceedingly small cost of production. It is computed that 80,000 Bavarian grindstones are consumed annually in the preparation of these implement*. With the rapid development of the me chanical arts, the manufacture of tuola has correspondingly grown. At one time Eng land possessed a monopoly and the English trade-mark was a guarantee of quality throughout the world. The efforts of other European States.howc ver.have been reward cd with a share in the manufacture, while the demand for cheaper tools has extended British trade and yet allowed a considers ! hie portion to fall to foreign cutlers. Op eratives in wood work, as carpenters, join era, builders, turners, and cabinet makers, employ a great variety of cutlery tools ; sculptors, modellers, and pattern makers, require steel tools of many kinds, and all their branches of industry and art are much increased. The demand, therefore, fir planes, augurs, chisels, saws, and gra vers is continually increasing. In some instances, the French and Germans claim to have outstripped the English. English ? lanes, however, arc as yet unequalled, 'arts, on the other hand, since the period when Dubois and Dupuytren advanced practical surgery to the high scientific po i. siti on it now holds, lias prepared the finest surgical instruments, especially for dentis i try. The most perfect steel work has now i been enlisted in the service of science, and delicate balances and other philosoph ical apparatus have contributed to the in vestigations made by our chemists and as tronomers. Catching Reindeer. i In many bleak. Northern regions these , animals arc the sole support of the people. When liberated from the harness they go • directly in pursuit of food—a peculiar i species of nutritions moss, which their in stinct enables them to find deeply covered with snow. Sometimes as many as one hundred start off foraging, there being nothing provided for them by their exact ing master. Like camels under similar circumstances, when unladen, they stroll off miles iu different directions. When i they arc wanted again their scalskin-clad i drivers get behind them in several direc tions, and by hallooing, throwing snowballs and making considerable uproar the deer are gradually driven into a smaller circle. The herd is then encircled by s small cord, the men drawing in nearer and nearer till it strikes their long legs. They neither try to leap over nor break it, but huddle tog ici * close as possible. Finally, the two ends meet, held by one person, while the others enter under the line and select the animals they want, selling them by their horns, bringing them outside and tying them to something strong enough to hold them till harnessed to the sledge. The remainder again scatter in pursuit of moss. Strong, tall and fleet though the reindeer arc, able with a sweep of their antlers to mow down a score of sturdy Northmen, they cower at the voice of man. Their masters are rude, harsh and unkind toward them, and the deer are always in fear of them. Under no circumstances of oppres sion or hardship do they evince the slight est resentment. They arc so timid that the sound of their driver’s voice sets them running at such speed that they will die before halting if the drivers continue to urge them. Cultnre of Cranberries Where do all the cranberries comefrom, is a question often asked ; and, on investi galion, we are fairly astonished to witness the remarkable amount of business now transacted in this email fruit. To those having low lands, useless for any other purpose, the cranberry, once planted, often yields the possessor a greater profit than any similiar area of other crops on the same farm. The consumption of this fruit is extend ing rapidly into all parts of the world; is becoming more a household necessity. New Jersey raises the largest bulk of cran berries in the country, employing about six thousand acres for the purpose, the value of the crop raised on which last year was $600,000. The whole cranberry crop of the country ia estimated at about sl,. 500,000, Massachusetts raises not less than ten thousands barrels a year. Within the past five years Wisconsin has made rapid progress in the culture of the cran bernr, and the crop in that State last sea son is estimated at $300,000. The average price per barrel of this fruit is ten dollars, ('■ape Cod cranberries commanding the highest price. The fruit raised on the Cape is the best of its kind in the world. It is exported largely to England, and finds its way to the Queen's dinner-table. April.