Newspaper of The New York Herald, October 23, 1843, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated October 23, 1843 Page 1
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TH Vol. IX., No. '4H1?Whole No. 3003. RED BIRD LINE OF STAGES, IN CONNECTION WITH - -- -? f. THK NniVufVPMKA Pm? RAILROAD .u'hANOKMKNTS ! TWO DAIL'TL INKS'. O.. ..h i WeHiieiday, llth October nut , rt>? ,RM Uird Miner 01 ouiiut win leavt me vuiaKe oi vt miusi ritias. rrery | morning, (Suudayi excepted,) at 8 o'clock, A. M.. aud f*ery aOernooii at 2 o'clock, r. M., and lha Depot, City Mill, and the Westchester House, corner of Broome street uid the Bowerv, New Vork, every momiug at 8 o clock, and every diternoou by the 2 o'clock train. Auenta are in constaut attendance at tna Railroad Depots, o| whoin every in formal win mav be obtaiued, and who will also tteud to thf baggage put under th*fr charge. HIRAM DhFORKSr, Proprietor. _White Plains, Oct. 4th. 1843. oil lm?ec SUMME R ARRANGEM KNT NEW YORK AND PHILADELPHIA KA ?KOAD LINK DIKM> r? Via Newark, NfwbruKjwick.Vriwcktojv, Trkntow, BoRDENTOWW An? BuitLIMtiTON. Lravinu .'Vw Vorli uaily from tne ft?ot of Court landt u Morning Line at 9 A. V.?Mail Pilot Line at tX P. M. Tli* Morning Line proceeds to Borden town, from thence by steamboat to Philadelphia. The Kvening Line proceed, direct to Camden (opposite to Philadelphia) without change'of cars. Passengers will procure their tickets at the office foot of Courtlandt street, where a commodious steamboat, will be in readiness, with baggage crates on board. Philadelphia baggage crates are conveyed from city to city, wihont bfnig opened by the way Kach traiu is provided with a car in which arr apartments and dressiug rooms eipressly for the Indie.' use. p Returning, the lines I?ave Philadelphia from the foot of Walnut street, by steamboat to Bordeutown at 7 o clock, A. M. and by railroad from Camden, at 1 o'olock, P. M. The lines for Baltimore leave Philadelphia at 7K A. M., and 4 P. M. being a coicftuatiou of the liues from New York. ol8 2m*m PATERSON RAlLROAbTfvjsgiga ftaWfa jfc3eil KAKK ONLY 2j CKNTS. Krom Patenan to Jersey City. On and after .Monday, Oct. 2d, 1843, the cars will leave Paterson OeroT. Lkavb Nkw York. 8 A.M. 9 A.M. 1JK P.M. 3 P. M. i~ " ON SUNDAYS. Lkatf P&tfrsou Dkpot. Lravk New York. 8 A. M. 9.S A. M. 3 P. M. 4 P. M. Transportation cars leave daily (Snndavs excepted.) Passen?;ers an- advised to be at the Ferry, foot of Courtlaudt street, a i*w minutes before the stated hour< of departure. jy 19 Cm* - Till-; SPANISH ST HAM Kit NATCHFfor HAVANH, Direct, Uou Frar.v^^lfcWTKi^TQcis Villair, commander.will leave theport ol New Vork on Weduesday, Nov. 1st, for Hav;uin direct. The NATCH K'/. lias been newlv comiered, relitird with new boilers, and in poiint of elegance ami gt'neial comfort cannot be surpassed. For particulars for passage apply to JOHN B. STANHOPE, Astor House, who will accompany the Natchezlon her voyage. ol2toNl*r JOHN It. STANHOPE. ? -.' KOK CHARLES! ON. KEY WEST. HAVANA^ NEW ORLEANS, AND yViKM&M** <i A LVESTON. T E X A S.-T he spit- n d i .1 ^*Cy0uUgO'y>J Steam Sliio NEPTUNE, Captain Wil" ?^S153S?a? |ism Rollins? To sail positively on Wednesday, 2Jlii October, instaut,at 4 o'clock P M. The itimeal'hiuess of New Orleans,with other circum?tances, Iris induced Curtain Rollins to delay the departure of the Nei>tuue until the above day, 2,'jth instant, which at the earnest solicit ition of many passengers he has assented to with great reluctance. The public may rest assured that no delay will be submitted to beyond the day now fixed. The Neptune has been completely overhauled, and is ill perfect order. Passengers may r lv upon every comfart aud convenience in her. About one half the uumber of her berths are still disengaged. Fr.r passage, for the above ports, in state rooms, cabins or stree-age, and for freight of light goods or specie for Charleston, apply on board, at the Tobacco Ius|>ecHon wharf, foot of Clinton stieet, E. It., or to 015 to8A*ee J. H BROYVER, 75 Wall street. V.l r, ,n *rnple lime to ta?e tne iviornm* inn ol tara fcv i(ie p lit or wrtt. 'Hi* nt.ovr boat* are aew And n'tl-atautial, ar* fnrniihed with neaf. and elcRant State Knonu. and f-w ?|ieed and accommodations ar* uurivalh'd on the Hndion. Knr Peaiinjre or Freight, apply on board, or to P. C. Schulti m the office i?o th* wharf. ?26 r NOTICE?On and after Monday, Oct. ICtli, the boat* of thia line w ill leave for Albany at o'clock, P. M inatend ol' 7. SKVKN"O'CLOCK KVKNINO LINE AL1IANV AND TROY direct, withont HK" IWW h 'i ff -'r'? i.reaaure uteamhoat SWALLOW, Captain A. McLean, will leave the foot o( Couulaii'lt atrret every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday evening, at 7 o'clock, for Albany direct. Tlii* Swallow hai a Uric number of atat* rooma.and for iprnd iuiJ accommodations ii not turpaaaed on the Hndaun. an< t ST'.VV \ORK AND KINOSTON""STKAM KHKIOHt AND PASSAOK LINK. , ImII "~l jS>I For Kingston, anc Delaware and Hudson UTJ*<.lT?."l.T*M*mboat* KMKRALD and NOR"^nTT^lERALD. Captain John Kutcham, will laave New York, toot of Murrar strvet, every Monday aud Thursday at !