Newspaper of The New York Herald, April 7, 1842, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated April 7, 1842 Page 2
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NEW YORK HERALD. New York, TliurititMjr, April 7, 184a. Ft >1 KTEEN D.%TS LATER FROM CHINA, j 'ISro liii|ifil?l Commissioners Disgraced ? Capture of War Junks?No change I" Trat-Otcllnc In Cotton. The ship Hannibal, Captain Scott, arrived yesterday afternoon' from Canton, in one hundred and eleven days passage. We have received the Canton Kegister and Canton Press, to the 14th ol December. The Hannibal has brought home Mr. Alfred P Edwards, the supercargo, who, with a boat's crew, were eeiicd, and most outrageously mil-treated by the Chinese. No attention had been paid to the interference ol the American Consul in the matter, but it is the intention of Mr- Edwards to represent the who'e affair to Congress. The Chinese continued to sink stones and block up the river at Canton. They have also placed guns in the newly erected forts, and they are dereruiiaed to stop the shipment of teas from Canton o Maeoa, and of cotton from Macao to Canton. Yakeen. an imperial commissioner, was killed in the attack on Chinhae. He has left immense wealth. Elepoo, the high Imperial Commissioner of Chenrang, has been disgraced by the Emperor- Tang Ting Thing has also been disgraced. Lin being restored to favor, is hereafter to regulate the yellow fever, and to keep it within its banks Hong Kong, the new British settlement, began to jnprove rapidly in building and business. Seven Chinese trading ve.-sels had been seized by H. Majesty's squadron in ike Chinese waters, taken to Hongkong, and condemned as lawful prizes. We have heard mulling further of the reported capture ol Hangchowfoo, the capital of the province of Chekeang. Sir Henry Pottingerund Admiral Sir Wm. l'arker were both at Chusan on the 23d November. No other news whatever had been received from the north. From Amoy no news of moment had been received Tbe reports from Canton are various: one is, that the Emperor had sent orders to "fight it out," for that oar demands are so unreasonable, that if he gives us a chair, we then want abed. Another is, that KetJien and two other officers have been deputed to Niingpo, to treat with H M.'s plenipotentiary. IProm Canton Prtss, Dec. 4 ] Trade is proceeding as usual in Canton, although upon unfavorable terms. By forcing sales of manufactures upon an unwilling market, their prices are even lower new than before, and cotton also shows a tendency to decline. Teas are about the same as last week, bui it is observed that this year's crop is generally of an inferior quality. Large quantities <if green teas are now being prepared in Macao for the American market; a considerable p irtioa of these sorts of teas, as indeed of many others, being now shipped from here instead of from Canton.? The scarcity of the circulating medium daily in- < creaaes, and Sycee silver is at par, whilst Mexican dollars are ot extremely difficult sale at 4 a 5 per 1 cent discount. We were, we learn, misinformed last week, when partially attributing the present acarcity of Pillar dollars to the shipment of the ransom money of Canton, to Calcutta. The dollars then received were mostly kept here for the uie of the expedition ; and a considerable portion of them inust have again been circulated. The chief reason for this sudden diminution of these dollars may pro- I jably be sought in the present troubled state of the j COUntrv. when Snunish dollars ua no..li.. ?? current than sycee, and, besides, easily concealed, 1 are eagerly sought after in the provinces of Canton, i Fokeen and Che-keang by the people. Another reason, which would however not act with quite so < sudden effect, is the nearly total cessation of supply ' of these sort oi dollars, and their rapid destruction in the hands of the Chinese, from their habit of tamping them ; a measure resorted to by them, as kills ot exchange are endorsed by in. holding those whewrstamp is upon them, responsible for the goodness of the metal. War In Texas. We have received private accounts from Texas of un authentic shape, which throws a great deal ol liKhi on the warlike movements now taking place I ] on the Coletado. 1 From these statements, we have reason to be. lieve that the number of the Mexican troops is very ranch over rated. According to the most probable computation, the invading army cannot exceed 5000 men, and may not be more than 3000. They are commanded by General Arista,who is a rival and enemy of Santa Anna. From this circumstance it is believed that ,the invasion, as well hs the proclamation of Arista, are intended more to operate against Santa Anna, in the Capital, than against Texas on the Colerado. Santa Anna " headed off" Bustamente, by his fierce Texian hostilities?and now Arista i seems likely to " head off ".Santa Anna in the same may. 1 But whatever be the exact forces of the Mexicans, or the real purposes of the invasion, there is no doubt but Texas will now invade Mexico, nor can Ae. he stopped till she reaches the capital, and changes the form of government. Last year a proportion was made to the President, that if Texas would authorise the use of her fhg, an army of 15,000 men could be raised in tbe " tumultuous valley of the Mississippi," who would invade Mexico on their own hook?and repeat the melo-drania of Cortrz on the largest scale, und with all the modern improvem"nts. This proposition was then declined ?but it will now be granted. The Anglo-Saxon, race, from the United States, from Canada, from l-'.ngland. from every northern land, will crowd to Texas as the highway to the rich temples and specie mountains of Mexico. Nothing will stop tfjem. RaveT.uTiox in Cojumimiur.?Thu ??? " ft- u?v terribly beaten in the elections in Connecticut. How could it be otherwise, after looking at their conduct in Congress! What will be the result in this city next week t Very likely ditto. The great body of stBS.ble men that form the whig party, are dwgusred with the leaders of both the great factions. Such men will not go to the polls at all. They ask, " what's the difference between a locofoco and a whig government 1" The one picks your pocket of tux rents, and the other of half a dozen. The only difference is mat which exists between tweedle dum and tweedle-dee. That's all. c*e*tsrokt \r the Fa.4ttxi.iN.?Secor and Sullivan, the great champions of the ring, intend to give aa exhibition of their science at the Franklin Theatre next Monday. Mere tun?that's all. Icc from Huirvx, n 8 ?a brig arrived yesterday with a fall cargo of capital ice from Halifax, to Motile A: Whitney, Whitehall?price one hall cent per pound?devilish dear too. Hut we suppose there is a " corner" in the ice market this year. 1 B?o ?r>w it?Si M\t? H ?Yesterday was a beautful ' day, and the display of ladies in Broadway was ' mast brilliant and beautiful. There could not have been a less amount than a million of dollars worth ' of silks, satins, jewellery, and padding, promenading the " sunny side" between the hours of ten and I four o'clock. No appearance ot hard time?no indication of bank curtailm?nts. Mrsn .iL?We hear that Signor De Regnis intends to proceed to Pniladelphia, to give a series of concerts in that city He will be accompanied by Signor L M jrtini, the Paginim on the nccordian, as instrument which he has brought to the most singular state of perfection. We anticipate a brilliant sort successful trip. Madlle. Milizet will probably join these artists. Tar r>n\H\m gave a brilliant concert last evening. Charles Urahain lias the materials of a (rent singer, but the greatest musical phenomenon of nay age is the elder Hraham. He seems to pos oeoi the " elixer vita." 0f the Holy Cross, which Bttlwer spenks of in /anoni?the very spirit of an j immortal youth, with all its musical excellence s < Misn Br? wac, on the piano forte, was <pute brilliant- ' t Doctor Lirdtier is very successful in Washington. 