Newspaper of The New York Herald, March 28, 1842, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated March 28, 1842 Page 2
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NEW YORK HERALD. New York, Monday, March MS, 184 M. Strain Ship Columbia again. It is now supposed lhat the Columbia did not leave Liverpool till the 19th instant, and is conse quently not yet due. In the winter season the contract between Mr. Canard and the British Covernment, requires but one boat a month to be despatched, with no particular day specified. Therefore, as '.he Acadia left on the 19th of February, and so long a time at elapsed since the -1'h instant, it is tair to suppose that the Columbia did net start till the 19th of this month. This appears more probable when \vc consider tha" the steamers begin running twice a month during the summer, from April. If, however, she did leave, and has met with no serious imshap, we may receive her news to day by express from ?oston Important Messs^* from President Tyler? Proposed lteptal of the Distribution Law ..-Increase of t he Tariff? Uestoratlon of the Public Credit. At length the President has taken a very important step towards the restoration of the public credit, and the just principles of a financial system ? Yesterday we received from Washington, his message, recommending a repeal ef the Distribution Law?the increase of the present tarill'-and the creation of a national debt, equal to $20,000,000, tor the purpose of restoring the credit of the government, and of putting the country, at every point, in a proper state of defence, menaced, as she is, with war on e*ery side. It will be recollected that last Monday we shadowed forth this important message, with all its principal points,intimating that hitherto Messrs. Webster, Spenc?r had delayed its forthcoming. These mem bers of the Cabinet have, we suppose, given in their adhesion to a policy which was loudly called for? a policy alike necessary auj great?a policy which any sens b!e man would have recommended as the only remedy for the present degraded condition of the public finances. We republish the message again to day, principally in consequence of its great importance. And now, pince this great, open, noble, and important step is take* on the responsibility of the President, it may Le asked what will the cliques and factions in Congress say to its recommendations 1 We anticipate nothing but violence, uproar, opposition, brutal attack, and every species of delay.? The present Congress was elected under the effects ot hard cider, hard singing, hard drinking, and hard things of all kinds Their character and conduct correspond with their origin. The policy now proposed by John Tyler, in his Message, is the only course that can be pursued with safety or honor to the couutry, but so bitter are the cliques ol Congress to this honest chief magistrate, that we are prepared to see the ultrat of both factions raise the war cry at once. What, then, is to be done in such a crisis ? Will the people longer submit to such folly and perversity 1 xnnni'w ko <ti-?rrappcl hpcfinne the mud sdI rits of Congressare disappointed 1 Shall the public credit daily sink in the midst of & rich nationsAre we to permit the factious spirits of Congress to disgrace the nation"? Certainly not. Now is the day and the hour for the great conservative spirit of the people to come forth at once. Let the honest republicans of this city, who want to preserve the reputation and character of the country, come forth, and hold an overwhelming meeting somewhere up town. Let every democrat, who wishes well to his native or his adopted land, put his shoulder to the wheel, and help to givea jog to the car of state, which has been overturned by a set of hard cider drinkers, merely because they wanted to upset the "captain of the deck." Nov/ is the time for the conservative republicans, of all oranps add classes, to organise and make a fit-sb start. The country wants them. Singular Bjuiiivft D*.veloremektg.?The applicliona tor the benefit of the bankrupt law here, are making some singular developementa of the mate of society and morals. In this district probably about 1.700 persons have applied, the aggregate dobrs of whom will be <110,000,000 or more?and ih?-ir assets only a b- ggarly sum of $90,000 or $100,000?probably not so much. Some of the applicants shew a schedule of $4,000,000 of debts?some of $1.500,<M0?;onie of $300,000, while their assets setm to be only a few old clrairs or tables, or insignificant jewelry, belonging to the poor females. Probably these bankrupts have run through, eat drank and worn, in a few years, about $9,000,000? and can show hardly any thing for it. Is there not something awfully wrong in this 1 And yet such persons drink high priced wines, get up balls, and call themselves respectable. The day of judgment cannot be far oft". Naval Movements?The Atricaw Sucaproh.? The " Washington Madisonian" says that it " is not true" that a squadron of four vessels are to be set t o the coast of Africa, under the command of Captain Ramsay. It was true at one time, whatever he Madison ian may say to the contrary. Such was the intention of the government; but we suppose the negligence of Congress and the deficiency ot the Treasury have caused a change in this good purpose. We trust, however, that the country will rise in one mass, and call upon Congress to do their duty. In such a case, a squadron ought and probably will be sent to the African coast. cmtiose or the U.vivehsity School ?Tiiis r/iniqut was re-opened on Saturday, under the management of L)r l'attison, who is to conduct it during the summer?Dr- Mott superintending it during the winter, when the students are here. All unpleasant collision will ba thus avoided, and we trust that the chuiqur will go on prosperously. The attendance was rather thin on Saturday. About halt a dozen patients were introduced and their cases were al) extremely interesting. Pr. Pattison, however, did not offer any extended clinical remarks, but signified his intention, in the management of the clinique, to arrange the cases into classes, and make each the subject ot a more elaborate lecture than could be given impromptu as the several cases came up.? We think tins plan a very judicious one, and have no doubt, trom our knowledge of Professor Pattiaon'sextended medical experience and philosophical acumen, tiiat his clinical discourses will be of great interest and value. The editor of the " Lancet" attended the rliniijue, and no opposition was made to his taking notes of the proceedings. I)rSwell's clmiqur at the College in Crosby street on Saturday was attended by an overflowing nudieuce, and was .remarkably interesting. Dr. Parker's c/i niqur will be, as usual, opt-n to day. All the interesting proceedings at these various diniquet will I fully reported in the Lancet, aud the public and the profession will thus be enabled to compare the talents and abilities of the rival Professors and reai the beaelit of their instructions. GtotooicAL Lecture.? Professor Lyell gave hi fourth lecture on Saturday evening last in tn?