> o'clock, P M. Will leive Kingston (llomlont landing) every Wednesday aod Saturday at 3 o clock, P. M. The NORWICH, Captain Jolm Samuels, will leava New Y< rk, of Warred street, every Wednesday and Saturday at 4 o'clock, P. M. Will have V. j*ston (Itcudont landniK) every Tuesday and Kriday at 3 o'clock, 1". M. KXTRA TRIPS. T^ie EMKRALD will leave the foot of Murray street every fctiudey mornimtat 7 o'cloclt. Returning, leaves Kingston at 4 o'clock, same day. For freight or ikvssurp apply on hoard, or to WILLIAMSON, BARLOW k CO., n?l 3m*r MM West street. -QWta jga STATKN ISLAND KERRY, KOOT WHAOf WHITEHALL ST.?The staamboat 3HL?MJC-HTATKN IHI.ANDKH will leave New York and Staten Uland, mi and after Uctnlior id, ns Inllows, until Inrther notice Leave New York ?, II, 3, JH, 5V. .... . . Leave Htaten Island ?, 10, I, 1\, 5. All freight shipped U repaired to be particularly marked and 1 at the ri*k of the owner* thereof. ilOtf r TRAVELLERS GOING SOUTH OK WEST-SiiWfn hours in advance of the ^ojyKflylU. S. Mail?Tri-Weekly Line to Savannah, ^^tUfiWjAuiliu connexion with the Central Ilailroad to "Macon and the West?The splendid steam pickets GENERAL CLINCH, Capt. J. P. Brooks, and CHARLESTON, Capt. F. Barden, will leavt Charleston every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday morning, at 9 o'clock, ifter the arrival of the Wilmington boats from the north, arriving at Savannah the nme day, and will leave Savannah on t'ie same days as above, at a o'clock P. M-, after the arrival of the cars from Macon. Travellers will find thU to be the cheapest and most expeditions route to the south and west. The above boats are fitted up in a superior style, and no expense or pains will be ?pared to ensure certainty, comfort, and expedition to the travelling i?tilic. JOHN B. LAHTTE. Ageut, Fitzsiuimons' Wharf, Charleston. rharlostODi September, 1813. sl7 2m*r new ahranoemf7nt7 FARE AND FREIGHT REDUCED. ^Mg| 40 REGULAR MAIL LINE?KOH PROVIDENCE AND BOSTON, via. STON 3E^J*3E-IN(iT(jN AND NEWPORT?fcoinposed of the following sci|? rior steamers, running in connection wit^ the Stouiugton and Boston and Providence Kfilroad* MASSACHUSETTS, Capt. Comctock. RHODE ISLAND. Capt Tliayer. PROVIDENCE. NAliRAGANSETT. MOHEOAN. One of which will leave New York daily^Sncdavs excepted) from Pier No. I, Battery Place. N. Kiver, at 4 P. M. ARRANGEMENTS. The RHODE ISLAND, Captain Thayer, on Monday, and Wednesday fcr Stoniogton aud Newport, and Friday for Stouington. The MASSACHUSETTS, Captain Comstoek, on Tuesday, mil Thursday for Stonington, and Satarday for Stonington, Newport and Providence. Passengers, on the arrival of the steamers at Stonington, will he immediately fqrwardeH in the splendid and commodious Cars of the Railroad i Providence and Boston, and if for Newport will pureed in the steamer Mohet&n (in snpetior order) from thenr? at 6 o'clock the following momiug, thus giving them an?pppottuntty of a night's re?t on board th? steamer M xssRchnsctu or Rhofle Island, and then breakfast on board the Mohegan. The above steamers have been thoroughly equipped and to promote celerity of travel and the comfort and secnntv of uasteneers. and not surDaesed by anv in the United States. For passage or freight, which is tak?n at very reduced rates, apply '>n board, at north side of pier No. 1, 22 Broadway, or office of Samuel Dcveau, freight agent, on the wharf. Tickets for the route and steamers' bertha can be secured on bo^ rd, or at the office of HARNUEN Sc CO., No. J Wall street T7" NOTICE-CHANGE OK HOUR-On and after Monday, Oct. 9th, the steamers of the New Jeney Steam Navigation Company, forming the line to Provide&ce and Boston via Sloniiifton, will leave pier No. I, Battery Place, il<T M. 'Ir~Vu dim alter the 10th mst, freight will not be rec-ived inn forwarded after half-past 4 P. M. m!)6m* m .mm a* new aTTrangkmknt For SHKK.WSBI'iU ? Long Branch, Sandy X^jEaZ.I!?i)k, Oceau House and K.atontowu Landing. The new Steamboat SHREWSBURY, Captain Johu f. Corlics. will now run as follows, on and alter Thursday, 27th inst :?leaving New York, Iroji the foot ef Robinson street, every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, at 10 o'clock, A. M. And Eatontown Landiux on Monday, Wednesday aud Friday, at 10 o'clock, A. M. The Shrewsbury will run as abort, weather permitting, tin ( til further notice. All baggage at the risk of ihe owners. Fare 37>ji cent*. N. B.?Stages will be in attendance to convey passenger from tli" aforeuid landing places to any part of the county re quired. The Shrewsbury will go the inuer passage, when practicable ~MM "SEVEN O'CLOCK MOHNINU LINK fi. ?FOR ALBANY, fROY, and intermediate Landings?From the steamboat pier, at th> loot of Barclay street. Brenkfast and Duiiw on board. Leaves New York?The Empire on Monday, Wednesday and Friday. The Troy on Tnesday, Thursday and Saturday, ?7 A M " Landing at?Caldwell's, West Point, Newburgh, 1 lamp fin, I'ougbkeepsie. Ilyde Park. Khinebeck, U. Hed Hook, Bristol, ( atskill, Huilson, Cflisackieand Kinderhook. _ T he* new F)vv pressure twiner EMPIRE, Captain ?. R Roe, <u this day. at 7 o'clock in the moraing. Th" new low pnuun steamer 1 ROY, Captain A. Uorham, on Tuesday, at 1 o'clock: inithe morning. Kor passage, apply to F. B. Hall, at the office, foot of Barclay itree;, or on board. _ ? , Notice.?All Ooodi, H reight, Baggage, Bank Bills, Specie, or any other kind of Property, taken, shipped, or put on board the Boats of this Line,must be at the risk of the owners of foods. an 18 r PEOPLE'S LINE OF STEAMBOAT!? &:4^JflHL<^?FOR ALBANY?Daily at 6 o'clock P. M direct?From the steamboat pier be iw^n Conrtlandt and Lihrrty street*. Sunday weeded. . , 'I lie steamboat KNA^KfcRBOCKKR$Ca|?t. A. P. St. John, ill leaveg Monday, Wednesday and Friday Evenings, at su o'clock. Steamboat ROCHESTER, Capt. A. Houghton, will leave Tnesday, Thursday, and Saturday at 6 P. M. At "> o'clock P. M.?Lauding at Intermediate Places. Steamboat SOUTH AMERICA, Capfc L. W. lirainard will love Monday, Wulnesday, and Friday afternoon, at 1 o'clock. i!.-mboat NORTH AMERICA, Cape. M. H. Trees dell, mil leave Tuesday, Thnrsday and Saturday Evening, at livr r.i.