8 L - Hi i iilMlloii Ih (llioilt Island ? 11 Hilary Called Oul-AranmU Guarded?Special Messenger dUpaiclird to Washington for Assistance? Bloodalied. We leHrn that a civil war has broken out in Rhode Island, and that special mct-sengprs passed through this city yesterday with despatches therefrom for the general government. If President Tyler does not hide the little state from the world for a week or two with the palm of his hand, its inhabitants may do some mischief. The State has been in the greatest excitement all this week about adopting a constitution- In Providence, what are called the legal people, the few, have placed a guard over the State arsenals, and the illegal people, the mass, a guard over the arsenals of the independent companies. All these companies are for the illegals, and hsve had their ranks filled up to a complement. The guard stationed over the State arsenals being alarmed last Monday night by a noise, hailed three times, and then fired in the direction whence the noise proceeded, and killed, not a human being, but a very fine milch cow. And this is the first bloodshed in this civil war- Immediately thereupon messengers were sent to Boston to procure 2000 stand of arms for the people, tne Governor issued his proclamation, and little Phode Island is in a dreadful fer nieni and fever. It appears that all this great commotion began about two years ago, when the people of that state first formed suffrage associations- But little attention was paid to them during the first year. On the 17ih of April, 1841, however, about five thousand illegals met together on Jefferson Plain*, Providence, had roast ox and other animals cooked whole, a louf of brown bread weighing 700lbs, and hhdsof hams, ,Vc.,fur the purpose of upsetting the old constitution granted by Charles the Secontf This mass convention attracted the attention of the legals, then in power, but they refused to pay any regard to the petition of the illegals. The latter then set about making a government for themselves and the whole people. They were determined to participate in the aff airs of the government for the future, called auother mass convention at Newport, Mav 5, 1*41, chartered a steam boat at an expense of #1200, to convey the people thereto, and about seven thousand republicans met together. They passed strong resolutions, declaring their future intentions, and appointed a State Committee to draft a constitution. The next public demonstration of the illegals was on the 5th of July, 1841, when 6000 or 8000 assembled in Providence with music and banners, marched to Dexter training ground, and had an oration delivered by the Rev. Wm. S. Balch, now of this city. Other resolutions were then passed similar to those adopted at Newport, urging the State committee to call a State convention at an early day. The committee thereupon issued an order, requesting the inhabitants of every town to send delegates to Providence on a day specified. The said delegates were elected in every town in the State, and the convention met. After a session of one week, it adjourned to meet again in a few weeks afterwards, when a constitution was completed, sent to the people, and adopted by nearly 1 1,000 votes, or from 20tX) to 3000 more than one-half of all the American citizens over 21 years of age residing in the State. The convention again met, and declared the said constitution to be the paramount law of the State, to take effect after the expiration of the pre: sent political year. All this was, however, done without any law, but on the sovereign right of the people, to establish at republican form of government, in place ?fan aristocracy, which held the reins of power under the charter, granted by Charles the Second, long before the revolution, which excluded two thirds of the American citizens of the State from participating in the affairs of the State. In ihe meantime the legal people feeling their power slip out of their hands, set to work and made t constitution, which they called the only legal one. rhis was sent to the people to lie voted for, and he result was a defeat, by a majority of nearly 700 roies. How these constitutional troubles will end,no one lau tell. And what will become of little Rhode Island God only knows. Lord Aslaburtoit In Washington. ICorrespondence of the Herald.] Washington, Monday, April 4, 1S42. Lord Ashburton arrived here this evening in the cars from Annapolis. He is accompanied by three Secretaries, Mr. Mildmay, Mr Bruce and Mr. , with five servants, which comprise all his retinue. His Lordship immediately drove to his quarters prepared for him at the elegant house of St. Clair Clark, in President's Square, where (not the British Minister) but a very fine dinner, was in waiting for him. llis Lordship has a pale appearance, and an active step, nearly six foot in height, good countenance, and looks the English gentleman; at his present1 age, over sixty-five, he is a much better looking man than Lord Morpeth. On to-morrow,he will call on Mr. Fox (this being the etcquette between Minister and Ambassador.) Mr. Fox will present him to the Secretary of State, who will, on a day appointed, introduce him to the President. There are some rumors about Mr. .Fox, the present Minister, being suspended; this is doubtful at present. Mr. Lewtson, who has arrived, is to take the place ol Mr. Hudson, present Secretary of Lega. lion to the British Embassy. Lord Ashburton'a visit, will be a very short one, cr a very long one; he will most probably be detained here nearly twelve months. I shall endeavor to keep y ou daily apprised of all the interesting movements of this Embassy, which necessarily will he of an important character. Mm Clarendon, another evening.?This young artiste gives another exhibition of her chaste and classical Readings and Recitations, in the room of the Society Library, on Friday evening. Of the elegance and purity of her style and manner, we hear the highest opinions. She follows in the wake o! the eloquent Mrs. Mowatt, but with more experience in theatrical action and utterance. Young ladies should visit Miss Clarendon's exhibition to catch an idea of classical reading, and young gentlemen to be taught how to recite by a very pretty and youthful artiste. Goon ?Washington Irving has declined a public dinner, before his departurs to Spain. He sails