Newspaper of The New York Herald, March 21, 1842, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated March 21, 1842 Page 2
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I N E AYYORK HERALD. 1 \tw York, Vloiidiif, )!nnh 'II, 1M3< Important from 'Washington??-Cabinet .'VovciuciiU.Ac.-PtMe or War. We urdertia id that it is in contemplation by the Executive to .-end a Message to Congress recommending the peal of the distrtbution law, and the enactment 01 a new tariff, imposing sufficient taxes to meet the experses of the government, in order to put the country in a state of defence aga net Great UuUii), who now menaces the nation witn 4hc whcle force of her navy and army. On these subjects the re have kreen several important cabinet meeting* during last week, but as yet no definite ecti; n has been taken by the Executive. On the financial and foreign policy necessary to be pursued in the present crisis of the country, there i? an equal division in the cabinet. Messrs. Webster, Spencer and Forward are against therepeal ot the lijtiibution law, and in favor of a qualified and mutual right of search, in certain latitudes, by English and American cruisers, in the African and West India m?, similar to that which was once rejec'td by the Senate, in 1H24, in the treaty negotiated with England in 1823. On the other hvnd, Messrs Upaher, Wicklifl'e and I.egare are opposed to thia foreign policy, they having adopted, ju i->cry loin, iuc views 01 uenrrai utue ms atve'.opcd in his pamphlet, recently published in Paris The views of the American minister at Paris have given great < th-nce to the northern portion of the cabinet; and it is supposed that an effort will be made to recall that able diplomatist, bat with what success we shall see. In the financial policy, and part icularly in regard to a repeal of the distribution lav.-, this portion of the cabinet is also opposed. These very important questions are still under discussion in the cabinet; but what course the President will take few seem to know. In the meantime, die ultra cH-pitt in Congress are getting more savage every day. The Exchequer bill will hardly pass, nor w .11 Congress agree to any financial scheme? pane any cseful law?or do any thing bat talk, talk, talk. Colonel Stewart, nominated as first Comptroller, will be rejected?so probably will Mr- Tyson of Philadelphia, both through the influnnH nnl'trv nf IVfp-^alM Dat And Ronton fhe* two leaders of the ultra cliqi<r? in the Senate. Thus we go?there is no money in the Treasury? the Government is getting deeper and deeper in debt?and every ellort ol the Executive is paralysed by the spirit of faction and party. Why will the President not throw himseif at once upon the country?rc-oiganise his cabinet, and take a fresh start. We are on the verge of peace or war. New and Important Movement In Philo* sophy and Religion?-LyeU's Geological Lectures Cpliravlng the Christian and 11?. brew Scriptures. I One of the most important and intellectual move- < itients that ever took place in this country, or any 1 age, is new going forw ard in the Tabernacle, Broad- . way, under the auspices of the New York Lyceum, and the p.v.roneg* of the religious and philosophical community of this great and wonderful city ol the newest ol the new world. We allude to the lec- ' tures on geology, now giving by Processor Lyem., 1 President of the Geological Society of London. The following is the interesting programme:? i Lriu'i Lkotcre ot OroLnov.?A course \ of Light Lecture] on Urology, by Charles Lyell, F. R. S . President or" the Geological Society of London, will ' be delivered before the New York Lyceum, end the citizens generally,in the Broadway Tabernacle,commetcing Wednesday, the 10th inst., at half past ? o'clock, P. , M, to continue every Wednesday and Saturday, until concluded. 1 The course will embrace the following subjects, viz: Krush Water 9ormitiont of average extinct volctnoe of successive periods. Structure of Etna; origin of granite rocks; changes in the organic wot id. Upheaval and Subsidence of the Earth'* Crust; submrrgence and re-elevation of the Temple of Berapis. Origin of Coial Ruefa, and theory of their circular form; Coralline Limestone of various geological agef. Nature and origin of Coal. Foot marks of tosiil Animals. Chirolhiiiutn Organic ri mains of th? most ancient rocks. Recession of the Falls of Niagara. Boulder Formation Transporting Power of ice; Action of Glaciers and Icebergs. Each lecture will be illustrated with very large and ' spit ndid draw ings, prepared in England expressly for , bis Lectures in this country. Tickets lor the course three dollsrs , do to members ' of the New Yo:k Lyceum two dollars; Ladies'Tickets, two dollars. Two of these lectures have already been given to admiring audiences ef 657 each, composed ot the highest and tnest respectable people, either in blood, birth, religious character, or high literary attain ments in New York. The facts, doctrines and opinions expressed?and particularly the results and conclusion pointed to, 111 these two lectures, have al- ( ready began to rtartle and astonish every mind, by their bearing upon the Mosaic account of the creation?and the truth of geology of the Christian ?>criptures. The future lectures will lead to yet more conclusive opinions?but enough has already 1 been given, fmdiog fo *hoir that thi* beautiful, blessed 1 trorld it inert4 ha a sixty thousand years old ? in t lead of ?ix thousand? that the history of the creation as i given by Moses s entirely upset by the facts of geo- | logy?that the w hole theory of the Hebrew theology and religio i is not founded on philosophical fact or natural truth?and of course, that every system of religion or mown in government, founded on sucli d,Ua is not t ntitled to the least consideration by the present race of men in the world. We g.ve to-day a full and accurate report of the becond of these 1-ctures, given on Saturday evening last, iu the Tabernacle?and we desire our readers to give it at attentive perusal. The delivery of these lectures will no doubt become an '*ra in the religious and intellectual revolutions of the nineteenth century. Heretofore Professor Stlhman of New Haven, Professor Giscoiu of thisc.ty, a id others, have attempted to give lectures on th sunt" wonderful science, but their facts were meagre, the.r views narrow, their deductions incomplete, sad their influence of little or no ac- i count. Troiesror Lyell of London, is the great chiet aui ias:er spirit of the new geological philo- I ophy of the age, that is to revolutionize men's 1 opinions :i h;<'o ical religion as much as the great I Luther did n t>u itical religion. The New York I Lyceum, a body ot natural philosophers, are the 1 first inen who have had the courage to b.ing forth I this iphtlo.