**ei'?ers biking this Line of Boats will at all times arrive in E NE NEV LUC1NA CORDIAL, _ oa the ELIXIR OP LOVE. In o I dec time, among ths Jews, ABM man a jecoml wife might rhoos*? Whoje liMt. by Fate's unkindly doom, JNo children bore to bless his home. Amir led thus, the Roman matron Prayed to Luciue, the midwife's patron, KiiVI'tian wives, iu such a crisis, Called to their aid the Priests of Isis; And even now, the meek Hindoo? Warm as her clime, and tender, too? If childless twelve months from her bridal plies weeping to her senseless idol, And with raised hands, in accents wild. Petitions Bramah for a child; rnr wall she knows. Love shuns to blest The Hiudoo bed of barrenness. So much for lore in days by-gone, And savage customs in our own; But say, even now, does Love's communioa files* in our land, a sterile union' No. oft times conjugal felicity, b thus disturbed?ay, e'en in this city Vet may the barren, if they try The means "increase and multiply," With "Love's Elixir" for her friend, The childless wile's repining* end But not the procreative power Alonk, is Uii* Elixir'* ilnwer. Consumption'* ill* it will prevent, With vigor clothe the impotent ; Suppress a sleet, whate'er its date. And all life s functions renovate; I Eruption* from the skin it chases. And brings back beauty and tin eracw; i 'Ti* woman's trust?and ne'er deceives her From Fluor AllJus it relieves her, And each disease, (with proper care, too,) 1 i?r fair and fragile form is heir to. Thue are bxl tuOthi, who calls them Action Shall have stern proof iu contradiction, i Letters?all forms of attestation? From the savins of every uation; Wi(h grateful missive* from all Quarters, Penned by Disease and Quackery a martyrs. 1 Thousands who lay, with tlutlerniK brenth, 1 Almost withiu the jaws of death; I Now in their tiiulitiy myers repeat, Thanks to Life's friend, iu Nassau street, And sometimes names the very number? "Ninety-two Nassau"?even in their slumber? Or, dreaming of Diseases ordeal, I Cry crut for the "Lucina Cordial." I Persons ordering this medicine from the couutry, by sending i a remittance, can luve it boxed up and sent to any part of the , Union. Price $3 per bottle, or per d>;tea. Also for sale at No. 91 North Otk *t, Philadelphia. o!0 1m*m i WINTER ARRANGEMENT?In con- , '['f1 i"" w'1'1 l'>e ^*w ^orlt ,lml Harlem Kail j ilie i all Win Liine of Stages will on and after Monday, Oct. 1 23d, run as follows;?Leave New York with the8 o'clock train, 1 A. M. and 2 o'clock P. M. i Heturning?Leave New Rochelle at quarter past S A. M. and 2 o'clock, P. M. Leave Mainaronich half-past 7 A. M. and half-past 1 P. M. Leave Portchester quarter before? A.M. ol9 5t*r REMITTANCES TO IRELAND, Stc.-~The hTyJfVsubscribi'r continues to transmit money in sums large nTi* ilfii " small, to persons residing in any part of of Ireland in the same manner as Tie, and his predecessor in business have done for the last thirty years and more ; also, to any part of England, or Scotlaud. Money remitted by letter (post Paid) to the subscriber, or personally deposited with him, witli the name of the |>erson or i?r*on* iu Ireland,'Kngland or Scotland, to whom it is to besaiit, and nearest post town, will be immediately transmitted, ....... ovtuiuuiuiy i anu a ii-Lfi[n 10 mat eneci given, or forwarded to the sender. i In like mannw money, or claims on persons in any part of I Ireland, England or Scotland, can be collected by tlie subscri- i ber for |ierso_ns residing in any part of tin- United States or Ca- , uaiK, and will be paid to tliern accordingly. , o21 Im'r GEORGE McBRlOE, .Jr. i>2 < 'edarst. PASSAGE FROM CORK?Via Liverpool?hi | wPM^the first spring shi|<s.?We beg to inform our friends , AwwUSitliat during the coining spring, 1814. we shall have a legul ir succession of first class American snips, sailing from the above port every week, which will lie fitted out in such a I manner for second cabin and steerage iiasiengem, as cannot fail to ensure tliern every comfort. One of our firm. Mr. James I). , Roche, resides there, who will see personally to the forwarding: . of all our |>.u?euKeri, and will spare neither pains or expense to , inert their wishes, and have them forwarded without any delay. Those sending for their friends will at once see the advantage to I be derived by paying in our line. Apply to, or address il by I letter post paid, ROCHE BROTHERS St CO. 36 Fultou street, next door to the Fulton Bank , or to JAMES I). ROCHE, 14 Goree Piazzas, Liverpool. P. S.?Passage certificates and drafts c in be sent from this by ' the regular packet shi|w on the 1st, 7th, 13th, Ifitli and 25th ol even' moith, also hv the Boston steamers oil the 1st and Ifith. I FOR LIVERPOOL?Britiah Shuo?With dcapatch j KRWrV ?The well known very list sailing British ship 1 jKtkabi1 HESTER, John Wilson, master, having a large i portion of her cargo on board, will have immediate despatch I for the above port. . Shippers of goods will find the Chester a most desirable conveyance. 1 For freight or passage, having very comfortable accommoda- 1 tions,apply to the subscribers. I ROCHE, BROTHERS k CO., 35 Fulton st., o2.r next door to the Fultou Bank. FOR LIVERPOOL?NEW LINE.?Regular i M.fJV Packvt of 25th October.?The splendid |>acket ship jHHMEiGAIlRICK, Captain Wm. Skiddy, of 1000 tons, w ill Kill as above, her regular day. For freight or paauge, having r-Midtome furnished accommodations,apply on board at Orleans wharf, fool of Wall street, or to E. K. COLLINS & CO. Price of passage, $75. 56 South street. The locket ship ROSCIUS. Captain John Collias, of 1100 tons, will succeed the GARRIOK, and sail the 25th November, her regular day. Passengers may rely upon the ships of this line sailing ptmc tnally as advertised. o2 fcfit FOR LIVERPOOL?The New Line?RegnUr ' mMCTV. Packet 16th of Novemlier?The fine New York bui:t jHMKal'acket ship' HOTTINGUER, Ira Bursley, mastft , 1 1050 tons, will sail as above her regular day. I For freight or iwssage having vtry su|>erior accommodations, apply to the Captain on hoard, at west side Burling slip, or to i WOODHULL it MINTURNS, 87 South st. jEThe line packet ship Liverpool, J. Eldridge, master, 1150 tons, will succeed the Hottinguer and sail on her regular day, ! 