today. _____ Too Fast.?The Rev. Mr. Kirk is preaching from six to fourteen sermons per week in Boston. If he goes ahead at this rate he will burst his boiler to a certainty. Take it moderately, and you w ill do most good. Ci TTiin f? tk. r?m? I 1 1 -r ** ?? tumid uucuauu ui ivirs. nannah Kinney, who was tried for poisoning her huebind and acquitted, is coming out with a history of the lady. Nrr so.?Major Norton is lecturing for Texas in Boston. Better go and fight for Texas. Sm all Pox ?This disease prevails to a great extent in Philadelphia- The Banks are atlected with it too. Wnite-washixo.? The Philadelphia Slate House is getting a coat of white-wash Why not give a brush or two of white-wash to their banks and courts. Fishtixo.cocas.?A vessel is up at Philadelphia, lak ing in a cargo of " fighting cocks" for Texas, at 810 per head, passage money. Several lat chickens are going. TTaot.r.sr. Misstbfi '.?These popular Minstrels will give a concert to night at the .Society Library Room. 1 lie Icav, we understand, hive dismissed the charge o| talse pretence, brought by Eden S. Webster sgaiast Charles Wilson, ot Brooklyn. It is generally understood by persons knowing both parties, that the charge originated in error. Chatham Tweatw.-The joint attraction of Jem Crow, and the splendid new piPCf 0f ,j,e " Shoemaker ol Toulouse," is a magnet ^at draws with nneq tailed effect at this popular Theatie Thr new play is decidedly one of the best of ,ts c)a^ that has been produced this season. The ?tein Unat'cisin of the Sii??emHker, arouard by (he unequal administration ot justice, which leads him to constitute himself the avenger ot w rongs, is wrought up with admirable interest The vivsritv ot the harming manageress as tli? " pretty Margaret," pees an agreeable var.ety to the piece, which 1 hould t>e Ken by all. ] I Meeting ofthe Home League at the Tabernacle. The Hume League Convention met again yesterday mommy, at uine o'clock- There were 174 persons present in the body of the house; 13 on the platform including the officers of the meeting, and 22 scattered around the galleryThe Secretary read the in nates of yesterday's meetingMr. l?ni5scF, of New York,one ofthe committee on miking rules for the government ofthe Convenvention, reported a set of rules which were adopted. The lion 11 vkmox Dcxmv, of Pennsylvania,one of the comwiltee on the business to be submitted to the Convention, reported a list of committees on various branches of trade and manufactures, iSrcMr. F- C. Tkcadwell, a locofoco, wanted the Committee on Currency to have power, and be instructed to report the relative quantity of gold and silver in use and extant, in every part of the world. Another man said that he was opposed to that; we had enough gold and silver; plenty of it; more than we wanted; there was no lack of gold or of eilver; what we wanted was, proper protection for labor. The motion did not prevail; but Tread well's name i was added to the Committee on Currency. I Mr. De.vnv frcm the Committee on Resolutions reported the following I- R-solved, That the depressed stateof the Agricultural, Monufacluriug, and Commercial interests of the whole country calls loudly for the interposition of the General Government, the only power which can constitutionally adopt an<l carry out meatures.now absolutely necessary for the reliel of the people. 2 Resolved, Thitthe commercial arrangements and protective legislation of foreign governments, and the strenuoas efforts by foreigners to obtain the control of the American market, imperatively demand that the shield of protection should be thrown over the American laborer, no matter in what department of industry he may be occupied. _ 3. Resolved, That in the present embarrassed condition of the national treasury and the finances of several of the States, prompt and efficient measures by Congress for the adequate protections of the industry of the country, giving to it life, vigor, and renewed activity, will be among the best means of preserving the national credit, and restoring to a sound condition and proper level that of the United States. 4. Resolved, That based as our Government is on the intelligence of the whole community, the permanence of our free institutions imperiously demands that the labor of the country be constantly, steadily, and efficiently protected?that our laboring classes, on whom the chief responsibility of maintaining them rests, may not be reduced to the degraded and starving condition of the laboring classes throughout the test of the world. fl. Resolved, That the present condition of otsr foreign commerce, more than half of which is in the hands of foreigners, whose inteieit it is to take advantage of the revenue as far as they can without detection, requires that such restrictions should be framed as will protect our revenue from frauds and our merchants from unfair and dishonest competition. To accomplish which object specific duties wherever practicable offer the surest prospect of succeas. 6. Resolved. That the principles of the Compromise Act, which enjoin the collection of the revenues in cash by such as are sufficient for an economical administration of the Government, are just, and ought not to be abandoned, hut nothing in that act which tends to limit ample protection to our domestic industry, or prevent the encouragement of American commerce on honest and fair principles, should be considered as deserving a moment's discussion in Congress, but, on the coutrary, should be entitled to immediate reprobation. 7. Resolved, That a warehousing system for the bond ing of Goods on American Account exclusively maybe judicious, but a general bonding system giving similar advantage* to importers of goods on foreign account would be an evasion of the Cash duty system and an injury to American Commerce and Home Industry. [Referred to Committee on Commerce.J 9. Resolved, That it is hereby recommended to the friends of American Industry throughout the States, the more c ffectually to encourage and protect Home products and Domestic Manufactures that individuals as well as families and communities, should pie tge themselves to the consumption and wear, a* far as practicable, of American Goods, and the products of their own aoil. labor and skill, in preference to those of foreign importa lion, etpecmny ui mum t?uuiri?? wniCH rsiuse ut reciprocal commercial relation!. A good deal of desultory conversation took place about introducing a resolution, that protection to Home Industry should be provided for by laws of Congress, rather than by treaty stipulations. Alvan G. Stewart, the celebrated abolitionist, who took a very prominent part in the whole proceedings of the Convention, objected to this. Here one man said that he could hear nothing? could make out nothing that the Home Leauge was doing. He wished to be instructed. Mr. Croi.ius moved to lay it on the table. Mr. Simbjon wished it to be taken up ?ft?r the other resolutions were passed upon. Mr. Sh aw said, that they were in danger of getting into a good deal of irregularity. He moved the resolution be referred to the Committee ou Business. This was done. Some gentleman said that