Newspaper of The New York Herald, August 15, 1843, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated August 15, 1843 Page 2
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MEW YORK HEHALD. ~ Krw Vork. '.rMrtV, tefUN II, 1043 (&-All letters on bwteMS witk thia office, and communications intended ttr iaMriioo, must be daressed as heretofore to Jains Gordon Bknm.tt, editor and proprietor of the New York Herald. Nt?> for Europe.?1The Acadia sails from Boeton to monow; we shall, therefore, issue a second edition this day in time for the Boston boat, which will contain all the news up to the latest moment from every part of the Union. To our Subscribers.?The inside form oi our morning Edition, was knocked into "Pi" just as it was going to press. There was not a line saved from the wre< k of matter, and crush ol types. We do not mind beii.g routed irom our slumbers at three o'clock in the morning, by the arrival oi important foreign newa, but to be started out at that hour, by such an accident, has as severely taxed our equa nimity of patience as the non-receipt ol the Herald at the usual hour has that of our subscribers. The force oi our establishment is so strong, and the arrangements so perfect, that a few hours have sufficed to transform chaos and confusion into the interesting and valuable matter now presented to our readers. New Yobk Canals and Nrw England Rail Roads.?The shrewd, calculating, fore seeing people of New England are as busy as ever laying out new railroad routes, and projecting other magnificent improvements. In a few years every village of importance in the six States will be a depot, and railroads will be as plenty as the well beaten thoroughfares of ancient tim^s. The addition to the aggregate value of the soil, caused by these iron roads, is immense. It equali7.es the value, and brings more remote sections of the country into active and succefcaiul competition with the more adjacent lands to large markets. It enables the producer, one hundred miles in the interior, to reach the largest markets with a speed and regularity that ensures him as profitable returns as, in pa9t years, the resident of the immediate vicinity received.? Wp say the aggregate value of the soil has increased immensely throughout New England by meaDs of the numerous railroads. Lands in the immediate neighborhood of large cities, say within 25 miles, do not now, as heretofore, monopolize the bu-iness of supplying those cities with produce for daily consumption?consequently, the soil within thai circuit has decreased in value a large per cent, while districts farther ofl are worth a grrater per cent more?so that the average is increased, and the wealth of the States immeasurably augmented. Railroads, on the other hand, never build up or in* crease the business of villages on the line of travel, but in many instances, throughout New England, places have been ruined, and the inhabitants compelled to seek mechanical employment in some more favored spot. In contrast with the above, look at the canals of this state ; look at the large aad thriving cities built up by "Clinton's Bi^ Ditch," look at the large markets for produce created throughout the entire length of the state; look the thousands employed in transporting the rich products of the west, and, lastly, look at the revenue they yearly pour into the treasury of the state. The farms in the vicinity of Syracuse, Rochester, and Buffalo, have monopolized the raising of many valuable crop9, that heretofore were confined to the banks of the Hudson and the rich lands el Long Island. New England, with her magnificent western railroad, has not yet taken one drop from the immense mass of produce that floats on the bosom of the broad Hudson. With all the capital and industry of her ciiizeus, she will ever be dependent on the enterprise and resources of the Empire State of the Union; still it is a source ?f gratification to look oa and watch, from commencement to completion, the various new objects of improvement the people of the eastern States project and perfect. A Court " Scene" at Washington.?We have lauvhed through every note in the gamut, and we have exhausted every variety of expression which denotes ancontrolahle, convulsive amusement, at the folly of one lawytr Hoban, of Washington. It is a capital j ke, and we regret that it is so feebly descriUd in the II athington Capitol, as follows:? Fk.ht in the Court Horn: ?A few minute* af'er the court odiuioe.i yesterday, a fracai took place between I nun- Hulidii, K?<] , one of Mr. Duwden's counsel, and Win Thompson, a jumce ol the peace. The cause was unJer*u>o<t lo be as lallowa A letter appeared in the New Yoik Herald of Monday last, reflecting upon Mr. Hobun tor his speech in defence of hli client. Mt. H. sup* posed that Mr. Thompson was the author, and spoke to him about it. Crimination brought recrimination, until they finally came to blows. Is thia right in a court of justice I Shame ! shame ! ine arrangement which this sapient lawyer has thus forced upon us meets oar warmest approval. It would be inconvenient and tiresome to the patience of such effervescing pop-bottles to communicate witn us on the subject oi supposed grievances, and therefore it is much more agreeable to be able to walk up to Justice Thompson's shanty and "pitch into him." With a desire to gratify and accommodate such small try, we hereby constitute and appcint this " old Thompson, that lives at the back of Gadsby's," as he was described in the testimony of Mrs. Doreey, our true and lawful representative in all such cases as the foregoing, for the entire District of Columbia and the village of Blsdentburg; and any pugnacious wight m*y therefore ease his conscience at any convenient opportunity in the mode which lawyer Hoban has suggested. The story reminds us of an anecdote of a good pious Catholic woman, for whose conscience sake a severe penance was prescribed, and a mortification of the flesh by wholesome whipping. Being in deli- | cate health, her devoted husband was desirous to relieve her from so painful a penance,and he undertook to take her share of the stripes. They were accordingly administered on the bare pereon of the sinner's lord and master; and during the infliction, she thus piously confessed her sins and the justice of their punishment"Oh, lay on, lay ont don't spare hnn; flog harder,for I am a great sinner!" Now, when lawyer Hoban's vanity is wounded by any comments of ours, let him whack the fat sides of old Thompson, and not spare him, for we admit that we are great sinners. Kehucnchment by the Common Council..?We direct the attention of our readers to our Common Council report in another