16th December. 022 FOR LI VERPOOL?Regular packet ol the 25th KTarJrVOctoliep?1The well known fast sailing packet ship ,S?3tH(aal>ARRICK,Capt W. Skiddy, of 1000 tons, will sail rs above, being her regular day. Her accommodations for cabin, second cabin and steerage passengers ara tinsurp is-.ed by any vessel iu port, and as a number of her pas?engers are already engaged, those desirous of securing berths should make tarly applicationou to JOS. McMUHRAY, 100 Pine street ol'r Corner of South. NEW .LINETiF LIVERPOOL PACKETS? nrn > aciifi 01 me ZJtti <'doner?I he new and elegant JlMHBbrAckft ilij|> OAKRICK. 1000 tous burthen, ('apt. W. Skidd y. will sail on Wednesday, Z.'ith October,her regular day. Tin* ?)iips of this line being all 100U tons and upward*, persons about to embark for the old country, will not fail to sw the advantages to ba derived from selecting this line in | reference to any other, as their greit ctpacity lenders them everyway more comfortable and convenient than ships of a smaller class. Those wishing to secure berths, should not lail to make early application on board, or to W. fc J. T. TAP8COTT, At their General Passage Office, 43 Peck Slip, , cor South street. The Oarrack will sail from Liverpool on the l?th December. ' Persons wishing to send for thur fi lends can have them brought out in l?-r or any of the regular line on favorahle terms Those wishing to remit inouey can he supplied with drafts for anyamoxiit, payable in all the principal towns of the United Kingdom. ol4ec FOR LONDON?To sail on the Wt NovemharJC^JVThe new packet ship VICTORIA, Capt Morgan, JMMoCbIZUO tons, will sail as above, lier regular day. Her accommodations lor cabin, second cabin Bud steerage passengers are unsurpassed by any vessel in port, and as a number of her passengers are already engaged, those deairotu of se' caring berths should make early application to JOSEPH McMl/RHAV, o2Ir 100 Pine street, comer of South. OLD BLACK BALL LINK OK PACKETS LIVERPOOL?Packet of the 1st November. JMMMb?The splendid fast sailing packet ship OXFOHD, ( apt. Ralhboue, will be despatched as above, her regular day. She has sti|ierior accommodation for cabin, second cabin and sfeeraje passengers. Those wishing to secure berths will require to make early application to JOHN HKRDMAN, 61 South st, near Wall street. N. B.?Passage from Oreat Britain and Ireland, via Liverpool, can at all tunes be engaged, on the lowest terms, by any of the regular packet ships, and drafts furnished for any amount payable at the National Ml Provincial U;nk of Irelaud, and at all the principal towns throughout the United Kingdom, on applic ition as aoove. oiiJr FOR NEW ORLEANS?Kirst Ship-') he eletafTJP^gant fast sailing ship OEORUK STKVANS, (' st. nshing, will sail on Monday the 23J i slant, lav a lie rf part of her between decks is comfortably fitt?d up with | st?'e rooms for the accommodation of 2d cabin passengers, who vi ill be taken st ? very moderate rate, as only a limited number Cinbe taken. Those desirous of ser.urinf berths will require to make immediate application on board the ship, at pier 10 K. R., or to JOHN HERD MAN, 61 Sonth street, near Wall street. N. B.?The splendid well known packet ship Francis Depau will succeed t>?e above, and sail on the 2Hh lust. This sn p h.u unequalled accommodations for cabiu, 2d cabin and steeraxe passenger*. Apply a* above o23r FOR NF.W OK I.KA N Lonisinu < and New fcyjM^Vork Lin<?Positively First Regular Packet. To JMttBtapail the 31*1 Oct. Die fast sailing packet ship OCON -,S, < apt Jackson, will sail as above, lier regular <Uy For freight or passage, having handsome Inrnished accommodations, apply ou board, at Orleans wharf, foot of Wall street, orto E. K. COLLINS k CO, South street.. S I., niM*ra _l<- h.v,.... I,,- ,1... I ? rectiy measured ... . _ Agents in New Orleans, Mullen Si Woodruff, who will promptly forward all goods to their address. Th' packet ttaii' Sliaksl>eare. ( apt Yllm Mi'ier. will mrceiM the OtONKK, and sail the Wth Nov. her regular day. o?lr iM- HKOULAH I'At KKT KOH NKVV OIU.KANS WrJfJry_^'he npleudid f.??t jailing packet ship NOH 1 II MmPm^AKOLiNA, Captain Dminnioud, will hare immediate dispatch for the above port. Tha accommodations of this ship for cabin,sMftnd cabin, and ?teer iite passengers. are such as cannot fail to ensure every comfori to paavitiger* durinC the voyage, and tlie price of passage ii very low, for whirh I mindiite application slioulilbe made on board at pier foot of J ones' lm?, neit Wall ?rreet, or to . , . ? W.ltJ.T. TAMCOTT. At their> Oenml Pai?a?e Office, 43 Peck slip, corner South at. 1 he ahijM or th If line mi I every tire days at muxl N. B.?1 he North < aroliua can accommodate a few mot? in the Recoild cabin, who will bt ruanectably fouud at a \ ' ry moderate rate. q[q j?jr NEW rORK k BOSTON SOU N!) PILOT. r)WRN PRKflCOTT. Pilma. or tak^ chanre a> master and pilot of teait U hound to New Bedford, over Nanturk'i *!inal?. Honton, Portsmouth, Portland, Kennebeck, and OTII. KU p6RT9. Office at Krye It Shaw'. Nautical Uora, & W iter utraet. comer Beekinan. Inference to a number of merchants. and the (event lusurance t ompnain in thi* city, Bo? ton and Portland I- 1RM Milt SALE in NKW JKH8EY-A Farm jMS <f about titty acren, umler a high state of cultivation, a| ^Jti-llioroimhly limed and m mil red, aome of which i? good Wood, and one ai re of ttipfty sprouts clo?e by Scotch t'laina U?pot on (he Miftibeth J ciwu ami Mmm-mllf K.ulroul. Th<home in newly painted. with ?e?en not roum* ami a Mtclien in KooH order; the ont liuildinca are aUo in good repair. The stock md crop* will be ?old reasonable, and immediate pojw*. ?ion Riven if required. Apply ?t the Depot *? above, or to o?l 3tr JOHN HfcRDMAN. 