Newspaper of New National Era, March 20, 1873, Page 1

Newspaper of New National Era dated March 20, 1873 Page 1
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THE NEW ttATIONAL ERA, muntt EYKBY tBCBSDAY XOBNINO II WUM*|?mi Cllr, D. C. srw jfiTioifit m ?TO?nra, ?t? urt ITUR MOTS H. D0C0LA8S, > J. SKUA MARTIN. |l#im Ptf t or ?Ti*rtTTn?** tla?W HM Hr J*W P. rr ;oj*lr? fur flA, ^nW? l? nfrtr*. Aooim PBKDBRtOK DOI CLlHi Ur., I Uik ?? 11. W?ikH?U?.?. C. COMMUKWA TIONS. ;tu Srw UtiMu bi 4m ?-4 ImM iibir iinmlll ? , rrrtrMaril ki n.rrwulrlU. W<ll WrtllM *?? ir.t?r?tiar win b, ,t?STj r?o>fv?*l The Rlfkurrnbu Va4fi?fn4racr riiiLArELPHiA. March 10,1?73. 1 71. the Editors of the S'rm Xatnnal Era : 1 It is over four year; tinea .Spain rebelled 1 against Uic nile of Isaliella, then Queen ; and ' it is over four year* tiore the Cuban*, fired ! by the spirit of freedom, declared that Uiey 1 would bo free frem the oppros-ive rule of 1 Spain ; and from tho hour they unfurled their 1 dag to the present moment, tlrey have battled in the hope of securing their independ- ' enre as a free llcpubbc. * Heretofore no people hare been more ready I in expressions of avmpathv, and liberal in contributions of material aid to those en- * deavoring to free themselves from political I l.unlons and the rule of those w ho oppressed I them, than the American people. The Greek*, the South Americans, the ' Poles, Hungarians, and the Irish, have each a their patriotic riforts to free themselves ' from thc.r yoke ot political tnralilom, rcceivcu the warmest words of encouragement nnd u' strait:-.: n-?istancc from all classes of our community, and though the wished-for succcsi did not crown the efforts of all, yet those (ailing knew that a great nation and freedom-loving people sorrowed with them in their failure, and hoped with them for the < oniing day, when victory would reward their valor and devotion to their cause. Such manifestations of jnactiral interest on our part, favoring the cause of those " who would lie free," is to them of priceless value ; it energizes the halting and weak, and makes those in the lead more confident of ultimate success. Hut this freely bestowed sympathy in the cases mentioned, and which seemed to he of spontaneous ri?ing, has most singularly, hs it appeal-, to me, keen suppressed, and uccded ai l withheld from the battling Cubans, nnd the appeals of its patriotic sons and daughters have remained unheeded by us, or treated with chilling inditl?erence ; nnd to this day, almost unsupported and alone, they continue to war with unshaken heroism for their liberty and independence from Spain's control. Thousands of Spanish sol U1CI3 I1U\U UUI II ftt'lll IU V. UIM IU LTU^II will U1U * spirit of freedom that burns in the hearts of t its children; but the cruel effort has been t vain. Each day brings to us reports of 1 bloody conllicts between the contending i iorces, yet these almost uuarmcd and un- t disciplined men continue to face their foes ; 1 and unfalteringly stand in the dignity of their ' self-emancipated manhood, rcsistingthe rovo- i lutionary powers that, for the hour, rule at I Madrid. The Cubans, determined to act to 1 the full requirements of a high and noble pur- < pose, have made their cause sacred by deeds ' of self-sacrifice and martyrdom. Confident 1 that their cause was just and that they were i acting in defense of the right, and, therefore, ' fully justified in their course, they openly de- i dared to the world that, "in arming themselves against the tyrannical Government of Spain, we must, according to precedent in all civilized countries, proclaim before the world the cause that impels us to a step 1 which, though it entails considerable disturb- 1 ance upon the present, will insure the happi- ' ness of the future." It is well known that 1 Spain governs the Island of Cuba with an i iron, blood-stained hand. I The former holds the latter deprived of po- ' litical, civil, and religious liberty. Ilcnce the : unfortunate Cubans being illegally prosecuted i and thrown into exile or executed by military ' commission in nines vi peace, iienee uieir being kept from public meetings and forbid- 1 den to speak or write on affairs of State, i llence their remonstrance against tbc evils tiint afflict them being looked upon as the ' proceedings of rebels, from the fact that they are bound to keep silence and obey. Hence the never-ending plague of hungry officials from Spain to devour the products of their industry and labor. Hence the restrictions to which public instruction with them is subjected in order to keep them so ignorant as not to be able to know and enforce their rights in any-shape or form whatever. To the God of our conscience and to all civilized nations we submit the sincerity of our pur- : pose. Vengeance does not mislead us, nor is ambition our guide. We only want to be free, and sec all men with us equally free as tlicir Creator iuU'fided all maukind to be. Our earnest belief is that all men arc brethren. Such were the grievances under which the Cubans had long suffered and submitted to in silence, and their declaratory knowledge of tbc rights due them, and their determination to secure tbcm by their last and only resort?the force of anus, under an independent republican government of their own. The annunciation of so bold a Tiuroose bv an oppressed |>cople should liave received ready rc-pouso from every true lover of human freedom, and particulurly from the American people, ihe practical exemplar of them, and the first to prove tlieir truth and grandeur. For over four yearn the thunders of war's arms have been heard on the mountains nnd plains of the Queen of the Antilles?a conflict betaeen fjjianish injustice and patriots determined to free themselves of its exactions and wrongs. For over four years the struggling Cubans have asked us for aid hnd the recognition of their right to be free, and the legitimacy of their warring in their own behalf and for their own cause, without receiving that magnetic response so freely given heretofore to those who would be free, and were offering up their lives and fhrtunes to secure It. Why is it that we deny them the'cheering word "Cod speed" to those who have sub-! nutted so long to their foreign rulers, but,' availing themselves-' of the revolutionary ! changes at Madrid, determined to follow the ! example they there bad set them, now, that1 the long looked for hour had arrived, when they could shake off forever the incubus of' Spanish royalty, who, with its train of greedy' cormorants who had fattened upon the produets of their exacted labor and enterprise to 1 ,ong? UUttft vC m 1 would ask the American people how i an they, without stultifying themselves, after their oft-repeated evidence of practical sympathy for the advancement of the principles of republicanism among other peojAes, show so much indifference to the efforts of MjnamII nil km* Jim I Hit k l^l:r mil I mj y Ti W ) - . ^ 1 ia -1 . i.