-.ipher, and to take the first step in the astounding revolution. The Rev. David Hale of the Presbyier uU Church, has also give a the use of his holy Tabernacle, for the purpose ol building up the great temple ci Geological Religion and Philosophy, out of the i Id ruins and marbles and marl of the Hebrew and Christian Churches. Many ol the teachers ar.d preachers of different sects ol Christians? Episcopal.ans, Methodists, Baptists, Pretby tenant, ace. are aiso tne irequenters *r uieac startliar lectures, and of course believers and promoters of (lie i;rt at philosophical and religious materialism of the age. We live ,n a great crisis of the world?in thi midst of a mighty revolution in religion, morals, politics, ar.d philosophy. Jesus of Ntaarslh, where art thou ! The world is gradually dividing itself in to three gr a*. -.asses of religious and philosophral opinions May of Magdalen,w here's the use of tears! The Protestant sec'a of Christians, originating in "the great movement of Luther, are gliding into materialism on one hand, and transcendentalism on the I other. Simon Peter, ann of Jonah, where art thou gone ? The facts and doctrine* of Professor Lyell, had to tU Ouory tkit tht teorld it eternal?(Sol tit prtumt form is the work of millions of years?that all organic exixtence springs from genns in the earth?that the ftrttml black, while, red and brown races of human beings sprung into existence during some extraordinary planetary or geolugicalperind under a stale of elec tro ma gut he influence ?and thai these are the germs of many races of being* far superior to man yet hid in the face of this glorious earth, floating in the waters, or flying among the gases of tlu atmoophere that surround il like a mantle over the face of the Almighty. These abounding opinions are gradually entering the minds of the great Protestant ma? of Christians. The o'hrrtwo great masses?are the Catholics, and the Morntonists, both of whom reject geology from their systems?and deny that it possesses any influence on their creeda or systems of belief. We are on the verge of a curious age. The mind of man is in a state of great fermentation? and there will ba an eruption of the Etna of the human intellect in a week of Sabbaths. Look out. This is the volcanic age of mind. Heaven have mercy on us sinners. Cool Impi-pehse.?In giving an account oi the publia meeting held in the Park, relative to the Public Schools, the Albany Daily Advertiser has the following paragraph, reflecting on the accuracy of me neraiu :? According to the N- Y. Herald, the meeting then hroke up in a " row," but a* we hod no mention of his circumstance in any of the other New York pantp, we infer that it-is one of the Herald's usual " flight* of fancy." This impudent and gratuitous " inference" comes from a branch of some set of miserable scoundrels, who have misrepresented, calumniated, slandered, and abused the Herald, ever since it was started, merely because we tell the whole truth, and are independent of all ciiqut* and all factions. The report which was given in the Herald of the Park meeting, was true to the very letter. The other New York papers did not mention the " row," because tbey always suppress truth and fact, when its publication would affect their paltry, personal or party objects. We never allow any such motives to prevent us from giving the public the whole truth? and the accuracy of that account is as well known is this city, as that sf every other report given in the Herald. For yeara the Wall atreet press has endeavored to weaken the influence ef the Herald, by falsely charging us with mis-statements in our reports on all subjects, and characterizing them as " romance" and " flights of fancy." This has been again and again attempted by James Booby Brooks, ?J ?r;ii:? j k?, ;? u?u ?i ouu vv iinaiti uiuvivurau ?vnuatuu) isut i? u?o ?i ways reacted upon themselves, and made thera the laughing stocks of the public. Congress ?Nothing is yet.done in Congress, and nothing will be done, till the people, throughout the country, rise up in masses and demand them to go to work?pass laws?adjourn and go home. Mechanics and Working Men.?It is time for these most valuable classes of citizens to stir up? hold a large meeting?and call upon Congress to go to work and prepare the country for the worst. Nnw Postmaster?Very little objection seemR to be made to tae new Postmaster, Col. Graham. The only whisper comes from the pipelayers? but their | pipes are nearly out by this time, and who cares for i them! Next Presidency.?There is no use in disguising it?the principal, and perhaps only, candidates for the next presidencynvill be Martin Van Buren on one side and Henry Clay on the other?but Captain Tyler will have the casting vote?and no mistake.? J A.1I other candidates may as well clear out. , Clubs.?We have hickory clubs?hard cider j :luba?log-cabin clubs?Van Buren clubs?Clay j clubs?but alas! there is no club for the country? ' no club for the public good. \ The Bankrupt Law.?Before a year has come J and goi e, this law will be execrated by all parties.? , Such injustice was never seen as will be perpetrated < under if* mantle ? 1 New Title.?Colt, the celebrated manufacturer J of pistols, in thii city, labels some of the pistol ' eases, " Laws of Texas." Well Matched.?The census ol Washington | County, Vermont, for 1841, gives a total of 11,753 males and 11,753 females. Of these, 11 males and 10 females are colored persons. More About Steam Navioatiox.?This is surely the age of Steam, lor scarcely a day passes with' out giving us something new in relation thereto. 1 It is said that the Archimedian screw, submerged, j and invented by Smith, is soon to be introduced into , this country- Plans of it have been laid before go. | vernment, and a vessel of six hundred tons or more | will probably be built to test it with Hunter's and j Ericsson's. I Wa are glad of this. We think it time for our go- < rernment to enter spiritedly into steam navigation. 