61 South sum. W YC 7 YORK, MONDAY MO] Fnlr of the American limHt ut<v--Annlvcr. wary Atldrmit of tin- Hon. D. D. Bernard. On Friday evening, as we have already Btuted, the Hon D. 1). Harnard, M. C. delivered the Annivernarv Addre-n Ulore the nutronH nf the Ameri can Institute, in the Broadway Tabernacle, in this city, which we are now enabled to furnish to our readers entire, as follows:? Mu. Phksidknt apd Okntlcmkn or thk Amkricaw Ihstitutic? The ofjiict ol this Association, as described iu itB charter of incorporation, is the promotion and encourap< ment of "Domestic Industry iu tins State imd the United States, iu Agriculture, Commt rcc, Manuiuctures and the Art?, and any improvemrnt* ma/n therein." And the means to lie emplo) ed for ihia purpose are also described in the ?amo charter, namely: "By bestowing lewards, and other tienetlti.ou those who shall make any such improvements, or excel in any ol the said branches, am! by Mich other ways and means as to the said corporation, or the trustees thereof, shall appear the most expedient." In cart > ing out the purposes lor which the Institute was established, annual Fairs have been appointed to he held; and we are now in attendance on the sixteenth of these agreeable Festivals of Labor. At these Fairs, specimens in each ol the gr> at departments of human industiy are presented and arranged far exhibition, and new Inventions aiu offered lor inspection and experiment. They are Fair* of exhibition rather thun ol sole. The highest i Herts, both of inventive genius, and of skill and expertnaas in production and in workmanship, are exerted in the luruishing ol these Fairs, stimulated by a natural ambition to excel, and by i generous strife lor those prizes, rewards, and commendations, which are bestowed and received as the prnof ot excel'once. Seventeen thousand specimens are exhinited at one of these Fairs, and two hundred and filty thousand persons go iu to look at thuui, and no wonJer. The masteiy ol miud over the material things 31 this world, the fulfilment of the primitive command to man, to subriun the earth, i? no where more strikingly shown and illustrated. Here it is seen how the tterile ground has been made to yield its iucr?>ase?how the rude products ol the land and the sea have been made t<> ndSUIlli; ten tli.nicun.l ihjiiuii nf litiIIIv nn,t humilv ? iiUil how all the elements ot |>ower, supplied so liberally by the great God and Giver?even those secret agenti.tne most powerful of all, hidden irom common observation, ind revealed only to the diligent and patient inquirer, have been boldly seized and lubjected to the will and purposes of man. Individual instances of the triumph of mind over matter, and over tho difficulties and discouragements of its earthly allotment, arrest our attention and Jraw Irom us exclamations of wonder? us the pyramid of Cheops, ut Memphis; the church and dome ol St. Peter's, at Kume; the gleam ship Great Britain, constructed ot iron, an l measuring three thousand five linndied tons; a locomotive, on the Western RailroaJ, in Massachusetts, as ending with ease u grade of eighty-three feet in the mile, a> the rate often miles un hour, and carrying a burthen of one hundred tons. These are individual ca*is to show what tho renins of mortal mind can do ? ith the materials and elements of oauh. But, alter all, 1 think wo art) never so struck with the amazing capabilities of this same mortal mind ns when, at such a place ns the exhibition rooms ot the American Institute, wo see brought together, and placed under our view, at one time, the prodigious numbrr and vmiety of o'jects and productions ol art and labor already perfected ;or the uses ol mankind, and aireo !y employed; and the prodigious number and variety, also, of new things, full of tho pto. miso of high utility with which ingenuity continually :> ems. It ii only in such a place thit wo are mude acquainted with the actual advance which mankind have already lecured in the work of ?ut dning tho earth, end malting it the fit und pleasant residence, and lojourn ol beiDgs capable of something better than mere animal existence; in multiplying instalments and agents of power, profit, con tenience and enjo\ment, and in 'his way aiding to bring ibout their own deliverance from ignorance, darkness ind error, and their introduction into'the marvellous light of knowledge, r< flnement and civilization. It was a part ot the oiiginal design ot the Institute, us we have leen, to encourage and promote agriculture. And the Society now receives the aid ol the State in furtherance af this object, under the act of the Legislature, in relation to ihat interest. Thus, that prominent place is given to this branch of industry in the plans and operations of the Society, to which it is naturally entitled, lam glad that this is so. The importance of agriculture, however, in itself, is better tinderetood, perhaps, than it is in its eco mimical relations to the other pursuits of industry. 