Newspaper of The New York Herald, May 20, 1843, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated May 20, 1843 Page 1
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9 TH Vol. IX.?Ao. 1ST Who.e Mo. S300. To tile Public. THE NEW VOltK HERALD?doilynewspaper?published every ?la> ol the year except New Year'* day and Fourth ef July. Price J cents per copy?or $7 36 per an nu m?postages paid?cash in advance. THE WEEKLY HERALD?published every Saturday looming?nrice 6J cents per copy, or $3 13 per annua postages paid?cash in advance. ADVERTISERS are informed that the circulation of the Herald is over THIRTY THOUSAND, and increases BSt ft in the largett circulation of any ftytr in (in city >r the torrid, and it therefort. the ben channel for men in the city jr country rrice? iwuiwimc ? ? ranc#. PRINTING of all kind*. vaeetited fit the most moderate price*, and in the inost elegant style. JAMEf* GORDON BENNETT, PaOSRICTOB ?r THk HckaLD B'.? f iBI.ISMMKsr. North wont cornet of Knltoti and Nassau streets TOLfcTin WillismahtJrg? The whole or pa t ot s a near three ?4"ry b'ick Duvelhiur Hons* in SoirhTth JlAM si n ! 4th >t., real very low Apply to W. It J T Tap eott, 41 Peek slip. m 7-ee Su HOUBe.B to LET AT VORKVILLE.?* tarn r^n housvi on the corner ol 84lh street and Id avenue; either J1.Iwk.oI them ia calculated for a public house, grocery or private reatdrnce On the prrmiaei is s line stable, towling alley, and t fine garden, consisting of 8 ol*, with grape vine*and fruit trees thereon Kor terms, laauirr of JOHN A. MOHHILL, Esq., trSlwr No 11 Chamhars st. Jfenji TO LET?Tie Mansion Houie at Bl()"inin,;d le tvttB kn.iWn 11s ti e " Abb?7"?irusti da all rt eiitaocs above he an n>)le stone, just above ftiryker's Bav, ind m arly e|o ...'.'e St. Mich-els Church .The p'ar.e is well known as one the most celiahtlul situations on the Island, aad ia reui. k - hi y hea thy in the inminer season T' r hlormimtdala ste/rs pass and rei>ass the gate every hoot in lh> my. The gate is new, aud numbered 101. The ient will he in accord ince with ihe present state of the times. A ply on th- premises, ot at 112 Chambers street. N B.? Arrm i mi nt could he made, if desired, by a satisfactory tenant, to let a par-, of the furniture upw in the honse re tu tin, or a part of the house will be rented separately. mid lm*r Jg*i TO Lf.T?The fire proot DneU ?tore, [No. les noutn Pv? ii, with immediate roai-esinn if reguirrd, apply to WOODHULL. Ik MfN IUKN, ni24r ?7 H'-nth ftrerl. jmL To LET OR.FOR SALfc-A three story modern ktts built brick dwelling i.onsr air* itete. wi h two I m of JJJJLx'OUud nrfclied siua'ed in Williamabury, about two minot' ? walk f-oni lh' Peck Slip Kerry Apply on 'he pr?mi?m, rorner of Kuuith and rlouih-Knrhth ?tToe?s Wj||ianubnrg, or o W. Ik J. T. TAP8COTT, a tr _ 43 Peck slip, mo 5,1(10 Ore?r h imr Plants will !>< ?' Id cheap f or caih by jK^ he a ihscribc. a No 313 Broad w ly, comer of Anthony -* ? In tin 'hie co lectins will lm lontid, among other nrr Iilanli, a Tery tine m nr'ni.-ut ormonthly a id auiinai roses; inch hi ? h fe ?"il red miivY I oar H irruon^C r lage G*e-- ille, Mn' irt'i'a. VtllowTea, Yellow Noisette. Tritimnlio'' Lennbu g, Tea B mgere, e'l-.iiie Henau'e, Keine I le He Bottr bon and i?reat?irtvty of n h?r roics; O-rauininr, Azaleas, C pe Je???in D-i,Callus Cactuses, Pittoipnrnmi.PAMion V ne.>, Co. ben, Tnc'iii a, Hi It > tropes, Camel Hat. flou ha, Daphne*, Carinat om andagrear vc.riety ol oth?r plauti. all ol whic* wiH be found m a ni.h' healthy and 'hriftv cm d.tioti. Alio, a hue lot of.XuOj lln.ei, Milaba. Viuet, and Garden Finks. Personi purchasing at wholesale will he liherilly deal', with The la iei in par'ieu ar and Rmatenn in general i re invited to c ill and tiainiae this nollertieu, of whtr.h tliere will be daily rec ived a frr-h-nppiy Bouquets will be made up, on norico being given adayprevintn H. M I fcVKNOST 'N. mI5St*m 98 h?tr?e , Thiul Avenue. mtm KARM bOR 8ALK-Tn? he o itul im:>rove? TiiekKXmy uiovr Kami aitu led in the town of MimorO'eck, waiLt. VVet'chtiliir county. -hiee miles eatt ef New Koch -lie, a lew minutes walk 'rem the Boston turnpike, consisting of 50 acr-s of cho'Ce I nd, teu of which is wood lend; haud-ome deu le w r story house, ten moms. The house is turouuded with nurne oui cherry, pin'nb, prar and other fruit trpes, together with an apple men rd of the choicest k nd. The ou buildi'gier alii first rate repair; a handsome garden tu front of the house, laid out Widi box v d grave walks throughout, and is stocked wi h all of the rarest shrubbery, flowers, ate ; tiaudionic lawns in front - nd tear >( the house. The iahory grove st-iuda on a ris'rig g - n id, twenty rods distance fr?in the lions -, wuhbean'i ul lol' y trees, and is kept as pleasure ground, hay log i Ron I view of the Lo. g IslauJ Sound I'h place is well worth the stl n'ioo of any genii-man wantig * c-upiry r<-?itiruce. F r (n the. information enquire ol ROB'T Lk.Wl-? cor-cr Jonsc l-ne nud South street, or of Captain BAJtlJEL OKQv MS ou th* p cuime*. m??0r#r TO THE PUBLIC. TH". ATTENTION o' the lovtia of ifciecce. Literature a and 'he Arli is iuvurd to the following notice n the sale ol' the hritest Ti rati L'bra y. Collection of Lni;r,iv.u0s, &c., Yer offered in Iti rounny. Mr. I THIti. TOWNE ibter.ds leaving this country in July u< sr. to stieu I a rhort time id England and Friuc-,on a tour of tnof asioual elimination of the be?t public and private worts in Arciterture. Bridges. it-., with a special view to such not nv-uputs in practical execution, io de'a:i, asw Has choict and qu. lity of matetia's, as hnre bee' made or adopted aitiee his visit to Europe in If29 aud *3> Mr. rowue havinu diitrihuted 'd'wMtog pimnhlcts, (to wt.i h refe ence i? pa ticul <r y m t'e) I staum ner, to mu>Y?punHc institutions and frt?ar? ia<tvidu?ls.announcing hn intention of disposing of hit lb' try ond whole colle liou of F.ntr.ving* at privaie sale: it will now a tar a-, pot-ible, do ?o before leaving in uly. The Fiigraving*. hr fa the most vanmle collection ever tn de in the- I n<t'H States, w |l le si Id at aur.tio . by c .laiogue, S trnr'e? 1c Hill, at the New York Lotg Ro ra. No 169 Itrmd way.iu ?ev 'a' sale, ft iote.rvxl? of two cr three deys, between he 20 h i .slant Belt and the 1st of Jul'. The catalogues will be read, in ses-onto sand by mail,to peitojs known to h of rh-m aid t all who mav r qn< at th ir r end. or .larti s to pr> cjic ihein, by giving no ice o U. k H , who fall i ie-ute any ord rs rntruste -to th m. The Library ol above I 00 v.i'umes (rgcepttpR about tO 0 volumes ol lb n at co'tlv It irJ of c odern ml il u I roe J w or s ius>t I ifcrly to he wau'ed by rmStic iurtituli m, il i> thought should be to il t auction with the Engravings ) will be told at p i??tc s?le n ly i n a pi c ito-i to Air Town-, Architect, No. 9i M>-remtils'Etc an* .New York, tshers a considerable pir' of t te col'eciion may be le n rh- balance, th: gieater pi t, being at New Haven. It will be told tn such-po tions as mayem! u < hiters. It wi'l ee -.'ra on tefer- nee to the ?d?'ettisrmca s, r ou egair.iuatioj.that his Library ii vciy fir euperio? in pour oiranty -nf real v lue, ia p opotcion'o h nu ubrr of vi hi - es, to a- y rtbr m hi cogutiy, -?P' ci-l'y in fine ?di. iion? i d ivoras ipleudidi/illu trated wi. h tile mot; cotily ett glSVIIUS. i n<ie the present law ofduiiesaeiily all books of/ngTayingi and l!. g r t s rigs not is books, ; ay an heavy * duly, as oatnnm tut r i) i r. 