1 This screw is to be immediately applied to half , i dozen ocean steamers building in Europe. The \ treat iron steamer at Bristol is to be propelled by it. Also, two steamers to run between Bremen and New York, and three French government steamers j And it is to be applied also to a vessel now building i on the Tyne of 1450 tons, and 600 horse power, and i to another for the Swedish government. Those who have seen it say its power is immense. According to experiments made in England, it sends a vessel through the water at the rate of ten miles an hour. * Ou* Packet Ships Aoaix.?It appears, by facts, that oar packet ships have not yet been quite ruined by the steamers. We understand that the Iloeciu?, the finest and indeed one of the iastest ship* ever built in this city, will sail next Friday, under the command of Captain Collins, for Liverpool, full of cabin passengers, having over thirty already engaged. No one can he surprised at this after a visit to that ship, for one so splendid and spacious is seldom to be Been. We verily bel ieve that so long as she and her companions crosa the Atlantic in the short space of lime they have heretofore, there will be plenty of passengers to go in ihein in spite of th e steamers And in a winter voyage, who would not prefer a swift sailing packet to a steam ship 1 Those who care for comfort and ease of mind would most csrtainly. If our government wsuld fit out a few ships with speed rqaal to that ol the Roscius, for an African squadron, there would soon be a scarcity of slavers on that coast- Not a clipper that floats could escape them. Our sloops-of-war are all such dull sailers that in a cluse a alaver would quickly run any one of them out of sight.. It is a pity that the models of the vessels of our military marine are not copied irom those of our commercial marine. It is a pity, because we have now to record the fact that the Warren slooo-ofiwar was recently beaten twenty three days, by a mrJchaot vessel, in going from Norfolk to Pensacola* So says a Florida paper. Niw Sv*tlm or SocitTy.?Mr* Brisbane, a philosopher of Fourier school, has commenced a scries of article? in a cotemporary, for the pnrpoae of showing die advantage of organiaiag agricultural society, not in families, but in a species of corporations, each person to be the holder of a certain amount of stock* and to work for the common good. For instance, a large tarm of one thousand acres is to be owaed by one hundred men and women, who are to be em ployed acccrdiug to their several capacities and talents, some in cooking, some in ploughing, soma in carpenter-work, some in one thing, some in another, and evrry farm house is to be an Astor House oa an economical plan- Tnts would certainly be ga economical system of organizing society. Miron or Basook.?At the nsunisipsl election, oe .Unaday last, Brad lord Hatlow, E?q , ike pre., ,,; mayor, was re-elected. arcoiffimbst nr tub Psb?ii?i!*t.?Thorns, Rowlsad to be deputy postmaster at Detroit, Michigan, in place of Bhelden McKuight. Arrival of Lord Athbnrtcn. I Correspondence of the lltnld.] LUltimoue, Saturday morn i nr.) March 19, 1S42, \ J. G. Bemtktt, Esq ? Dear Sir .? News has just reached the ci'y that Lord Ashburton arrived off Annapolis last evening In haste, C. T R. We received this letter yesterday morning?It was postmarked in Baltimore on Saturday morning ?but we must ba allowed to doubt its accuracy. I At all events, look to the " Postscript" in thi9 day's paper; if the information is correct, it will be confirmed by our Baltimore correspondent. Albany. [Correspondence ol the Herald.) Alb a!vt, Saturday, March 19, 1S12. la the Assembly to-day a large number of petitions were presented, among which were several from the city of New York, praying that the State would extend itd aid to ihe New Yoik and Erie Railroad. Mr. O'Scllivais asked unanimous consent to introduce a resolution. ?Mr. Johxsox objected on 'the g round that Mr. O'S having absented himself from his seat after leave had been denied him, he bad lost Lis privi- { lege as a member. After some eonrerration on the I subject, the Speaker decided that the gentlemen 1 from New York should be considered as a member ( unless formally expelled. There being no appeal < from this decision, Mr. O'S. renewed his request 1 for unanimous consent, and Mr. Johnson objected. | Mr. UiBBiSBTus, from the Committee on Rail- , roads, reported in favor of the petitions praying i for the construction by the State of the 0,dens- ' burgh and Lake Champlaiu Railroad, and iatro- , duced a bill to that e fleet. < Mr. Scott, from the committee en Medical Col- < leges, See., reported a bill for the relief of the Medi eal School of the University of New York. t Mr. Maclav obtained unanimoas consent to in- ( troduee a bill to regulate elections in the city of I New York. f The bill was as follows:? c Sic.l. The Mayor. Aldermen, and Commonality ol c the City of New York, in Common Cenocil convened, i are hereby authorized to pass such ordinances as to them 0 may seem meat,for providing the time and plaoe where _ the polls shall be held in each sleetion district for the charter guneral election in the city of New York, as now . etuhlishedjby law, and for any sach special election as may heraafter be directed to be held thereia, and also fav ?lw. ;n<>nan?aea sea anok ..lnelu- in ??? t ward* of the said city, to meet, add together, compute ft and return the vote given for each peisan voted for iu p the several districts ol the said wards in the tnauaer now t| required by law. v Sic 3 In case of any vacancy in the afioe of inspec- g tors ol elections in the city of New York, the Mayor, # Aldermen, and Commonalty of the said City in Common . Council convened, may fill such vacancy by appointing ' to such olfica any other citizen of the district in which ' such vacancy shall happen, who is a qualified voter d therein; and in case such vacancy should not be tilled g on the day of such election, or on the day preceding the S, same, the AHerman and assistant of tho ward in which a such vacancy shall happen, may fill such vacancy in n the manner aforesaid. Sac. 8. The Act entitled " an Aot for the repeal of the ? New York City Registry Law," passed Feb. 38, 1312, shall aot be so construed as to allow any inspector of P elections or commissioner of registry to hold office or v pet form any ofthedutias subsequent to the passage of a such act. t! Sr.c 4. This Act shall take effect immediately. tl After the reception ef numerous reports and bills o from Standing Committees, the Tax Bil, came up ri for ita final action, and Mr. Starr resumed *' his remarks, having the floor when the hour ? of twe arrived yesterday, lie is oert&inly the k most intolerable talker that has yet bored the house. I His speech of to-day was delivered to empty seats, h indeed, his rising for that purpoae would aeem to tl be a signal for the departure of every one who can. tl His effort of yesterday and today could be for no N other purpose or place than " Buncombe," as he ol must have seen that it could have no effect in ?* changing the votea of any member of the majority, tc At ant, raU UI. fa.,. A - A . I. -I r, for it. Notwithstanding the early day fixed for adournment, their action would denote an organized q effort on the part of hiwuelf and hie friends to i< itave off final action on this great measure, and b io waste the time of the house. He talked until he V aras cut off by the hour ol two, and accordingly *1 the bill must lie orer until Monday, as the after- ei noon sessions are devoted solely to the perfection I< of bills on the general orders. 