1 >hull deem myself happy if I shall be able, in the course of iiiy remarks this evening, to impress this Society and those who hear me, with the lact, and the great importancc ol the fact, ol the neeess.iry mu'ual dependence on each other, existing htdw?' n th" different departments, the several grand divisions, of human employment and labor. This dependence, I noli to he a necessary law ol the separate existence ol these dep mutants; and without such divl?ifin or ilivershy of employment, no consideia bio advance could bo made in any branch, nor with such :m this, n? made io advance nni! become truly and permamently prosperous, while any other branch shall bodis couraged ami retarded, or be made to stand still All mint flourish ?r languish together. This is my opinion; and I propose tormhraeo tho present occasion, to i.iy FomftUing on this ini|>urtant topic. Perhaps we may ?ee how til in law of nerossary dependence arises; and also iiow another necessity arises, namely?that ol exerting the power of the Society to protect the several divisions, according to their separate employment, and keep them in harmony, so that the advance and prosperity of each and all may ho secured It is not unfair, pel haps, to conHider the anniversary addiesses delivered before the Institution the occasion ot its annual Kairs.asa partol those new products ol domestic industry which it is usual to nail forth. Certain it is, that those heretofore delivured have done the Institute, aa well as their authors, vast ere [lit, and they now forrn, taken together, a body of sound matter before the public, the value of which it would be :littlcult to estimate, as among those "other means" which the Institute was to employ, according to its charter, in promoting ond encouraging the interests of agriculture, commerce, manufactures and the art?. I cannot hope to he able to add muchto this stock ol usciul products,. 1 claim to possets no skill whatever in any of the departments ol industry referred to?I wiah I could?and very little, indeed,even in that lieid of labor to which yen liavr assigned me for this occasion. There are, however, principles connected with the ndvano ment and success ufindustiy, with the progress ol national wealth and civilization, which 1 ought to know something about, ard in regard to which I may speak, perhaps, without presumption?possibly with *ome profit. And here, helore I go one step lunhcr, I wish to be understood Poll ticnl et onomy is a scientific subject, and as such I propose to tpeultof it. It is n mbifct, certainly, important to ho undoi stood by those who associate lor the protested oljeet of promoting domestic industry. And the very fact that opinions differ in a degree about its principles arid the practical rules to he adopted for promoting domestic in lustrj , points it out as a peculiarly fit subject for discussion K'loro this bopy. The ,li.:cu?sion may eu-ily be conducted so as to give' cause of offence to no human be ing. The subject belong* to science, un.l not to politic* or party. I ca? 1.0 morn think myself liable to give just cause o! off-nce to any by offering my sentiment* here on the scientific, principles ot [Kiiiticni economy?on the laws which govern production?than if I were toolF ra dissertation on chemistry ns applied to soils, or on tempt - 1 ratine Rid climate as affecting vegetation and cul lure. The subject of the laws which govern production and the creation and distribution of wealth, has only in comparatively recant limes been investigated and subjectfd to philosophical discussion and arrangement. Political economy is altogether a modern scieoce?if science it may y?t be call* d ? as we And it displayed in the w orks of some of its professors. 'I'ha father of the sriencc?or of whatever there is scientific about the present ftata oI the subject?Adam Smrh, first published his Wealth of Nations in 177a. The writers on the same subject who preceded him, in France, Italy and F.ngland, were mere spectilatists, who amused themselves with defending the theoretic vagaries of the mercantile orthe Agricultural system?the system which made all national wealth consist of gold and silver, brought in by a favorable balance, of trade, or that which professed to have discovered that wealth cnn be got out of nothing but land The main body of the writers on this subject since Dr Smith, have been his disciples, and it is not too much to say, tliut in their hands the science hus made lit tin advance. Many have differed from him in something, but few have ventured to impeach him of tundamental error. Some have, indeed, Jone go, find with full soccers. Smi'h has certainly this merit?he e*p!od eel the apecuUtista? the Oavenart* and the Qutsnayn of political economy. His sy stem superseded theirs, just a* that of Socrates," in moral science, superseded thisc ol Tliales and Pythagoras. Like Socrates, be discovered soma sublime and immortal truths; but he also fell into great e?rors. the more seriom, as they wero of a practical kind. He proceeded regularly by tho true method of induction, till he had demolished tho mercantile und agricultural S) stems, reUing as they did on 'peculation; and then, as soon as he came to the important business 01 building up a practical system of hi? own, lie also fell to (peculating. His disciples, Malthus, Ilicardn, Siy, McCulloch and the rest, have adopted add laugh1 his Inductive truths; and then, on nutters ot practical import, have speculated. Just a* their great master did before them, and jiut as /.-no, Plato, and the rest, speculated iu philosophy attertho example of Socrates,their ma' ti.f Thi ?,? snnrtltl nil/ins nr*i nnt tvjlliA,,! th^li. ?alna K..? truth demonstrated is worth n frrt-at deal m?rc Brcauit the Miijectof political economy hn* not yet heen made to take on all the precision ami certainty of a nclence, ami becauM it is *<> much easier to ?p.