column, from which will be found thr whole feature* of Mr. Alderman Emmans'project, for the reduction of the salaries of the civic officers, from the Mayor down to the Superintendent of the Public Grounds. The principle which the Alderman attempts to establish, is a vital one, but it remains to be seen whether it will be adopted Launch.?The ship"Cohota," belonging to Messrs jv u.tx. yj. Lrnswoid, wiU be launched this day at I o'clock, P. M., from the ship yard ofWm. H. Webb, betweenth 6ih and 7th atreeta, Eaat River. She ia about 750 tons burthen, and ia to b? commanded by Captain David Hepburne. Thia ship ia expected to be a laat nailer, and for excellency ot workmanship oraymmetry ot modf la cannot be curd, and lully suataina the reputation thia builder has already acquired. {&?Col. H.. M. Johnaon haa announced ia a letter to the editor o the Pottaville, Pa. Emporium, that he will atari on hia euaiern tour to New Jersey, Maeeachusetta, Vermont, and other Sutea, aom? lime between the lfch an J ?Kh ol August. (0?The Preaident did not arriva at Washington op Friday evening, aa waa expected, having been detuned by the daogeroua lilneaa ol a grandchild Theatrical Matter* and Movements. The theatres are all closed for ihe nmmrr months excejK the Chatham, whose season continues the whole year round; but there is heard " the busy ?otc of preparation" for the next campaign. The Pau is preparing for a glorious season. Mr. Simpson is in England procuiing novelties, and hie able representatives, Messrs Blake and Barry, are immersed in arrangements for reception. Mr. Macieady will leave England 'arlyin September,and will remain in the United States until next June. Mr. Templeton and Mrs. Neabit will also arrive at an early period; and l>arcia, sister of the lamented Malibran, Cerito, Miss Komer, and a host ot others, will succeed them. The interior of " Old Drury" ao uuuv ibviuq ? ? >? aaaugsvm vuaugrt. xcoiriuaj, when we took a hasty glance at its interior, it resembled one vast workshop Tor all the known employments of artists and artizans. The stage is in fhe process of a thorough renovation, and the audience part is subjected to entite changes and adornment. From the foundation to the roof improvements will be made. The pit will be new seated and cushioned; the first tier of boxes will be elegantly painted in light salmon color, with gold wreaths, blending the hickory and the oak together. The second tier will be adorned with pictures from the illustrated Shakspeare, and on the ceiling the Muses will be painted in nine compartments. The dome will be ornamented with the suu and the head oi Apollo, around which there will be various allegorical designs. Seventeen new chandeliers with drops will illuminate the House, and the lobbies will be painted in oil. This is but a meagre account of the improvements in progress, but we intend, when the work is farther advanced, to give a more minute detail and description. The change of the extetior it is contemplated to make as complete as that oi the interior, so that old Drury shall really be worthy to be called a Metropolitan Thea tre. Of the company for the next season we can only say yet that it will consist of some old favorites, and many new faoes, which will add much to its strength. It cannot be doubted that the next season will be one of unusual brilliancy. "When the worst cornea to the worst, the worst is ended," is aa true as it is trite. The management appears now to have been aroused to new exertions. Since Mr. Barry has been entrusted with the stage management, some of the best old and new English comedies have been got up with a splendor which was new to the Park; 1 but still in the management there were many sins ( of omission, for which Mr Simpson is now about lo make atonement. So far he will make tht The- ' atre attractive?and he has the indications of the ( times to justify him in his enterprize. Miichell's Olympic, we also hear, is undergo- ( ing renovation, and in burlesque and travestie we are to be astonished with many novelties. The Chatham will pursue its usual course of epi- 1 rited management?and thus we have three thea tress each essentially differing from the other, preparing for the coming season. There is, however, another branch of public entertainment which appears to be wanting. Paris has her Francoui's, and London her Astley's, both far above the mere circus. Gaudy *i>ectacle and showy allegorical representations have their admirers in all communities; but if to these were added graceful equestrianism and the most accomplished performances, such as those which Franconi and the late Ducrow have been accustomed to give, a well regulated amphitheatre in some fashionable part of the city would doubtless receive J a liberal support. Newspapers come to us with ela- | borate descriptions of the most astonishing and i pleasing lady equestrianism at Franconi's?peilormances which we read are beyond conception daring and graceful. Let such "Stars" be imported, and all others that are so wttractive in that peculiar species of amusement in Enrope. But when and by whom shall this be done? The great General, Kufus Welch is in the Mediterranean, and probably now astonishing the Algerines. But what says Niblol His summer season will soon terminate, and his extensive buildings and grounds will t'len, probably, remain unoccupied uniil he opens ior the summerof '44 Both his premises and his location are favorable. If, however, he should be unwilling, who else will undertake the enterprise1? Rockwell, late of the Park Theatre, is the only man, in the absence of Rutus Welch, his late partner; he is well qualified for the undertaking. Skilled in all the mysteries of the profession, vigorous in bis management, possessed of a large well trained stud of horses, with performers of the greatest excellence, he may and will become the Ducrow of the Western World. Let us then have an Aatley's here, mid then we shall be able to gratify all tastes, for we shall furnish tragedy, comedy, opera, the ballet, and farce at the Park; burlesque, travesties, and farce at the Olympic; tragedy, melo-drama and farce at the Chatham; and on an improved scale and in a superior style, all the peculiarities and marvels of Frances's or Astley's, somewhere else. Glorious indeed will be the next winter season, or we have|mistaken the signs of the times. Of the present state of theatres and movements of thoatricalpeople we make the following report:? The Chatham announces for the present week, ainongst their other attractions, Mr. Geo. Vanden mm, trugruian, ivir. romes, irom me southern theatres, and Mr. J. M. Scott. At Niblo's we have the Kavels, who draw