'roc their in o taiiin t> i it a very ioiio tanl ennsid rattau, io regard tn nil such ho k? a? are ce?i riaed in th s r--ry ar-tud ri u ire coll c.i. r/n all rir it. ii.d r dua'i ah may with to ohuia tuen books, Ito Verv fear works <>' touch ra ter ar< uo* or will he imported to ma h ritru- f I a long t me to coot, scept at a very increased < +<, as ICigrsr a d Bonks ol tug snugs that hare heretofore paid On ra ies, ?cd were I terly irnpn-ted, under th? present tariff.hdTe a dnty of 2n per c-nt added to the co* t of impuiUlinn Tin first-ale of Coarteings will consist of hand sapes, Historical sat Ji C'.i and rortiur J mi9 fie WINhB. iKvvUllS ate. TFIK aubacrihrr uffes the following Wioea, lie. for sale at 41 Pi e siren, conier r.f Wi liam Mat'aire i:> pipes. hhds, quarur casks, demijohns and bottles a pa.t veiy old ? d h gli no-t, direct and ?ia ltdii dherriea, io pipes. hhda, go trier c ana and in glass, of rare a glades?1\ ni n ihado in qnaitrr casks. Port? linpnitcd espressly for family Die, in wood and ii las Isreta?Chateau Majgcaas, Latoure, Bt. Estnphe, LaroM 8: Ju l?D? llao IU CasHs H' ens?J tMunesbcrg Cas*le,Marcohrunner Cab net.Char'i brrsrr Bmnehir g, A tsuinshaiurn. (iret Hansen, Hintertp u ten Kn le-h iioi r, H ttenheitn Peisporter, Leibfeaamileh O'C enheim-r II ehheimer, fcc. fc~ lie. Ssoteine, Uirsve, Museat, Chnhlia lJiirgmd as?Clns de Vnuaeot, Chambertia, Rnmaaee. Very old Cognac Biandy, yintage PIJ, eipretaly for somme "'f'ine Holland Oin. The sb-ee ani lea ate recommended tn the inS-m as a snye mgn remedy lot their maladiea. OILBlCKT 1)AV18. in 3 I in __________ TViAVO FORTES.?Tiie subscribers respectfully infill F tto ir friend. Hii th? 1. iblic in, In cJI ?t their esl.i bl?tiinrnf, No. *11 E-tat Broadway, where they hove on hand i Well a-ioned sicca of mrhouauyanl r ic Wood French (trim si tion Pi .no Fortes, Willi all the late improvements warranted and to be key* in 'am tor one ear. The ttamcrbera alao bei leave IO i-.fcrm .he public, that this is the establishment former 1; kept by Ben el ami Hawkins, but at present occupied by th< mbsr.iiber* The will be f a d suiting to the times.I*urch .st-rs are respecifally iuvi ? tl o call nd examine. N B All kinds of pianos (mm 6 tr 7octaves will he mad toord.r Aim pianos Inned and repnred, or rtchanued ou ih most reasonable terms. Alto >r oud h nd pianos for ale. HE.NKY RICHARD k JOHN HU< K, ?2'i Irn'r ii' Fiat Bioadwav. ({ 1 O ( W \l\ WOK 1 H <0 I.Inns, tiiaaa anO t rtk n War ?)P A *?)VvV fur <aleai |7# kiijhih Aveuac. by Thom-s M< b..rl,.?l'hu w ?ie is now oi en, anJ will be so'd lo rrtnlrri at the following piie>?:?blue s up and ll t Pl?le?, kiarc shapes, 7?. per dt r. ; lufre'i, > ti ; Pans wit le p atet, aton wa.e. # per d< r. ; tubers. S , duties, Imke-s and toil, tte w.r rqus'ly low tw>w s from 2s ltd to4t. 3d; Ismpi, oil, Lowrpoo 12. ; IjsII ainpt Imtn ?S lo fd.ihe same a< ihe d wn- two store ell lor tit eld fit; common Wire for grocers, bythr ha lie Noctdi ml iriMii N B Nualitig. f i crates to counU mere' 'nu ( kins tea seta rum Its. rati) Public sa'e on tVeilrotdty. In fit II ntrlwty. m2-1in#rc rThk. kltlLNt. 11 AND A V KRlCAN s^aTTmj HUUsk I W.. ?i .S..I M ISlnnaall atrgfrl K.-t??sii M iA .. Jo1duti4i, ii i fcff brlBCl or ihr nami r monUia th.iroughl re i irfil, h hitoheu to be all-red lo lie Weal India plan, t b*Tmg the aame id ibe ie?r of thr ho'iara to p evrot ode and bra' If in cooking. ? h rh la in am' nil Ti.ryoffti.aTai m ai ra i. g liooaia?and lit at j>ng rib,on mla'ged an d cc rate.ll a .ipenot Fin eh atylr, wi h an b'e la lea.iapem o pa il IIJII, m rhl atitaea of Ururrnl Waahtagr. n, ; whir upward. Ul 10 |i' r ona Cai with eon?rnn net lii at mant tli? houir ou? of ibr m<?< geulerl, eopetb ai d crnnf t-bU ai tn' It-ttnekia in ibe Onion?whrr fern - io 7u diabca a d i y a.- Tt up Iron 4 o iila ?ud opwa da; the beat .'ayaCo fat .i.d he burnt bl ca l'ia a 3 cciitaacup; the b-aiCUri Winr at eenia a amall boct e, k Tin- bab.cih'r, aitinib of the truth th-.t retrrnchmrnt i tha.'rdtr f tt.ediy, it confident that no pact exiata what uitala f the d anripiioD farniahi d at hii bouat Can be *u p aae f. r It wuca of harm . bi rn t ii c 'l.i ai.t aim to endei vo to ea-ei eMhn mo . economical pncts It in naeleta to mri tro ror. ib fwne f'hii Hooii'b> n g I tir siuce eitabliah. d i the f'Ttt f iu d acr p i.iu in tnia ci t. Tli ?t in oi.ubtofih aauu-en ti c a>i c d by ihr ero* di of gettUnun of the tin re-pe l iability thoi deny ret r their. Wi h ih-mka to a gt-uc rout and digrrnniuarii g public for thai paat and ll iHetiiig fvo i.the aubacriber, d -nn m of ritaimn a ci nti ur ce of pi.rouagr, free.y aigua i imo 'f mil J?*r HbNnY UOHI.INO prio IOOR APII PORTRAIT* ?L)r . L M CYKUi f the iip'tiior of il.ia n. w art, prnducra by it not ouly aco reel iikrneia of tbt oiigiaal p rtr-iit bui rlao a purity ofdnigi l-iil i.ney ul c.i'oiiug, wiclibr a r, an tlit cIhI?-u'<but.i ? *b. h r ancient or nv d rn?of the moat c. lebr led art ill tint, fnl I ge.n. .1 he haa rrc ivrd fiom hi< hi mrrriui frii i.d< and the public [) , |, \|, Cyn w.'U'df in iuform ih?m ihat lie Inu fiUed up, fo-ihe accotnm il.tion .if, a aui.e ol Kiomi m Y ik Pi ct limit ennit of bio.m ?ii>, nheir he rua l.ia .kill in h a pr..feaaion >1 liu I- tf io.ilo II wNimiV (ID "him with Tor., wi i iu ? l.ini h continuance ul ibe patron, gc huha io an liberal, ben i> a. .1 ..n turn. Tha Do t..r girea instruction in eT. ry d partmeut of the D gnuireoty p? nil I'nyl gr |.h'C .r-. I .?i f,. liking no rr I i n a i ig in am Mac le, for aJr.aa alao the n<c?>aai chemical i re or .li-us f r tar tiking of rort aita in fhyi gr.p a iif to .? I moderate. mlOln'r ? Ij'KAINi iTS* ("A IK IN T Lit a. BOit'l1, tinier Will a.reei lull u 'TTUtt KL.KIJM D'oKANUK It MAUKIKA WIMT, ?Jli F inale by fc. F. QUI ROUT, No. M Clinton aireei, i lowpricca. ra3 lin'm E NE' NE THE GREAT WEBSTER DINNER. Til' Oreat ' nmpllmentory Dinner to Mr, Webster at HullImorc on Thursttay Jaat.? Mr. Webster'* 8j>eeoh In full. The great dinner Kiven by the merchant of the /.iri, <.f It 11 i m , . ... Inlk. u... n....... \ wi i/uiumuii- iv me tiuu. vanimi vrnnainn, took place at Coleman's Exchange Hotel on Thursday evening last. The entertainment whs r t up iu the most magnificent style, and reflected the greatest possible credit on the proprietor ol this commodious and elegant establishment? now the gr?*at 'ashionable hotel of Baltimore. The viands w< ie of the best quality?cooked in the style of the moat accomplished artists. All'he delicacies of the season were in abundance, and the wines were of the choicest brands, and furnished most satisfactory evidence of experienced judgment and tuste in their selection. The Chair was occupied by RonKRTGiuuoRK.Esq., one of the oldest and most respectable merchants in Baltimore. Amongst the guests, who were upwards of one hundred in number, were included almost all the prominent and influential men in the mercantile and professional community of the favored capital of Maryland. We noticed the Hon. W. C. Joitnson, Col. Crane, 4th Artillery; Col. Moore; Mr. Lee, the U S. District Attorney for Maryland ; but it occasioned a good deal of surprise to many that tha Hon. Caleb Cushing, Mr. Fletcher Webster, and some other distinguished public men who were in town, had not been invited. Indeed in several particulars the Committee appeared to have acted with little liberality or propriety. But as they were probably notmuch accustomed to getting up public dinners, we excuse them this time, and trust that on the next similar occasion they will be more liberal, and dis. cover better taste. A ffpr thp plnth was rpmnvpH thp PVt.iirmnn map and said? Gentlemen, fill your glasses for the first toast.? You will recollect that there tre assembled here this night, men of all descriptions of parties, without any distinction I hope nothing will tend in the slighlest degree to interrupt the harmony of the occasion. Applause at public dinners is sometimes not very discriminating, and therefore it will t e best to abstain from it altogether. 1 give you then? " Tiie Union, now and forever?one and inseparable." One of the vice-presidents read it " indispensable," which occasioned a laugh, and then the band struck up " Hail Columbia," uelore the toast had been drank. The next toast was? "The Piesidentof the United States." Drank in solemn silence. Air?" The President's March." The next was? " The Constitution?its authors, expounders, and defenders." The next toast was? "The memory of Wushington." The Ciiarman then rose and said;?It would have been much my desire to introduce by some appropriate remark, the toad which I have next the honor to propose I would have wished to express in adequate terms,iny sense of the eminent services rendered to our country,and,indeed,to the whole commercial world, by the distinguished statesman whom we have this day assembled to honor, in the late negotiations between this country and Great Britain, and which have so happily resulted in uniting still more ...hnoo ml.,.,,. t!U9r.ij| inuinuuiia raicno paic mi ni'iinaicly connected. May God long preserve in unbroken unity those bonds of peace ! But unaccostoined as I am to public 9j>eaking, and suffering severely from an affectioucf the throat, which prevents me from speaking any length ol time, 1 itm constrained to confine myself to these few remaiks I now offer you th toast which 1 have thus feebly introduced, ac'l'iiuch I have no doubt will be received with t respect and deference which it merits:? OurGuest?Daniel Webster." The sentiment was received with great applause. Mr. WsasTsa then rose anJ wag received with loud cheers. He returned thntiki as follows I trust none of you will doubt that I receive with peculiar gratification this mark of J our respect tor well intended efforts to serve the country ; and 1 leel obliged to you, sir, who have, I well know, Jong since retired from active life, fordoing me the honei ot filling the chair this night. I hope I ma) consider it a proof of respect, mutual at least, and