-. ? _ XTTti. Yxf-urn 111' " -" ? ?'.t??v , J ? ' - - ? ? ?7, -? - y ' !* ? the Cuban* to establish a Regphlic se ?e*?i-*h their own, end doubtless ppwpidied to. tb*t?1 set by their example end the iMffritinf* ^C] be their humane end liberal principles? ^ xaMh The reepect das to the retoiirni?wts_af thwl?t lew of nslioe^fer the maintenance of (w4ce~ikp end friendly reletioee between Utet^'ebd: tH whilet theee exist the penalties thet-nweit f ye their infraction or violation I an* ayrer* need J wi the ctaeest observance on the .part of ipov-1 h| ernments; end to counsel, either of these jpe with the knowledge of itf affects upon our kg Bpuntrywould.be unreasonable, ? w*M M * < unpatriotic, end I em disposed to at tribute wi the silence of our people to such epprehen- cu lions following any open demonstration on gci their part with aid in behalf of the "Cuban tie auwe."^ " ati For one, I em disposed to deny the exist- op sacs of eey such Wndltig obligations under k jur present relations with (he prestigiatory Ai government et Madrid. be A people claiming governmental existence, al? tnd desiring recognition, eheald have a tan- cal jible existence, and exercising a controlling eai x>wcr through defined laws growing out of clt ts fundamental principle* of organization ert mown and acceptable to the people ruled, tra We arc all familiar in this country with rul he several political transformations that n'12 jpain has undergone within the last four na rears ; and the frequency of them within that sti leriod are evidences of the unsettled deter- by nination of the people under what form of -sol rovernment they shall live?whether they Gc iball be ruled by a dictator, president, or j cit ting* and though for a time an alien and i ab l stranger was called by the revolutionary aw eadcrs to preside as king of the Spanish peo- the )le. But Amadeus soon discovered that the sla trown brought with it more care than honor, 1 md more personal danger than respect, and, Ai vith commendable promptness, returned the a i mmeaning insignia of Spanish royalty and an tower to those who would have him wear it. no Can a people in such a disorganized condi- eri ion, and surrounded by so many uncertain- rec ies as to permanence of their governmental or >rganization, claim the respect that would be cai lue them if acting under some well-defined ret irinciples of political construction ? Are we ] >ound under such circumstances to follow do: hem in their shiftings and to recognize each mi change as a legitimate government; and are oui ve bound to respect their lines of territorial exi :ontrol, when the people embraced within sai hem repudiate their authority and declare dei heir determination no longer to submit to their in ule ? Can the}* in their inchoate condition, sin is Spain is, force a self-sustaining community wt ike the Cubans to submit to powers of a ma lay's creatiou, to be revolutionized on the it Morrow to the opposite extreme? If there ever sin was wanting a cause that would justify the of Cubans to rebel, this incertitude of Spanish re: rule alone would be sufficient to warrant de; their claim to self-government. Experience crc lias taught them that the rule of a queen, rat lictator, or king afforded them no relief from mi jnjust exactions and oppression ; and in the lej language of the leader or the revolution at wl Madrid, Gen. Trim, the Cubans had found fro "The hour liad come at last when we should all striko the blow and rid ourselves of our op- He pressors. Our country's dignity and our own tel liberty peremptorily demand this. Wc have tin hitherto been restrained until success would qu be certain. The immorality in the upper it i classes, supported by oflicial adulation and pe officious despotism, bas rendered iudispensa- Gr ble a radical change in our country's des- H< tinies. There is nothing more dangerous or cv mischievous than insurrection?nothing frit {lander or juster than revolution, IIow is the constant commingling of the groans of Lhc transported with discharges of musketry st our unfortunate comrades. Revolution is the sole remedy for these crying evils." '0 Such was the bold language of the leader ' of the rebellion against the Queen of Spain; pl< and the voice of approval and congratulation in tie behalf of the American people was promptly sal tendered them by our Minister at Madrid. vi( Their hopes were raised high in anticipation an of the arrival of the day when Cuba would frc be free from the yoke of royalty, and human m< bondage no longer exist on the Island of zei Cuba. But a change of rulers did not bring pa the long-desired change in their condition as cu citizens. The "Spanish republican" rulers tri held them down with the same "iron, bloody hand" as the monarchist had ; and they de- Ct termincd no longer to submit to such tyranny, and they, too, like Gen. Prim, found that no "revolution was their sole remedy for these In crying evils;" and there never were people an more fully justified in this determination than lal the now battling Cubans. Spain has no right w< to force them to continue in allegiance with be them and submit to such governments as they may choose for themselves, for they na freed them by their revolution, and severed no the political ties that once held them to their hn government at Madrid. In Impressed strongly and deeply with this ist view of their present relative position toward of each other, I would call upon the American th nation to examine closely the actual relations in; now existing between Spain and Cuba. For ch one, I believe that Spain by its own acts of j wi revolution freed .the Cubans from the gov-lju ernmantal control of Madrid. If the Cubans ' at bad been in sympathy withi them in their 1 change of government, and were still willing ' w to follow the lead of the revolutionary spirits j th in Spain, any promptings or interference on j so our part would justly be regarded as uuwar- to ranted ; but now that they "have declared j wi their right and determination no longer to be re held in political dependence to the power that pi baa so long oppressed them, I think it is but1 in due to them in tbelr struggle for independ- in enee for ua to leavi* th* wnr nnon tr? t __ . -.