amazingly, and two nights a week English Vaudevilles, unuer the management of Mr. John Sefton, who, with Mrs. H. Hunt, are the principal features. The National, at Boston, re-opens under the stage management oj Mr. Robt. Hamilton. Dan Marble is at Buffalo. The Seguins, Shhval and Archer are at St. Louis. Mrs. Brougham woa drawing good houses at St. Lotus, by last account;. Later From Havana.?By the arrival of the lastsailing, reguiarpacket ship Cnstoval Colon, Captain Smith, we have received full files of the "Noticioso," the "Faro Industrial," and the "Diaro," to the 5th inst. inclusive. They are almost barTen of news. An order had been received in Havana, from Queen Isabella, granting a full pardon to all confined for political offences in the Island of Cuba. The nobility and gentry of Havana have perfected arrangements with Marty, to open theTacon Theatre on the 1st of November next, for the performance of Sp.nish opera, for four years from that date. The Spanish frigate Numa arrived at Havana, from Barcelona, on the 1st inst. Baths ?We need only direct attention to the advertisement of the Exchange Baths in another column, tor the utility of such establishments is self evident. 09? The annual commencement at Norwich University, Norwich, Vt., will take place on the 17th instant. It is announced that the Hon. Richard M. Johnson will be (resent, and deliver an address. Thk Chatham ?Mr Lennox, the stage manager, takes his benefit this evening, and he offers an attractive bill. The EllslerBrothers and many other popular persons of the profession have tendered their services for this occasion, and with the exertions of Mr. Lennox himself in some favorite Scotch characters, the attraction will be sufficient to fill the house. Niblo's?The comic pantomime of "Mazulme" is more attractive this season than the last. Each night the Saloon is crowded to oveiflowing, fo witness Jerome, Antoine and the wonderful Gabriel, in lover, clown, and harlequin. To-night is to be repeated, with the ballet pantomime of the " Wood Cutter," a very interesting and amusing ballet, in whiehCabriel appears. There is to be an instrumental concert in the Saloon at the end of the iiantrimim* The music at this establishment is one ol the charms of the place. The overtures are played with great correctness and eflect. This is the last night hut two of the pantomime. Tux Elections ?We have but Litfl< atddttaai information to communicate beyond th :\x?cietd in the Herald of yesterday moraine, in *< kfit+Ut the electi?>nt). In Kentucky thereeult i crfcctVBj the election there continue* three days, ^od^tLerelore, we are without any complete retur is. In Mason County, the vote stood on the Aral day ? tor Congress, Wall, W., 788; Tibbatts, L. F , 367 Major WhII's majority will be about 800 in that county. In Bracken, the same candidates stood about equal on the first day. Mr. W. will probably receive about 200 majority here. In Ni oho las County, as Ur as heard from, the locoioco has a small majority- In Bourbon and Fayette counties, the vote stood, first day? Davit, W. Wicklijf t, uncertain. Pari*. 6?0 100 The Precinct* 170 93 Lexington, 604 441 Frankfort, 450 447 A letter received from Msysville gives a confident rumor that Andrew* is defeated in the Fleming Dts From Tennessee the intelligence is still cheering to the Whig party. The following are the returns, so lar as we can gather them, for Governor: 1943. 1941. Jonti, W. Polk, L. F. Jontt. Pnlk. Davidson, 'J064 1481 1708 1380 Williamson, 10S9 ? 1801 800 Wilson, 1340 ? 3-246 071 Rutberlord, 311 ? 1711 1634 Robert ton, 430 ? 000 680 Bedford, 30 ? 1863 3344 Lawrence, 6 ? 632 606 Sumner, ? 960 703 1031 Dickson, ? 300 S10 067 Maury, ? 377 1307 3167 . Hickman, ? M0 347 03# D? Kalb, 63 m. ? ? ? ! White, 637 m. ? ? ? Warren, ? 384 m. ? ? Giles, 1307 1336 1110 1376 Cannon ? 836 ? ? Those counties in which the returns for 1841 are not given, are generally new; the counties from which they have been taken will present a greater change in votes, ol bourse, than in opinion. LsciiLATuaa. fc'mafs. Whig. Locojooo. Jennings, of Davidaoii, Nicholson, of Maury, Martin, of Wilson, Loughlin, of Warren, j Culiom, of Smith. , Sneed, of Rutherford, Alien, of Montgomery, I Haute of Rrpreientatives. TFTtig. Loeofoeo. Trimble, of Davidson, Boddie, of Sumner, | Moorman,of do. Turner, of doRoach, of Wilson, Polk, of Maury, Hamilton, of do. Gordon of do. I Buirus, of Rutherford, Walker, of Hickman,' Richardson, of do. Davenport, of Lawrence, Walker, of Williamaon, Smartt, of Warien,* I Maury, of do. Trotl.of Cannon. , Barringer.of Bedford, Tyler,ol Montgomery, ' Cheatham, of Robertson, I n??in ?r nsr.ik Ooode, of Giles. 1 The locoi gain one representative in Lawrence, and the whig* gainone in Bedford. , The editor of the Louisville Journal adds" Two gentlemen from Clarkiville, Montgomery county, inform I us that Jones's majority over Polk tor Governor, in the whole of that county except one precinct, is Sal. a gr?at gain since 1811. They inform us that Henry's majority 1 }ver Cave Johnson, for Congress, in tha same county, is ?74, and their opinion is that Henry is elected. The Nashville Whig thinks that Johnson 1s probably re-elected, but by a greatly reduced majority. His majority in 1841 : was 870. Dr. Soseph H. Fsvton, whig, is elec'ed to Congress in the Nashville district, and D W Dickinson, whig, in the Rutherford, Wilson, and Williamson district." Extract oi a letter to the Editor of the Louisville Journal, dated Whig Office, Naihvillb, Aug. 6, Night. Deah Sir?The additional returns from our election to-day, place the re-election of Governor Jonea, by an increased majority, beyond a reasonable doubt. His gain in Middle Tennessee, over the vote of 1841, ia already 1067. We may reach 1600. We have no reason to look for diminished majorities in the extreme divisions ; on the contrary, the same influences which obtained in Middle Tennessee, will probobly yield a steady gain throughout (he State. Do not look, however, for a large gain from East Tennessee or the Western District. r The prospects for a Whig Legislature are highly encouraging. My calculation, before the election, waa, tor the House 84 whigs certain, 2ft locos certain, and 16doubtful or closely contested. We have not lost, nor are we likely to lose, any of the members counted upon as certain. Five of the doubtful members have been heard from: the whigs carried tlireeof them and the locos two. i A whig majority in the House is therefore well nigh car tain. We calculate on 13 Senators as certain. We have four chances for the 18 yet to be heard from. You will doubtless agree with me, that the result is not less triumphant than its influences are important to the whig cause. Best of all, the battle was (ought under the proud banner oi Kentucky's favorite son. From Indiana we have returns of the vote given in the following counties:? 