founded on an acquaintance of many years. The gratification which the occasion gives is ceitslnly greatly enhanced by the consideration that, as you, sir, nave remarked, the g?ntl>men who compote this respectable mooting, come hoieactuated by ne part* motives?by no sinister orpartizau di signs;b> no wish to ptomoteor to depressthecause i ol mere |?oliticinns Because I know that in the absence ot i such fevlit gs I have auasnursnce that this meeting is what i p'irpo'ts to he a compliment to ?nh nest purpose to serve tiie nuhlic. not unattended perhaps, with some decree oi j succesa. And conscious that in these endeavors to serve thecountry I have been frr e?free from an I far above all party feeling?a'l local attd aectionnl olj-cta of |iolicy, I do tliiuk that I perceive in thia a compliment not altogether inappropriate. Mr. President and Ocntlem n, I know not how best to return to you my thanks?to make rome not unbecoming acknowledgment of tbia at oof of your attention and regard. But > as I feel myself to be in one ot the principal citiee of the Union?distinguished forita commercial intercourse?its rapid career?ita patriotic character; and as I teel that the present period is oneof gieat interest to the commet* rial community , perhaps I cannot do v i er than occttpy j the lew momnts I may be permittr I dress yon, in offering some susg -stions touching i ommercial interests of the countiy.and the policy in regard ta them which the time demands. It Is a truth most trite, not the less important, that the great interests of society are an mingled. The commercial?the agricultural?the mnnu' lacturing pureuita of individual! are entwined, if I mi; so speak, around the same column?are supported by the same trunk?flourish together or fade tog. ther. And be r is a friend to neither that would attempt o set up an opposition between the interests ot the one and of the other. This is a truth, however common, which cannot perhaps be too often repeated Because in the contest* of interests in the struggle lor prefer*nco by law, in favor of r the one or against the other, this general union?I mar aiv thil rnmmnn rlfltinv ifl linf nla ava tin^?-rttrwvl J or it understood 11 not alwayi regarded. In a country J iiko this, especially whare the greatest number of inhab '' itanta And auatenance in the pursuit* of agriculture? where great masses again are fed, and housed, and clothed r by manufacture#?and where there are alto other great maatea whoae houtei and tupport are on the aeaa, the very firat principle of legislation should imply tha recognition ' of this rtauntial connection between the intereata oftbeae ' varioua ptirauita, und the high importance of alwaya re gardingth'm aa h ving a gaueral character. Agricultnre furnithea the meant ot auatenance to human hi-inga, but I it doea not aupply them with cheap and comfortableclothing?* hat then would become of agriculture without >, mautacturea. and of them in their turn, if there were no h htiyera of the manufactured article? 'i he commeraial intereat ia dependent upon both, for there muat be commo |r ditiea to be transported and exchanges to be accompliabed ,? before the veaaela deatined for tliia tranaportation can be I engaged, or the ngenta And employment and reward. Mr. y 1'ieaident and g- ntlemen, allow nteon thi* occaaion to expreaa what 1 feel?that it ia to the commercial intereata? r 'o the animation and the apirit and the enterprize of the ' great commercial citiea of the conntry, that wc are to r attribute in the firat place the original movements in favor ol the great work* of internal impiovement, by which it we are now to honorably difitingniahed This remit* a from the nature of the caae. Tha capital i* in the citiea > ?the meant of communication are in the c ties-? the itimulua ia in the citiea. Win re wat the origin of ? the canals and railroadt, and all the great wetka that i dittinguiah modern timet?whete but in active commer ? cial place* ? And whtre haa individual treamre been pouredout like water, not on the ground of a hope for a rich return in theahape of intereat or dividends, but for I an appn priata reward in internal improvement ?where * else hat individual property been poured 'orth with this n m ii drs !i-?n in the cities of the United Htatos 7 i- I have ?een the many enterprise* in which you have been engaged, and particularly that great work, worthy o' ' Rome when Auguatui was at the head of the empire? (1 worthy ol Buonrparte if hi* tlioughta had not been turn oil more on works of war than of peace?worthy of it my empire?the commtihicalion by steam b (worn the K waters of the Chesapeake and the Ohio river ; a woikthat propose* to surmount some of the ridges of the Allegha niei?to pwnetra'e others?to proceed from tide-w ater by * 'tteam power on the land, until the power of steam on tin T" land snrrendera to the power ol atea n on the w ater, and 1 which exercised on one clement or on the oth< r connects , the great valley of the west with the ocean The pros ]. perity et thscommerce of thecom.try ,thin,as connected i? vith individual hitppinrss, as connected with the growth ie ?f our states ?as connected, 1 may add, with the re' venue of the country, and as connectvd with all 'J the works of internal improvement which unite us hy so many tiea-Noith to aou-h and Kast to West?the pioepe nty ol this commerce is ol the h'ghest and moslimpoi? lunt Consideration for all public me i, and nil intelligent ' cl irens I may be permitted, sir tossy tliat we see sll r> around, in every pail of the country, that there exists a conviction ol this truth?that we ore now at the end? - V? : | am incorrect in that expression? I wot about to say at the end of a universal peace of twenty-five yeara. God - grant wo may be far Irons the end of it! Butil - "ay wo are at a period when a universal peace ol soma twenty five yeara ha* prevailed. During that W YC W YORK. SATURDAY wriod all the civilized nations of the world have been urning their thought* from war to pi nee?have given atention to their own inriprovr ment?the advancement of heir own interests, agricultural, and nianu'acturing So that while there in not now ttoing on a tont' at oi armed force, there is going on a very severe? > very well maintain'd contest on many aides in regard o me protection 01 me into, tin- lurth-'iance cl the purnuts mid products of labor, end general improve merit in til ranks of society. In short, we live in ail age?it is )ui good lortuueto live in an age in w hich gove> omenta ind individuals are thinking more of benefitting themirlvcs than of annoying or des-roying their enemies. This appears to mo. geml-man, t? hnte l.-d to a very {eni ral feeling, be no mentis lei to this country , liat pervading ogreat partot Europe, | this character? nan, public and privaie moil, have adop ed a strong opinion that tiie Intercourse of 'he principal nations of tim HO : 1111,1 l)|. mmle the Ml ject O' treaty, of stipulation, which term I u?e in a inueh inoreenlaiged sense ihnn lliut usually attachvii to it. We find this mbj Ot a common opic ol discussion in the houses ol nt hi K r laud, in the t hamters ol France, in our own legislaturesin>l, indat d, thi oughoui the coinnieicial wcrid Itseemsi) i iv i it? o fin i i c i o opinion?a Ju-t one?that il na lions seek their own intetests, whether of revenue, or hose which are callrd protective by the regulation of iutieg, it is wise lor them, beioro resorting to indepenJent legislation, with the view on the part ofone to coun:ervail the acts ot otheis, to consider whether it be not more expedient that the parties should come to an understanding. instead of at once adopting this almost hosile legislation The commercial intercourse of nations is illected in our day, almost in sll nt'ioos? ^ertsmly in the principal nations?by two considerations?teveniie, and ;he encouragement and protection of the home industry Tnase two considerations influence the subject oi com. merce. Sometimes the one pn vails, and sometimes the xther. But all nations at the present moment appear to he m inilVs'ing a creat decree of uc.uteiiess m the percep. Inn of what thi ir interests, whether financial or iiulus trial, seem to r< quire. Wekr.owthat between Krgland siul Hnssia there has latterly been a new commercial treaty?not very impoitant, I think. We know that at lempta have been made to accomplish a treaty between England and France, and between England and Portugal. We know that u recent attempt liaa been made in a case very important tu us, ami which, in its results, might have been very important to our commerce. I allude to the attempt to lorm anew a commercial treaty between England arid Brazil. The failure, in this instance, may very wall inspire us with a doubt as totbe practicability