he hoped no allusion would be made at the outset of the Convention to the noble and commercial Lord who had just arrived. It would be indelicate. The Chaik* a* said, that if the Convention did not take care, they would be found following the sorry track of the present Congress and doing as little- (Laughter) He wished to keep them all straight. Profestor Marks then called up the first resolution of the Committee on business. Mr. Shaw moved to refer the report of the Committee on Business back to that committee, and that then the meeting adjourn. The resolutions were conclusions ; and we ought not to jump to the end, before we had digested other matters. Alt a* G. Stewart said, they had come here and set themselves up as schoolmasters for Concress ; the resolution should not prevail; the Convention would all be scattered to the four winds of Heaven in three or four days. Jf they were to be told that there was no business for them to do till the several committees had fished up the information necessary, they would go home, and this body wou'd become a mass of statistics. He hoped that while the committees were getting the information, many gentlemen would address the meeting and give their views on many sub jects of great interest to the community. One good, well turned pithy speri;h would do more than all the elaborate reports of all the committees; five hun.1 j .......1,1 K. on k,.? n-i. urr%? jjrinuua nu?v wwu ?v4o uui mry uumiiii I raise 025 to get here. Mr Blwst moved that the committees now have leave to retire and commence their business instanter. The motion of Mr- MArr.3 to take up the first resolution was lost. The resolution was laid on the table. Mr. M.\rrs wished to lav some valuable information before the convention before the committees retired, which could come before them in no other way; he would now state that information if it tvaj in order. Mr Bixxt's resolution was modified so that the committee should have leave to withdraw at their discretion, and in the mean time any discussion could go on. One man said that many members of the convention intended to leave for home this afternoon; they had much information to give, and he should like to hear them for two hours. Another man said that the committees wanted a ' good deal of light, and how could they get it if they went away to their rooms while m?n were apeaking. Mr Bi.u.vt's resolution as modified was carried The arrival of a delegation from Ohio, was then announced. Several name? were then ail (led to the committees. Mr. M.\rr.s cal'ed up the first resolution. Mr. Mates said that he had prepared a few memorandums to lay before the Convention ; but that as he was unaccustomed to address assemblies of this kind, he must be excused if his facts exhibited a want of proper arrangement. There were miny members from the country present who were not acquainted with the histotv of the advancement of the Home L-ague; and of the deiailsof the measures embraci d in the proposed tariff. All agree in this that there must he relief; and ihat that relief could only he secured through a tariff There were a number of theories as to the kind of tariff necessary, and the niann-r <f imposing it. Tne principal one is this, that the duties should be levied for the purposes o'" revenue and revenue only. This is the strong language of our opponents, and many manufacturers think that the amount of duties neces sary for the revenue of the government, if levied discriminatingly, would afford tl?< ni ample protection. Others want a kind of tariff" laid horizontally?the same duties to lie leried on all articles. Now, we will see how this would act. We will suppose the imports of the country to be $100,000,000. A horizontal duty of twenty per cent would produce a | revenue of $20,000,000. If this was to go into rf- i feet, it would protect all those articles which ! now pay five per cent, and none of them i would be imported. This would reduce the imports down to $80,000,000; and to meet (lie wants of th" government, you would have to put on a duty of 20 or2* per cent This would protect all those articles, that now pay 10 per cent, and all of them would be made at home. This would reduce the imports to $00,000,000; and to get a revenue you would have to levy n duty of 30 to to per cent Th s would protect all those articles that now pay 20 to 25 p*r cent, and none of them would be imported, and the imports would be less 'ban $50,000,000 ; and so on nil through the scale, until we should be able to raise our own tea in bow P<us. and on the tops of stoves. (Tremendous applause and roars of laughter ) In short, there is no horizontal per centum duty, that can be put on mpoita, that would ran* $20.<00,000 (Applause ) u would be very easy, having the value of every i article imported, to make discriminating dutie for the purposes of revenue. First, aacettam what amount is necessary lor revenue ; then ascertain the amount of imports ; and then it would be easy to ascertain the amount necessary for protection. We have, say, a population of 17,000,000. The amount necessary for the expenses of government is $22, 3, 4, 5,6, or $27,000,000. ac cording to the quarrels and rows in Congress The total amount of manufactured articles in this country is $1,795,000,000 Xow, suppose it js required for the purposes of protection to increase that revenue to the amount of $5,000,000, that would not be a 50th of ona per cent on the total amount manu factured (Loud applause ) Agai >, it is very easy to show that all consumers, instead of being losers, would be gainers by a tariff which properly protected the home interests of the country. We'll just take the article of iron lor an example. Last year, Pennsylvania produced iron to the value of $22,000,000. This is equal to the whole amount of revenue necesaaty for the expenses of the government of the United States. A very slight difference in the amount of duty would Berre to protect this great interest, and continue that trade in operation; whilst a horizontal duty would shut out all this advantage to the country, and give a decrease in yearly profit of $22,000,000] to the Slate of Pennsylvania alone. (Tremendous applause ) I've heard a great deal ahout free trade, but I never yet found two persons agree as to what it meant. Now, once upon a time, the merchants of Salem got a free trade notion into their heads; they petitioned Congress against the protection of Cotton goods; they said they had ten versels, and each look out nearly $3)0,000 in specie to India, and brought home Indian muslins for it. And this they calied a great interest. Congress didn't think so, and didn't listen to them. They put a protection on cotton goods. And now look at Salem under this system. With $200,000in specie you can build a factory, and make three cargoes of cotton goods. These| ire taken out to India, and (here sold, returning to this country its value, either in specie or its equivalent; instead ot parting with ten times $200,000 ot the precious metals in the course of a year; and this from a tingle port only. (Enthusiastic cheering.) We can prove by many articles that it is an advantage to the consumer to have a protective tariff. A few years ago the article called ten-penny nails cost 10 cents a pound: a protective duty was put on just sufficient to enaole them to turn the corner, this gave rise to manufactures of the article, and now by competition, industry, and the benefits derived from experience, they can be sold for five cents?