* 1 aoci nacle. It was on the formation of " coral reefs,' and waa quite amusing. He was well attended Materialism goes ahead rapidly. Nothing lurthe In particular. dty- raori.s3oa Bki;bamc, the inttoducer of th new social evstem, invented by Fourier, holds meeting on this subject in the rooms cf the Mecha nics* Institute, to morrow evening. Great progres is making in this branch of the new philosophymil it .- supposed they will be le tdy to Mart upoi the;r ninthly mission to change society sometim next summer- ^ Covcest.?Mad'lle Melizet met a Concert st thi City Hotel, on Wedrenlay evening. She will b< assisted by Signor De Begnis. Still Later front Tezaa ? Progress of the Xtiltaa Invasion. We have received important private letters from Galveston, T<xa.?, giving us an account of the state of affairs there, several hours later than what we obtained through the New Orleans papersIt seems that aianta Anna has made a bold and very masterly movement, and *it speaks loudly for his skill, energy and {tactics- He has'contrived to cones ntrate on the borders of Texas?at Durango, Matamoras, and other places on the Itio Grande, 12,two or 14,000 men ; these are all well armed and equipped. This number is about 5000 more than he brought into that country on the former inva inn tihii'h hp rnndunfpd in nprsnn Afl hp Hid then, so his generals this time are bringing on this army in three divisions; and it appears that they must have entered Texas sinmltaneou&ly at two points. Because the accounts state that the Mission (that is the place formerly called San Refugio, which was a tort of Catholic Irish settlement) was attacked, and taken by one division of the Mexicans at the same time that another division of the invading ariny reached and took possession of San Antonio de Bexar. These two place* are nearly 150 miles apart; the latter on the old northern road from Nacogdoches to Iiurangoand the city of Mexico, and the former on the southern road leading from Urassoria, or Matagorda, or Velasco, through Goliad to Matamoras. Both San Refugio, however, and Sar. Antonio de Bexar, are about equi-distant from the Rio Grande. The probability, therefore, is that 5000 men came on from Matamoras, the southern road to Ticloria ou the Guadeloupe river, whilst 9000, ia two divisions, came the northern road to San Antonio, intending to march thence to attack the city of Austin on the Colorado. The following are the letters received by us (Private Corrtipondmce-l Galveston, Texas, March 12, 1S-I2 . :_r ? 1 wrue lo IDiurin yu? mm uui cuuiiii; is by 'be Mexicans, fourteen thousand strong, in three divisions; one led by General Arista, one by General Bravo, the third I do not recollect by whom. San Antonio de Bexar has been taken?also Gonzales and Goliad- The division which captured San Antonio i* on its way to Austin, our seat of govarnment, when 1200 Texans under General Burle. son, our Vice President, will meet and whip them or die. Our city has been one scene of enthusiasm, and I may say, the whole country are rushing forward for the hght, and you may depend upon it there will be but one good one?one real San Jacinto. The archives of the nation have been buried. 1 leave to-morrow with my company, the Galveston Coast" Guard, to intercept and destroy the pro vision of the enemy, and hope to fall in with their artillery, supposed to be landing at Copano. We want two' Paixhan guns lor our navy. Cannot the City of New York send them to us 1 March. 13, 1812. Victoria has just?been taken. An express came in last night with the news. We leave to-day in the steamer Lafitte with one brass long nine and two sixes, to scour the coast and intercept the enemy's provisions and shall take Brassos Saint Jago. We also take a detachment of the Ualveston r usiieers, eigmy strong, iu lauu uuwu iuc coast, whence they will join the army. Steam is up in our boat, and the New York will leave for New Orleans in a few minutes. So huzza ! Galveston,(Texas) March9, 1842. Invasion of Texas by the Mexican*?The Course of President Houston?March of the Mexicans on San Antonio?Collecting of Troops?The Cotton Crop. Dear Sir :? I reached this "Land of the Free and Home of the Brave" for the purpose of spending afew weeks in the interior, but the rumors of an invasion by the Mexican army are quite current, and public meetings called for that and other purposes.? President Houston and lady are here; his course is too pacific to please theTcxnns?la fact its astonishing how he could ever have been elected after letting Santa Anna loose; but the truth.was, there was no opposition. 10, P. M ?1 have just returned froaa the meeting. There was a committee appointed to wait on the President seme days since, and that committee renoited his answer this evening?It was too pacific entirely, particularly a* to measures Tor the re- I lease of the Santa Fe prisoners. Many gentlemen spoke very plain, and I think, should the Mexicans not invade this country, it will be no easy matter to quiet this Anglo Saxon spirit of conquest. Thursday morning, IOtli March ?An express arrived during the night The Mexican army hare, in fact,advanced. The inhabitants tied trom .^an Antonio, and the troops took possession Now it would do you good.to tec this little place. Every one that can find tire arms or implements of war is engaged in collecting them. There is but one mind as to the end and result. That is. however, lonj and bloody the war may be, the matttr will only end in the conquest of Mexico. Friday morning, March 11?An express this morning has confirmed previous intelligence The Mexicans, says enc account, have captured Austins?another says, they are approaching Austin.? Barleston has collected from 700 to 1000 troops, and is reconnoitering the Mexicans, whose numbers all acccunts say are large. One gentleman approached their camp so near as to say positively it eovered one hundred acres of ground. Now 1 am quite certain you will^ have this sooner than any other person in New York. Send your Herald then to all that have the means cf getting here with an equipment. They can have the pleasure of securing a right in this land of promise by assisting to exterminate a race of worthless people from this fair land and placing an industrious and civilized race in their stead 1 am nc fighting man, neither am 1 disposed to run away. I will go'np the country this evening on an excursion of a few hundred miles, and should nothing happen will again write yon in a tew days. This place, Galveston, has improved most wonderfully since my visit three years since. There arc some four religious societies, and a wealthy aud respectable pec pie have taken the place of those who first came pioneers to this island. The crop of cotton will be very large this year, anil the quality superior. There are about twenty sail or vessels loading Tor various porta in tb? United States and Eurone?and for the age of the country, it stands unequalled in progress. The Mexican army may, as before, be successful for a time, but the lone star is certain to prevail ? You may rsly on all the above as strictly true. Yours, A:e. P. We may as well here calculate the probable result ot this struggle. It has been commenced by the Mexicans under much,better auspices than the former invasion. Santa Anna is the master spirit of the whole; and as it is not improbable