01 There is a project that is finding many friends si here to form an association, to be chartered by the legislature, for the purpose of contracting with the ai State for the services of the convicts in the states *' prisons. It is proposed to employ them in quarry- n tng and finiihing stone. Nothing but the rough " itone is to be offered for sale in this State, while r< the finished stone is to be sold in the neighboring P states of Massachusetts, New Jersey, Pennsylva- n nia, See. This projet finds many friends in both H houses of the legislature, and to thia must be at- b tributcd the fact, that the committee on state pri- e sons in the Sena'e, have not as yet reported on the <1 subject. And to the same influence must be at- ? tributcd the tardy action on,and numerous obs'aclts ' thrown iu the way of Mr. Weir's bill. One thing tl is certain, that if the present legislature do not ' take some action on this subject this session, the * effects cannot but be disastrous to the democratic j* party next fall. The organ of the mechaaics in this >' city, (The State Mechanic) already begins to speak ? in terms of reprehension on the subject. General " Dix would appear to be of the same opinion, as in K presenting a petition from the mechanics of this city, he called the attention of the House to the * ittbject. a AftcrnOos Sessions.?On motion of Mr. Horr- * mam, all preceding orders of businesa were laid on * 11,. i? .w? T._ n.n i < V .?V>V| *vr aa ?v ?um/*v IU? A ?A Mill (U UC COH* ' lidered. c Mr Starr then resumed his remarks, amidst a 0 great deal of laughter, whea Mr. Simmons called * the House to order, and remarked that they did * not come here to be instiled. Order being re. ? stored, Mr. S resumed his remarks, and had not " concluded when this letter was closed. The de- 1 termination, I uuder.-tand, is to sit the bill out till * Sunday morning, if necessary ' In the Senate, hut little business of importance " was transacted Oara ViCiHal. * o St. Thomas. ti [Correspondence of the Herald.] !' St. Thomas, March 2, 13-12. J * James Gordou Bexsett, Esq.? c Dear Sir :? u My#eif in conjunction with many others, have anxiously perused the " New York Herald," in hopes to have seen announced the appointment ? of a Consul for this island by President Tyler ? Why is the delay, and pray inform us the causel? Is our commercial interest here to suffer continually T Perhaps the Secretary of State in looking over the map of the Globe, did not see the little dot which represent this Island- If Mr- Webster reads the Herald, as all statei men should do, and you publish this letter, he will be duly reminded of our wants. Let ue have no person who is not duly qualified ? We want a practical merchant, who is well acquainted with the trade, and can serve our shipping interest - atsist vessels in distress, and protect unfortunate and destitute sailors. " An Americas." A (I Be st Ion In Mornts. Mr- Editor ;? Will you be so kind as to give ine your opinion in the following case : I) is a merchant doing business, say in this city, and has a pretended friend,who we will callG. Now this nrptenrie<t Iripnil ! iti.inn into il.. m. Itnd ? business that It is in, and comes to B's clerk and asks him (the clerk) to give him (G) a list and residence ol all B's customers, ao that G may get hold ol them and sell thent. Would it be right in the cbrkto give them, and is it right in G to ask it ol the clerk unknown to B I Answer. Certainly, right. Now a day's it <a right to cheat as much as you can Is not the Bankrupt law in operation I The Home Squadron, The people are astounded at the delay in getting the Home Squadron to ?ea, and ark again unit again what can be ihe difficulty) I'll tell you, Air. Editor?The nun,ber of Lieutenant* hare been so reduced by deaths, resignations and other e iuses,that there are not officers sufficient of the grade of Lieutenants at the command of the Secretary, and the rupine Congress throw all difficulties in the way of government,by stopping the promotions which the exigencies of Ike Navy require. Congress is divided among themselves ; the inlere't of the country is secraficed to their caba s Hut the pe pie are eoming to the rescue-a deep feeling of indignation is avery where felt. I have ma le up my mind ne Tfr lo vote lor mtn'tr ?I iur pnwiu v /,MB6 rc?? who ha* contributed to the present confusion Yours, The First ard Oldest or toir Readers. U.tited States Senator?Roth Houses of th* Louisiana Legislature met oil the 12th instant, to elect a United States Senator, in the place ot" A M out on, resigned, Mr- C. M Conrad, lvq., w?a ( elected on the first ballot. I Mr. Lyeir* Second Lecture on Ste'ejy #t tl*e Tnb( rnaele. We resume our report of Mr. Lyeli'i lecture cm Geolojy from yesterday'? pa^erWhen Mount D'Or was formed by a grand series of rolcanieeruptiona, there were immense lakee in the immediate vicieity of it at that rery lime in the proceas of filling up, and a'10 teas not far off Be cau t we find in this valley, (here the lecturer pointed to hi* large and beautiful view of the valley, in which ie aeen the eourcea of the river Loire, alio the coiuparativ ly recent formed volcano of Tartarua, ana the old volcnno of Mount D Or in the distance,) by the sources of the Loire, and through which the river runs, irucee of thelle and nruanie rsmaina urkioK nunt-ii ?l?.? ?kiu mlUu wnu once covered with water; a<id the tame trace* and proof* may be found all the way down the valley to tho city of Tours. in travelling down it we find shell* and the remain* of animal*, that lived at and before the period of the formation of Mount D'Or, and that were floated down toward* the tea and ul timatelv imbedded in this deposit. We have on the bank* of the Loire, nnd in thie basin, remain* of theile and coral*, in what i* termed the freshwater deposit, four-fifth* of which shell* and coral* are now extinct?can be found living no where on the face of the globe; but oae-fifth still exist. Again, in my recent tour to the South, I found, in Virginia, aud in the basin of the Savannah river, near Augusta, and elsewhere, the distinctly marked Eocene elasa of formatioas, a* distinct at we fiad it in the Pnii* basin, with the same specie* of shells to designate the chronology of the strata that are found in the Eocsne class en the continent of Europe. I have alio icen on the James river the marine Miocene strata, mirked precisely a* distinct as ihat on the Loire, in France, and containing shells than oan easily be identified with some of those now living on your eoait. And it is worthy of being remembered, that while many of the shells found in the interior of this country in the Miocene class of formatioas ire identical with those Urine on the eoaat of thie country, *o the shells found inland on the continent >f Europe in the Miocene class are identical with many el those living oa our ceaet. And new, we tome to a very important part of eur subject?one