(Loud applause)?the protective duty made the English article a little dearer than ours; this encouraged our manufacturers, and they went on improving until they are sold -1( cents below the former English price. (Great cheering ) Again, take the article of paper; this has been reduced one half in price by the competition arising out of a supposed guarantee protection For the inakiag of pacer in this country unless than 261,000,000 pounds of rags are used. Of this raw material, 150,000,000 of pounds are domestic pro duction. If the non-discriminating duties go into effect not a pound of paper would be made in Ihi* country, where it is now made to the amount of $5,641,495 annually. Now thei 150,000 pounds of the raw material of home production are worth $5 000,000 This five millions of dollars worth of rags are collected by various poor people, who only collect them because they can find a market lor them. With a horizontal duty, no one would buy them; this would take away the habit of savhiff rasrs now so common in ewiv rami ly because then they would be deemed no longer valuable; and tbue m this single article of rags alone $5,000,000 would actually be lost to the country every year. (Tremendous applause.) Why, gentlemen, it's as plain as the nose on your face. (Laughter andbipplause.f Again, look at iron cast ings- Previous to the last war, we couldn't cast a decent sized cannon in any part of this country, no way you could fix it. A good sized pot to boil pork ana beans in was the greatest feat that could be accomplished. (Roars of laughter and applause ) Now we can cast any thing, from a brad to the biggest piece of machinery ever seen. And Merrick Jc Town has but lately cast the bed plates of one of our largest steams ships, weighing thirty-four tons; (Cheers.) And, all this has been produced by the protection afforded to the iron trade. And we now can make iron superior to any nation in the world. The protection has caused it to be extensively manufactured, and this experience has made us excel, until our iron Trill bring one third more than other iron in the foreign or home market; (Loud cheers.). In England it is necessary in building a large boiler to build a frame of wrought iron, like the beams of a house, to which the boiler plates are attached ; and if there is a turn in the boiler plate they can't bend iheir iron as we can ours; but they have to make an L in the frame; to which the two edges of the boiler plate are attached; whereas we can bend ourswithout its cracking in the least; (Cheers ) All these matters, then, are sufficient reasons why this country should protect her iron trade. I know many will say that all this is true of eharcoal iron, but not ot anthracite iron. Bat the chemical constituents of anthracite, (nearly pure carbon,) are such that when it is used at its greatest maximum effect the results will be the same. (Cheers.) And therefore our iron manufacturers should not give up the hone of success, because they have not been able to obtain it by a previous experience. (Cheers.) And now. we come to another important branch to be affected by a horizontal tariff. This is the agricultural interests. We raise annually $1,252,000,000 of agricultural products. And notwithstanding this immense amount not much more than about $10,000000 are the total agricultural exports of the country other than cotton and tobacco. We export scarcely four per cent of these products and these to six ports alone; the Danish West Indies, the Dutch West Indies, Cuba, Brazil, the Phillippiue Islands, and other Spanish Islands. Of these are the following sums in detail:? Cotton, Rice and Tobacco, amounted to $1,914 lis Flour, grain, and" bread stuffs 3,191.644 Beef, Fork, Tallow, Batter and Cheese 9:49 797 Live animals, Hones Mules and Sheep 33.717 Timber, Lumber, Naval Stores, and Ashes. ., 1.304,979 Totatoes and Apples 39 874 fS 363,139 Tallow Candles, and Soap.... $346,347 Manufacturers of Cotton 907.349 1,053,695 $7,415,833 Preductsof the fisheries $649,414 Manufactured and other art. . 1,324,779 1 974,193 $9,390,0*26 All this is shipped to six ports alone. Now, if the horizontal tanll was to go into ell'ect next June, the agricultural products which we now send to these islands,would no longer,be exported by us. Th* trade would go into the hands of the British. For it is9iot necessary for the people of theee six ports to take any of these goods from us; but as we bring back the products of their countries, sugar, ?.Vc , in exchange lor ours, they trade with us in return, because we are their customers, and our market is convenient for them- But with a horizontal duty in force, England would take away those markets from us, and leave us only markets for part of our cotton and tobacco. (Eoud applause.) We have seen that the amount of duty received by government was only two or three millions more than they require for their expenses, under a state of things that was a full protection before the compromise act had lessened the duties. And, th-refore, it would only be necessary to tax the people to the amount of $2,000,000, in order to preserve to the country the profit on $1,70.1,000,000 (Loud ap plause) Now the white population engaged in manufactures is 1 11th of the whole; so we should be legislating to tax the remaining 3 Iths with but $"2,000,000 for the general good of the whole country. (Cheers) The Secretary of the. Treasury states that we employ in the transportation cf our agricultural products to these six ports 13,056 men, 310 boys, ITrtf vessels, amounting to 2$2,619 tons. Here I is then l-5th of our whole maritime force engaged in taking out our products, and bringing ua back wealth in return. And the amount paid for our products by these loreizners is equal to the entire revenue of the United S'ates* government. And this income is derived from our timber, which costs us nothing as a forest production, (employed in shipbuilding) and in freights, and agricultural industry exported under the Hag of the United States (tremendous Cheers) Now, a few words in regard to the feelings of the south in this matter. It nas ueen saici oy rat. v,uinoun and others, that'the south ns containers paid the protective duty winch went to the support of the north- rn manufacturer. Here we have 17,( 0.) 000 of people Now the South, I suppose,{means the six cottongrowing States. They have l.twi.ooo whites, 1,408,000 slaves, 45,000 free blacks. We'll take the article of paper. Does the South pay the piotective duty on paper I We'll see! 150,000,000 lbs. of the raw m iterial are domestic rags; this is made up principally of the waste cotItn, rope ends,bale bagging ends, and the Osnaburgh clothes worn out by the negroes. The planter gives the negro two suits of clothes a year; one is Osnaburgh,the other is woollen The l>.