of tnis regulation of commerce by treaties of stipulation. I do not mean to speak with much confidence or much distrust on this stibjrct. I am ol opinion that with re.pect to os here in America, the experiment is worth the trial. But at the samr time it is to be rememhered that not too stroi g confidence should he entertained ot a la voratile result, because pending the existence of that confidence, and hefoie the result is ascertained, there may be a very iuconveiiitut stagnation of uffaiis produce 1. l'he peculiar point in our foreign commercial relations which in this regard has latterly attracted the most attention, is the relations between the United States and Eoglnnd, and this in two ass ets, in the fitst place, the duties which are to he imposed by cither parts on the other at hisowu discretion ; and in the next place, the state of the inter course between the United Sta'es and the colonial provinces ol England, on this continent and iri the We. I In dies. The (luect trade betw een us and England standi upon a real principle of reciprocity ; I do not hnow thn in either country there exists much disposition to di'turt it. It is lair, equal, just. The trade betwgen the Unitei states and the British Colonies on the Contiuent and tin West Indies, has quite a ditl'-reiit character. It is not mj purpose to go into that matter. But with regard to tin direct intercourse bet ween us and England? great intt rest is excited, many wishes expressed, and strmq opinions entertained in favor of an attempt to settle dutiei by treat) or arrangement. I say, gentlemen, to you on t tarifi ol duties by " arrsngi ment," and 1 use that term b) design. The Constitution of the United States leave: with Congress, the great business of lnymg duties to sup port the government. It seems especially to have made 1 the duty of the House of Representatives to originate measures of revenue, or which eventually at feet revenue. There hnve been tame lew ess. i in which treaties heve been entered into havinp the etfV-ct to limit duties; but it is no' necessary?and tha is an impoi tant part of the whole subject?it is not neces sary to go upon the id. a that if we coma to an understand ing with foreign governments upon rates of du'ies, tha the understanding can be eff. eted only by me,.ns ot a tr? a ty ratified by the President and two-thirds of the Senate ncenrdieg to the form of the Constitution. Because, lol lowing the example ol the government in what now exists the arr .ngemmt between the United Ktotes and F.. glani touching the Colonial trade, it is practicable to give to hi understanding between the two governments,the force o law by ordinary acts of legislation. We all Uncw tha the basis of trade between the United States an the British Provinces, is constituted by the concurrm acts, consurrentor conditional acts of the legislatures t both countries. Out renate and House of Representative have, there/ore. pus ed upon it; and so have both Hou?' f Parliament; and if the executive governments of tl> two countries should enter into any ne otiaiions upon th suhjeot of duties proposed by the one side, they might ii 'he same manner be made ta terminate in a treaty But i one party by law provided for Cei tain duties; the other par tjr by law CBttlU lut iho ? <{na? olotit* 1 IlieniJui 'his, because 1 see it often stated that t< regulate duties bv treaty would bp to d? privi the House of Representatives?one great branch of tin National Legislature?of its just authority, and I am o that opinion. I think thnt the t eaty-making power shotih not be extended, unless in cases of great importance, ti any such subjects. It is true a treaty is the law of th land. But, then, as the whole business of revenue am general provision for all the wants of the country, is tin doubtedly a very peculiar business of the House o( Hep resent ntives or of Congress, I ant of opinion, nnd nlw.n have been, that there should be no encroachment upot that pes er |hv the exercise of the treaty ranking pow ei unless in cases of great and evident necessity. Wei then, gentlemen, if there he a constitutional mode of to ranging those subjects by means of negotiations bet Wee i the two governments, what is there, I would ask, in on present relations with England, which makes itdesirabl that such an attempt should now he made I All that ca> he said is, that the leading interests of the United State arc nil at present in a considerable degree of depressjor The commercial interest?the manufacturing interestand, so far as I am aide to perceive, the agricultural intc rest, are all equally depressed. If I look at th price-current In the great wheat-growing States ( the West, or in the plantation States of th South, I perceive, as all perceive, great d? pronation ot prices, an* a gr< at discotiragem i.t to ar tivity and emulation. What is there, then, in our condi tiorvTwhatis therein the intercourse between the tw eonntrii s that migh' justify an attempt to con e to a mv Mini stipulation? Well, gentlemen, on this sulj- ct, Ic course, speak without any authority. Ii is not lor me t assume more than any 01 yon. But it is true 'hat ai opinion has beceme somewhat cu' rent that with F. glan there might be an arrangement favorab'e to thi country. That agreement must of ciurse he fotinJ ed on what would be regarded ?s an ndequate contidr ration. Now, as to the o'jects favorable to the Uni ted States in that agreement, ! may mention them The admissien into England npon lower rates of duty o several of our large agricultural products, would ba on of the most prominent advantages. It has been found fo 1- .W... U-.,?l??,l n,l?. in.t,,.-. ,1 m .O.n ri?ra|j|r,iiini - ........... .......... . important reduction in the duties on tohacco, anil I cor feat 1 have nevpr been able to ace why they should nt do no. The tobacco duty in England ik a mere matter < revenue It ha* no collateral or nlteiior object. It is f much money collecttd lor the public put poses of the kinf dom. The question therefore in the mind of an Engln statesman,it seems to me, can only be, wtaethe' a rednctio of duty would diminish the aggregate revenue. We a know that itdoea the contrary. I , then, with regard t his article, the diminution ot the duty nucha would aagmmt the importation one-half, it i equally beneficial to the revenue?a good deal betls for the tobacco raisers?and I suppose not at all disagrei able to those who consume the article. fA laagh.) It i also supposed?the duty, to be sure, is not a very heav, hut It it still ot some importance?that the rsgtili liona resp cting the admission into England ot cotton an rica miiht undergo material and beneficial changesThese are articles of con-ldi rpble im|>ortBnce to th plantation sts'esot the South apart of tho country ret tslnly at prison' as much depri sued as any other. 'The igsitt there is that gn at staple agricultural product c ours?the maize. or as it Is cal.eil, the Indian cora I liav not heard it suggested irom any quarter, that F.nglan would modify hsreorti laws, hut it has been suggt sted? know not with what degree of plausibility, and I pro you to receive what 1 now say si an expression ot m own opinion merely?that in regard to the article c wholesome and cheap food, it is possible that Englsn might he disposed to stipulate for its introductio into her ports at a low and fixad rate of diry. Now, theie be a probability i f that- 1 may say ivn a sligh probability?it is at icast worthy of irqniry. |t is tin that tuis is a very great wheat producing country, hut i is much mom a great corn prolucin? country. On maize la the g'??t grain pro. net ot the United Staiei siaiuk'sl tat)I, s shew tnat Ave buahels n T ntian ro. n ?r p o luced to one bushel ol w heat. Nuiv, liowtv.r, kmn1 Iim amp'ut ol tiii* gimil might he?it only fire or tin tier cent, everv tody can r that it* introduce n on It rotable teims Into t. e English m*rk> is would behighl advantageous in the p oducer*. I nm atvatc, air, thu many ol you unilcmtii. d this itinject much better th-in do?that it i? en ardcle of h' ??y freight?nn<] vet i it brought Com Mary tin I, Virginia and tho Carol nas to B uton, ami thence distributed through th Eist. The question then ia, whether it it rea-or able and expedient to entertain the pin pise?to try th ixpcriment of artnngii.g with England for th tinunution of theduty on thil and other article*. Cor tillering thin question,every one naturally ask*, where i the quid pro quo?where i* the i qtiirah nt ? For what r lucements may we hope that any of thr?o benefit* thu supposed to be possible, can be obtained 7 Undoub! illy, the only inducement we can bold out to England i 1 modification ol the tariff of the United State*. This it eludes, obviously, many questions. Our tarilf an 