-J , i 1 to secure their freedom, for which they are ' as willing to imperil their lives and fortune. ' tt God grant them success." 1 in ulysses b. vn>at.. j Views on the Cnbnn ?|uealiots aud (]i Clrfl Righi*. I w Washixotox, d. C., March M, 1*75. 1^ To lie Editor? of the Sew Sational Era . 1 nl During the past four or jive days two meet- ' ci Ings of the colored citizens and their friends ei have been held in this city, lor the purpose of , u expressing some sentiment calculated to do . II good to the enslaved Cubans In their effort: u to obtain.fr$e^QOH and cast off the disgraceful, pi thraldom to which the Spanish Government b has subjected them; also" to make comment, upon that part of the late Inaugural address d of president Grant whichitlates to the civil li rights of the colored ciusens'of this country, o How far these meetings hare answered their d purpose may be seen in the reports made of, t< . A H vHL - L / f" tu L/ My A Br -- * Jl" ? / T*.? ?!** ??? A lull e; r~ 3.,. WASHIJW i u~ j u3 ?;u*! ^ '." ' 1 ??r an mb ?wc?wl?ng day tkf& m belA. i M write* ? af the epwiw *W Uw jwblfe f nftam Wrie Iriwri, ?X>4 that *eyoa<J ' milCl* of ipentaera.tMfeffrg-ne tfcex dp fn , Woi, wM; w rittei infuftned than-prion to*f??twg?. Tbe**t? of-the United, Ht? mo turned loaned* the Patriot at , Ki.Uif d? ptaee where. -ftw the j*?t ( ^ wfc ton* of botb white end eoleretl data* iuiojpunt/TbinfcUerelnMW totted. In tall what thejr think anl nbnt thcjr "Wi but k?*t faw have <feM either in re rent* to-the Cuban nuiuiiM iw that ?eh more fcmaS'tintely concerns them?-our ril righto?is evident. Vet these qaastioiM sm to the * liter smj to ha told, ad sloqgh be sbnB?>fcii mat tew worse faa -will tempt, to good bating, a brief comment ob each of th?M topics. In reference to Cuba, the colored citizens of nsrics, albeit their sympathy it should , unbounded towards their fellow-man cuiTCd, yet struggling for liberty, can only II upon this Government to give a listening r to the sppeals of a component part of its izens holding sympathy with their brothi in slavery; and while preserving its neu.lity as long as is just, yet as soon as the es governing nations will permit, to recog:e the Cuban belligerency, and let other tions sec that we arc not party to the intution of slavery, even though carried on lored people ought to be heeded by this ivernment, not only because they are its izens, but also on account of the lament- . Ic fact that not a score of years has passed ay since it could not itself have held up : linger of rebuke to Spain or any other i ve-holding power. i ts not our commerce injured by this war? e not the prisoners taken in war treated in nanucr violating all the established rules i d regulations of civilized nations? Has i t Cuba shown herself capable of self-govlinciit, and therefore in a condition to be agnized by other Governments? Isnotall, i any one, of these conditions sufficient 1 jse why Cuban belligerency should be i oguized ? in reference to our civil rights, no one can abt that President Grant has spoken in uu- i stukablc terms of the right and justice of r complaint, and his intention to give it his i ecutive influence. Hut his phraseology, f some, is not choice, or at least unjustly icriptivc. So say I. Tho yood that is ; the negro need not be a matter of doubt, j ce numerous examples have shown that icn placed under like circumstances he is a ,u like all other men. As to social equality is necessary that every good white man juld endeavor to raise the social condition the negro equal to his own, if for no other ison than that his (the negro's) social gradation is to be placed to the white man's idit. Social equality is distinct and sepae from social intercourse, and this latter ist be regulated by choice, and cannot be ;islatcd upon. But there is no crime in lat the President has said, since it emanated in a good heart and with good intent, and colored citizens are, in the main, satisfied, fcrence is made to these things in order to 1 our eDemics that they need not .store em for future use in the belief that we aciesce in them. In closing, let me say that is the fortune of the country, but more escially of the colored people, that President ant has been re-elected, since, had it been iracc Greeley, he had not dared preach en in such a tongue to his Democratic tnds. Grottos. I'uanlmity of Juries. Washington, March 17, 1873. the Editors of the Nero National Era : The trial by jury is the favorite of the peos, aud deservedly so, for by it their libers have been protected when every other Teguard of freedom has been stormed by ilence or undermined by corruption. And luug me jiruviaiuns w ine law Drougni mi the mother country to this there is none >re important to the protection of the citin in times of civil commotion or public ssion and prejudice than that which seres to men accused of crime an impartial al by a jury of their peers. This is specially guaranteed to us by the institution. The origin of this venerable institution has t been definitely settled. Some authorities tee it back to the reign of Alfred; some to earlier period, while others assign to it a ;cr origin. No matter when it originated, s feel and know that from it the greatest nefits have resulted. This method of trial, arising, as we believe, turally from the constitution of courts, and it from any express legislative enactment, s been gradually and materially improved, its origift it was adapted to the then ex;ing state of society, but the advancement civilization, the increase of wealth, and e various and complicated relations resultg therefrom, necessitated corresponding auges in tho functions of juries, and it is not without the aid of legislative and dicial wisdom that this noble institution tained its present state. Excellent as this mode of trial is, and notithstanding the many advantages resulting erefrom, it is not to be disguised that in me, and those essential respects, it is open objection. There are matters connected ith it which appear so to operate against ason, common sense, and the first princinf fhaf nna nonw/it l.