-naburgh* being perquisites are saved with a good deal of care by the nigger?until at last they fall into the haids of some mercantile nigger, who re-transfers them to the old I-ink dealer. (Koars of laughter ) They are done up in bales, and arrive in this market regularly, and frequently with the bottoms os by which they can be ident tied. (t?reat laughter ) Thus bytar the largest majority of the doincs'ic raw mate ml for paper in furnished by the South. And thus they receive a very large proportion of the protec tion as being producers, of the principal part of the raw material. (Cheers.) Now let us see how thev stand about being consumers. 1 suppose they won i argue that their negroes waste much Qftper in read ingand wntiog, and if they use it at W, they must u-<e it in some other way. ([Hoars of laughter) Their whole white population is less thau 2,0tw,000, and if ihey use a fair quota of paper they only coni sume one seventh of the whole that is manufaci tured ; and aa they are not ao gnilty of the crime of reading and writing to the extent that we are here in the north, the proportion is even less than that ; whilst they receive a protection on lourth-fiftha of the raw material, [loud cheers] and only pay a protective duty of one-seventh of the resulting manufacturing article. So much then for paper, and its necessary evils reading and writng. (Laughter and cheers ) Now let as take the article ot sugar. There are 120,00#,0f*> pounds of raw sugar produced jn the six cotton states; and only Kt.OOO.OtiO pounds imported from abroad, other than that used byre liners. In these six states only 24,000,000 lbs. of sugar are consumed. And the protective duty on sugar, therefore, acts as at protection to these six states, they being the only producers of the article ; and the ratio in their favor is as 191 is to 11, in the protective scale ( f dury. (Applause.) Then there is the article of glass? flint glass. This is made of silex and oxide of lead ; one third is lead. Well, lead pays a duty of five per cent, and Hint glass pays forty percent; the boriaontal tariff would put lead up to 20 and gla. s down to 20, and so not a UV.UUU u. nvuiu men ue; niuae in me country. Indeed, in anticipation of this horizontal daty going into operation in June, every glass house in the country has shut up shop. (Laughter.) Then there is brushes ; they formerly paid a large duty; bristles were free ; the horizontal tariff is to put bristles up to twenty and brushes down to twenty ; and so not a brush will be made in the Uni ed States?all wdl be imported. (Applause ) A word or two about the Home Valuation as it is called- Suppose in a time of great commercial distresa?like a month since?two cargoes were to arrive in this country; one at New York?one at Puiladejphia. The exchange against Philadelphia being six percent, the goods are sold accordingly ; the importer here would have to pay a duty on $100, whilst the importer in Philadelphia wonld pay a duty on $106. Tins would be unfair. And whenever a great prostration took place in commercial alltirs, every importer would say, now is the time to import > the price is low, consequently the duty is low; it can't go lower, and 1 mutrt profit by a rise, whereas ii an article bo very scarce, and is really wanted, and consequently the price is very high, he would not import then, because in case of a fall, others would pay less duty on the same article, and he would have to sell at a sacrifice to compete wi'h themand this would came overtrading to the greatest extent in what we did not want, and continued scarcity in whet was necessary. A word or two in conclusion in relation to the documents, you may deem it necessary to send on to Congress. All papers to be sent to Washington must be strictly statistical. It is all very pretty to give the public a mass of words fioely strung together* and uicely rounded in the periods, but they have no weight in Washington.? Amid the multiplicity of documents that reach the imuua ui meuiDers 01 L/ongress, uniew wacn they open a paper, they find figures in it, they throw it aside. But if when they open it, they find figures, then they off coat, and go at it (Laughter and applause ) It' papers contain no figures, they never put them on file; and unless they occupy a place on their files, they occupy no place in their report.? Mr- Aiapes then sat down amid loud and repeated applause.) tieveral others addressed the Convention,. but nothing important occurred till the hour ot adjournment. City. Intellllgence, Joint Ballot.?Ttie members of the Common Council met in Joint Ballot last evening. A communication was received from Robert C. Montgometry, resigning hie otlice as lime inspector, and Moran Dugen was appointed in his place. Alderman BcNion-Rbeaintroduced the following preomple and resolution which was adopted unanimously, with the exception of the part authorising the publicstion, which received two negative votes : ? Whsreas?Thomas Lloyd, Collecter of the City Revenue, has absconded and embezzled larga sums of m> ney belonging to the Corporation, amounting as far as has yet been discovered, to upwards of thirty thousand dollars. Therefore, Be it {Resolved, That the said Thomas Lloyd is hereby removed from said office of Collector of the City Revenue, and that, the clerk cause the above preamble and this resolution to be published in all the papers employed by the Corporation. Alderman Bsn?on then nominated Dow D. Williamson Collector of City Revenue in place of Thomas Lloyd, removed. Alderman tones moved to lay the nomination on the table, which was carried by yeas Id, nays 9, Wi. N. Smith aDd Harold Donnlar were then appointed City Weighers. A number of resignations were received from persons who were appointed Inspectors of Elections in various wards and their places filled by ethers. Stale ARockino Chaii.?About three months since, a man named Eugene Martin stole a mahogany rocking chair worth $10 from Eliphalet Stratton, 326 Bowery, and sold it to a second hand dealer in Ch*tk?~ a|hm. He ? u? caught and caged y nlnilii. Calico This v.?A woman named Ellen Turner, one of the shop lifting tribe, was caught yesterday in the act of stealing eight yards of calico from the store of Henry B. Morgan, No..102 Bowery, and deposited in the Tombs below for safe keeping The Olobf. Hotel Thus Cauoht ? During the month of January, 1B41, the Globe Hotel, kept by Mr. Blancard, was robbed of silver plate, sheets, towels, he. valued at about $144 No trace of the peisons who committed the larceny was evident until within a few days, when Mr. B. was induced to believe that a servant named Mary Ana Krye, who had resided on the premises upwards of two years, was the guilty one, and that a man named James Stone, known as an old established "fence" keeper, whose pit is at 93 Hester street, was the receiver of a large portion of the stolen property. His premises were then searched by officer Hilliker, where a number of silver spoons, tablo linen, Si-., were found with Mr. Blanchard's name marked thereon. The dishonest servant was sent to prison and Stone held to bail in the sura of $."