that he is barked up by supplies indirectly from the British Government, and aided in his counsel by the British Minister in Mexico, the struggle may be a much more protracted one than it was btlore. Sinta Anna has done wisely in not going in per son with thii expedition. For if he had been with the army, and had been hedged round with 10,(MX Mexican soldiers, yet if he had crossed the Coloradc he never would have returned to Mexico alive There is a large number of determined spirits then who know him personally, who have sworn to kil him at all hazards, should he ever enter Texa i ag-iin; nnd KMX) of these men could be collcctei , >n Texas in five days, who have private wrongs t? i redress, aud who would put to flight at least 8,00 Mexicans, if commanded by Santa Anna in pers< 11 Nor are they likely to We much lew cnthusiastii when led against a body of Mexican troop*, no mat 8 ter by whom they are commanded. ? Let us see what are the resources of Texas. Shi ran bring into the held at least 5,000 active, able bodied men, well armed. We do not think she cai r count upon more than thi.i number. She hasstil ail her old and brave general* to lead her troops She ha* General Sam Houston, Gen- Husk, Gel c llurkston, all of whom went through ihe former wai B and know the character of the men they have t r tight with. They had abundant experience in tli w prev.ous war, and know how to attack the M \ica forces, and use them tip at a terrible disadvantag 8 A_ain the Texiane are all soldiers, ready made 1 r r.rder, hardy and active for their mode of life, at all of them good marksmen. They never throw iwi . powder and hall without killing something Agai . t ie whole of the United State* ta familiar wi Texas aad ita people now; m 1S3U tt wi to many of them like a wilderness afar off. Now it is a pleasant journey of a few days ; the facilities ol intercourse between the United States and Texas are greatly improved and increased. The commercial, financial, and social relations of the two countries have increased ten fold within the last five years; and where one armed volunteer entered Texas from the United States in 1835 and 1836, twenty would enter the Texian service now. Again, its navy is on a much better footing ; she has twice as many ships of war as she had in 1835; ana mere are a great numoer 01 men in ner navy now, who have been in the service of the United States navy. Besides the whole is under the command of a former officer of the United States navy, Commodore Moore, who is a mere active, and prudent, though not a braver officer than Charley Hawkins, the commander of the Texian navy in 1836. In addition to all this, the Texas army has the immense advantage of being under the chief command of General Johnson, one of the bravest men, sk'lful soldiers, and best discipliarians that ever lived. He graduated at West Point, was a long time in the army of the United States, and was at one time adjutant of the sixth regiment of the United States army. Taking all these things together, the affairs of Texas are much more promising than they were in the former struggle. On the other hand, the Mexican soldiers are no better off in any respect, and have no more advantages than they possessed in the war of 1836. They L n <>a n in?( m<\*o in nnmkara Knt tkit ia a frifls They are the same class of men; or rather, we should say, that a large majority of them are mere boys; and as it was in the war and invasion af 1S36, so it doubtless is now: viz , that a great number of these youth* have been pressed into the service at the different fairs and holiday fetes given in order to draw them together at Durango, Saltillo, Monterey, &c. They are a very inferior race of men ; generally very diminutive in stature, with very dark swarthy skins, and numbers of them look like a mixtnre of Indian and negro blood, while some appear to have a small sprinkle of white blood in their veias. They are no soldiers?have small arms and very little muscular strength, lazy and cowardly by nature?half the day they want to be lying down, taking a sietta on the dirty ground ; they are poor marksmen ; and although they can load and fire a musket almost as last as any set of men in the world, they never take their aim, and generally turn their head away when they pull the triggerSo much for the main body of the Mexican army. Then as to its officers, it is no better off. The former army was commanded by Santa Anna, (the very best general Mexico ever produced,) General Felisola, Generul Urrea, General Cos, General Wall, a very brave Englishman, and Col. Almonte, one of the most skilful and shrewd men that ever lived. Now, all but two of these men were very txroll opmininfpH ivifh Tpvaa Almnntn And Cos And Wall, had been all over Texas; knew its roads, its rivers, where to pass them?knew all the principal men, and all the resources of the country?and this alone enabled them to advance as far as Brazoria with the southern division, and San Jaciuto with the northern division. Now, the troops are under Gen. Arista and Gen. Bravo, neither of whom know any thing of Texas, its men, means, resources, rivers, or roads ; and it is not at all surprising that they should have advanced without interruption to the Victoria on the Guadoloupe.river, and to Bexar, on the San Antonio river, without interruption. There was nothing under heaven to impede their progress, except a few scattered cottages, in the prairies, and a small collection of people, about 300, badly armed, at Goliad. One thing, however, is singular; none of the general ollicers who were in Texas before have returned this time ; this looks ominous of their opinion of the result of the struggle. On the other hand, Santa Anna, by remaining in Mexico, can keep sending supplies to his army in Texas, which will prolong the struggle. It is our decided opinion that the Mexicans will not cross the Brazo river this time; there is too much property concentrated on that river to allow of it, and we doubt very much whether, it Uen. Burleson has 1000 men under him in the north, he will ever allow the northern division of the Mexican army te cross the Colorado. However, wherever he decides to fight them, if they are not more than four to one, he will whip them. The southern division of the Mexican army may reach Brazoria, but we rather think that it will be cut all to pieces before it crosses the San Bernardo, which lies between the Colorado and the Brazos. The last war commensed on January 24, and was all over on the 23J of April?three months. Tne present war may last six months?not longer. Verr Important if true-?We understand the notly case of the Creolt, including Mr. Giddings' case, has been referred to his Excellency the Governor of Coney Island, and we anxiously wait his decision. We learn, however, that his Excellency ha* decided not to give his opinion until the spring fishing has gone by, when he will have more leisure and prompt action may be expected immediately after. It has been whispered (we will not vouch for the truth,) that tha Governor feels somewhat puzzled, ow ing to two decisions ol theUniud States Judges, one for, and one against, the delivery of slaves, when through stress or otherwise taken to a country