~1~ ? 1 j | .M?n vuv vuuuub ucip HVUUCr* g how it is so little has been said concerng them. But, being creatures of habit, we -obably become familiarized with absurdity . well as danger, so as to be insensible to le extent of either, when we constantly live their presence. The object of every process and method of ial, both civil and criminal, should be the stribution of justice to parties interested | ith as much expedition as is consistent with . iir inquiry, with caution, yet with no unneissary delay, and with as little suffering to ay as it compatible with the welfare of sooty. To tequire an improbability as an ssenlial element of any mode of trial, tends > impede, and frequently to defeat, this end. lequiring the unanimity of a jury la order > a verdict, is to require a high moral lmrobability, and in many cases an impostiLlity. As to the rule of unanimity, Blackatona ismisses it with the that it ia pecuix to our jadicatnra, and that tat the Oothie riginal it waa not rcqnlmd. From this it oes not seem that he was very partial >lt. >? O I T\A>I 11UJN TOW. P. C.. THURSDAY, MARC1 Professor Christian in roa>nn'QUng upon J this pas fey says, that the unanimity of ? twelve tuefl,io repugnant t0 exrerience a of htnuan conduct, pMMW, and understand- r iqp, could hardly in any age have been intro- 1 duced into practice by a deliberate act of the a Legislature. And according to Iiraclon, it a appears that the unanimity of juries anciently ' t was uot required, that the number which t originally constituted a panel was uncertain, '1 and that when the jury Called to agree it era? j often at the discretion of the judge to increase the number until twelve agreed, or c more supply, and it ia believed more wisely, j fto accept the verdict of the majority. ! f In Wales, under the provisions of 34 t and 35, Henry VIII., a jury was limited j t to six ; also, in some special cases in Eng- * land, to six and eight; for instance, in " an inquiry of damages on default, or iu an in- C quiry of waste. Further in Glanvil, we find n a writ for a jury of eight to inquire into age when infancy was alleged. Ileta lays it a down for law during the reign of Edward I., k that in civil cases when there was a differ- o ence of oi>inion among the jurors, it was at fi the election of tlie judge-iilher to aflorce the c assize by adding others until twelve agreed, b or to compel them to agree among themselves tl by directing the sheriff to keep theni without t< meat or drink until they were unanimous, a This authority given the judges was exer- p cised by some of them with very little scru- n pie. During the reign of Edward III. the tl Court of Kings Dench decided on an appeal e from a lower court that the jury, iu order to a verdict, must be unanimous, and directed t< the judges to resort to restraint, if neces- o sary, iu order to secure the required unan- c; iniity. We see, therefore, that this salutary w power of taking the verdict of a majority of w the jury remained until near the end of the j( reign of Edward III.; then, unfortunately, and a in opposition to both precedent and reason, o the judges agreed that a verdict less than twelve was 110 verdict at all; and as a spe- p rific cure for difference of opinion, resort was n ha 1 to hunger, cold, and imprisonment. Ever f since juries have disagreed at their peril. p It certainly appears that the unanimity ji required is opposed to reason and common y sense, because it requires the existence of fi what is morally improbable, viz., that in fi cases of extreme difficulty twelve men should fi be buna-fide unanimous in their decisions. li It is contrary to the spirit of the common law, too, because it tends to delay the admin- ji istration of justice. It frequently forces s jury. v It is presumed that a jury taken from the ti body of the community will Le possessed of g sucli knowledge and experience derived from t: their intercourse in society as to peculiarly p fit them for the determination cf all disputed p facts arising out of the ordinary transactions li of life. But it must he remembered that d jurors, as a rule, are unaccustomed to judicial t investigations, and that it reqnires all the s aid that can be derived from the experience o and penetration of counsel and judge to direct s their attention to the essential points at t issue, in order to have them reach a just con- s elusion. So far as the law is concerned it h proceeds by certain and defined rules. But h much yet remains to be done to divest a case c of its legal incumbrances, to resolve a com- fi plicated mass of evidence into its most sim- a pie elements, to exhibit clearly the connection, bearing, and importance of its distinct and separate parts, their combined tendency and effect, stripped of every extrinsic and superfluous consideration which might other- j wise embarrass or mislead ; and to do this in a manner suited to the comprehension and t understanding of an ordinary jury is one of a the most difficult, as it is one of the most un- a frequently performed, duties connected with the administration of the law. Take any question arising in the ordinary businc- of life and you can hardly find two men of the same opinion respecting it; yet we "-elect a jury from the body of the people with no peculiar training or fitness for their position; they are brought into court and hear conflicting testimony; two lawyers, skilled by experience and learning, present the opposite sides of a cause in the