— According to the ancient Alban Calendar, when the year consisted of ten months, April was the first, and bad 36 days. According to the calendar of Komulus. it waa the second month, and had 30 days. The twelve month calendar of Numa gave it the fourth place, with 29 days; but when J alius Cmaar reformed the year, it was again given 30 days, snd has so remained till the present time. April is the Dower-producing month of showers snd sunshine. Hence the proverb; ‘‘April showers make May flowers.” Childhood is like a mirror, catching and reflecting images from all around it. Itememher that an impious or profane sentence, uttered by a parent's lip, may operate on the young heart like a careleet spray of water thrown on polished steel, staining it with rust which no after scour- VOL. VIII.—NO. 22. The Burliest Newspaper Authorities have differed widely as to . the nation and city entitled to the honor ■ of having started the Him printed news paper. For many years it was supposed i : that the credit belonged to England. It ; 1 was claimed that the British Museum bad i a copy of the earliest paper in its collec tion. It was called the KnglUk Mercuric, i and printed July 23, 1588; but it has been shown that this copy, like specimens ' of ."arc old coins, was spurious, and gotten up for sale. Watts, the bibliographer of J the Museum, who saw on examination that the type and paper were of modern origin, i and did not belong to the sixteenth centu iy, exposed the forgery. It was an inge nious fabrication, pretending to give the news of the Spanish Armada, which was ■ destroyed in the English Channel by Drake and Howard a day or two previous to the I date of the sheet. There were several numbers of this spurious Murcurk produc ed—four in manuscript, and three in print. Venice has also claimed the honor of leading the way in giving newspapers to the world. The Gazetta , thus named be cause it sold for a small piooe of money called gaxetta. it is asserted, was printed there in 1670, and it is pretended that * copies of this pa|>er of that date are in one i or two collections in London. But late i discoveries have apparently established the 1 claim of the old German city of Nurem- I borg to this high honor. A paper called the Gazette, according to trustworthy an i thoritios. was printed in that city as early as 1457, five years after Peter Schoffer cast the first metal type in matrices. Nu i remborg, with the first paper in the fif teenth century, also claims the honor of the first paper in the sixteenth century. ■ There is an anciently printed sheet in the i Libri collection which antedates all other ■ others except the sheet of 1457 and the i Chronicle of Cologne. It is called the ’ Near Zirtung nut Ifiejutuien und Italien, ■ and bears the date of February, 1534, • The British Museum, it is said, has a du i plicate of this sheet. I Thus to Germany belongs the honor not ■ only of the first printers and the first prinl ■ ing, but also the first printed newspaper. ■ It also has another claim to distinction. , In 1615 Kgcnolf Funnel started Die ; Frankfurter OberpotlamU Zietnng, the , first daily paper in the world, This jour -1 nal is still published; and the city of ! Frankfort is to erect a monument in honor , of its founder and editor as the father of - newspapers.—From "Newspapers and Ed -5 itors,' by 8. 8. Conant, in Harper a Mag a > line for March. j Why Jefferson Davis was not Tried. ) The proposed trial of Jefferson Davis, . according to the Charleston (8. C.j Acres. t was the subject of an interesting revelation . made by Justice Nathan Clifford, at a din r net party recently given to him in Charles ton. According to this account, a few . months after the rebellion was over, Pres , ident Johnson summoned a secret council . of prominent lawers, including Attorney General Speed. Justice Clifford, William M. Evarts. and about six other persons, to determine whether the prosecution for treason should be pressed against Jefferson > Davis. At this conference, the Federal Constitution, the law of nations, the deci , sions of Chief J ustice Marshall in Burr's r trial, and the Stale trials of other nations . were thoroughly studied, and at last the | conclusion was arrived at that, unless the , conviction of Davis was certain, it would [ not he good policy to proceed against him. , The prosecution, in consequence of this r conclusion, was suddenly abandoned, on | the ground that the laws of the United , States did not afford any certainty of the | punishment of high treason or rebellion. . About the same time. Governor John A. , Andrew is reported to have said that the r criminal law had no application when an entire people committed an act, rash, im politic and direful in its consequences, and | that the suffering caused by the rebellion r was the only punishment to be inflicted. Si. Virus.