where slavery does not exist: to use his own phrase, it appear* to be part sea and part spout, however, most people think that the Governor will do the correct thing. JVous ferrous.' Smwoa Naoel in Havana.?This distinguished violinist, who is universally admitted to be the successor, as he was the disciple of Pagaaini, has lately given two concerts at the principal theatre in Havana with unbounded applause. His immense ability appears to have been at once appreciated by the polished inhabitants of that city ; and he will p-obably be induced to continue longer among them than he originally intended. It is true we aee his last concert announced in the " Diario," but we shonld think he will be prevailed on to protract his professional visit. It is understood that he intends to revisit New Orleans on his return to the United States, and that we shall again have the pleasure of welcoming him in New York in the course of the summer. We know of no musician whose presence among u* would afford more deep and extensive pleasure to our musical world. Sig. nor Nagel's personal deportment renders him as delightful to our social circles, as his pre-eminent skill exalts him in public admiration. There can be no doubt that his audiences, should he again ^ give audiences in this city, will be far more numej reus than before, for he has been the theme of en. ) thunastic reminescence ever since his last visit, and hundreds have exprewed regret that they had not then an opportunity of hearing so great a master. I Chatham Theatrl.?Thome is constantly ad' s ding to the attrastions of his House. We perceive J by the bills that he has engaged Master Diamone > and Wbitlock, the celebrated exhibitors of Africar 0 fun and peculiarities. They appear this evening? Four highly amusing pieces are also presented, one c of which is the Golden Farmer, where Jemm] Twitcher is at home. 5 City Intelligence, Tut Board or Assistant Aidermir meet thi a evening at S o'clock. || Police ?The only item of interest at the Polic i yesterday wa? the arrest of a man named Theodor l True, who arrived from Florida on Saturday. II is charged with defrauding the brother of Robei o S Oakley, of this city, who resides at one of th e military stations in Florida, of a constderabl n amount of goods that had been placed in his poi f session in trust. Nearly three hundred dollars wer found upon hit person at ihe lime of his arrest. H was taken from ihe vessel in which he had take id passage to this port. iy ri*r?lr A CearcT?A colored rssctl name D_ Miarles Bates, Htnle about one hundred yards < ih 9,r*in carpeting from John J. Zeh, 3U5<?rand stree and was arrested by officer Wm 11. Low, and con Is nutted. P RKS iDE NT'S MESS A RE. To Tlti" SicVAT* ARD Horn OK RsrAKII IfTATIVKi OK Til* U. Statas: Notwithstanding the urgency with which I hare on more thaii one occasion felt it my duty to press upon Congress the necessity of providing the government with the ni.eanf of discharging it* debu and maintaining inviolate the public faith, the increasing embarrassmun'.s oi the Treasury! impose upon me the indispensable obligation of again inviting your most serious attention to tne condition of the finances. Fortunately fur myself, in thus bringing this important subject to your view, for a deliberate and comprehensive examination in all its bearings, and 1 trust i may add, for a final adjustment of it, to the common advantage ot the whole L'nion, I am permitted to approach it with perfect freedom aud candor. As lew of the burdens for which provision is now r< quired to ne made have been brought upon the country during my short administration of its affairs, I have neither motive no? wish to make them a matter of crimination against any ofaiy predecessors.? I am dis|>osed to rerard, as I am bound to treat them, as facts, which cannot now be undone,and as deeply interesting to us all, an 1 equally imposing upon all the most solium duties; and tneonly use I would make of the errors of the past is, by a careful examination of their causes and character, to avoid if possible the repetition of them iu future. The condition of the country, indeed, is sueh as may well arrest the conflict of parties. The conviction seems at length to have made its way to the minds of all, that the disproportion between the public responsibilities and the means provided for meeting them,is ue casual nor transient evil. It is, on the contrary, one which, for some vears to come, notwithstanding a resort to all reasonable retrenchments, and the constant progress of the country in populotion and productive power, must continue to increase under existing lawi, unless we consent to give up or impair all our defence* iu war and peace. But this is a thought which,! au persuaded, no patriotic mind would for a momant entertain. Without affecting an alarm which I do not feel in regard to our foreign relations,it may salely be aflirmedthat they are in a state too critical and involve too maDy momentous issues to permit us to neglect in the least, much less to abandon entirely, those means of asserting our rights without which negotiation is without dignity and peace without security. In the report of the Secretary of the Treasury, submitted to Congress at the commencement of the prtseut session, it is estimated that, after exhausting all the probable resources of the year, there will remain a deficit of $14,000,000. With a view partly to a permanent system of revenue, and partly to immediate relief from actual embarrassment, that officer reccommended, together with a plan for establishing a Government Exchequer, some expedients of a more temporary character, viz the issuing of Treasury Botes, and the extension of the time for which the loan authorised to be negotiated by the act of the last session should be taken. Congress accordingly provided for an issue of Treasury notes to the amount of $5,000.000, but subject to the condition that they should not be paid away belaw par. No measure connected with the last of tne two objeats above mentioned was introduced until recently into the House of Representative*. Should the loan bill now pending beiire that body pass into a law, for its present amount, there u ould still remain a deficit of $1,600,000. It requires no argument to show that such a condition of the Treasury is incompatible not only with a high state of public credit, but with anything approaching to einciency inthe conductor public affaire. It muat be obvioue, even to the moit inexperienced mind*, that, to lay nothing of any particular exigency, actual or imminent, there should be at all times in the Treasury of a great nation, with a view to contingencies of ordinary occurrence, a surplus at least equal in amount to the above deficiency. But that deficiency, serious as it would.be in