'titles are for revenue and protection. Anil hov efficiently either one or other of thore object* cotil he maintained under any modification, I* a quel tion of great delictcj and difficulty. I mea <? express no confident opinion on thi* point. But this to mean to say, hi cause it is a settbd Conviction of nr >wn juegmi tit ? t/ ly any frrat npiraiinn thai tliould urn/ I kt inJiteiti and oui'i.tan* ij all pans of the county, tv can plan Jlmrticun indurli y nnd Jlmtrican labor on a pet mantru /?undalion, that i< a much more import int con idorxtlon than the degree to w hicli protection shoul extend. (Applause ) P pond upon it, gentlemen, it i change, and the apptehi nsion of change that unnarvi every working man's arm in this country. (Louil a| plause.) Changes felt, or changes (eared are the bane c our industry, and the prostration of our action. (Renew IRK E MORNING, MAY 20, 184i <><1 applause ) 1 live in a part ol the country full ol in- a dustry, with snmecapital, with great activity; and when a I go amon??t my neighbors they uniformly ask me?"For a God'. rake, tell us what we are to expect?lay down 1 your law?prescribe your rule ? let us see what i* to be the cottrso of the government, and we can then apply our industry, invest our capital, and adapt our circumitimces to thisatateof things, be it what it may ?warm us, scorch us, burn us?do what you please, hut let us know ? hut ton propose to do?und suck to it!" (Thunders of applauj" ) Nee 1 am of opinion that if, under any cotnpr. Pensive rj?iem of ]>o!iey, we could bring about u te.ult in which I he north and the south, the east and the west, should concur, it would he one eminently lavorahle to iigrieultuie?to the graingrow ing and plantation States?reasonably favorable aiso lathe tnaiiulacinring and commercial interests?and be sides nil tbi?, ? ' cou d stump on that result n taature of permanence. If we Mould make an impressiou on it that should last idt twenty ytiiri, * e would ?oon have a much bitter mute ol thbg< than we have s< en lory cars ami yuan past. (Applause.) I have already *aid, gentlemen, that without mutual sttpu at ions, it ii quite evident that government* will soon bo driven to " countervail, " a? it ii called?to retaliate. If one will not accept the products ol another, the nation whosa product* are thus rejected, wdl *rek to retaliate? to countervail, and thus to diminish the intercourse ol the two nation** 11 seems tome that belore we attempt to venture on countervailing legislation or retaliatory legislation, to produce a state of thing* desirable *o us. It i* much wiser to see in the present friendly disposition ol nation to nation the invitation to come to a better result by a mora amicable kind of procedure. Now, gentlemen, we have filleu into sjme erroi s in thn course ot treaty stipulations. I do not mean our country in particular but all count! ies. We have indulged too much in gene riilities in the terms of these treaties. We speak of plaeing each other in the "posiMon of the tno?t favored nation.'' In my opinion whatever treaty stipulation is entered .nto between states, that stipulation should be specific, indisputable, unequivocal, precise. All these general expres siuns in treaties, that A treating with B and holding nitertercomso with bim should he placed on the looting of the most lavored nation, are impracticable in a great degree and are in many cases wholly unintelligible. What does tins phrase?''position of themost lavored tiaiion mean I' There is no practicable meaning to it, because eur treaties are with men who deal in such various commodoties i hat there cannot possibly be a common standard. We make a tieaiy with Russia, in which, lor instance, we stipulate tu at bo much duty shall be laid on a ton of iron ; and no more than so much on a hundred weight ol hemp We 1 then make a treaty with the Celestial Empire; whose only 1 i traffic ia in silks and teas, and we tell them that we place tnem in the position ol the most tavored nation. how are we to Jo it 7 How can we give for Russia a tat iff which can be apple. able to th* Chinese 7 Toe whole history of this generalization of treaties is productive of nothing hut mischief, quarrels and contusion We ba?e treaties with France, Portugal and UtJginm, using these g?ceial terms and the moment Congress passes un act laying duty, we have complaints fiom one or nil of these States of infrsotions of their treaty; and these complaints are not ulways enii ly answered, uit I never possible to be denied In all such cases the stipulations, ther?fore, should ho specific. I will add that it doet not follow that because one nation enters into stipulations with another, it hccomrs the duty ol any one to associate in league, against the interests ol other Statec. These subjects must bo looked on in the light of mutual legulaliuns? stipulations leading to mutu al advantage. Tnere is nothing derogatory to other Stales?nothing injurious, Drcsuse the same impulses that lead to a Idvomble course upon specific stipulations with one nation, may lead to a like favorable intercourse upon other specific stipulations with other nations. For example : I put thecuse, not as one in which I should choose to make a practical experiment, but (imply as an illustration of the general principle. Let us advert to the state ot trade between this country and Brazil; to see if the interests of both countries would not require or justify some stipulation to the mutual udvantageof th? two. What isthu state of trade between Brazil and the United States? I ought to take humiliation to myself for assuming to speak of such a subject here, belore gentlemen, most of whom are better acquainted with it than 1 am myself But 1 use it to illustrate the general view 1 may take of the whole matter. There is no more unequal trade in the wotl I than that between the United States and B< nzil. It is altogether on one side. The UnitedStales take some five millions, (I believe a ti<flc moie,) ol B'nzilinu products untsied: and half a million slightly taxed?I mean her rugar. And what do they rccpive from us untaxed 7 Nothing at allTheir taies on commodities from the United Siali s are excessively high. They tax the products of the labor und land r.f this country and tea 3D, 40 and 44 per oentWe take live millions untaxed and halt a million I slightly taxed. How did they stand with Kngl-nd und. r t the Inte Meaty between that country and England ? Hi r ,1 stii u'i'ion bt treaty?which still exists?was that ikl? .1.1 - -. I... ??. .1 I, t ... .. ! II"U U'-IHTIUUIUCfl BllutilU iiuw in; '"Aiu iu? * v wiait n? |'r* >t cent English cotton, clothing,Itc., ia tax.d only fifteen n per cent, und oil's from So to 5l> percent! Yet Euglund tax es tbem 100 per cent on none commodities. We take Brar zil c< ffee tree end England taxes it si-* to twelve centa n pel-pound- At cording to the English interpretation, the u tien*y Mwn a England and Brazil does not terminate t till 1944 Brazil insists that it expired ia 1843; for I heller e the Brenlivn government is anxious to gi I tidolil On I ilie whole, howerei ,?tie was tin bed to j ielrt to the English -> constriietion, so that the treat} was declared to remain p in forcetill 1844. In the meantime to/nc distinguished a person was Sent from E; gland to renrw the treaty; and 1 T must say that I think the Brazilian Government manifest* 1 id little address on subject. B'uzil insisted thir the j treat; expired in 1843? England that it lasted ti 1 1814 ? L. Brazil y tehls, and then say ? to the English Minister sent 1 to r?new the treaty?"If the treaty la-t till 1841 us you suv ? and we sutimit to whot y on say?we will iak< till i. 1841 ta i onsider what new treaty we will make " [Laugh* s tel.] Wachlig the pi ogress ol t vents, you will take it , fo granted our . uveinme.nt is tit so inattentive to th. gn at inletests of tin cemmerceof the country as not j to see that in a proper time a treaty may be concluded between the United Mates and Brazil.? ? Clr?/.il wi-uld assuredly tint k it most ex'raordinai y if r Engla I would give her by tiea'y any such advantages, I Q as those we havt alt ird.d h-.