1840. 1843. Biggtr. Howard. Biggtr. Whit comb. Jefferson 696 ? . 1678 1289 Scott "28 ? " ? 7 Washington.... ? 393| ? 480 Clarke ? 306 ? 288 Franklin 99 ? ? 281 Ripley 340 ? 200 311 Dearbon 137 ? ?J 811 1209 69H 1776 ' 2683 1 Showing a net whig loss of 1418 votes since 1840, when Bigger was elected by a majority of 3637. ;i In Jefferson county two whig and one loco foco rcpre. sentatives are elected?and a Senator of daubtful politics, who ran on his own book, and "professes to be whig."? i In thi* Congressional District, Henley, loco foco, i? elect. | ed by a majority of 600or700 vo'es. We have nothing complete from other counties, where, by a companion can be made between the relative strength ot the past and preaent Legitlaturea. Valk's Globk and Tranbpariwt Celkittai. Sphkrk.?We were yesteiday much gratified with an exhibition of the Globe and Transparent Celestial Sphere of Mr. Vale, which he made to us and a few friends in our office. His instrument, which is not an expensive one, ia alike fit for common | schools, institutions, colleges, and family use.? ' There is nothing like it, nor any thing equally simple in its use, or comprehensive in its effects. It conflicts with no other astronomical instrument, for it is unlike any, and is therefore an aid to all, while in its varied application it is a substitute for all, where the means will only admit of the purchase of one. It combines the celestial and terrestrial globes ?the terrestrial in thr centre, as it ought to be, and , this, the terrestrial globe, being furnished with a i traveller, having a moveable horizon extending to the heavens, or celestial sphere, which divides the J heavens into the visible and invisible portions, and | as by a simple, ingenious mechanical contrivance, 1 the traveller can pass to any part of the earth, the natural aspect of the heavens iB thus afforded for every place, and as the sun's place is, the ecliptic is always known, and as the planets and moon can be put on the eelestial globe from tables furnished by Mr. Vale, and as the globes can be set for any hour of the day or night, at once a multitude of pleasing problems are resolved; and as all the motions ot this inatmment are agreeable to those of nature, there is ODtained by inspection the most agreeable as well as important results. Thus the instrument may be set for New York by merely bringing the traveller over that city, Bad turn the transparent sphere to any hour of the day, when can be seen the position of sun, moon, planets and stars, and with a simple instrument accompanying the globes, measure their altitude and bearings, and at the same time observe the different times and points on the horizon on which the sun will rise, and be able to measure the length of every day. By placing the traveller in the Arctic circle, or in the torrid zone, the singular phenomena of such situations will be observed, and the explanation visible. As boih the earth and transparent sphere are made to move, the same problems are performed by the motion of either, thus reconciling the apparent motion of the one in nature, with the real motiou of the other; and thus affording a visible proof of the truth of the system. As the Transparent Celestial Sphere is formed in sections of one-eighth, they can be detached, and then the iustrument presents the aspect of an armilIsry sphere, with the valuable additions of a traveller and movable horizon, and for want of which, that beautiful instrument, the Armillary Sphere,was almmi nnrl with fhrm the most important problems are performed; tor then we have a skeleton heaven, containing all the principal circles,with the earth in the centre, now furnished with the appendages of a traveller and horizon,and the problem which relate to the sun and earth merely, which are numerous, are performed with great ease and elegance. In this latter form, the instrument becomes a peifect end universal sun dial, illustrating the principle of sun dialing, and showing ita effects; for, by bringing the traveller over any place, as New York, the axis ol the instrument becomes the style, casting a shadow, and the horizon becamee the plane, receiving the shadow; and then if the instrument be placed north and south, the axia ol the instrument k Meomea parallel to the axis ol the earth which we ahtbit, and in whatever direction the one cacti a fcftjow, the other will do ao too. And tlua ia the principle ot aun-dialing. The inatument ia converted into a planetarium, bf bringing the horison to the ecliptic in aO ita cireumstance ; it then becomea the plane of the ecliptic, and by capping the earth in the centre with a golden baain, the globe in the centre becomea the sun; a curved wire within (he ecliptic, and inge niouvly attached to it temporarily, represents the orbit or Venus, or Mercury, and where it isattachtd to the ecliptic, the mode* are represented ; in a similar manner a wire circle is attached to,but outBide the ecliptic; and thia represent! the orbit of Jupiter or other superior (exterior) planets?and thus the phenomena of the planetary system are seen, and the planes ot their orbids, their nodes, and the inclination of their orbida toihe ecliptic, exhibited in a simple, natural manner. Lastly, thia instrument recommends itself to high schools and colleges, by ita affording facilities to the easy explanation of spherical trigonometry. The triangles are formed on the sphere with as much ease as plain triangles are formed on a plane surface ; important problems are thus^erformed, and the principles illustrated. We have thus minutely described these instruments, because we deem them novel, and exceedingly advantageous in the prosecution of the inter esting science to whioh they relate; and furthermore, we understand they are exceedingly cheap. Iowa. [CorreipoLdenceoI tht Herald.] Bloominqton, Iowa, July 31,1843. foipa?IU Importance?Population?Not yet to berome a State?Office Seekers?Settlement 0/ a New Country? Climate? Soil? Cropt. Dear Hk&ald I read your valuable paper regularly, and then lend it to my neighbors, who are anxious to know "what the Herald says," particularly ofthe"market