itself will,I am compelled to say,rather be increased than diminished, witheutthe adoption of measures adequate to correct the evil at once. The stagnation of trade and business, in some degree incident to the derangement of the national finances, and the state of the revenue laws, holds out but little prospect of relief in the.ordinary course of things for some time to come. Under such circumstaiiees, I am deeply impressed with the necessity of meeting the crisis with a vigor and de cision which it imperatively demands at the hands of all entrusted with the conduct of public affairs. The gravity of the evil calls for a remedy proportioned to it.? No slight palliatives or occaiional expedients will give the country the relief it needs. Such measures, on the oontrary,will,inthe end, as is now manifest to all, too surely multiply its embarrassments. Relying, as 1 am bound to do, on the Representatives af a People rendered illuirriout among nations oy naving paia on in wnoie public debt, I ihall not ihrink from tbe reaponaibility imposed upon me by the Constitution of pointing out such measures as will in my opinion ensure adequate relief, t am the more encouraged to recommend the course which necessity exacts, by the confidence which 1 have in its complete success. The resources af the country, in every thing that constitutes the wealth and strength of nations, are so abundant?the spirit of a most industrious, enterprising, and intelligent people is so energetic and elastic, that the Government will be without the shadow of excuse for its delinquency, i I the difficulties which now embarrass it be not speedily and effectually removed From present indications, it is hardly doubtful that Congress will find it necessary to lay additional duties on imports, in order to meet the ordinary current expenses of the Government. In the exercise of a sound discrimination, having reference to revenue, but at the same time necessarily affording incidental protection to manufacturing industry, it seems equally probable that duties on some articles of importation will have to be advanced above 'JO per cent. In performing this important work of revising the tariff of duties, which in the present emergency would seem to be indispensable, 1 cannot too strongly recommend thu cultivation of a spirit of mutual harmony and concession, to which the government itself owes its origin, and without the continued exercise of which jarring and discord would universally prevail An additional reason for the increase of duties in some instances beyond the rate of JO per cent, will exist in fulfilling the rccommendstions already made, and now repeated, of making adequate appropriations for the defences of the country. fly the express provision of the set distributing the proceeds of the sales of the publicjlands among the States, its oneration is ipso facto to cease as soon as the rate of | the duties shall exceed the limit* prescribed in the act. In recommending the adoption of measure* for distributing the proceed* of the public land* among the States at the commencement of the last session ofCungresi,such distribution was urged by arguments and considerations which appeareJ to me then, and appear to me now, of great weight, and was placed on the condition that it should not render necessary any departure from the act of 1833. It is with sincere regret that I no *r perceive the necessity of departing from that act; because 1 am well aware that expectations justly entertained by some of the States will be disappointed, by any occasion which shall withhold from them the proceeds of the lands. But the condition was plainly expressed in the message, and was inserted in terms equally plain in the law itself; and amidst the embossments which surtound the country on all sides, and beset both the Oeneral and the State Oovernments, it appears to me that the object first and highest in importance is to establish the credit of this Government, and to place it on durable foundations, aad thus atfordthe most effectual support to the credit of the States, equal at least to what it would receive form a direct distribution of the proceeds of the sales of the public lands. When the distribution law was passed there was rea, son to anticipate that there soon would be a real surplus to distribute. On that assumption it was, in my opinion, a wise, a just,and a beneficent measure. But to continue it in force while there is no such surplus to distribute and when it is manifestly necessary, not only to increase the duties, but at the same time to borrow money in order to liquidate the public debt aad disembarrass the puhlic treasury, would cause it to be regarded as sn unwise alienation of the best security of the public creditor which would with dillieulty be excused, and could not I be justified. Causes of no ordinary character have recently depressed American credit in the stock market of the world to a degree quite unprecedented. 1 need Vcarcely mention the condition ot the banking institutions of some cf the States, the van amount 01 mrcigu ueut wutracted during a period of wild speculation by corporations anfl individuals, an ),above all, the doctrine of repudiation of contracts solemaly entered into by States, which, though as yet applied only tinder circumstances of a peculiar character, and generally rebuked with severity by the moral sense of the community, is yet so very licentious, and In a government depending wholly on opinion so very alarming, that the impression made by it to our disadvantage as a people, is any thing but surprising. Undvr such circumstances, it is imperatively due from us to the people whom we represent, that when wu go into the money mirkat to contract a loan, we shoulJ tender such securities as to cause the money lender as well at home as abroad to feel that the most propitious opportunity is afforded him of investing profitably and judiciously hit capital.? A Government which has paid off the debts of two wars waged wi'hthe most powerful nation of modern times, should not be brought to the necessity of chaffering for term* in the money market. Under such circumstance! as 1 have adverted to, our object should be to produce with the capitalist a feeliDg of entire confidence, by a tender of that sort of security which in all times past has been esteemed sufficient, and which for the small amount of our proposed indebtedness will unhesitatingly be regarded as amply adequate. While a pledge of all the revenues amount to ao more than is implied in every in stance when the Government contracts a debt, and al though it ought in ordinary circnmstances to be entirely satisfactory ,lyet in times like these the capitalist woulc feel better satisfied with the pledge of a specific fund, sm pie in magnitude ta the payment of his interes and ultimate reimbursement of his principal. Sucl is the character of the lanJ fund. The most vigi lant money dealer will readily |>erceive that not only will his interest be secure on such a pledge, but that i I debt of *18.000,000 or $10,000,000 would, by the surplus o salt s overjaud above the pay men! of the intcrrst.be extin i guished within tny reasonable time fixed for itsresump . tion. To relieve the Treasury from its embarrassments and to aid in meeting its requisitions until time is allow ed for any new tariff of duties to become available, i i would seem to be necesrary to fund a debt appreachini to $19,000,000; and, in order to place the negotiation o the loan bey ond a reasonable doubt, I submit to Congrr whether the proceeds of the sales of tbo public land ahonld not be pledged for the pay mentofthe interest,an a the Secretary