?00 to appear and answer the charge of being a receiver of stolen goods. Among other articles found on the premises occupied by Stone, were a ladies gold watch and guard chain, and a Urge detached lever gold watch, with thirtoen ewels. Wholesale Seoab Thikvfs.?The segar factory ofMr. Leonard Appleby, in Middlrsex county, N. J., was rnhhed on the Vh inst. of Q^.nnn ij?im -? ? ? -- ?- o?-i ' Uk ftl per 1000. Mr. A , who resides in thil city at 361 Nineteenth itreet, while pasting a (tore 111 Rillge street, per ceivelsomeof the packing boxes in which the tegert had been'placed while at hit factory, and an investigation led to the arrest and commitment of two joarneymen who had been in hit employ, named Abraham and George Sheridan. There it little doubt they are the persons who stole the property. Jt.wkll.erv Tiiiktes ?No lest than four persons were arrested yesterday for stealing jewellery in various parts of the city. The urst was Betsey McQuade, who was a servant in the family of John C. Ahem, and who was committed for stealing a pair of gold ear rings, a gold ring, two ?old breiv-t pins v . :ed at $16, and a Spanish and a Mexican doll r. The next was in Connor, who, with three others, robbed a pi . named A?her Smith, of 19 gold rings and a breast pin, while he waa in a porter house at 369 Bowery. He waa arrested and committed, but the other three escaped. Then came John Hall, who stole a gold breast pin, three rings, some muslin and calico valued at $16,60, fromAgusia P. Miller, of 88 Mott street. When she charged him with the larceny he knocked her down and runaway, hut was finally caught and lacked up. Soon after followed a man named John Tod I, who was charged with stealing a silver watch valued at $4 from John R Sedgley,of the ship Anna Liffey. He was seen to take the watch and was therefore committed. Nicely Doxe Up?There being a large sale of furniture at auction yesterday in Ninth street, near the Bowery, Barnabas Osbom.oneof our efficient police clerks, and officer Captain Bill Stephens, king of the Points, quietly wended their way to the premises, presuming that their presence might be desirable. Before entering the house, they discovered George Broach, aiias French Dolph, with his " pal" Pete Sherwood in search of prey. These rogues darted into the house,and in lets than five minutes darted.oat again, when Giborn stopped Dolph with a po'itc request to take a walk with him round the corner, and Stevens made a similar proposition to Pete. Dolph put himself on hit dignity, which was toon lowered by a few intelligible words, and on searching the scoundrels; Pete dropped a pocket hook that they had secured in the short space of time they had been in the house The pocket hook contained a small amount af money in hank notes, and some valuable papers. After depositing the scoundrels in the Tombs they returned to the auction sale and ascertained that the pocket book was the property of Stewart Molan, Esq., and that it had been taken from his pockot but a short ttme previous.? Thoy were fully committed. Court Calendar tills Day, SifFRiOR CoiST ?Nos. 13, 17, 18, 19, 33, 31, 36, 36, 28. 39,30, 34 , 36, 38 , 3. 5. Cimcit Cot-rt.? Nos. 18, 13-6, 136, 134, 136, 151, 163, 154. 156 157. 159 160 161 161 irs 165 1h7 ir9 15 141, 79, 93, 137 i 153, 199, i70, 171. Court of Common Plk??.?Part 1.?No*. 47, 39, 69, 76, 19, 96, 69, 77, 39, 61, 67, 93, 93, 97, 3, 41. Part a, at 4 o'clock ?No*. 163, 188, 13,40, 66, 191. 178, 9. 44 . 336, 138, 183, 184,33, 63 , 90,112. 34, 60, 80,108 12-2,190, 191, 199. Harnden &, Co'* Express.?We perceive, by the Cloreiand (Ohio) Herald, that the enterprising firm of Haruden St Co., have extended their express to that place There seem* to be no limit to the extent of thi* express, and it* utility and convenience are universally acknowledged. Hunsnx Bay Company?The voyaganrs and canoes of the Hudson's May Company will be dispatched from Lachine to the intanor, soon after tho opening of the navigation ; and we are re* | quested to recommend to ihnse having letters to go by that conveyance, to asnd them to the Company's Office at Lachine, not later than Friday the 13th of April. Races oyer the Mr.TAiRir CncR?r, New Or* leans.?The sweepstakes, 2 mile heats, for the St. Chatles' plate, a splendid silver tea serviea. presented by Madge Ac. Watriss, was won by Earl of Mayean, in two heats, b sting Velocity, Chateau Lifitte, Sleepy John, Aduetlo, and L>ean Swift. Velocity was the favorite against the fisld. Time, 3.46?3.40|. The regular race of two mil* heats, was won by Crealh, beating Mary Walton, Kate Aubrey, and Mr. J. Porter's Nauby illy 10 t*0 heats of 3.41?3 41. Creath the favorite nguiRat the field- { 1 1 Mr. Lyell'l Lecture on the RMCHlon of the Fall* of Riagm. Mr. Ly ell's lecture last night, contained very four facts, and miy be disposed of in a brief notice. He said ths geological antiquarian had to cstne to the New World to get an accurate knowledge of the oldest rocks. The pyramids were a thing of yesterday compared to the Niagara limestone.? Even the granite has been formed since that rock, which is the oldest in the crust of the earth. The most striking feature in the Niagara region is the escarpment of the inland cliffs; one at Queenstowa and one at Black llock. These are found in all countries, and have been ancient sea cliffs. The Black Hock cliff once reached to Grand Island, but was worn away by the action of the sea; after this the cliff at Queenstown was heaved up from beneath the sea; they were denuded by the waves beating againnt them aud washed bach tw where they now are. The Ridge Road is a sand bank that wae once the outer border of Laka Ontario^ But the Block Rock escapement has bo relation to Lake Ontario-, it extencb to the Hudson, and its feature* are not local to this part M ?t- * " ' * - ?- - wnn America. Ail tnese rocks, the Bleak rock and Niagara limestone, were formed under the aea. I?regard to the recession of Niagara, Mr. Lyell said, that the river had certainly cat its way back from the whirlpool, three miles below where the falls new are, and that the whole body of water once fell over the rocks at the whirlpool. He spoke of the great changes still ^oing on in the shape of the halls; the American fall war getting to be like a crescent, and the Morse'Shoe getting straight. The recession now (is a foot in a year ; and therefore it had taken 16,000 years for the falls to go baek from the whirlpool to their present position. In 1673 Father Hennipen saw them ; and there was then a third fall ot cascade on the Canaci* side, which fell across the Horse Shoe Fall front west to east. In 1750, Karl, a Dane, saw them' and all this was gone; but in his letter in theGent. Mag. fcr 1751, he says there had been a third'fall, bat the rooks had all tumbled down. One great argument that the falls were miles farther down is that on the top of the limestone at the falls on Goat Island, and on eaoh shore there is a fresh water formation twenty five feet thick y it contains shells, muscles with the valves united, that have been quietly deposited in still water. Three species of the melania, one of the limnia, one of the planorbis, and one of the ra'.vaia are found buried in this deposite; and all these species are found now living in the still water near Grand Island. Half a mile below the falls we also found these shells in the soil above the limestone. So that the falls must have been so far below this spot, as to place it out of the reach of rapids, and to make the waters in which this deposite was made, as still and calm as they now are at Grand Island. And if they have cut their way up 3 miles from the whirlpool in 15,000 years, why net have receded 7 miles in 35*000 years. Though when the falls were at Lewistown, there were several falls, as is now seen at Rochester in the Genesee Falls; one fall over the hard quartz ore sand at the bottom; one over the hard protean group; one- over the lime stone. A mastodon's tooth was found twelve feet down in the freshwater deposit opposite the falls; this mastodon tooth was there when the falls were at the whirlpool, and twelve feet of mud and sand were afterwards denncilpH ah if TH*!