-ciil*te than to renion in a philosophical way, mo*t ot the writer* on thii subject, and, perhap*, the mo*t dogmatical among them, inniit that the subjeat i* in It* nature incapab o of | re'ci?ion andr.r tamt) . Thin,!, lor one, nni not di*po*ed to admit. It is admitted that the truth* of thi? acience are moral, an 1 not mathrmutical truth*; but I, for one, (hall not admit that mathematical truth* are ? whit more certain than mora1 truth* I *hi?ll not admit that It i* only the law* of phy ucal nature which are certain and true, while the law* wtiicb do and must govern the moral world are Inca,* Me of certain tucettaioment, and aroonly dt to b# *prculate<) ainiut It i*j'ist a*certainand truath it it i* anornlly wrong lor a man to rob or cheat lii* neigbltor, a* it i* that two parallel iiue* can never m?? t;and it i* ju*t a* certain and true, that Dr. Smith'* luvof productive lab .r, n di vertitj of employ menti, i? efier.tial to the making oi ca pital or national wealth, hi it ii that 11>in>< that are rq m to the *am? thing are rqtial to one another. Uncertain tie* an J error* m moral ,>r natural *ciencc ari*ej'i*t where induction leave* oft, and * peculation begin*; and thi> truth i* no wliero butter illuitra ed than in the *cie <ce ot political eeoncmj , n* it i* preaented by Dr. Smi'h. Ilwat clearly *hown by .Smith, that labor i* nece*tary to production; that capital m nee nary to employ ami *u*tnin labor; that the productive power* of a community depend on dirWon of latter, or diver*ity of emploj ment; an 1 >RK E UNIWi. OCTOBER 23, li that diversity of employment can take place only where j exchange of products can bo made?that is, where a re- ' ciprocul demand lor product* exists, which i? the measure j ol the ex .-utato which diversity of employment can he car- ! ried. All this whs profoundly conceived,W?d established by the fullest damotiMrtdion. Happily, too, no part ol the case wns materially weal, tiled Uy Kile speculation, though be ' aid indulge in u very idle, but pel Imps innocent conceit, in regard to iho origin of thu < xchunge oi products.? I One would think it wan a vny natural thing ami not r?- 1 quiring uny very elaborate explanation, that if man wanted an article which be hadn't got, and could get it in exchange tor tin article which he had,but which he didn't w ant,heu ould nink<'the exchange But this act aud operation?this lecipiocal want and demand,which alone gives value to nil surplus product*,which create* and stutains all devision 01 labor, making its exact extent, which opens the way and the only way, to the making of capital and wealth by opening reciprocal markitstor surplus products?this Dr Smith informs us is to be traced to' a 1 certain propensity in human natuie?the propensit> to' truck, barter, and xch>mge one thing l?>r another"?' "It is commoner,"he says, "to nil men, and to be lound in no other rucu oi animal*." A certain propensity in hu ; man nature to truck ! Just such a propt nsity, 1 suppose? just suck an instinct?as leads the domestic fowl when she has product d her eggs, to sit on them till they are hatched in order to maku something valuable out of tbem. It is only just, however,to the Doctor, to say, that he suggests,"alter all, that this "propensity "?this "trucking disposition," seems more probably to le "the ni cessary consequence of the facilities of reason and speech," than to bo "one of those original principles in human nature, i ol which no turtlicr account can be given !" I wish it could be said with truth, that all the conceits and speculations in which Dr. Smith indulgeii in bis book on the wealth ol nations, were as innoctnt as this. Dr. Smith 1 ill hit chaptu "ol restraints upon the importation from foreign countries of such goo s as can be produced at | home," enters upon a lormal investigation ot the effects o! such restraints upon tho annual produce of the Industry ol the home country, and he lays dow n some very just and philosophical propositions.' "The general industry of the Society " he says, "cau never exceed what thecupital olthe Society can employ. As tho number ol workman that can be kept in employment by nuy par ticular person must biar a certain propoitiou to hut cap ital, so the number ofthoce that cau be continually employed by all the member* of a great society, must bear u certain proportion to the whole capital ol that Society, and can never exceed that proportion- No regulation of commerce ran increase tut quantity ol industry in any society beyond what its capital can maintain." Ho tar all wai philosophical and stiiutly true. He bad reached one important conclusion, namely, that the quantity of industry in the lociety could not be increased beyond T hat its capital could maintain, by commercial regulation's by any restraints on importation. But, though this was a conclusion ot some importance,it was not one to rest upon, or stop at; the subject priposed to be investigated was very tar from being exhausted. He had but just come to tliu topic of chief interest. How was the annuul produce of the industry ot the coniitry to be affected by regulation 7 That was the question. There was a limit to the quantity of industry that could ho employed in the exist nig amount of capital in the country for the time being, and all attempts to increase the quantity ol industry, by commercial regulation beyond this limit, beyond the proportion which tho whole capital could employ, would bo rain. This being settled,two inquiries naturally arose First?Is it ti ue that the capital of the society, whatever it may be, whether gi eater or less in amount, is, and will be naturally and necessarily so used as to employ all the industry ol the society, or all that so much capital isca. pable of maintaining I If not,can the quantity of industiy which that amount ol capital is capable of maintaining be increased by ary commercial regulation 1 Next ? 