of the Treasury be authorised, out of tb surplus 01 inr pr?ciru? u. ?.?, .. (took, when it can be procured on snch terms at wi! c render it beneficial in that way to extinguish the dot and prevent the aocumulation ot inch aurplua while il p distribution ia suspended. e No una can doubt that were the Federal Treasury net a* prosperous b< it was ten years ago, and its fiscal ep< rt rations conducted bv an efficient agency ot its own,c< a extensive with the Union, the embarrassments of th States, and corporations in them, would produce, even e they continued!at they are, (were thit possible.) elfec sre far less disastrous thsn those now experienced, e is the disorder here, at the heart and centre of the ?y r torn, that paraly7.es and deranges every part of it. Wti II does not know the permanent importance, not to the K deral Government alone, but to every State and ever , individual within ita iurisciction. even in the most ind pendent and isolated individual pursuits in the pr "I seivationof sound state of public opinion and a jut1 I, ciotis idmiuiitration here) The sympathy is instant 1- neons and universal. To attempt to remedy the evil the deianged crt Jit'an.l currency of the States whi the disease ii allowed to ragnio the vitalsof this Government, would be a hopeless undertaking. It if tke full conviction ot this truth which emboldens me moat earnestly to recommend to your early and serioua conaideration the measures now aubmitted to your better judgment, aa well aa thoae to which your attention haa been already invited. The iirat great want of the country, that without aasweiing which all attempta at bettering the prefent condition ofthingt will prove fruitleaa, ta a complete restoration of the credit and linancea of the Federal Government. The source and foundation of alleridit ia in the confidence w hich the Government inspire*,'and in proportion as that confidence shall be shaken or diminished will be the distrust among all classes of the community, and the derangement and demoralization in every branch of business and all the Interests of the country. Keep up the standard of good faith and punctuality in the operations of the General Government, and ail partial irregularities and disorder* will be rectified by the influence of Its example ; but'suffer that standard to be debased or disturbed, and it ia impossible to foresee to what a degree of degradation and confu-ion all financial interests, public and private, mar sink. In such a country as this, the Representatives of the People have only to will it, and the public credit will be as high aa ever. My own views of the measures calculated to effect this great and desirable object I have thuafrankly expressed to Congress, nader circumstances which give to the entire subject a peculiar and soli mo interest The Executive can do no more. If the credit of the country be exposed to question?if the public defences be broken down or weakened?if the whole administration of publie affair* ba embarrassed for the want of the necessary means for conducting them with vigor and effect, 1 trait that this department of the government will be found to have dome all that was in itspowerto avert such evils, and will be acquitted of all Just blame ou account of them. JOHN TYLER. Washington, March 24,184-2. The Prosecution against N. BIddJe. Philadelphia, March 26,1842. S.R? Your article about the prosecution of Mr Biddle has produced a strong sensation here. Every body feela it, becauee every body knows it to be true No stronger evidence of it can be found than thta simple fact?that on the very grand jury to try Mr. Jiiddle ia a Mr. Lewi* Wain. This Mr L. Wain was a director of the bank, and no man in it piuuavij uuuiriDHicu uiuru iu hi uciliilj m?n uc did. Every body agree* now that the effoit to break down the banks in New York, which induced the immense drafts on Hottiaguer that were protested, was the ftrst step towards rain. This verv measure, the effort to break the New York banks, was the wis* and virtuous plan of a committee of exchange, who it appears by the report of the investigating committee (page 65) consisted of Messrs. Wain, Cope, and Cabot; and among these, as we have often heard the directors say, Mr. Wain was the most active and zealous in the measure. Mr. Lewis Wain, sitting in judgment on his colleagues, whom he deceived by concealing from them ruinous misapplicaton of the bank's funds ! Justice. Thus much our correspondent. We have more o say on this subject at a proper time. When this prosecution shall have been disposed ef, we shal] lift the veil, and give the world a glimpse of the secret history of the United States Bank, both in Philadelphia and New York. Some men who now hold their heads high, will then he seen in their proper dimensions. The explosion and ruin of the U. S. Bank will then be turned back to the men who were its secret managers?who now hold the .r it.. _u._ i ... k.? ..j _u. ?? i. <-J " '"c uipu.u-.uu nuui.j IV punish Nicholas Biddle for their own errors and wickedness, and thus escape justice. They will yet be dragged to the light of a broad day. C. g. Circuit Court. Before Judge Kent. Luther Gay, tt at. ts. Asa Gardner, ei al ?The defendant is keeper of the City Hotel. The present action is to recover $-140, being the amount of one of three notes shaved for Gardner & Packard, by Mr. Belden, broker, of Wall street, who paid $1,200 fer notes of $1,366. The notes were drawn by defendant, and endorsed by Mr. Packard and John H. Gardner.' After being shaved by Mr. Belden they passed to plaintiff, who keeps in Troy. Judgment has already been obtained, by default, against the endorsers, who were furnished with a release bv defendant, [and now admitted as evidence. The note was contested on the plea of usnry, which the jury sustained, by giving a verdict for detendant. For plaintiff, Mr. Jordan. For defendant, Mr. r> ! . Joseph Martin vs. John Hillyer, Sheriff.?The plaintiff, by old fashioned eare and industry, had accumulated a handsome property, and retired into the country. He left his mast-yard (at the foot of Montgomery street) with his son Joseph P. The latter branched into more extended business, and got his father to endorse for him, which was done to the amount of 923,000, and the old gentleman rained. A hatch of 12 notes given at one time, by the son, to the Saratoga County Bank, were produced at court, and gave evidence of the prO'ptrUfi enjoyed in *36, and the early part of '37. In 1837, the plaintiff sent a lot of spars which had been cut off his farm, and valued at $350, to his son, but they were taken on execution by the sheriff for a dsbtdue by the latter The present is an ncti<>n of replevin to recover the value. Verdict for plaintiff. For plaintiff, Mr. N. B Blunt. For defendant, Mr. Barber. Marine Court. Before Judge Shekmai*. Mauch 26?An action was brought by Cornelius Vauderbelt agaiast Capt- Thayer, of the steamboat Rhode Island, to recover compensation for injury done to the steamboat Kosciusko, by a collision between the two boats off Hunt's Point (L. 1. Sound ) on the morning of the 8d inst. The Rhode Island had been detained by bad weather over night, and tbe boats had " a race of it" down the Sound. In passing the Rhode Island's bows (the latter having shut off her steam) the Kosciusko was caught by the anchor of the Rhode Island, her quarter boat torn to pieces, the side honse injured, and other damage done. 1 he jury, supposing, probably, that " it was six of one, and half a dozen of the o her," could not agree, and were discharged. Fire 'at wiufiisatois, N. C?The steam saw mill and a great quantity of lumber contiguous thereto, the property ol Mr. P K Dickinson, was destroyed by fire at Wilmington, N. C , on the 17th inst. Loss $16,000; insurance $7,000. Evidence or Friendship.?Kissing a married lady out ot pure lore to her husband. !)