md money." Yes, away out here in Iowa, this north west corner of the world, the Herald is eager [y sought; and where is it not sought for 1 But we seldom see in the Herald a communication from this far distant country. This country is worthy of notice ! and " we the people" are, too. The first claim to notice which I will give, is, that although our first settlement is but ten yean old,we have grown with such rapidity that we now number,at a safe estimate, 80,000. The settlement of Iowa commenced at Burlington, June 1833. The number of inhabitants in 1838 was 21,D00, and in 1840, 43,000. No territory has ever had bo rapid a settlement, and no country ever offered more inducements. Our climate, soil, mineral productions and navigation are the causes of this great attraction. Our inhabitants are the enterprising avd intelligent from all the States east ot us, ana some from the south. And I would say to your readers who suppose we are a set oi wild heathens and lpwless "rabble rousers." that we have come from their midst, and have done just a3 they would have done had they come and settled here; i. e. we have built good houses, made farm? and towns ; have made good wholesome laws; have built court houses, churches and jails ; are a law abiding and church going people, and hence our jails are seldom occupied. There is no prospect of I?wa becoming a State for some years yet. It is frequently urged By a gang oi hungry office seekers who infest this Territory, but their project has twice been vetoed by a large popular vote. The sound-headed yeemanry of Iowa are not so easily duped. We have seen too much folly of Western legislation not to appreciate the wisdom of the United States Senate, who have the supervision of our laws and the disapproval of our folly, when they detect it. as they have occasionally in our little banking schemes, etc. My respects to em for that. Another and still greater reason why we do not become a State, is, that the general Government pays about half our taxes. The Black Hawk purchase contained about 225 townships; the Keokuck purchase, made in 1838, contained about 60 townships ; this is nearly all iu the market, and much of the good land bought and under cultivation. The new purchase made laBt tail is a fine addition to our lerritory. It lies on our Western frontier, and is as laige or larger than all the rest of the settlement. It embraces all the lands of the Sacs and Foxes this side the Missouri, and north to the Winnebago and Sioux country. When we get another purchase from those Indians on our north,we shall have the premises for a State, than which none can boast of better. We shall be a second Ohio ! No! we shall be an Iowa! there should be no comparison. The emigration here this year surpasses any other for four or five years. The traveller through these luxuriant prairies is delighted?ave, fascinated with the spontaneous production of flowers, grass and herbage, which every where crowd his path?with ill- bright green of the distant rolling prairie and the richness of the soil. When the hot weather comes.which is commonly not till June,the farmers, Irom whatever valley or mountain they mav have emigrated, are astonished at the rapidity of the growth of their crops. But examine tne soil?here is the hidden secret?it is a mixture of fine sand, clay and black vegetable mould, to the depth of one, two and sometimes more than three leet. Iowa is a natural wheat country?but last winter it was mostly killed in the southern parts', while in the north it is good?the farmers have just harvested a fine crop. Iowa wheat is a superior quality, and if any of your wheat dealers wish to buy cheap this winter and shin at low freight in the spring, they had better send up the Upper Mississippi. The same with pork, lard, etc. 1 have not given you any of our " tough yarns" this time ; I will reserve them for my next. I will write again soon of our mighty river and of our future greatness, now in embryo. Adieu. Iowa. Dtmenura. Correipondeoc: ot the Quebec Gazette. Extract of a letter dated Demerara, May 12,1848: ? * * * My trip to the northern parts ot Brazil, And back by the mouth of the Amazon and Cayenne, (er, as the French will row have it called, " G-uiane Franjaise") was very instructive. The backward condition of everything in the ports of Maranham and Para took me quite by surprise. I had no expectation of finding society there in such a primitive, uncouth, and, I may say, uncivilized state. There is no skilful application of labor; there are no roads, bridges, or even ferries; the only steamer is one that comes once a month from Rio. Beggary and bribery are the characterestics of the officials, particularly of the custom house officers. The lnwpr n( t hp IrPA ritivpna/a rniTtnrp nfln. dians, Europeans, blacks, and croBaes ot all kinds and degrees, proud as Lucifer and idle as the sloth) are about half naked, and the slaves stark naked. None work but the slaves, and they work with a vengeanre; for the treatment they experience is unparalleled by anything that ever occurred in our period of slavery. " Of one thing I have convinced myself; that this Cart of Brazil at least is retrogading. Society has een too severely ahuken by political disturbances and massacres, (the perpetrators of which are always allowed to escape, and sometimes rewarded,) for capitalists to remain. Most of the wealthy citizens have fled to Portugal,or are betaking themselves to any country where they can gather together the remnants of their property. Land within gun shot ot the town ism t worth a lithe of what it ia a hundred miles up our rivers. "The province of Para includes nearly 100,000 Suare miles, and the popnlation is only 119,877 and ,977 slaves. Out of the 119,877 free persons, it is no exaggeration te say that UH,000 go barefoot. The soil yields everything almost spontaneously, and yet the average annual value of the trade of the whole province doea not, at present, exceed from ?70,000 to ? HO,000. Formerly it waa worth six times that sua. ' The Amazon ia navigable, without a aingle obalacle, nearly 1000 leagues from its mouth ; yet no steamer has ever ancended it at all. nor anv sailing vpm?H above the Rio Blanco, about 700 miles up. One diminutive steam vensel, of 26 hone power, lay in the river w hen I waa there, without engineers or stokers. It was brought by some United States Americans, who proposed to form a company, and with this inadequate instrument to create a commerce on the river, and establish a communication with Peru ; but there waa no money to cany on the company. In 1H25 two large aieamera were puichased at Washington, with the sanction of ihe Brazillian embassador there, with a view to establish a commercial intercourse between the United Stater and the Biazilian territories on the Amazon 5 but when they |arrived they were not allowed to proceed up the river. The citizens of the United States engaged in the speculation now claim from the Brazilian government aome ?80,000 of damages." How strikingly does the above sketch illustrate the necessity ot sound mental culture and industry In fha li.m.w.ri. I t I III I II U/ltKoiil ttiM* v Iia^'iurn Ul IHBU. ?? liiivui ; J humanizing influe nces, though good wheaten bread could be gathered from busht-a, and roait beef were aa plenty a* water, still idleness would lesd to wretchedness and crime. Our great physical wants are indispensable to the fall development of our intellectual and moral nature. They alens render man an industrious, and measurably, a virtuous being, (ioldsmith never composed better than when writing [or hia daily bread | Muatbui. [CorTMPoodciw-* of t?