-r. In short there is no case , in the whole wot Id, so lar a* now occurs to me, so proper K tor a treaty stipulmion positively f.ivoruhle to the United u States. tVhat is the tindi of the United Matt s with Bra xil ? We new receive her great article of product?cof* ee.lne We receive her mgar at cents a pound duty. g \nd we have a great advantage in this respect, that we ,f have no colonial intere-ts to protect. Ei gland ia re. 0 -trained in her disposition to admit Brazilian products f om the circumstance that she has colonial products ol li te chsracter, and that she is bound to give preference to 1 them. That would ho a very good reason for her ; but it 0 constitutes one ot the advantages of our situation to which we ate fairly entitled, and no man can suy that tf th're is any reciprocity or justice in our vast consuriip() tinnoi Brazilian commodities without duty, at a moment ? when our products are so highly taxed in every Brazi1 liau port Aid this shows the fallacy ol an argument , which I understand was made by the British government in its communications with the Brazilians on this subject. ' ? f. i. il.. .l. ll..:., J u,.t.....1 .. ? ??? i deal of your cotfee, but ?? take a* much more ; and we bio paymasters even for a part ot what they take " There ia a li tie approach to arrogance m thai argument It i? true net the severe du. tie*on American manufactures in Brazil, exclude vast ipiantitie* of theae m.uitifac urea ; and therefore we do import from Biazil merchnni iae to a tar greater amount t than that of which we tend in return, and we pay the difference out of other earning* of ours, usually by means of exchange* on London made good from other tourer* of perty or industry. Now, if we entered the Brazilian market* on a* good term* a* England, we could pay on the spot, and not he in a condition to ask England to pay ourdebt* to the Brazilian merchant!. (Applause.) I pet. ceive, Kontlamen, that I am going into theae subject* much too far, and I hare alluded to them became, in a government like our*, an enlightened public opinion must, on *nch subject*, precede legislative action ; and became I feel that tha time ha* come vie n the interetta , ol the cauntry require that such opinion should ne formed and expieased one way or the other.? I have sai l, gent Irmen, that these two State* are iiKtsnce* of the Impulse efcommerce?nl rschang-a We arevery remote liom Bmzil?nonethe worae loi that. They have a different climate? dillerent product*?different habits. So much tho better lor nil that. It hn* been said that *irud-t the variant heiugi and properties of thing* w hich Cona'itUle this globe, it ?*-? , " All naturL'"* Jilferi nee, thataakea ml nature's peace!" It may be said with a* mnrfc truth, that In matt era of aommerclal interc our?e, i I* latarvnce ol climate?ol mill ?of products- and of habit, th#i tvaliy unite States, conspiring lor |the benrflt of tfl. It i* this very ditlerence in their pniauit* that give* th< m an d identity qf interest in one respect?tbat i?, in n tin* milTliRI inrercnangr 01 rommmiinri nuirru w?u re. I' ?rect to Rraxii?the other end ol the continent?end much it the Inrgeat power on it, except our own?one might ?ay, ? that the product*of both countries teem to contribute it eery much to what is common to troth in the common ene joy raenta of life We up with pleai'ire the coffee of Bra i. fit nt o ir hreakleat tahle, and aometimei iwi eten it with e their sugar ; whilst the Brazilians, do not, I believe, lull jt-ct otir rolls or a rasher ot American baron. (Lnighter ) i I'he two cotintnn, of all othci en the Continent, or per? hapa in the world, are *o placed, that the mort beneficial y commercial iriterconrae might exist b-tweee them r Well, gentlemen, parting from thii auhject, I will conI elude with a few remark* on another. It ?o liap|>ened i that very soon alter I entered ujion thedutiesof the office i- which I lately held, it the yleanire of Congreaa to ? call upon the Department for K< ports on the Tariff and i- Commercial regulation* of other countriea, and the o effect* of the "R ciproelty Treatiea," a* they are called, 0 into which the Uovernmcrit entered w ith vuriout court 1 rrii * at various timea. Iioni IBM to a late nerfod, I do. s gentlemen, entertain the strongest lielicl'thnt all this i- principle of reciprocity acted upon ly the Government * it wrong? n mistake irom the beginning, ?nd injurit lit to the ft rent intercut* of thfl country. What i* it 1 * By every reciprocity treaty we (five to Iho nation with i- which it in concluded a right to trade between in and d other nations on the same terma n* we trade ourselves. i W'r give to the Hauie Towna and tha othe r State* of the n n.imc clans the light to ft toll arid carry, between n? i* and all the nations of the world, on the aame terms n .a we do ; lie I practically they can do it, much moie I prod-ably. lu my opinion the tiue principle?the | philosophy of poll ics on this ?abject, is exhibited r in the old Nnvigatioa Law of Kngland, introduced hj ? Mimeol the bohl g. niuses of romwi t ?' time, and icteif upon ever since. The principle is this ; the i ule is thin? i Any naiion may luing conimoditle* to ua in htrown vea. d - is and carry our corn to her own potts, we having the s .ike privilege , hut no nation shall hiing the products ol a s i in I'd nation, orcarrj hetwe?i? us and Unit nation. It hh* y- h. en said by a very distinguished poison not now living, if that the rule e the navigation laws had ita foundation in ' this idee?England sought in her arrangement to leeure ??i?p?MBB?egg [ERA I. s much of the carry ing trade of the world as she could ; nil what she could i ' get hcrsalt she sought to divide it imong all other nut ions. In one sense that is doubtess a selfish policy < lar as it iudicates o disposition o obtain all she co t but this is certainly not a 'ery extraordinary tlfishncss. In other respects Is operation is the most just, the most philosoihical and most hi n. ficial that could he desired ? V? may test this in a variety of ways It does tend, to a art in extent, to inert use the means of that state which las 'he greatest mercantile a.urine uiul can s 11 cheapest; >ut at the same lima 'i loss give to ail others the advnnage in carrying tucir own goods. Suppose 1" ng'and r an iarrv cbeip r tlun uny other nu'ion in the wi rid : A d lUppOse nil the nations in I he wot hi shoiil t adopt the cur ent actions ol Fi re Tradi , aim o, en trien ports to .11 that K ....... n int.. t i.. ir o it ni.tlon i ll..t C llhl ca I V li" i|'P?t would go, itep by ?t p, till presently she umnooliz -d the \v lio o carrying ti udr 01 the worl t Do- ? not ;vi ry one s?n ilia* such ? So e must soon ti-'ci m. ih>- m .aer ol the whi-1-! won i f O suppose th-r.< w r.- two gr- at ia ion> li e Great Britain and t irUnited Ht te f -un to he he cheapest Carrier*, li all the other autious Itiould igree U|>on the full commercial liberty, and permit all to tome and go without regurd to the good* they had.thne wo great Statu would inevitably take the currying trade if tho world?take the shipping of the world, the mari ime power of the world, and the government of tbe world?if they could agree among themselves. (Loud ipplauMt) And back to that principle must we come at ast. We ought to give to every nation tto right of tringing her cargo here in her ships, if ahe givaa to ua h? like privilege. But by these reciprouity tieatie*, to five for the carry ing of a nation of Europe, like Bremen which hnabntone port, all the ports along a coest ol ISOO nib a with 1? millions ol people?when she bus scatcely 100,000 of her own, pray what sort ol reciprocity ih tins I (Loud applause ) It is very much like tho atory in Joe Miller, of the horse ami the cock, who were walking loji-lher. The cock though' to make a reciprocal agr.enent with the horse?" I'll not trend en you," saiii he, ' if yot'11 not tread on me " (Laughter and appluua- ) Now, geutivmen, I know that nothing is so dull us statislics. jut I will venture here in this city ot Baltimore, )tid before a body of men as touch interested in the matter is any other, to present in that repulsive form ol statistical figures, someof the results arrived at by me in the couise of investigations instituted in pursuance ol n resolutien of Congress. [ I'he luilowing are the resolutions referred to, which we think it proper to insert in this connexion] :? In the Senate of the United States, February 14> h, 1S-13. Resolved, I hat the Commi'im on Commerce bediscbargail Irom the further consideration of resolution referred to them on the 'J7ih ot December, 1B4J, directing them to " inquire into the state ot our tonnage, freights and commerce with foreign powers, and n pint whether it is ptos pi tons under the existing arrangements, by treaties or laws in relation thereto ; and also, whether the regulations by other governme uts, are equal and in confoi mity to the spirit of these at rangenu nts ; and if t ither be not so. what measures ate proper to insure greater pioeperity and reciprocity and that the same be reft r ed to the herretary ol State, who is hereby directed to mattu the inquiries in said resolution mentioned, and re port to the Semite, at the next Session > congress. Congress o -the United States, in the House ol Representatives, March 8il, 1843 ? R-solved, That the Secretary of State he, anil he is hereby