strongest light; the jury are charged by the judge, told to retire and bring in a verdict, and, in order to do this, they must be unanimous. Is it reasonable to suppose that twelve men will, under the circumstances supposed, draw the same conclusion ? But let us take another view of the subject. Suppose one of the jurors interested in some sense, indifferent or otherwise unqualified, and this may happen in a thousand ways without it being known to the party entitled to object', lie may be secretly moved by hatred or friendship, fear or hope ; he may have an uufeeling mind and therefore take very little interest in the discussion of doubtful points with his colleagues, but may content himself by signifying to them that he has made up his mind, and if they will not agree with him there shall be no verdict. In every case at all doubtful there is only an apparent unanimity. In such cases it is far from certain that the verdict is the opin ion even of the majority of the jury. It may be, and probably often is, that of one obstinate tnau, who has the better of his fellowjurors, not by force of reason but willfulness, i It appears that the principal objection the (' uadiruis had to the introduction of juries fan their courts was this one of unanimity. Tliey observed that it was a strange thing aud a hard one to force twelve persons, who really think differently upon a doubtful matter that is referred to their determination, to say upon their oaths that they are all of the same opinion, and it was forcing some of them to commit a seeming perjury, by acceeding to the opinion of their feliows when they really believed to the contrary. Under this rule is incurred the risk of a small minority, possibly one dictating the verdict, and this is too dangerous a power to be trusted to any individual, especially when so much secrecy attends its exercise, which in a great measure relieves one from public reprobation. No one can criticise such one's conduct but his fellow-jurymen, and they cannot without confessing their own weakness. It is said that the opinion of twelve jurors is the test of truth, and if they do not agree lha test iiuls. So is the opinion of the Supreme Court the test of law, hut a majority only of the judges are necessary to pronounce k. The rule of unanimity frequently causes long aad unnecessary delay in vain efforts Ito overcome unreasonable and perhaps interested obstinacy. And now it must be remembered that Jurors are Influenced by pee i AL ] a 20, 187S udice, bias, and even partiality. They ac is occasion requires ; they have no profes lional character to sustain and assign n eason for their verdicts, and it can rarel; mppcn that their individual or personal char icters are at stake. In rcany instances the; ire onsuited l>v previous habits to decide uis i be effect of legal instrument!" an J other mat ers connected with legal rules and prcsump ions. We need not, therefore, wonder tlia uries so frequently disagree. Then this modern role or practice of dis barging a jury if they fail to agree and de erring the tnal to some future time is man: estly illegal and injurious to suitors. Illegal lecause we hare a constitutional guarantei hat men accused of crime shall have : peedy, public trial by jury- But by requir ag unanimity we violate this provision of th( Constitution at least in spirit, by causing un eeessary delay. The juror is sworn to give a true verdici ccording to the evidence. Suppose, and i1 s possible, especially when there is intricaci r contradictory evidence, that he differs rom his colleagues in his conclusions, h< annot,as the law stands, discharge his dut> y giving his verdict individually. lie must, liercfore, either perjure himself by agreeing 0 a verdict he believed false and unjust, disgree and have the jury discharged, or cornel them to remain with liim in their retirelent and submit to the process devised by lie wisdom or barbarism of our ancestors tc nforce unanimity. It is, however, possible by a few changes 1 preserve all that is valuable in this mode f trial, while we remove the defects indiited. It might prove specially serviceable ere a law enacted that the verdict shall ah ays he given in writing, signed by the inanity of the jury. Thus, instead of a forced nd unreal unanimity as at present, we should btain the true sentiments of jurors. In effecting the change of long-established radices I am aware that various difficulties my arise to prevent contemplated benefits, tut by the improvements- suggested every erson concerned in the administration ol istice would reap advantages?judges, lawers, jurors, and the public. And if real difculties should appear they must indeed be irmidable to overcome the urgent necessity >r protection of individual morality and pubc justice. I appeal, therefore, to our legislators, jdges, and other officials whether a compulory unanimity in their decisions would not e a most oppressive and intolerable burden : rhethor it would not disturb their delibcraions, frustrate their endeavors for the public ood, and effectually impede the administraration of justice. Jurors are men of like assions and feelings with themselves, nol crhaps so well instructed, and therefore less koly to weigh the opposite reasons in s oubtful case, and be unanimous in cases dc crniined upon a small preponderance of rea on or evidence. Remember that on points f law as well as fact the highest authorities ometimes disagree. Relieve the juror fron he necessity of compounding with his con> cienco for a forced assent to a verdict he ii lis soul disapproves, and no longer compc im to seem to commit perjury in the dis hargc of a public duty, which should be thi irthest removed from even the semblance o , crime so offensive and odious. Jas. II. Smith. Letter from Mlstnlsslppl. Vicksbcko, Misjs., March 10, 1873. To the Editors of the Xew Xational Era: It may not be uninteresting to your reader o give them a short account of the conditio) ind prospects of Alcorn University. As yoi ire aware this is an infant institution of learn ng, established by the State of Mississipp n 1871, and designed to provide universit; 'location for colored youth, shut out as the lave hitherto