connected with the history of the earth's surface. tJany of you might imagine that these aneient rcsh water formations were the very la*t deseripion of strata that were formed on the globe just irevioiit to the present period, when man and the ireseat race of animals were called into existence: < xcent a very mull portion of vegetable deposit ound here and there ta rarioui pari* of the globe, f no great thieknea*. And to suppose this, you oust also suppose that when the world was brought oto its present state, aa alleged at the creation of aan, that it was done *o by a audden transition -a luddrn and violent iweeping away of all the raee* f being* which then exit ted on the globe? which waa allowed by the equally audden introduction of n ew race! (Considerable sensation, and many of he elderly and young ladies, of which latter there ra* a large number of very handsome ones resent? looked astonished ) But, if yeu examine h* country round Mount D'Or, you will be eonineed, by seeing the prodigious monuments iu the hape of strata and organic remains that are to be >uad there,of the cost tpaee of time that must have apted between the Eoeene period and the pre tent. A pace giving time for the manimeths and mastooas,aad behemoths and hippopoamuses, and ether igantic animals?(theplegiosaurue, ichthyosaurus, :c )?to grow, flourish, and die, race alter raee, ear the places where their ergauic remains are ow found. Again, also on looking at Mount D'Or, ou might auppoae that the rolcanic eruption which irmed this mountain was the last that had taken lace in this region. But en proper examination, re see that sines it war formed, there hare been Iso formed strata after strata many hundred It-et lick?a deep strata of pumice?then another on le top of that of lava?then one of scoria and ef bsidian, and of various others, proving that unraeous eruptions of long periods apart, t< ok place ubaeauent to the eruntion and uDheavinv of Mount 'Or. (Considerable sensation excited, and great 1 stonishment depicted upon the fness of (he ladies ) ? 'ben alio yon might be induced to think that the a liocene period was the last formation previous to i le present state of thing*. But on examining this t ract of country, (here be pointed to the map of t fount D'Or, See,) we see that after the formation f the Miocene class took place, the whole of thin 1 illey of the Loin ioat excaoate.l, and then subsequent v > that came the eruption of this Volcano ef Tarta- a as, (pointing to the map ef a volcano at the head n f the valley,) and then again a long period, subse- b uent to all this, came the erosion of the ravines c i the neighborhood through the lava, that had t een thrown out at successive eruptions of the r oleanns, (perhaps ages apart.) And then again, p rter all this, wr find the lava thrown out in a melt- t i state from the volcano and ovetfl swing this val- fa ly down towards Tours for a distance of thirty v dies. (Great sensation.) And then again, we * :e that aaother very Uag period of time has v lapsed between the formation of the Miocene class ( id the present period. This we can ascertain by t tcamioing the European|hills skirting the Mediier- t mean, and particularly that class of hill* termed s re Sub-Appeninas. On examining this class of 1 jcks, we find that they were of a still more recent c eriod, and by the shells, acting as chronological t ledals.weare enabled to place them among those of i be Pliocene period; and here we find a large nun- 1 er of shells that can be identified with those now | xisting in our seas and lakes. So in Sicily wc can t istinguish the volcanic rocks of the newer plio- i ene period, and in them there are scarcely 10 in < 00 shells that we find that cannot be identified with i bose now existing in the adjacent seas. In follow- i lg ont the various long period* of time that have i lapsed during the formation of these several strata irmerly placed with most recent formations,! hare >und in the neighborhood of Syracuse in Sicily ver 2000 feet of alternate freshwater deposits and tra. First: we have a very thick bed of &and and ravel; then a large deposit of volcanic rocks on he top of that, then a thick bed of limestone with 11 its organic remains (which must hare taken ges tofoim,) then a Urge bed of submarine lava, nd then on the top of this an enormous bed of the stable oyster twenty feet thick, (aot the Amerian, but the European oyster) liver upon layer, ach layer baring on its shells all the various little sarine animals and shells that are now found on he shell ?f the living oyster ; here then we have n idea of the great space of time occupied in these irmations ; the Arst layer of oysters must have ad time to live, and grow, and die, and the animals o be formed on their shells, and then another and nother layer of oystera till the bed increaeed to wenty feet in thickness; and again over the whole f this I found another stream of lava had run and ormeda thick bed ; and over this again a thick bed f coral?all these having been formed at long inervals, and during n period when nine-tenths of he shells contained m these beds, were the same s those now to be found in the Mediterranean. Ard et all this immense moss ha* been upheaved a distance f *2000 feet from the surface of the ocean ; for the ippermost strata in this mass was originally depo ited under the sea, and upheaved through all Here the lecturer referred to a diagram representng the interior of the earth as one enormous caulIron of red hotmslted matter, forcing up the beds hove it and occasionally breaking aut throuch red tot chimney* of its own making.) You will now irobably think that vou have here at last :ome to the end of tnis series of documents elating to the earth's history. But still lot to. And if yon examine the south part of iieily Vou will find that there is yet aaother class if rocks, of even still more recent origin, and hese are termed the Post Pliecene class. (Coniderable sensation.) In examining the eountry ound Mount Etna wc find that that o^lebratrd v??l:ann is basetlon a strata in which all the shellsand sorals there found are identical with those found n the Mediterranean Sea at prsaeat. Etna i*11900 eet high; and its division by the ancients into hree parts?the fertile, the woody, and the desert, *-a* very appropriate, and well calculated to deilgnate the peeuliar features ef each portion of the mountain, 'l'he fertile portion is the bottom nart ?f the mountain, and all tbia regien ii remarkably I uxuriant; olive* and lemon*, the vine, and citron , ind fruit* of all deieription* abound here; every i >art of it it richly fertile, well cnltivatcd, and lenscly inhabited. The entire volcanic bs.