—Mrs. Jamison tells as the ; story of Bt. Vitus, in her -‘Legendary ■ Art." It seems he was the son of a Sicil , ian noble, said to have lived about 303 A'. i D. His foster-parents were Christians, ; and he was secretly educated in the true i faith. When his father discovered this i his indignation knew no bounds. The child, now twelve years old, was beaten - and put into a dungeon. His father looked i through the keyhole and saw his son danc ing with seven beautiful angels. The sight ’ was too much for him ; he Became blind, and his sight was only restored at bis son's intercession. Being again persecuted, Vi tus went to Italy in a little boat guided by an angel; but there he fell into the hands of the cruel Diocletian, who. on account of his faith, had him plunged into a caldron of boiling oil. This gave St. Vitus the crown of martyrdom. He is one of the fourteen patron saints of Germany. His Sicturcs arc found principally in Venice, lunich and Prague. The Cathedral of the latter place being dedicated to him. He is the patron saint of dancers and actors, and always to be invoked against that nervous dance. St. Vitus’ dance. He is always seen as a beautiful boy, with a Clm in his hand. In some pictures he s a cock in the other hand, whence he is invoked by people who are not early risers. What is Thought or Cb.—A corres pondent of the Cincinnati Commercial, who has recently been in Northern Minnc -1 sou, saw there" a number of Canadian citixens from Manitoba, and asked one of them what he thought about annexation, and how be and his people would like to belong to the United Sutee. “I don’t want any of it in mine," he said abruptly. “Is that the general feeling ?" “ Yes; yon cannot find one Canadian in twenty who would consent to annexation. If ever we join the United States it will he at the point of the bayonet. Right now we are freer than you are, and have less taxes to pay. lou are Uxed to death in your rotten republic, and don’t know it. Tour Con gressmen and officials steal more than it takes to run our whole government in Canada. Do you suppose we outside peo ple, knowing these things as well as we do, want to pin our destinies to such a gov ernment ? The theory of yours is good enough, I know; but the corruption and imbecility have corroded it until what you call the best government the world ever saw has become the worst." How io Measure the Height ok Trees.—When a tree stands ao that the length of its shadow can be measured, its height may be readily ascertained as fol lows: Sot a stick upright, (let it be perpendicular by the plumb line.) Meas ure the length of the shadow of the stick. As the length of its shadow is to the height of toe stick so U the length of the shadow of the tree to its height. For instance; if the stick is four feet above the ground, and its shadow is six feet in length, and the shadow of the tree is ninety feet, the height of the tree will be sixty feet ; (6:1::90: 80.) In other words , multiply a the length of the shadow at the tree by the ht of the stick, and divide by the low of the stick. anti > i - • . Presents to the Arbitrators. The U. 8. Government is having made j three elegant seta of silver to present to the Arbitrators at the Geneva Conference from , Italy, Braxil and Switzerland, each of j whom had refused compensation for his „; services. The order for the manufacture , of these sets was given early in January f last, and with a strict order that no out t side parties should know fur what purpoac they were to be made. The sets, silver ’ oxidized, and fur beauty of design and . artistic finish have probably not been sur . passed. Each set consists of two candel- , 1 sbra. a pair of vases and a large punch , bowl. The latter is twenty-four inches in height and eighteen inches across the top. 1 i The inside is lined with gold, and on the sides are two figure heads of Bachantes. Each of the eoudelsbra is thirty-one inches f | <n height and represents a female figure , supporting twelve candlesticks. The vases . are fourteen inches high, and on each . side are two allegorical figures representing I commerce and agriculture. The combined t weight of the three seta is 3,384 ounces. , The silver will be sent to Minister , Washburae, at Paris, April 3, and will be , forwarded by him to each of the embassa dors. Each set will be put io a separate I case made especially for the purpose, and built of solid mahogany, with brass mount - . ings, heavily giltcd. Nothing is truly Californian unless it is truly big. The latest “big thing” is the - enterprise of converting Guadalupe Island, lying off the coast of Lower California, into one Angora goat ranch. The island has . 