been by a spirit of caste fror ,he academies and colleges, not only of Mis lissippi, but the entire South. From the extent of its resources and tli lomprehcnsiveness of its mission the institi: .ion is destined to be, at no distant day, on of the leading universities of the country. I s endowed with the princely income of lift thousand dollars per annum from the State secured to it as a vested franchise beyond tli each of legislative interference, by the ac of incorporation, and has, in addition, rc :eived a donation of something over one hur Jred thousand dollars from the Agricultur; College fund?the latter sum being investe in 8 per cent. State securities as a permaner fund. It is located at Oakland, Claiborn :ounty, Mississippi, four miles from ltodnei md about twenty-five miles from Xatelie; l'he buildings, which are ample, were origir ally erected, and for a quarter of a centur occupied, as " Oakland College," a l'resbj tcrian establishment, which claims the cred of having educated some of the first minds i Mississippi, but which, like many othc memorable institutions, succumbed to th fortunes of war and the prostration of th country? " Chill penury repressed their noble rage And froze the genial currents of the soul. After repeated efforts after the war to s< the university again on its feet, the truste< were finally compelled to definitely suspen operations, and its doors had been perm; nently closed when the trustees of A leor University became the purchasers of the ei tire establishment for the sum of forty thoi sand dollars. The tract consists of ?13 acre and there are seven brick buildings, includit one chapel, four dormitories, and two literal halls; also one frame refectory, President house, and a number of frame cottages?tl original cost of the buildings being not le: than 1100,000. Alcorn University was thrown open f the reception of students about the 13tb of February, 1672, with a faculty consistii of Ilyrani It. Revels, D. D., President, ai Lawrence W. Minor, A. M., John U. Mite ell, A. M., and J. U. Blackburn, A. B., i nrnFonnn Th? number of students enteri during the remainder of the academic ye was forty-three, which, though a small nui ber in comparison with the capacity of t institution, was yet considered by the trust board as a fair start, and aa presaging t ultimate success of the university. The second academic year opened on t first Monday in October last. By the first January there were 120 sIndents, and present, although the university has 1 just entered upon the thirteenth month of existence, it numbers 160 students. A si cese so rapid and so brilliant has rarely tended the growth of any institution of lea lag. It Is already power in the land, s ERA. * fy.SO n y?:tr in mlrnnc-f. t is nuking its influence f?r good perceptibly felt throughout the whole State. If there be 0 any doubting Thomas who is still skeptical V about the capacity of the colored man for in tellectual development he should spend a ? single day in attendance upon the recitations 1 at Alcorn, and get a little of the Caucasian * conceit taken out of him. At the present, by the resignation of Pr. t Revels, the institution is without an executive head, and the Governor, acting in con cert with the trustee board and friends of - the university, is only waiting to lind the prc per man, when a new President will be np, pointed. The eyes of all were tirst turned ' toward Ilenry Highland Garnet, but he cstii not leave the field in which he is now en-, - gaged. Professor Thompson, of Streight i University, Xcw Orleans, has been men tioned in connection with the place, and we are told that bo is a most suitable person. t, You can imagine the deep solicitude felt by t the friends of the university in this most iinr | portaut matter. An iufant institution with a > great work before it is looking for a master ! mind to give it direction aud coutrol its des' , tinies. CiHild we glean froru the w hole field , , i there would l>c less difficulty, but although j ;; there is nothing in the charter upon the stib i ject, and the university is as catholic as ant ' institution in Christendom, yet in point oi , | fact it was intended for the high education of, ; colored youth, and it is deemed peculiarly ap> | propriate that a colored President and fae-1 I ulty should preside over it. | > j The faculty is composed of capable, schol11 arly, faithful professors, devoted to the work j of building up the institution, who will eo i operate with wlioinsoever may he called to ! undertake the high responsibility of President. Money is not wanting, nor a field conipre i j hensive enough to satisfy the most exalted j \ | ambition, and reward the most eminent lal-, < ents and virtues. To sueli a man, Alcorn j J 1 University offers a mission with " length of: ? . I 1 days in her right hand, and in her K ft riehes j t and honor. Tim'stkk. c I'roiifs uT l otion riantlng. j A correspondent in Washington county, ] j I Mississippi, writes as follows to the l.ouis- ! , . I ville Journal: I > It has been a matter of astonishment tome j I often, and is so now, that a farmer in Ken- 1 j tucky, or in the North generally, wi 1 delveaud ' i work us laboriously as a common band here, 4 has invested from thirty to one hundred 1 i thousand dollars, and receive for it no more , than an Knglishmnn gets on his consols. ' ' Occasionally a large crop of wheat and hemp, ' ' at big prices, would give him 0 per cent., but 1 ; as a rule, 2 to 4 per cent, is realised. Hoar . does this compare with the percentage of 4 , protit on valuations in this country? I have a place of near eleven hundred acres of 1 ' cleared land, which I value at ?50,000 cash, ' i but which could not be sold for over ? 10,000, [ i nnd say ?5,000 worth of mules, and #2,000 for implements; say total of ?57,000 in- [ vested. I am only cultivating this year two thirds ' > of the place, and will make corn enough to i do me another year, with plenty of oats and , clover hay, and about 400 bales of cottou, weighing 400 pounds each. One-half the cotton comes to me, the balance going to the 1 hands?