-e of he niountain i> 90 ntilea in cireumference, and evey part of it it tbu kly peopled. A* we eome up to 1 he higher parts of the mountain, we find forests >f oak and che-nuts, frequently rork trees growing >n lava; and still higher tip, forests of beech and pines growing en various cones of the vo'cano, tome of them 600 or 7(H) feet high from the surround ng level. Tbo forest portion it nine miles wide, uid at the top is over 5000 fret hijh from the level if the tea (Here he referred to a very beautiful Irawir.g of Monat Etna and its Cones atath s elevaion ) The general form of Mount Etna is very lymmetricsl, but here it is broken down on the att side, forming perpendicular cliffs '2000 feet ligh. When we ascend and retch the top of the erest we come here to the base of these tall clifl't >n the east side; then on gaining the summit of ihem, we find a very large level plain covered by ieep snow?and then is-uing from this another cone, the highest part of the mountain, from which constantly asceadt a clond of steam lathe occasional eruptions from this volcano, the red hot lava ru.t* out, and overflowing, melts the snow on this plain, causing enormous fl n ds, the rushing of which down the sides of the mountain produces the dvcp ?orge* and ravines found in va niHiB parts 01 it. r?xcvpi at mrsr iiuin iur wnu?r of the mil around here ia remarkable for it* lingular dryneaa There ia no running water to be aeen. All the rain that deeernda, and the anew that ia melted, ia inatan'.lr abaorbed by the worona rocka around, which act like a sponge, and bj tti ileeprannea Another featare in these rolcanic mnna'aina, ia the riykea by which they are e?n?f ti nea traversed. A rolcanic dyke ia formed by the opening of the mountain when the] aaelteu gj?p??nssnma matter from below come* np through all other re iatance, aad fill* the chasm; this matter oe cooling ud ikryitiliiing, is much harder than the pumice and porous scoria aad tuff, of which the real of the mountain is composed; and, therefore, when in th? apse of time the face of one rolcanic mountain b comes worn away by the action of frost, and rain aad exposure to the action of the atmosphere, the basalt dyke by being much harder, resists all sueh action, and projects from the rest of the mountaio, a" we tee in this diagram (Here be pointed to a diagram representing a basalt dyke traversing a rolcanic mountain in the interior of the island of Mad cira, and the same dyke traversing another I mountain on the sea const, and dipping into the Atlantic ocean,) In 1GGT1, during the great eruption, n go >d opportunity wit afforded for eseing the nature of the formation of these dykes. Etna was then rent open, and through this Ossuro was seen the incandescent lava foaming and boiling up, with the evidence a'so that it existed to some uupin; ana wiisu it came up it ultimately filled up the large rent* aud crack* in the mountain*, and formed dyke*. A question ha* been asked why the older part* of Etna are net overrun and covered up by the newer ei option* 1 The answer to this it, the general upheaval of the whole ma.-ehaa prevented such a result; and also the general dip thereby given to the beds. For, on going round the mountain, we find that the bed* dip in all di? rections; those on the east side dip to the east; ? tho-e on the north side dip to the north; those on the south side to the south- and on the west to the west. And this has probably tended much to prevent the old parts of the mountain from being covered up by ths lava more recently thrown oat. And, again, tne general upheaval of the whole of this enormous mountain from below, which we know has taken place. Etna rests on a shell formation of a recent origin. And the force which we see has carried np the marine formation that akirt* Etna on three sides, to 1000 feet high, has also carried np the whole mountain. The mass of the newer eruptire matter is of supra-marine origin. So that we come to the conclusion that some 4009 feet of Etna was formed in the open air as Mount D'Or was formed. It was originally a mountain some SOOOftet high, and then by the upheaval forces below, nina tenths of which is steam, at a high tamperature and under enormous presure, it was elevated to its present lofty position.? And then another reason why the older parts have et been Covered kr the mnra reennt mnlinni may be, that for every one eruption on the summit there have been two on the margin, or side, of the moantain Vor it is an invariable rale that the higher the mass is heaved up the greater is the hypostatic pressure, and therefore eruptions must hreak out more frequently outhe flanks than on the '.ops of high mountains We have a better history if Mount Etna than of any other volcano on the sarth. We have very good accounts by Diodorus 9,cuius of an eruption of E.na before the Trojan War, wbich compelled the inhabitants of that uisrict to leave the island. Thucydidee mentions hree eruptions which took place before the Peloione?sion war. The second of thcae eruptions ipi'ken of by Thucydides is the one which is so 1 >eautifully described in the 2d Pythian Dde of i Pindar. And his description proves to us that the | area scenes and events took place at an eruption if Etna, then 475 11 C., which occurred in Mono Domini, 10t?9, when the town of Catania was de- < itroyed. He speaks of it as?" the snowy Etna? I he pillar of Heaven?the nurse of everlasting frost { -a stream of salient smoke by day, aad vivid flame ly eight, &c." And it is a remarkable faet, that n soaae way not properly accounted for by chem- | sts, steam is entangled and mixed with all the lava ] if these volcanoes. This was seen at the eruption n 1819, when the lava was moving through the Ynl Demone to the sea. My friend, Mr. Scrope, saw 1 his when it was moving at the rate ef about a yard I in hour; and steam was issuing from it in large I |uantitics. This Uva moves in a sort of tunnel of ts own making, of scoria, the ontside of which is i rerv hard. AnH il mn?n itiruiilv 8.. -v J -- ? lousequ-ncc of thif crust, up rising ground, nerer i leriatieg to the right or left- And when Catania < ru threatened by this lara, the Count P? collect- | d a body men armed with pickaxes who turned out nd attacked the sides ef this lava, and cut a hole 1 u it and tapped it, and a stream of lara flowed out i owards the Tillage of Pa!lazzulo; but the inhabi- I aats of this place becoming alarmed for their hones also turned oat, and pre rented the stream of < ara from being brought in that direction. The la- \ a kept still going on towards Catania, the people j 11 turned out as thsy would against a common ene- i ny, and built a rampart of hewn stone sixty feet ugh to arrest the progress 01' the lara But on it I ame; and when it reached the rampart instead of i nrning of, it kept on accumulating in one spot, and i ising higher and hijrhej, until it topped the ram- I art, and then forming a curre over the summit of I he barrier it cascaded into the city, destroying < alf the place, and went atraight on to the sea, into i rhich it sushed hi eing and cracking, "the r eke i vith loud uproar",as described by Pindar. After- i rards when the Prince undertook to restore Catania, he had this mass dug into where it crossed I he wall, and it is to be seen at this day having all i he appearance of ape trifled cascade. (Great sen- I ation and some smiting.) The Val Demone