required to procure through the Fon-ular an I Diplomatic ogenls of tnis O ivernmi nt atrond, and such other means as to him may seem most suite ile, full and accurate itiiotm.itiou us t? the whole>ale unit retail prices in loreign markets, during the year commencing on the first day of September lust, of all commodities upon which duties are levied under existing laws, as well us of such as are imported Iree of duty, with the rates of insurance, freight and commissions usually charged at the places of export upon sai l commodities when imported into this country; the modes and terms of sale customary there; the average rates of exchange dur. ing each month in aaid year, and the true par of exchange between this and each loreign country; also as to the duties of expoit and import, and as far as practicable the various internal taxes levied upon such com modities cither in a crude, partially manufactured or wholly complete state, together with the rates of wages in the various hranchci and occupations of lalior and of personal service in the business of commerce and trade : And it shall he his duty also to procure Iroin said Consuls and Diplomatic, agents full and regular files of price current sheets for said year, at each of the must important foreign maikcts, and such other documents and publications us may exhibit truly the information called for in this resolution, which shall be transmitted to this House ut the next session of Congress, and fiom which, together with thu reports received frun said agents, and such other information as may be obtained, he shall compile and huvo printed lor tite use of this Ilousea document embodying ail the information called for, arranged in such manner as to be most convenient for reference and comparison?exercising especial care in all instances to give said information in Federal currency, Wrights and meusiires. Let us take the history an 1 present state of our trade with Bremen tor an example. Bremen is one al thu Hauseatic towns; and the United States had formerly a considerable trade with that city ia American vessel*. Before 1817, sixty to eighty aucli vessels arrived, and cleared, annually. On the an h of December, 1317, a commercial convention was entered inin between the United States and the Hansentic R-publics of Leber, Bit-men and Hamburg The fiist article ct this convention is in the lotto wing terms:? Convention of rrit Jthip, Commerce, and Navigation, between tb? Urn 1 S-ates of America and the Free Hanseatic Reput - of Lubei k. Br-men and Hamburg, concludt il >hiugioa, December 30,19*17. Sabtici.c i. The contracting parties i>gr?e,that whatever bind of produce, manufacture, or merchandize of any foreign count i y, con he, from tune to tim?, lawfully imported into the U Status in thei o /n n ??els, may he also Imported in vi ssi Is of the said Free Hansea'ic R?| ul lics of Lorrl?, itirmen and Hamburg, aad that no higher or other littles Upon the tonnage Ol CitlgO of thi Vessel shull he levied ?r mil. eti-il whether the inuiottaiinn he mstle in vessel* of llif United States, or of either of the stud H-nseatic Republics., in like nunnir, that what ever kind ol product, manufacture, or m? rchandir. of any <or?ign country, can tie, fiom time to lime,lswlul|y imported into either of the said Hanieatic Re; uhlics. in It* own vessels may he a No im| orted in TtHiIs ?f the United Static; and that no higher or othttr duties upon the tonnage or cargo ol the vessel ah nil he levied or collected, whether the importation he made in vessel* of tho one party,or of the other. And they further agree, that whatever may be lawfully exported,or re-exported, by one party in iti own veaiela, to any far* ign country, may, in like manner, he ex|>orted or re-eiportad in the vessel* of the other party. And the same bounties, duties and drawhocks shall bo allowed and collected, whether such exportation or re-exportation h- made in veasels of the one party, or of the o her. Nor shall higher or other charges of any kind he imposed in the ports of the one party on vessels of the other, th n are, or shall be, pavable in the same ports by national vessels. Tf. CLAT, V. RUM I FF. The fourth article of the same convention provides that anv vessel shall he regarded ax a Hnr.xeatic v? sael which ix owned by a Hanseatic eitiZ'-r, and of which the mns'erarid three-fourths of tin-crew are nlxo Hanxeatic citizi lis, or subjects ol the confederale?l States ?f (J?i many But 'he vessel may have been 6mil anywhere, without injury to hernationsil character. Citizens of the?e republicsmay buy vessels in Norway, Sweden, or elsewhere, wherever they ran buy cheap est, and such vessels become at once Hanseatic vessels under this convention. This is a matter of importance to some of these ports which are not considerable ship building ports. The men bants ol the place can buy tfeir vessels already nnilt. Th# Government ol the United States agreed to this stipulation, al hough the cautious example ( Kn gland was before it, as by the English Convention with the same Republic, t? o yesia before, It was req ired that vessel- should have been Am/1 In one of tho republics, ax " -- 1 V.X. nsiix, ax a It. Afiltir tn ha rf tfuriliiil R A I Hanaratic vessels In conrrquenre of our convention of 1847. the mimtifr of American ve??. !? entering th? port it Bremen h?. vnstIjr lalkn iff, and in mmr yearn has been a* low a* twentyfive. To show this fwiling oli of our tonnage, end the increturof Bremen tonnage, it mij be staled, that from 19.18'o 1930,five-sevenths of thetnrival* in Bremen Irom the United States, were Amerirun vessels, end two teverdhs Br-mon; (mm 1931 to I9"fl three sevenths Ameri'nn, and four-seventha Bremen; and from 1839 to 1940, one fttth American, and four fifth* Bremen I have a statement of the amount of export* from the I lilted Stati* to the IIan?e town*, in 1941, a id the national character ol the vsssela, transporting attch expoit* and their respective number* anil tonnage St at * mr itr fhowing tl e amount of exportifrem the United State* to the Hanse town* during the year 18ll, distinguishing the amount exported American and Foreign vcuels reapt ctively, together with the number, tonnage arul national character of *aid foreign vessel*. Value ol foreign merchandise exported in Amei ican vessels, >03 9.'0 In foreign rvRsel*, 348,I4J TotaJ, >440,#81 Value of domestic exports iu American vessels, $1 27H 4*0 In loreign vessel*, 2 832 2 '8 $4 I ID,MS Jlfe. Tonnagt. Value. Total export in Aracri. can Teasels, 45 14 123 $1,372 370 Foreign vessels, 137 46,147 8,188340 Total, 182 60,270 $4,500,710 It Alio oi foreign tonnage to American as 3J to 1 neatly. Ratio ol exports in foreign vessels to American as 2} to 1 nearly. Of the 137 foreign vessels there w eveNo. Tom. Dritisb, 6 1.618 I'nissinn, <j 878 Swedish, 6 1,8.19 Norwegian, 3 7i8 Danish, 1 153 j Hsnseatic, ]-20 41 355 Total, 137 4? 147 r?Ti MUT of the ]'i Incipal lom?tir eipor?? from (!.< Unit il States to the !l n?e Towns, dtirine ths yeai end ing 30tti Seiit< mh< 1C41. * f o tie. Oil, whale and other 1,413,415 gall's ^''8' Whalebone, 805,91Oak bark and othet ?,04e LD. Price Two CcbM. Tar and pilch, 60 hhl*.> Rosin and turpentine, ll.fiM) bble. J 18,867 Hkioa and lure, 186 103 Rice, 12 737 tierce*, 270 281 Cotton, 0.49A,731 Iba. <73,673 Tobacco, 30,617 hhda. 3,176,308 Tob icco, manufactured, 257,134 lbe. ) ' _ Snuff, 846 lb., \ 1 have a aimilar table re?peetiog import* into the United 8tJtes from the Hanee Towr.e,lor the ?ame year, with the fume comparative ttatement*. SriTun.sT (bowing the amount of import* from th* )inn?e l ouni into the United State*, during the year online 30th . ept. 1841, di*tlngni*hing the emount brought in American and foreign veaael*, respectively , ti gather with the number, tonnage, and national rha racier 01 nam loreipn vessel*. So. Ton nut. Val- impfi. American vessels, A3 14 :">9? 