<? HeiaM.J MazaJla*. Fc-bruarj 9th, 184S. Ball given to the Pacific Sqitadt on?Malchleu Beauty of the Ludiu? The Supper. My Dbar Sib:? Though far removed from " That pale, that white faced there, Whose foot spurns back the ocean's roaring tide, i and from the fashionable haunt* of her eldest daughter, whose attractions already rival the mother's proudest day, we are not yet entirely beyond the pale of aocial enjoyments and fashionable pleasure; we have .occasionally ftUt which would, in either, Attract attention. Last night the Uaited States Consul, Mr. John Parrott, gave a ball to Commodore Jones and the officers of the Pacific Squadron, which was by all admitted to be the most magnificent ever given on this coast?it was in faet one of the most splendid I had ever attended. The room in which the ball was given, is 90 feet long by SO wide, and 18 high, and was in all respects admirably adapted to the purpose to which it was appropriated, with one exception?the brick floor, which is almost universal here. But even that ob' I jection waa obviated by n covering of Cotencia, over which was Bpread a splendid ingrained carpet, of the most tasteful figures and brilliant colore. The walls and ceiling were decorated with flags of all the various maritime nations. On the ceiling at the head of the hall the star spangled banner and Mexican flag were extended from the centre, and fell in festoons on either side; then followed the French and English, the Prussian and Hamburg, the Spanish and Danish, the Neapolitan and Swedish, and the Portuguese and Russian, all displayed in similar manner. The upper end of the hall waa di vided into three arches oi nags; "lflt in ine centre was formed by the American and Mexican, and occupied by the portrait of Washington, (the only portrait in the room,) and two mirrors. The arches on either side were completed with the Colombian and Buenos Ayrean flags, and also occupied with mirrors. These tings were met in either corner by the English and French, also suspended from the ceiling and gathered in festoons. Sixty feet from the head of the hall, a drapery was formed by the flags of Chili, Bolivia and Guatamala, which left an opening of ten teet in the centre. In front of this drapery, on either side, on a platform two feet high, the music was stationed?on the right the band from the frigate United States, and on the left a very fine band from the orchestra of the "Teatro Principal." The space beyond was appropriated to refreshments, and was decorated in Keeping with the dancing hall. At the extreme end, and opposite the entrance, was displayed the flag of New Grenada,with its appropriate motto, "Libertad y Orden." Nor were the flags and decorations all of which this apartment could boast. A more liberal supply of all kinds of refreshments never graced the saloons of Saratoga or Washington, or the boaBted marts of hospitality and fashion?New York and Boston. A drapery of flags extended all around the hall, falling three feet from the ceiling, and gathered up in festoons at certain distances. The Peruvian flag formed the drapery at the upper end of the hall, with the sun. the emblem of Peru, over the centre arch. In addition to ten splendid mirrors and the portrait of Washington, the walls were also decorated with six beautiful views of American scenery, by Fisher. The chairs, sofas, and other furniture, were all mahogany. In each corner were placed appropriate tables, bearing vases of flowers and chandeliers filled with wax candles The pillars which support the ceiling in the centre, were each decorated with pennants of various nations and surrounded by chandeliers brilliantly illuminated. The dancing hall alone was lighted by more than four hundred candles. At about half past 8 o'clock, the ladies began to assemble. The first that attracted my attention were the Senoritas Vegas; they are by many considered the belles of the port, and they certainly never looked more lovely than on the present occasion. Rosarita is a true specimen of Spanish beauty ; her soft black eye and bewitching smile, together with an expression peculiarly interesting, made irresistible her slightest look, and drew around her crowds of admirers. But with all her attractions, she has a powerful rival in her younger sister, Rafaelita: though at first the style of the i younger is less fascinating than that of her sister, it is more brilliant?with a complexion bright and clear as the fairest of the Saxon race, she posesses the Castilian eye, and an expression that " Would draw A ?econd host from heaven, to break heaven'a law." A still younger listeria also in the train, and brings up the rear; Miss Laura is a child in years, but mature in beauty. She follows more the style of the second than that of the eldest sister, but with an expression peculiar to herself, and an eye " Wild aa the Gazelle's, Now brightly bold or beautifully ?hy." This group was followed by the matronesses of the ball, Senora Schober, accompanied by her two beautiful nieces, and Senorita Negrete, who were attended by the masters of ceremony, Capt. Lopez, of (he Governor's stall, and Lieut. G. W. Robbins, of the U. S. Marine Corps, to their appropriate seats at the head of the hall. Senora Duqne. lady of the Governor and Commander General of Sinaloa, soon after arrived, and was conducted by Mr. Parrott to the seat of honor, at the right of the lady matronesses After the music had played a few appropriate airs. Com. Jones was announced. The military band struck up " Hail Columbia." The Commodore was conducted by Mr. Parrott to the head of the hall and presented to the lady matronesses, Mrs. Duque, General Ochroa, Commander and Acting Governor, (General Duque being absent,) and several other officers in attendance. Captains Armstrong, Stribling, and Nicolas, together with nearly all the other officers of the United States Sauadron. had also ar rived. Though all appeared to contemplate with the utmost delight the glowof beauty, and listened with pleasure to the silver tones of those