(?- TO COUNTRY MERCHANTS AND DRUGGISTS.?Several houses heretofore considered respectable hare lately been discovered to have been selling base counterfeit or imitations of the true Balm of Co lumbia and Hay's:Liniment. Every person from the country or other cities, purchasing or taking for sale either of those articles that have not our names in fall on them, will be visited by our travellers, and unless they ship them back to the persona from whom they had them, will be advertised and cautioned egainst by name, in all the newspapers of their own towns, and all others that we can ascertain circulate in the sphere of their trade, and in cases we deem it advisable, will be sued.? We are now determined at any risk or expense to put a stop to the infamous proceedings of these counterfeiters. Comstock h Co. Wholesale Drucaists.Tl Maiden lane. 01]~ PARSON BELL, who hold* forth daily to a goodly audiente,attribute! hi* niccess in his efforts to please to Sherman's Lozenges, and whenever he wants to he unusually interesting, he puts one into bis mouth. He goes for ell of Dr. Sherman's articles, as does every body who knows their worth. IPS Nassau is the Doctor's office. Agents 8 State street, Boston, and 3 Ledger Buildings, Philadelphia. ay- WELL, WELL, WELL-JONES SUCCESS FUL AGAIN.?An old Frenchman, whose hi ad and hair was white as "driven snow," has lately, he tells ! us, used soma of Jones'Oil of Coral Circassia. and he i has line dark hair growing on the top of his head. Read , er, this is no flation ; these persons certify that it made their hair grow, prevented it falling out, cured the dan driff, ard gives light, red or grey hair a line dark look I and made it grow dark In time. W. Tomkins, 9-1 King st N.Y.; T. Bender, Broadway, and many others. It ii , sold at the reasonable price of 3; 5 or 9 shillings a bottle by Jonrs, at the sign of the American Eagle, 9-1?mini the right number, or you'll be cheated?Si Chatham st r Try this, all ye. 1 C?- EXTRAORDINARY CIRCUMSTANCE?Or ' Wednesday evening as Mr. Jonas Hunter, of the Bow err, was walking up Broadway, he was suddenly seiiei 1 with a severe pain in the temple, which frightened hit) net a little, but on the advign ef a passer by, he turnei into the store at the corner of Grand street, where h ' procureJ a few of Fetcr's Lozenges, and in less thai f throe minutes the pain vanished, and ho was as well a ever. I'eters has lozenges el <qu?l efficacy in coughi * colds, worms, dispepsis, low spirits, sea sickness, ani ' drowsiness: and, also, a Strengthening'Flaster. price om shilling, which cannot be matched in the cotiatry. C I Peters'Pills it is needless to speak. They are known a * the nr plut ulira of ?rdicine? every where. Officei ' 469 Broadway, 1AO and 330 Bowery, 416 Hudson, an * 310 Chatham streets. New York ; and at 90 North Sixt * street, Philadelphia. The editor thinks that the puhli '* cannot he otherwise than grateful to him for the abov e iuformatien. e II Court Calendnr?Tlila Dnjr. * Ciaci'iT Corar.?Na* 79, 80. 91, 91,94, 97 , 98,100, 10 " 104. toltS, 114 Svrtaioa Coast.?Notes of issue for Ike ensuing A pr K term must be filed on or before Monday, 38th inst. c" Bankrupt List, i* SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK, ts Orrin Swift, merchant, Brooklyn, April! It J imca Ballard, clerk. New York. Nlav 1 i- Dwlght Biihop, agent, do April*: 10 l?aac Fryer, clerk, do June William Brummel],confectioner, do April y (MtflJiCkldNI, do June r Aaa Stebhina, builder, Brooklyn, April] e- l.'imao Vauehan, Williamiburg, li- Ohadiah Jackion, Newton, a- C T. Buckingham, merchant, New York, J,,n? ol Wm. Sherwood, teacher, do April le F.penetui Kellogg. da y ? . u-> fOS TS CR1PT. I w- Far our usual Sou thern Correspondence, $ (., by this morning's Mail, see fourth page. District C ourt of tlir Lulled States Before Judge Bette. March ?6?Several cases patted to decree. The petition of Moses B. Arnold Ilea over to the a 2a April. Henry S Jennings?The objections in this case * were ar^ut-d by Mr. Fessendea and by Mr. C. B. Moore.' Mr. M. wished te add a supplemental achedule. The Court replied that be mast acknowledge the abjections before being allowed t<r amend. Ue cotiM not throw oyer proceedings by mere supplementary papers Geo. 0 li'estcott?la this case Mr. Dresser had C leave to amend thesehedaie. JI'm. H. Gregory?The objections ia this case ware withdrawn, and* it passed to decree. Henry Kneeland?Tbim ease had been opposed by two creditors, and referred tea commissioner. On the first, it was stated by counsel, he was ready to report. The Court directed that the while of the objections be examined before the case is broaght in. Daniel Y'oungs?The objections were argued by Mr. Bliss and Mr. Mather. One of them is that the petitioner had not clearly set forth the name of a creditor at Brooklyn. Hie achedule aays, dueMr. Raymond, at Brooklyn. This is vague, Mr. Bliss remaiked, and not such a description a* the law contemplates. There was another objection, but he had aot been instructed to allude to it. In answer, Mr. Marker said the petitioner had given tbe bent description possible. He said "to Mr. Raymond, Brooklyn, for rent doe to him " The other objection was thai the petitioner had called himielfa gentleman, inatcad of a huckater in the market. He had a right ao to style himself, and I think your honor, said Mr M., will mtfch interfere with eur democratic sovereigns, by allowing this to be a good objection. I.ever tit R Jtradlry-~Thi?\ease waa argued by i Mr. Robert F. Winslow for petitioner, ana Mr. C. T. Cromwell for creditor. The objections were principally on the ground that of forty creditors in New York, the petition stated that they are unknown, whereas, in a schedule filed by hhna short time since in Hudson Connty, N.J, with a view to taking the benefit of the insolvent laws, they arc all described. He also alludes to aa assignment made by him in 1833, and to a receiver being appointed on his property in 1838, bat does not state particulars. '1 he Court stated that they were all matters which required examination belore a commissioner, and could not be decided here new. There was also a trust debt charged aa factor, hut denied by petitioner's counsel. John (itorge Smith?The objections in thia ease were argued by Mr. Sherman and Mr. Raymond. The objections were principally on the ground that the creditors were not act fortn, or an assignment shewn, which was stated to have been interfered with bv Coolidue and Haikell. of Boston, and the creditors paid 62? cents on a dollar. Mr. Raymond ur^ed that the creditors were set