- ??;il ? ? i ? ? ? wj >uv i..vi> iwi wm gi?c uh an immense number of year*, ie which to effect the re. cession of the falls. Mr. Lyell concluded by saying, that the reunion intae cliff near Lockport^ was merely one of those bays where the sea broke farther into the landHe also said that perhaps in the coarse of the next 10,000 years, the falls would recede two miles more, and that then they would be only eighty feet high, and fall over a solid mas* of limestone, and would take an immense time?age*, to get back te Lake Erie, and drain that. The dip of the beds was twenty five feet in a mile; and the slope of the river f??!n a mile: so that every mile the falls went back, they last lo,tj f .t u When at Lewislown th?y were nearly four hundred feet high. District Court of tUe United States. Before JuJge Bett*. Aran. S?Several petition* in bankruptcy passed to decree. Objection* were ottered to those of Jonn Q. Mccarty and Alfred Phillips. The objection* to petition of Eugene McCarty ho ..ever being withdraws, It passed to decree. The General Assignee moved for an order requiring Robt. Chapman to nay orpr $60 mentioned in his schedule. It was opposed Vy Mr. Nash, who stated that it had boon expended in coats of petition, Itc. The motion ia still undecided. U. S. Circuit Court. Before Judges Thompson and Betts. Decisions. Aran. 6?Jutrph Swift vs. Geo. W. Tyion?Ordered, that the verdict for defendant be set aside, and a new trial granted, costs to abide the event. The United Statu vs. The erhr Catharine, $-c.?Clerk's report in the matter confirmed. Hark White Oak ads. fiaac Percival, appellant.? Ordered that a summary judgment be entered against the stipulators for costs. Bark Henry Hand adf. Gideon Hovland and another.?Ordered, that a summary judgment be entered against the stipulators for the smount of their stipulations. Tha Grand Jury came into court with bills agaiuit the following persons:?Thomas Blundon, for confining the mavter; Alex. Barron, assault with a dangerous weapon; John Cameron, a similar offence; Joseph Christie, John Peter, Robt. Johnson, John Coakley, James Lynch, Jere miab vaughan, ueorge ward ami Thomas Johnson, for endeavoring to make a revolt. General Seaalona. Before His Honor the Recorder, Judges Noah and Lynch and Aldermen Benson and WoodhulL J oiks R. Whitino, Esq .District Attorney. Aran. 6?Case of Jlmnry 4- I*edt?This was the day set down for the second trial of these gentlemen, on an alleged charge of false pretences, urged by John Haggerty A Sons. They appeared in court with their counsel Charles O'Conner, E?q., and were prepared to proceed with the trial. The District Attorney stated that his engagement! were such in the Court of Oyer and Terminer that he should not be able to try the cause at this term. After consultation, however, with the Conrt he consented to put the caae down for trial on the 18th instant, aud also statrd that in the meantime he wonld consult with the prosecution, and should recommend him to consent to enter a noil* jtrottqui in the case and thus terminate the suit. It is to bo hoped that the city will not be again taxed with the hearing of this trial. The only other business transacted was the trial of Christian K Hipper,for an assault and buttery on Henry O. Baker. He was found guilty and fined $10. Commissioner's Conrt. Before Judge Jones and Messrs McBrair and Cox. Aran. 6 ?Ji. L Stujrt and Mrx. Slum I vs. flatus Stuart ?This care was resumed Tuesday afternoon,when muck testimony was brought up not only in lavor of the sanity but alio expressive of the good conduct of the dofenaant The Court adjourned to this afternoon, at 4 o'clock. 1 - - ? - 11 1 CHATHAM THEATRE.?To-morrow evening being aet apart for the benefit nnd last appsarance of J. R. Scott. The public cannot have an opportunity of witnessing the grand and successful diama of the Shoema* ker, after this weak. It is performed to night in addition to two of Rice's most popular farces, vti : Hera's a Go, and Jim Crow in London. With such attraction there can be no doubt of a crowded house. ICOMMI ItlCSTSD J Or?- FEALE'8 MUSEUM ?Last night we while.! away an idle hour in this delightlul establishment, and TA'??ri? much fntiTtaifll'fi with th*? hotnilr'ninv -IwfAa? unce cf the great Magician, Harrington, and hs ludicrous experiments of tjjt transmission of voice into differin* bodies, representing three or four persons at the same time. His story of the iandlord?Old Piver?and his two servants, is irresistible, and never falls to call forth the plaudits of the audience. The charanng little Riibiun, who sings so sweetly, is alio a great favorite. The comic songs of Mr. Austin are quite amusing* and we cannot do bi tter than recommend every one to go and see for themselves. 0(7- FACTS WORI H KNOWING?A positive stay for the hair falling out?or to restore it in bald plater A certain cure tor all Rheumatism and swelled limba ? no exceptions. A certain and positive cure for the Piles in all cases. A warranted cure lor all-bruises, Scalds and other rores and sore eyes. A positive cure for the Salt Rheum. A beautiful Dye for the llair?will not aolor the skin Warranted. A certain cure for Ceras. Each of these to be had at 71 Maiden lane, nnd eueh proofs of these facts as will convince all w ho will call or send for them, gratis. ... The public may reat assured thrra is no fancy in thase assertions. A Miracle I A Miracle I O Read ! 11(7- Man's knowledge is proceeding too far?we have seen two southernera who have had the aolor of thi ir shin changed to a beautiful clearness by the Italian Chemical Boap. Now we have seen we can believe, dark yellow or sun burnt shin are changed by the use of this. All eruptions on the skin, such as pimples, freckles, blotches, tan, scurry, Ac, are thoroughly cured by this; in fact, it is?as a grntlem-n said to us? it is a wonJerful article?w e are told that it will materially change the color of the Creole. We advise all to try it?It is sold by Jones, sign of the American Eagle, SJ Chatham street, where also is sold the famous Jonea* Oil of Coral Circaisia, for restoring the hair; it is tho cheapest and best article made.

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