already present? " For otly in the lurny South, Such soundi ara uttered and such charm* duplayed"? the general attent'on was turned, on the announcement of the Senoritas Valles. These ladies are both very beautiful, and were dressed in the most exquisite taste. They resemble even more toe fair daughters of the Anglo-Saxon race, than either of the ladies before alluded to. In the elder you see, " The light, the love, the purity of grace"? so peculiar to that style of beauty. But the younger is still more brilliant. " Oh < the doth teach the torches to burn bright; Her beauty hang* upon the cheek of night, Like a rich jewel in an Ethtop'f ear." But it were vain to attempt a description of all the beauties present?they were numerous as the leaves of the forest, and various as the flowers of their own sunny clime. It were equally vain to attempta description of all which now combined to please; and utterly impossible to coflyey any adequate idea ol the appearance which the ball-room presented?the gay and brilliant colors of the ladies' dresses?the variety and testeful arrangements of the decorations, and the numerous and splendid uniforms of the Consuls, and officers ot the U. S. navy, and Mexican army, (composing full one-half ot the gentlemen present, presented) formed altogether a scene which is seldom surpassed. It could not escape observation that some of the bold sons of Neptune, who are ever ready " To pluck bright hanor from the pale-faced moon, Or dive iDto the bottom of the deep, Where fathom line could never touch the ground," were ready to surrender at discretion, on the first summons o( Cupid's artillery, especially they, who from some previous acquaintance with the language, wers. in addition to the glances of bright eyes, ex posed to the influence oi tongues? *A? iwmI and mufical Ai bright Apollo's lute, strung with hi* hsir." Had not the knot of Hymen bound fast the heart and hand of a bold Captain, he might well have been suspected of an infection, which had taken fa6t hold of some, who " Did nevar think to marry"? but such a one looked so much like a wife, or a sister, or a daughter, or some one elte, wnom it was his duty to love, that lie could not, in sooth, withhold his admiration from one so fair. A ball here, so far as the dancing goes, differs but little from a ball elsewhere, save that the lime ia slower, and, consequently, the dancing more graceful. Among those of the gentlemen, who were moat conspicuous as good dancers. Captain A was decidedly the favorite. Though very justly ranked among our great men?and one who has "seen eome service," he was decidedly the most active and graceful dancer present. Nor was his first partner, the fair Donna Famine, less admired. The dancing commenced soon after 9 o'clock, and continued with great spirit till about one At that hour supper was snnounred. The band struck up "Washn.gton'a March." Com. Jones accompanied by Mrs. General Duque, lead to the nupper room, and was followed by ihe reat oi the company. Brilliant as were the decorations and arrange meiitaol the Ml room, and great aa waa the credit which they reflected upon the good taate ot Mr. Parrott and some of his friends who awiated in the arrangements, they were fully equalled bythoaeol the aupper room, fitted up by the name gentleman. It too wan decorated with flaga, the walla ornamented with pictures and mirror*, and the whole i brilliantly illuminated. .... The tuoie waa near eighty leet in It nf ih M ' co I vered with all the delicacies < e rfflBfp ode *ed land, to which were added ^ * 1 Luxria* Irom every clim i .pc;c'.L t > CD-' All the ladies were seated a: Crist C&ble, and a Few of the most distinguished ni)W| the gentlemen. Senorita N., from California, sat at the upper end of the table, and from the numerous compliments I heard paid her, had evidently become a great tavorite. If California produces many such flowers,'I do not wonder that the gallant Commodore should be reluctant that it should become the prey of those whose motto has been "beauty and booty," and that the brave armv of Oen. Micheltorena should have torn off 800 pair of breeches in flvingto their aid. While the ladies were at supper, the bands played several choice and lively airs. After the ladies retired, a second table was set out for the gentlemen, equally sumptuous and abundant. During the supper,several toasts were given snd responded to with ine greatest gi>ou leeiing ?uu curumiuy. Soon alter 2J o'clock, the dancing again commenced and continued with increased spirit until near 5 o'clock. At this time the ladiea went home, but many of the gentlemen kept it up until after daylight. About 7 o'clock coffee was brought in, after which each went their way, well pleased with each other, and particularly ao with their very gentlemanly and liberal entertainer. The entertainment, I was informed, coat about a?0 dollars. Yours B. Huntavllle, Ala. [Correspondence of the Hsrald.] Huntbvillk, Aug. 30th, 1813. Rural Setting ? City Improvements ? Religion ? Amusements? (fit Crops ? Railroads ? Banking, 4-c. 4*c. G*it. Binnktt :? Si*:? Deeming your journal one of the beat vehicles of public instruction either in this country or in Europe, I am induced to give you a little information of passing events in this portion of our country, as I (iciwifc mat yuii nave urn ucen recently tavored with a local correspondent in this serlion. I have been sojourning here about ten days. I have enjoyed myself with ascending to the summit of Mount Sanity, (which is a most glorious summer retreat) where I found "a fay in fairy land," the beau tiful Miss P e, daughter of a wealthy planter. The old gentleman has an observatory near to this cottage, which commands a magnificent view of plantations, indented with rivulets and chequered with waving fields ?f "golden fruitage." Almost in the very centre of the city, one of the coolest, sweetest springs I ever saw, gushes forth so copiously as to form below and through the suburbs a very large rivulet. They have just completed a new Court Honse, which stands in the centre of the town, within the square. It is a large goihic edifice. This is the only elegant public edifice they have, except, perhaps, the bank, which is, aleo, quite an el?gant and chaste structure, with Doric columns, built of stone. Religien is here very flourishing. The Baptist, though newly organized, is making rapid progressin constructing a new and grand place for public worship. The goodly citizens have been lately highly entertained with elocutionary lectures by Prof. Whitney, whose elocution is voluble, distinct and judicious. Some of his recitations would do hooor to the "high and palmy" days of