9WM7 Foreign vessels, 99 86 481 3,161,377 Total, 163 61 074 $3 449.004 Ratio of foreign tonnage to Amerioan as 3 1-3 to l.neariy , Ratio of imports in foreign veaaala to import* in Amtncan vessel* at 7Jto 1, nearly. Of the 99 foreign vessels. there were? _ l4, . No. Tonnogo. Britiih, 1 3M Prussian, S 55; Swedish, 1 j.j5 Norwegian, 1 <160 Hansrattc, 96 84,363 09 36 4il These table* show, that of the vessels entered Irom the Hanxu Towns into the United States, in 1841, 99 were foreign, and only 63 American; and ol the vessels >'eparting from the United H'atesto the Manse towns, 137 were foreign, and only 46 American. That the value ol the merchandize exported Irom the United States to the Hanseatic cities, was $3,188,340 in foreign vessels, and only $1 373 370 in American vessels : and that of the amount in va>un of the import* into the United States, $3,151 377 was brought by foreign tonnage, and no more than $398 687 by American tonnage, being more than sevan to one against American Navigation. Nor is this all The Hansestic vessels have several very strong inducements 'o come to the UDited States In the first pi ire, they may bring hither any commodities, from any country, on the same terms as our own vessels. In the second place, they have great advantages in engaging lor the transportation of the crowds of emigrants who leave Germany and Switzerland every year lor the United States, amounting, sometimes, to fifteen thousand in a single year Irom Bremen alone. Making tbeae profitable voyages out, they can afford to take return cargoes, to any port of Europe into whi b they may be admitted, at low rates of Ireights. They are therefore able to under hid our own vessels I have it on very good authority, that of the tobacco shipped from Baltimore tor some years past, say thirty thousand hogsheads annually, sevaneighth* have been exported in Bremen vessels; and your very respectable citizen, the Collector of Ibis port, has, at my request, furnished a statement ol the exports of tobac. eo from this port tojthe Hante Towns, for 1841 and 1843 :? Exports ok Tobacco from Baltimore to Bremen, and the itil?s?r Hfinan Tnu nu for th? Vfiri 1841 find IRiQ vie In 1841, 17,997 hhdi. VaJ. $879,641 In 1841, 19,703 '? 817,831 Total shipped, 87,700 $1,737,474 Of which, Shipped in 1841, in Am. vela, SP04hhda. $133,084 Do 1843, do 3,460 104,889 A 364 9S9.AI8 Sh'p'l in 1841, in Brem. v?l?, 1ft 093 hhdi. $746 $A4 Do 1643, do 17,343 740,090 33 336 $1,487 064 It it further to be coniidcred, at I have already said, that Hanseatic vessels can load any where, under the provision* of the treaty, abroad as well a* at home; and thereturns r how that one-fourth part of the Hanaeatic tonnage which entered the United States, in 1841, came from other countries than their own?principally from South America, Mexico, and the Baltic. Bremen vesaela, also,somftitnea take cargoes from the Hanse towns to the Meditterranean, thence come to the United States, with produce of that r< gion, and thenee home, or to a' y part of the world. Now, these are advantages peculiar to theircondition t? which these enterpriring people are fairly entitled, and of which no narrow or monopolixing policy should seek to deprive them. The main one is, the smaller cost at which they sail their vessels. The customary rates of seamen's wages in Bremen vn.seIs if stated not to exceed five dollars per month, while American seamen are paid from twelve to fifteen dollars. The mon hly sailing expense" ol a Bremen ship is supposed not to exceed onehall of the monthly expenres of an American ship of the same tonnage. Certainly, to these fair advantages over others, (if low wages are to be regarded as an advantage,) it does not become lis, out of an exceas of liberality, to add others. We cannot buy cheap vesaels in the Baltic and make them American vessels Our navigation laws forbid this. Why should we allow to citixi ns of other States, then, privileges w hieh we deny to surownl It may be added, that the whole population ot Brem n is hardly more than ti*ty thousand?that most of the cop tal of the city is employed in navigation, and that import duties are very light, I b lUve only what may be regarded aa a charge for warehousing. Our existing Mipulations with theae cities are one-sided and partial in their operation. Thev onsht not to con limit*. The power reaervcd in the treaty, of putting an entl to it after twelve year* from it* Hate, and on one ycHr'n nonce, ought, n my opinion, now to be eierciaed, na morn thnn twelve yearn have expired. The whole Mibject will then be open for new negotiation,or foriuch proviiiona at Congreaa may aee fit to adopt. It in not unlikely that theae amell commercial republiaa will one day find their pomtion in the (irrman Ctiatoma Union; in which event thev would be embraced in any commercial treaty which mukt cxiat between the Unrtml and the twenty eight or thirty million*of people comprised ebbm that Union. T'>r lollnwn.K atriiat ca, cnroi ileO from ih* annual atatrmrnta <?r ih?- commerce ai d wviMtinn of the Unite 'Ftatea. will how the r<i id 'ncrcaae of H i acetic tonnage in oar porta:? 9 element of the tonnage of Hnnaevtie veaaela en.errd and clear* it 111 i*rta . f thr Unfed State*, from It JO to IMI. both r r naive. Yeare. Tonnage Entered. Tonnage Cleared. 1*30 - 9.H3 00* 1*31 - - II.'76 12.19 1*32 72 3)1 19 MO 1133 - - 29 Htf 27 Jb| 1814 - 21. *61 24 .111 1137 21 31* 22 421 1>36 | | ?rWi 41 M U37 79 701 61.119 113* - 77,3*9 39 636 1*39 . 41 l<9 39,067 IMO 41 Vi 44.771 It bring the practice in the Treaaary Report* to eapr* aa the amount of torn,ace employed i., the commerce of the United Ml |I ? w ilh Other u iln ne, by I w general claaaer, rix ' American.'ami " Foreign." ih? re are no meana of deteraaininc the ii'ti naif? of iheae eraaela, and conarqaently ol *'*er aiaing what piepnriion of ihe trade with r;cl, unoo ia carried on in ir? own vessel*, and what poipur ion in thm* oi o h*r rower*. It ha* alao been ihe prartrce nutate the namber and torn a* of veaaela of e-ch for* ign power eutared and cleared dnnag each cnmmeicirI yea . ininaud frcin l1** United Staler, rr, h. ut Hoawuating the ctunitea <r. m winch they enured, aa>l for *bich the, clcarrd; t'ua Waring it almmt rntirrlv fo conjectara to eacertam to what eilem vejae a, av*i i it of privilege* oaferrvd hv treoiiea have been enabli d to r, gaga in the carrying rado betwee,. ihe U. 9 and nat una nth* r man thoae to which they leapecnre.y bel* i g In the report of 1641, the coantH a of departure and dratination of veaaela are axen; *o that a mark more accurate ea im e of the atate of citnmerce and navigation can be obtained F om tt,ia report the following eih-bnioa of the |,learnt Hate of ihe trade ami nat'ga ion of the Haaee Towna, in connection with the United Muter, I aa been compiled:? Mtatrment ahowing the namhor and tonnage of Hanaeatic vaaa? la arrived at. and deponed from port* of the United Stale*, dining the year ending Sept. 30, 641 d itinga'ahing the eonatrie* fiont and to which they reapeeuvely entered tad cleared. e.tntrea jrorr\ twumtrr. lonnogt. Hm i, ... | p t i?fi'?o, 2 m Ornish Wnt India*, 2 4*4 inl'sird, 3 D .ith West Indies, 1 B Isiam, 1 204 R gltu'l. 1 7>t H m'? Town, *2 b'rsne#, (Atbntie,) * J 9 sin, ( VWdit?rT?i|saa.> J * T*g?rife, J Jj! Cabs, J fo i ffl Men- n. J I* Vearsasla, * ,1," Brnil * S-JSI A-i" i'ine Rem Mis, ? Cispiatin ! 22 Chili, J m T?f,| ? -131 44 A CU*r,df, r Ifumhc, Tony*: Ho Isini, ' J'i Be Isiam, ' 2" C'.U- Isinl, ' *' Hsnse T0 770S, '? 41 Cubs, * * * 4 1.2M Veneiaels, ... 3 mBrssil, . 3 M4 I Tot'l. 1M ?7,IIT I It aprrar* fr-m the for'going autemen'a that the tonnage of Hanaeatie ? *a*ela entering port* ol th? United Stitea ifirtet from ihe Hauir Towua, *<i mora hai double tse irnuut of American tonnage ernetiug from'he aarra pUc>a, and tl at the ? lue of impoita from the raid lowm in Hauarat e earaela. ?? about ail timea greater than the ealue of import* from thr aatne placet in American eeaaeh; that the tonnage of Hanaeatie ?#t? ?! clearing from the United Sta ca direct f r the Hante Towns. was nearly three timea greater than th?t of American iraa-la clearing for ihe same places, and the' ilie relur ol eiporta fioin tin Uuitrd Statra to the Hame Towns in eeaaela of t e latter inaaer, waa double that of eape-ta to the *"",P >n ??ateli of thr United Statu. It ah" "rt>??r* that of ?,J7I toua (llauroaiir) wnich entered the United States, 10.3*5, or - r ? "~t - - SI d IMM countries othrrjh n the i'u? (indTmit of Y7\li7|H*iMeaticjeiearea irom in. 11 in.??l S? r#-?, neul one ? .. .Jfi r*jrt, rMtred lurcoua!! mthr'th n (hir r.. ?hich ih-v lwlO'>?-il 1 would hero stop, gentlemen, but there 11 another important con "Miration. We are destined, I trust to act in the world the part of a great maritime nation. We have no inferior name to play?ne suhordinate part to ect. It i? no assumption to say that, in whatvvi i ronatituie* national power,national character,or ne'innal hope, we are at the n?t*d of the nation* of thia great continent It is no assumption to aay, either, that in what i ver respects commerce and the seaa, and the character . xhit iteil upon the aeaa for national defence oi natianal ! ^'lory w? may have rivala, bat we admit no eoperior ! Thundera af applause ] What becomes us then) How ire we to maintain thia compicuoua position? How are we to maintain our national respectability, resting aa it always must on our national strength; in the contest that may arise between the vigor ot ourown arm and the vigor of kthat karm that may be rained against aa

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