-say 200 hales at #00, net, per bale, 1 will bring #12,000, from which deduct #00o . taxes, #200 repairs on machinery, #250 rc, pairs on fencing, 10 per cent, off' valuation o' ' mules, #500; same off valuation of imple' ments, #2o0; cost of household expenses proper, #1,000?say a total of #3,05o?from 812.000. leaves 88.050 : throwing in the #050 1 to cover small items of expense not en inner- \ ' ated, will bring the net proceeds of this year's labor $3>000 on an investment of 857,000, or ! very nearly 15 per cent. If the whole place ' were cultivated, and 800 bales raised, the 1 reader can estimate the additional profit. I 1 9 have heard persons say they would not live ! ' i on a plantation under the present system of 1 a labor if they could make 100 per cent., or, to 1 . use some of the more exaggerated cxpres- j 1 . sions, if all the plantations from Memphis to \ ' " New Orleans were given them, y I have tried every kind of labor since the j y war?Irish, Hutch, Canadians, Swedes, and u Yankees?and must say I prefer the negro to any of them. The negro is not so '* quick as many white laborers, but he de- j mands so much less in the way of supplies, e is more acclimated, and generally easier to i. get along with. This country is rapidly inc creasing its laboring population, many negroes immigrating and being brought here j ' from the Carolinas, Georgia, and Alabama, i y Owing to the fact of many of the planters : ; | spending the whole year on their places, j g : their improvements and comforts generally ; have been vastly increased since the war. ' Indeed, far from the deterioration and dilap\ idation generally attributed to plantations i- i since the war beiag the case, I know of no : plantation in my neighborhood on which the . ] improvements arc not more substantial and I the general appearance better than before it | the war. This may bo judged of partly when e I I tell you that two saw-mills, turning out in . the past eight months over 1,000,000 feet of j ' | lumber, have found sale for it all in my im- , l' mediate neighborhood ?say on eight or ten j ' plantations. Few plank fences were seen y here before the war; now miles of them will j . be met with in a day's ride. So you see that j , ; we are not absolutely the lazy, "nigger1 | walloping" set that our charitable Northern P friends denominate us. lC Tlie Case ol .Mr. C'olfa* Tlir ie i Amende Honorable (rum a Cultural Opponent. " lgiisvillk, March 1". The Couiitf 1 1 Journal to-day contain* the following double- j ! leaded editorial: '"We have taken the trouble ' :s ) to review carefully the cane of C olfax as re- i 'J corded in the < ongres.-ional investigation, a-1 and compare it with the elaborate defense deu | livered by the late Vice President at South j Bend, last Saturday. The result of our re1 j search is, that he has given a successful and J" satisfactory explanation of the entire matter, s, It will require a closer analysis than that ig which we liave made or are capable of niak?. ing to alter our opinion that in this business , Mr. Colfax lias been very much abused and s wronged, and we are readier to allow this te since we have never been tempted, and could ss not be induced to sacrifice the private character of any man to partisan interest or prejudice. In doing what we believe to lie acts ur of personal justice we desire to be free and of explicit, and ungrudging, and therefore we \a shall not shallow Lilt COLlLTditlll.lt.(111which i Jtj we have to offer a conspicuous political ad. versary by any of those minor disparagements which might I?t aanctijued hy less l> generous criticism." ar Imprated Habile ol the I'rced* n-! men. he From all sections of the country where the ee colored population preponderate there are he cheering report* of the marked improvement in habits of thnft and economy. The prache tice of renting small farms and patcbea of . ground is becoming quite general, the laod' owner* finding it more to their intereat, as well as that of the freedmen, to allow them jot in a great measure to exercise their own re* ita apooaibiiity. A correspondent writing front Morehouse parish, Louisiana, speaks of one , who cleared #i,3CK> on a farm of twentr-five **" acre*. This peaks wall for the colored popm elation. A spirit so laodati* can hut meet md with the respect It deserve*. RATES OF ADVERTISING. TUIBIEIT ADVEEilSISG RATUi <>? lawrti-jo. p+r fl $al>?*qa#tit . rt; ?s T Tbeepee* ei tee !isw Fr?*i?r typ? evftii ct#? an w'.xt: iMtnf ?qtMr? 'b th?* J *f*r Any aptc* ]?>m than t<-o !!r?e? in ib' rat* f-.'f All *J*ertia?n>*nt?orctt|-ylrjf !#? th?:; ? q?art?r J * c ' cmn ?r# coop t?*i iy 44T-rtA??Hi?Bto for *har *hr-- on r* * r? c*?rff*d t*nrt>et 4 *outti?ni Man. We doubt very mu<h whether Mr. J !.:.* Hopkins and hi* intimate personal friend* will be greatly gratified at being :idvi rti- i in the Haltimore Sun of the ! th :n?tunt a-* oiuinrniiuin. oODeilevotb.itMr.il jkins was born in Maryland : cert inly he ! s;>ent the greater portion of h> ) i'e n t! city, and here ho has accumulated h> <1< -sal fortune. He has taken an honest p r ile in the growth and development of 1; dtim : and l>\ his enter; rise, pruihme, -agi ity, an! iudieiotts investments ha? VontrS m. .1 not a iittle to its commercial prosperity More than that, lie has set an example of strict business integrity wluch has done much to establish the el; ir.iett . of 1! im re merchants abroad, and his timely in ' r-rr.iet.t has saved many a struggling house from bankruptcy. As a merehant, a banker, end the dispenser of magnitieent eharit . the south may well be proud of Mr. llopkius, ind Baltimore should feel honored that he lias made her people, in a certain s. use. M legatees; for surely the hospital, the unirersity, and the asylum which lie is ab. ut t htiibl arc for the common welfare. Mr. Hopkins is a Southern man bv birth ind residence. Hut a stranger reading the article in the .