around I itna has been formed probably by tbe slaking down >f the. earth; nor is this difficult to believe, since re find that in Java at the beginaing of the 18th :entury,a mountain there lost 4000 feet of its height >y the settling down of the earth. (Here Mr. Lyell ointed to the two cones of Etna, which were brown up it 1811 aod 1819, and the two older cones rlose by, that are spoken of by Pliny and the an:ients.) The materials of which the whole of Etin is composed are singularly homogeneous The -ecent cones are composed of augite (which ia lomethiag like hornblade) and a Kind of felspar ;aiieu Liaoraaoriie; itirge quantity 01 iron, ana io,ne titania. These materials are analagous to those in some of the oldest rocks in the series; and o also of the materials forming the older cones of feltna. In the base of the older cones we find a mass of matter of a granitic structure several banired feet high; it is like granite, and just as are should hare expected that material to hare looked eoeling slowly, and nnder great pressure.? rhese granitic rocks which are not stratified and ire not r olcar.ic are termed plutonic. The volcanic rocks are all more or less porous; tks lava streams if great depth arc less porous and more crystalline than those on the turface; and so it is with the m iss of granitic matter found at the base of Etna; it is less porous aud more chrystalline thaa more slerated rocks of the same component parts. The Platonic rocks cons stofa series of porphyry rocks, hut not scoria, or rolcaaic sand or pebblss, or aay thing indicating that they were foreed on the surface. And as the sane Volcaao was given to Etna became it was supp red that there Vulcan had his forge, so the name Plutonic was given to the rocks formed at great depth, because Pluto was the presiding deity of the region of the internal fires ol the earth, where Phlegethcn, the river of fire, and Lethe, flowed onward utidistarbfd. f Some smiling by the ladies ] And a Lethein influence is exerted by these deep beds of lava ; Tor by con act they deitroy all traces of organic remains in other rocks. Ni.ie tenths of all the matter in volcanic eruptions is steam at an enormous heat, and under tremendous pressure And as the lava and steam comes into contact with other rocks Lhs latter enters their pores, erystaliaes them, and destroys all trace of organic remains. We see this in the Lipari Masds, we see it near Corinth, and in various parts of Greece So also we see it in the Carrara marble, which is crystalized and ireea irom organic traces oy a similar proceia. The manner in which this has been produced, a* well u many point* in the hietory of the** rocks, must remain an hypothesis for some time. We cannot tell what length of time it took to form Mount Etna. There are over eighty cones on this mountain; and not more than twenty have been formed eince the most anCidit period to which Diodoru* Siculns rarer*?a period of three thousand year* back. [Here the ladit a looked as.oniahed at each ether.} And tuppose these eighty cone* were all formed in twelve thousand year* If we strip all of them from the mountain?wonderful mark* and monuments a* they are of the earth's history for the last twelve thousand years?still we shall hare the great maas of the mountain left, and the time of it* formation te be accounted for?which would atill bethe highest of all the mountains of Sicily. Here the leeturer was reminded that his time had expired, and announced hie next lecture for Wednesday aext. Motcmi.it or Taooro?VVa learn from an officer of the army, ju?.t arrived from Florida, that on the 7th inst the remaining Companies of the 3d Artillery left Palatka for Cedar Keys, where they were to embark for their new Posts on the Gulf of Mexico. Their march across the Peninsula would occupy fire days, examiaiag the country as they went They were expected to embark on the 12th instant The 3J Artillery has seen much hard and psinful service in Florida. One half ef the regiment hn h..fn there since the eomrnf ncement of the war, and the rest of it f< r sereral years past. Krcn juatiea would require that after so many fatiguing campaigns, they shnald take Northern P >sts, and tboae o t the Gulf be occupied by either the lstor-ilh Artillery. One Company of the 31, (Fittta'i) wee completely annihilated at Mpjor Dade's battle.?Savannah Georgian, March lo Rnuarrio* in Phuadslthia ?A man was robbed ef 8?d jestrrday, while standing on the step* ef the bank of Northern Liberties. He was after specie, but erase person remored the " deposits' h- f?re he bad an opportunity to touch the silrer?Phil (laztUe, March 19. Porto Rico.-The ports of the Islands are again shut to foreign importations, with the exception f St John's, Mnyague* and I'oace, which are consii cred of the first class. The new rrgnlation commences on the l<1lh proximo. City Intelligence. ^ Tut Uualo of yeetevday (Senday) morning, contained all of interett that hat trahtpired at the Police duringthe pa?t two dayi. We bare nothing Jr to add thia morning Cow it of Cetaaton Pleat, Before Judge Ulahoeft'er- | Much 19 ?Bel try l^ckttotxi rt Monmouth B. \ Hatrt, Sheriff.?Thiawatan action of replevin, to 1 recover $3(Xf, the value ot a f pletidid piano forte, jj which had been in pn?te?aion ?f plaintiff, bat taken ' on execution for leral tervicen n?rfnrm.j a- m Allan Ac Campbell, on aceount of Mr. /ames L. 1 Loekwood, the plaintiff"* son Mr*. Loekwood ; keep* a boarding house at No 42 Hudaon streetIt appeared from the testimony of the son, and others, that Mr. J L. L originally owned the piano forte (bought for his sister's use)?he had, * however, been peculiarly unfortunate in business, three firms in which he was successively a partner?(with bis brother George; a gentleman named Gregory; and auother named True) ?having failed, and owing about 348,000. During the 18months he was so he could not pay his mother for beard, as he states, and gave her the niano which she was to hold until he could settle tne amount, but in the event of his not doing so within a reasonable time she was to have it absolutely- He afterward s_corrected his testimony by saying that he had given her the piano forte positively for the beard. The Court charged that as to the question of frand, the jury must determine. If they viewed it on the contrary, as a mortgage to the plaintiff till the board was paid, such mortgige was good, and the party coming under the execution must first tender the amonnt for which the article wna pledged. To which decision the counsel for defendant excepted, and asked the Court to charge that if the jary believed the piano to have been pledged for the payment of the debt of James L. Loekwood, the sheriff was at liberty to levy upon the same and sell the right and interest of J. L- Loekwood theroin, and the purchaser would have acquired all the right and interest of the said J. L- Loekwood, and been