1 an area of 166,400 acres, and is the pro . petty of an incorporated company. It is , mountainous, well-watered, and at present tenanted by an immense flock of wild goals, embracing, it is, estimated, 200,000 . head, the descendants of some goats placed on the island by the Jesuit Fathers GO or ; 70 yearn ago. Of late years some 32,000 . head have been killed for their skins and tallow. It is for the improvement of these goats—to make them fleece-bearing—that , the Guadalupe Island Company has been . organised. This is proposed to be done by a judicious crossing with the fine-fleeced r I Angora goat The first instalment of An r gora bocks, 50 in number, has arrived at f Ban Diego, and is perhaps already on the island. Four of these bucks arc imported , animals, valued at 8250 each. The re mainder are valued at 8100 per head. A Singular Bequest.—One of the I most eccentric acts of the late James McCully, the millionaire, of this city, says 11 he Pittsburg ( Pa.) Gazette, was the lea’v 1 ing of a certificate, or order, upon his administrators to pay to an old friend, Mr. Robert D. Clark, dealer in boat stores, ; No. 134 Water street, the sum 0f876,000. ■ | "as a token of frendship and good-will, j These men had been intimate friends for a . quarter of a century, and Mr. McCully 1 always regarded it as a pleasure to aid Mr ’ | Clark in any way he desired. In April last, it is said, Mr. McCully* presented Mr, I Clark with the certificate referred to, which is signed without a witness, and the only consideration mentioned is that of 1 friendship and good-will. After the death 1 of Mr. McCully, Mr. Clark placed the cer tificate in the hands of M. W. Acheson. Esq., who has filed the claim against the estate. The claim is certainly a novel one, and is probably without a parallel in 1 the history of bequests. The Maryland statistics, of the census of manufactures for the whole country, made up at Washington, show that Mary land during the year ended May 30,1870. had 5,812 industrial establishments: 531 steam engines, with 13,961 hone-power : 937 water-wheels, with 18,461 horse-pow-, er; employs 44,860 hands, of whom 34,- 061 are males over 16 years of age, 8,278 females over 15. and 3,521 youths. Her capital employed in manufactures was 836.438,729 ; wages poid, 814,282,205 ; cost of materials, 849.379,757; gross pro duct, 879,497,521. In 1860 her gross product was 841,735.157 ; in 1850 it was 833,043.892, which shows that our manu facturing industries nearly doubled in the ten yean between 1860 and 1870. Dr. Grimm, the editor of the famous German fairy tales, received a call from a little eight-year-old. who asked if he wrote the story of the little tailor, where it is said at the end that those who will not believe it must pay a thaler. The Doctor con fessed its authorship, but was much sur prised and amused at the answer: “Well, ; then, I do not believe it, and I suppose I shall have to pay a thaler; bnt as I have not so much money now, I’ll give thee a groschen on account, and pay the rest by and-by.” The committee of the Pennsylvania Agricultural Society, appointed to examine into the question of silk culture report that a revival of the silk culture would be of great benefit, as five and a half millions of dollars of raw silk are imported yearly. The committee did not advise the invest ment of a large amount of capital in the silk culture, as the work would be done by persons physically unable to do hardly any thing else, and suggested the employment of children in charitable institutions. Gen. Frederick T. Dent, so long on the personal staff of the President, is provided ’ for as commander of Fort Trumbull, op , posite New London. The President knows 1 how to take care of his relatives. The proprietor of a haunted heuso in Atlanta, On. offers it rent-free for one 1 month to any one who wishes to try it, having hitherto failed to find a tenant who would slay in it longer than five days. Rev. George Bowers, late Dean of Man chester, has bequeathed to his nephew, Mr. Addington, the gold ring known as originally belonging to John Banyan. A Dubuque testator formally gave, de vised and bequeathed his wearing apparel to his wife, for the reason that she had been accustomed to wear ’em. David Ridgely, a colored Kentuckian, with a distinct recollection of the Revolu tionary War, died a few days ago at the age of 113. , 1 A discovery of extensive deposits of bo rax in the Colorado desert Is reported. Urge numbers of prospectors are going to the place. An economical Hartford gentleman wants the people who saved him from drowning to pay tor tearing his clothes. the courts to enjoin his mother from at*i

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