down to tne best ability of the petitioner. The gentleman cannot be injured by such, at any rate: for, if other creditors do not come in and prove tneir debts, so much the better for him. Mr. Sherman contended that the law should be strictly enforced. If the Court permits careless schedules to pass, it will open the door for all kinds of fraud. Henry H. Elliot?This case was argued by Mr. Fessenden for opposing creditor, and Mr. J. Wheeler for petitioner. The principal objection was that the schedule did not clearly state the date of assignments or his position as regarded his Iste connexion in the houses of Elliott, Huntington and Co , and Tracy, Gould and Co. Mr. Wheeler said he bad been but a nominal partner With the latter, and he was not permitted by the other partners (who were solrent) to exhibit their books. Mr. Fessenden thought the Court had power to compel it. At any rate, these were pein s on which he would like to hare the testimony of Mr. Elliot. On that, from his knowledge cf Mr. E-, beifelt he could confidently rely, and then be enabled to advise with his clients [the Hartford Dank] whether it was werth while to push their claim or not. The Court, at half past 1 o'clock,"adjourned. m.ruiTU!U TUFA TR V Thia avanlnv halnir let apart for the benefit and laat appearance of John Setton, the houie will be crowded in every part. He offers a most attractive bill, consisting of an entire new drama,entitled the Night Hag,or St. Swithen's Chair?to which is added the comedy of the Two Queens, and the dramas of the Golden Farmer and Incendiary. The beneficiary appears as Davey Logan, Magnus Lobb, Jemmy Twitcher, and Jemmy Muggleby. Qcy- PEALE'S MUSEUM.?Few, if any, properly apprehend or adequately appreciate the difficulties and responsibilities encountered by the conductors of the dally press, in mattsrs of public amusement. The juite milieu ia undoubtedly the path to be choaen. But It is no easy matter to do, at the same time, justice to the amusere and the amused. The demsnds of the one frequently conflict with the claims of the other. Laitiet J aire is, we know, s good principle, and the popular one: yet we cannot, aa between Mr. Peale, our readers, and ourselves, consent to submit to its dicta, but while he continues in the spirit of this evening's entertainments, we shall not hesitate te recommend hi* Museum as a most agreeable place of resort to these who are fond of an afternoon's or evening's genuine enjoyment. QtJ- THE ENGLISH GIPSEY GIRL, whose myaterious performances have elicited great w onder in Europe, is engaged at the Amsriean, where, in aonjunction with Wiuohtll, the laughter provoking drolleriat, T. G. Booth, the comic singer, and Mrs. Phillips, the popular vocalist, the richest variety cf entertainments ever witnessed in'his city for twenty-five cents, will be produced. Also exhibiting, Falls of Niagara, Albino Lady.' Ventriloquism, Pneumatic Railroad. Fancy Glass Worke iug. Grand Cosmorama, and by far tha most eztensiv. and beautiful collection of natural and artificial curios'" ties in America. Such unparalleled attractions mu draw crowds of visitors day and uight. (K7- COTTER'9 FRIENDS NOT TO BE BF.ATEN BY THE BAD WEATHER ?Friday evening last was the night they choosed to give their old (riend Cotter a Benefit Bell._ The weather being bad, it did not prove fo. weare nappy 10 learn mc diii win no repeaivu uu Wednesday next, SOth inst. We truat they may have good weather?They are hound to have a good time.? All persona, say the committee, having purchased tickes for Friday night, will be admitted an Wednesday.? Oo a head gentlemen. MOIVK TMMARKBT. Sunday, March 37?6 P. M. The Boston mail has again reached us, bringing no tidings of the Liverpool steamer Columbia, which has now been out 23 days. Fears are entertained for her safety. The mildness of the weather has caused the ica to break up early, and it is not impossible that she has been delayed by it, or may, like the Caledonia,have been obliged to put back. More especially as the sailing packets make such long passages. The operations under the Bankrupt law proceeds slowly. It is a new thing, and both the lawyers and the bankrupts are studying and experimenting on its operation. Thus fat it hat only servt-d to point out the loca. tion of property to creditors, in ordsr that they may seize it under the State laws. Judge 9tary has decided that property which comes into the possession of the bankrupt,] after hit papers are filed, is not subject to attachment. Wh? n the bankrupt filea hit bill the property of which he then stands possessed, is under the charge of the assignees, and is not liable to seizurr, but if tha bankrupt does not succeed in obtaining his decree tha property is then exposed to attachment lrom individual creditors, and may be seized and sold. The baukrupt -? Tl. I. tk.n has then to commence ?? ?? ?. ?? V|.?._?vu .. ai follows: A bankrupt has long had possession of ' property of which hia creditor could obtain no inJ formation. On filing the billa the location of this property ia pointed oat to the creditor, who im) ' mediately levya on it. He thin exerts himself to prevent the bankrupt fratn obtaining hia decree. If he succeeds in this he immediately sella under hia 1 levy, and paye himself. It will be seen that thil leaves a I door open to pay preferred debts in spite of the provisions of the law. An extensive system of plunder and annoyance la kept up upon the.bankruptr,by a class of most aon J i temptible pettifogging lawyers. Thus whan a bankrupt tiles his bill, some hungry lawyer looks over the list of a creditors, selects one or two, to whom he otlers hia 1 services gratis, telliDg them that if they will give him e a power of attorney to act for them in the case he wilf i save their debt for them. The bankrupt not anticipating I, any opposition, appeari in court, and whenfhia name ia I called finds,to his astonishment, a lawyer objecting ta (Bf his release,on some frivolous pretence. He will then , send his lawyer to the opponent to find otU the nature of i. the opposition, and he ascertains that $ 10 will | settla the matter. Such are some of the tricks that have alvesdy c resulted from the new liw. There are already about e 1701) applicants in this city; their liabilities amount to $10,000,000, nn l their assets not $10(k,*00. The creditors, therefore, get literally nothing. Menu au?u... ij ritiig point of the law. ltla in reapectto furnitnre ?eized under a landlords warrant. Hthat furniture ii in. eluded in the inventory of the bankrnpt it rouat ha divided pra rata among all the creditor*, the law placing all up >n the same footing. In * caae before Judge Dickeraon, of Gloucester County, New Jeriey, such a aaie ocJJj cut red. The good* diilrainrd were thoee inventoried with the petition. On behalf of the bankrupt, R. W. 4 How ell, K.iii, moved the Court for a rule upon the landlord to dnaiat from faither pror.et ding on hi* warrant, alleging, 1. That the Art of Congren placed the lanJlor.l 30 on a foaling with all ether creditor*; and, i. That it wa* neceimry for the complete enforct mentof the hanker; rapt law, that the article* inventoried ihould pa** into 2C the hand* of the a?*ignee,to be by him dispoieJ of. Tie