entitled to tha possession of such article oa complying with the terms sad conditions of the pieuge, im neither trespass nor repleren ceuld be maintained for lueh levy. The Court refnaed te to charge. The jury gave a verdict for defendant. For plaintiff, F. W. Burke, E?q. Meaara. J. C. Hart and N B. Blunt for defendant. # Preventive Police?No. 1. Order i* Heaven'* first law.? Experience has shown that every weil regulated community must be governed by laws for the maintenance of justice, the preservation of order, and the detection and prevention of crime. When a small number of persons are associated together, constituting a village or hamlet, the fact that every inhabitant is known, that his pursuits and occupations are watched and commented upon, in in it;el? a sufficient safeguard in most instances against the commission of any serious offence upon society; but where large masees are drawn together, there in an inherent tendency in the present state of onr nature for the evil disposed to infringe utjon the rights of the common whole. It is on this account that communities so situated have been invested with higher powers of jurisdiction and incorporated into cities, having granted to them particular privileges and immunities. On the fall sf the Roman empire, the people of many of the towns, harassed and distracted by the Irequent attacks of a lawless soldiery upon their lives and property, and grown desperate by the weak and leeble aid afforded by the government under which they nominally lived, at last threw off the yoke, created themselves into independent communities, elected some of the citizens to the magistracy. fortified their cities, maintaiaed order, and repulsing their enemies, enjoyed a long career of wealth and prosperity. It is only by the same sacrifices and devotion to the public interests, that any community can ever enjoy safety or merit a reputation for order and good government. In other countries, where greater power is either delegated or usurped, crimes against the laws do not bo much affect ihe character of society. Since it is not possessed of the right to redress wrongs that may be inflieted upon it; but in this free land, where the admitted and recognised principle is that the people is sovereign, that they are the true and only source of power, the obligation is of the most sacred character, so to discharge the trnst, that justice and security shall be maintained, protection enfetced, and the laws so respected that the progress of the democratic principle shall not be checked or confidence in its capacity impaired- While it is 1 ROiirM nl nrirf# that nil* nnnntrv ?? men the oppreaed of nil naiioun. there e??Mi he a doubt that the loose and inefficient character of our police system hat attracted hither thousand* cf desperados, who come amoag us hardened in crime, emboldened by success and almost assured of escape from detection. Being thoroughly convinced of the inadequacy oI our public system as existing at present for the maintainance of order, the suppression of vice, and the detection of crime. Our able and enlightened Chief Magistrate, with a zeal that does honor to his nature, and exhibits to our citizens a devotion to their interests far greaiher than the fair promises of words, has long been engaged in maturing a plan for the re-organization of our municipal ay stem, which when known and understood by tae public, will be demanded by every citizen who has at heart the welfare cf the community, or feels interested that the fair fame of our tree Institutions shall rtmain untarnished. In thi* praiseworthy effort he has been sustained by the powerful aid of au intelligent committee of the Common Council, whose labois have been embodied in a report to that body, the details of which it is our purpose to examine in our next number. Reivum. Chatham Theatre ?The indefatigable Thome, although constantly producing novelties, does not wait for them to pall upon the public taste, but ere the attraction of one subsides, startles the audience with some brilliant display. This evening, three new pieces are brought out together. The beautiful drama of "Abdard aad Heloise," in which Mr. Thorne and Mr. Hield appear, supported by the inimitable Scfton as Maximilian. The grand Egyptian dranu of the "Earthquake" will also be produced, in the most magnificent style, with entire new and gorgeouj scenery, properties and costumes. Court Calendar?This Day. Surtaioa Coust.?Nos. 60, 76,76.77, 78, 73, 80, 87 to 00, M, 66, 96, 97. Savannah Racx?? Ooi.bthobfx Cocas*.?Saturday?Sixth and Ijait J toy?Jockey Club Puree.? $100? Out Mile //rati.?For this parse there were bat two entries, Col. Edmuudsoa's b. f. Fancy Rowland, and Mr. Loreli's b. g. Hodgford. Won easily by the filly. Nancy Rowland, 1 1 liodrefurd, 3 3 Time?1st heat, 1 m.53 see., 2d, 1 a. S8 sec. The first race for saddle horses was a (ingle dash of a mile. Purse R20?eetranee $10. Won by Wallace. Wallaces, 1 Jenny Walker, 3 Heminole, 1 ' Elisabeth 4 ' Touchstone, 6 The concluaion of the day's sport was a race by saddle aage, best three in five?for whieh there wtra three entries. rursc taken by Jack of Diamond*. Jack of Diamond*, 1 3 1 'J 1 , Klixa Hunter, 3 13 13 Tlmoleon I drawn. We lenrn the Jockey Club ha* recently had an acceaaion of about 3:) member*, a>.d that their proapecta for fine racing next year are rery flattering. . Savannah Republican March 14. Momuc Race* ?Remit on the 3th inst?First Raee?Sweepstakes for colt* and Allien, 3 years old ?entrance $300, forfait 8-00?Two mile heata, 4 subscriber*. Purse $UOO?one forfeit. Colli 91 lbs.? fillies 33: L. Cocke'sb f. Miss Foete, by imp. Consul, out of imp. Gabriella,. I 1 t D.Myer'sb. f. Hannah Harris, by Bortrand, t out of Orey Ooose, (own sister to Bascombe) 4 lbs. orer, 13d i T. Watson's c. f. Glenora,by imp. Olencoe, out of Kitty Clover by Sir Charles 3 dist. Time 3 63- 3 46- 3 S3. , It is but justice to state that Hannah Harris had ( met with a recent severe accident, having been I thrown down by another horse while in ftall speed. I She also earried 4 poonda orer weight. I Still Fuhthkr from New Grskada.?We irt again iu possession ef intelligence fiom tke above Republic to the 2J6th January, tnting thet the govelement troop*, under the command of Colonel Gomes, had, to the number of abore one thousand i> en, at Imgth reached Carthageaa. At Barrenqnilla much di.-order and anxiety still existed, by reason of Carmona's riolrnt proceedings there. He bad caused several persons to be imprisoned or some pretext or other, among whom was a Dr. Pardy, who waa, however, immediately claimed by tke commander of H M. S. Comus.aud Liberated. Only three hundred men had a'sembltd atSibanalarge, out o| those lately besieging Cartkagena. Santa Martha was comparatively quiet to what it bad been. Nothing, was, however, heard from ' Mempox.

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