Athenian eloquence. The eircus has, also, just passed through here. They had very poor houses. Huntsville is near to Mobile, the principal city in the State. The staple article of the fanners here, and indeed throughout the State, is cotton. All the soil of Alabama is well suited tor the growth of the same, and the climate is so genial about Huntsville that it is produced of an exceeding fine quality. For want of accurate statistics I am unable to state the exact amouot of last year's harvest. It is a young and blooming State, which in the course of time, and at the farthest in half a century, will be immensely rich. It contains a large, vigorous and productive territory. In the northern part of the State is Tennessee river, which empties into the Ohio 40 miles above the Mississippi In the southern part of the State is a railroad about 75 miles long, from the Alabama river to the line of Georgia, and in the northern part a railroad 45 miles long, which leads from the Tennessee river f/i?Bfavrld tka aamIm aJ Qtota tvnaiuo II1W b?UUV VI iUC C'lOKi As it regards the bank system, the State has lately received a very wholesome lesson, which in the future it will turn to its advantage. It is quite amusing to note the Erovincialisms of the Alabainians; they invarialy give the sound of short e, as in there, where, &c., the broad sound of a, as heard in war?but their articulation is more just than we in the north; in adjectives, terminating in ne?, as happiness, they give to the last syllable the appropriate articulation, instead of nise, as we Bay in New York. All shades and colours here, negroes and mulattoes, articulate the short e, with much care. The public house, 'yclept the Bell Tavern, '.reminds me of one of those inns' so graphically described by Bos Dickens, in the Stale of Illinois. The landlady ia a widow, and is in much trouble to procure herself a husband. She, therefore, neglects her household affairs, to attend to the sacred rites of pride. She has, also, a daughter?they are jealous, as the latter attracts, and nas a " daily beauty," which diminishes the blandishments of the former. The citizens of this delightful, rural town, are generally hospitable, polite, and high toned. Many of the rural seals are elegant; and the grounds adjacent i>how lefinement, travel, observation, and education. Yours, &c. A Traveller. Whir's Picttjiik ?Weir has just finished hi? picture at West Point, which is intended to fill one of the still vacant niches in the Rotunda of the Capitol at Washington. The historical passage taken for illustration by this picture, is the following i? "And the lime being come that they must depart, thev were accompanied with moet of their brethren out of (he city unto & town called Delft-Haven, where the ship lay ready to receive them The next day, the wiud being fair, they went on board, and their friends with them, whers truly dolelu! waa the sight of that sad and mournfal parting,'to hear what sighs and sobs and prayers did sound amongtt them, what tears did Rush from every eye, and pithy speeches pierced each other's heart, that sundry of the Dutch strangers that stood on the key as spectators could not refrain from tears ; yet comfortable and sweet it was to see such lively and true expressions of dear and unfeigned love. But the tide, which stays for no *man, calling them away that were thus loth to depart, their reverend pastor falling down on his knees, and they all with him, with watery cheek s commended them with most fervent prayers unto the Lord and ihia bleating ; and then, with mutual embrace* and many te&ra, they took their leave one of another, which proved to be the last leave to many of them. Thus hoisting sail, with a prosperous gale of wind, they came in a short time to Sowhitnpton, where they found the bigger ship come from London." It would be a curiona subject of thought to a man unfamiliar with the wardrobe of the imagination, says a well known writer, if lie would keep this plain and simple passage of history in hia mind while he looks at the gorgeous investiture in which it is clad by the genius of the painter?to compare the picture in his mind while he reads it with the picture made of it on this canvass. I will not attempt here?indeed I could not attempt without seeing it again?anything like a criticism on this painting? but I may say what I feel while it deepens in my memory, that I have seen no such glorious work of art in this country, and I have not been - more filled and wrought upon by any of the great theft d'rruvre ot the old masters in Europe. The eflect on the mind is that of expanding the capacity to embrace it. Weir has drawn his figures on a scale larger than life, and the immense canvass is filled with groups of the most exquisite naturalness ol posture and relation to each other, but at the same time nmsnen wun n oreantn ana strength or effect that looks done with a hand accustomed to minister only to power without limit. The coloring in the two wings of the picture is exceedingly gorgeous, but the centre, around the kneeling pastor, is admirably subdued in middle tints, appropriate to the objects they envelope, and the pastor himself, in face, altitude, and costume, is the most masterly embodiment of hallowed piety and devotion which it is possible for poet to conceive. The presence on board the vessel of Mr. and Mrs. Winslow (the new-married people of fortune, who, while travelling for pleasure, fell in with and joined the emigrants for.conscience sake) gives the artist the necewary liberty to enrich the coa. tume of his picture, and there are two or three other female figures very splendidly drawn and colored? among them the wife of Miles Standish, whose soldierly form in ihe foreground is one of fthe mort conspicuous objects. Of the twenty-odd figures in this grand picture, ihfre is not one about which a ureat deal might not be written, even with mv transiently impressed memory of it, but I reserve it for a more detailed description after another visit ? Weir has flung his soul upon this work with the complete abandonment of in?piration, and he has wrought out of it. lor his country as well as himself, honor imperishable. That it will impoverish the pictures already there, in atudy, in ardor of conception, in elaborate finish, in variety and splendor, is very certain. But those who are still to produce their pictures for the remaining panels will be stimulated to emulate it, and Chapman, who is young enough not to have ceased to improve, will probata v renUce his comparatively feeble picture bv mm*. hint more in keeping with the grandeur of hiac< mmiMion. f

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