**'?? to ivhieli we have cam I mention would infer .something more than his. To hira the expression "Southern" nan would convey a wider meaning, li voultl take Mr. Hopkins t ? ho a man who nilds distinctively Southern y ieyys, and vvlo olitical mi has been in accord thercw Ith. iVhcn the StI1 designates a citi en of I'.altiuoro as a "Southern man." it gi nerally m ails a man who l? lieved in the e lit m e il'the iustitutiou of slavery, who sympathized villi the south m the late eiyil w ir, who < ; Wised the reconstnietiou ml if < -ngre , tnd who accents the situniion ? >--* r-i?h..i- it. he spirit of a nnlili' sacrifice t peace than )f any conviction of the wisdom or neccssitv ?f the policy which controlled public eveut". Pleasured by this standard, Mr. Hopkins : tola "Southern man." A* every Haltinmeati knows, he i* a metnher of the Society of friends, and has always held the |>nouliar iews of that religious body upon the slavcrv ptestiou. He was the intimate friend and issociate of those who sull'crcd much from 'Soulhei n " men on account of the;: uppo , d nth-Southern view -. Mr. tlopkius was loyal o the (iovernment during i:s strn v.'.e foi xistetiee, and w lien thi' war was on r, Willi he rest of his sect, favored the complete enrauchisenietit of the cniaiieipated race. In iliort, he was and is a ltepiihhean. Now , here are a great many Southern llepuldie itis, nit the Sun is not apt to claim am meat gh>rv or the South hceaiise they were horn upon southern soil. Mr. Hopkins is called a Southern" man w ith the obvious intent ot mtrasting him with Northern men wh iha\' tot built asylums for colored children. Th alitor of the Sun means to say this "II roil hypocitos of the North, who are ciiitantly prating of your philanthropy, wh ire organizing associations lot the edur ition if the lreedmen, and keeping the South in aerpetual turmoil with your persistent uncicrencc?hide your diiuinishe 1 he, he ihatiic. Here is a Southern man, I >rn on southern soil, devoted to Southern in-tituions, and not devoid of Southern pre judices, vho has done more for the colored race than ill your Northern horde put tog, tier." \Ve do not think that Mr. Hopkins ,|e-ii, s hat any such contrast should he drawn. 11,> las always co-operated w ith the friends who inve devoted themselves to the amelioration if the condition of the frecduicu: he ha > .-ontributed of his ample means to that end, naking use of the channels afforded |?y the North. Nothing was further from his intenion, when he organized the great charities to which we have referred, than tlut they ihould have a sectional east. He is not a lections) man, and has no desire that his nunilieent charities should furnish a theme 'or sectional glorification. The same may he <nid of each of the gentlemen whom lie h is named as trustees, and to w hom he has collided the management of the great iustituLions which lie has founded and endowed. The design of the Sun to mislead the out* title world as to -lr. Hopkins' political views would uot bo so apparent were it not that a most material fact is omitted in the stati aient of the general plan of the hospital. Une of the conditions on w hich Mr. Hopkins has set apart two millions of doll.us for the maintenance of a free hospital is that there aittst lie no distinction on account of r.c > or [ Dior 111 hi warns, funicular uik-hti- n is called to the fact "that uo denominational ditl'erences -li.UI he regarded in the di-isinsution of his charities hut not u word i- >: I of that larger and hroadcr beneiolem > which excludes all distinctions of race from the merciful shelter of the hospital. We . a see no reason for refusing to puhlish tl. fundamental condition of tl..: great charity, except th it it would .e a certain <|iia . tion to the assertion that Mr. llo; n i "Southern man," which the editor ol tla did not desire. We regret to mention that .Mr. II-. i . has encountered considerable oppo i a IV..;:. "Southern" men in currying out I eh irit . hie designs. He hits been delaye I more th in two years in securing -o h gnat itit- i - fr> the (ity Council and from tie- Mi'.- J ture u- would forever secure the ho ;..i .i enclosure from being intruded ij;>' n K , t;.. m missioners for opening street-. When p ? , known that colored people Wi re to lie ado. ted to the hospital there wei " .i.'le ri. " men resiiliug in the ncighboih . i v. I. . In . . indignation meetings, and prote-t. I i. i the desecration of that part of the < fv such an institution. Other "Southern" i., rested their opposition to the hem .it. I.r> ity on the ground that Mr. llo| . m i . tained the property of tin' old Mai . ! II pital at a priee helow its real value. W innot aware that the .S?? eve: e\p< lit with these gentlemen, or guir M . II ;.h i. the least assisttim e hi oicrr om i reasoning bigotry. It happened that there v.ere tluences at work will! h made the .. of uo effoct, and Mr. Hopkins w a a. the privilege of making a gift to lit. |- ; Baltimore, whose far-re n hue cannot be estimated. Ileuce the-. . nigratulntions. Why should a narrow liona!ism be permitted to designate Mr. Ilopk as a ".Southern man," when tic: audit, m- < his munificent bequests proclaim I.an to tttiional 111:111''?Ualtimore Amcrnnn Our Former Presidents. Jefferson wu* calm, clear, niti ?i, heutive, and orderly.. John Ailam? wu em Aioual in 1.: - i * : anJ was liery and forcible. Jaiues K. Polk was |irou<J, lir 111, . dignified, and determined. Andrew Jackaou'a firmness and . character haa become proverbial. Madison bad originality and dis rim::ii> :, but lacked firmness of character, i Franklin Pierce waa very harmonious m his mental organisation well halmi ed. Zachary Taylor waa Ann, hojieful, n'.i gent, honest, positive, and independent. Millard Fillmore la more courteous than commanding, and won rather than compels. ? William llenry Harrison wua k.nd, all tionate, upright, prudent, and circumspect. Monroe was more remarkable for practical talent and common senae than for depth and brilliancy. Washington had strong common sen- , clear reasoning powers, integrity, llriuucs-, and self-eateem. John Tyler was brilliant and off-haml rather than deep and profound, lie was firm to obstinacy. Martin Van Purcn was cautions, shrewd, clear-beaded, and reticent, an<l , ! polished in manners. John t^uincy Adams was combative, argumentative, and thorough, and had on extra| ordinary memory- ... ?The annual product of the manulactories 1 of S'ew Jersey Is valued at over t'JO,COOtOO(h

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