11 it he supposed that all the industry of the society which can maintain, is and will he employed, then is it true that all that industry is and will lie naturally and necessarily employed in themost productive and advents geous way, both tor itself and for the whole soci< ty ? And if not, can the manner in which thatindustiy may be employ ed,he impi oved r.nd its advantageousness increased by any commercial regulation? These questions, forming the gist of the whole matter under investigation, are not put tortk in Dr Smith's booh, in the formal manner in which 1 have stated them Buf they were in his mind, of Course, (or he has given answers to both ol them?and to both the main propositions, his answers are in tke affirmative. The first ol' these propositions, and not the least important of the two?it is true, is almost evaded. Tke affirmative is, 1 indeed, asserted, but it is by implication. After declaring that " no regulation of commerce can increase the quantity of industry in any society beyond what its capital oan maintain," he a ids : " It can only divert a part of it into a direction in which it might not otherwise have gone." In other words, the quantity ot industry being all t b-j while a i great an the capital ol the society can main t.iin, the onlj effect which can be produced is to "divert" industry?to derange existing ? mployments J'tst tn the extent to winch new ones shall tie introduced. He assumes, tiieu, d.stinctly, that all the industry, all the 1 il.or ol the society, which the existing capital of the society can maintain i?, nnd w ill bo naturally ai.d necessarily employed , wrh <he capital lor the time, no more labor can be employed. It mny be diverted by regulation, but it cannot b? increased, whether it be all employed in the most advantageous way, is another question?as also whother it would be likely to be more advantageously employed by the divi rsion which would take place under commercial regulation. Bat that it is all employed, advanta geously or not, is assume 1 and affirmed in the decided nidnnrr Jiift related. The question is iio where nu t ti) Smith in a more direct wfcy. In all hi* reasoning on the subject of commercial regulation,in reference to ila effects on the annual produce of the industry ot the society, he just aiiumes-takes for gi anted?the material am) govern, in); position, thut the quantity ot industry, the whole be ing fully employed, cannot be increased by any new bu sines* into w hich it may be drawn by legal provision, or ia consequence of any inducements the> held out for the new, or increased employment ot capital For this postu late astiim^s also,by implication, that all the capital ol the society is always tully employed in maintaining industry, inasmuch as all the industry is fully employed which that capital is capable of maintaining. This important point being settled in this summary way, Dr. Smith then comes to the other question, whieh enquire* whether all the la bor of the society, within the capa ity of its capital to move, supposing it be all set in motion, is sure to be em ployed to the best advantage, tor all concerned, and this question he disposes of by u rare specimen of pure speculation. Hear him : " ^very individual is continually ei erting liiiosell to find out the most advantageous employ men! for whatever capital he can command. 4t is his own advantage, indeed, ami not that of the society, which he has in view. But the study ol his own advantage naturally, or rather necessarily, lends him to prefer that employment which is most advantageous to the society."? ' Upon rqual, or nearly equal profits, every individual naturally inclines to employ his capital in the manner in which it is likely to afford the greatest support to domestic industry, and to give revenue and employment to the 'greatest number of people of his own country." Hera, then, wa find Adam Smith, the great rconomicul philoio pher,indulging in true. Scotch metaphysics upon a ques tion which, in its nature, admits ol no solution whatever, but by philosophic induction, from ascertained facts and Irom experience?a practical question, too, which bo undertook to re olv for the guidance and government ol statesmen, and of nations in matters deeply affecting na. tional growth, prosperity, civilization and happineis. He argues altogether, not from tacts,not from experience,but trotn .[cculHtions about tho probable co:in>c Hint conduct of human nature under certain circumstances. Every owner ot capital,he affirms,is desirous ol making the most ol it, and, therefore, be infers that he will be sure to light ou that employment of it which will give him the largeat return ot profit. This is hi* ttrst metaphysical postulate. This he lay down a* a sell evident propoai lion. Ha make* no appeal to experience?at least, beyonri that which establishes a common desire of gain. He does not go through society on a search alter tho actual facts of the rase. It is true, because it is in human nature, and therefore must be trye. This is his reasoning. H?' insists that the love of gain is as unerring as our animal instinct, und that if it Hoes not invariably lead to the making of profits of the largest kind with the means it possessed, it is because there Is nothing in nature out of which such profits can tie made. It Is never deceived, never mistaken. Men never carry their capital into experimental o|>erations, w here the results riixappeint and break them down; or into channels of business where thousand) rush in a'ong with them, all expecting to go on swimmingly, while there ia not depth and room enough for halt a dozen of the wiiol<> number to float comtortably together These things never happen?no never I There ia no overstocking and overcrowding o( particular employments by the force of lasliion, ol imita non, or of habit, while other fields of enterprise, full of llie promise of reward, lie noocenpird and neglected Nothing ol the sort. Every owner ol capital habitually makes the most profit out o it that so much capital is cii pableof producing, if only left tree from all 1< gal n strir 'ions on the part of his own government, and in spite of all the commercial l emulations ol all other countries of teivinff the trade and business of his own. Rut the next step iu this metaphysical argument is still morn extraordinary. Capital in private hands will be iinployed to the highest advantage of the owners, there !nre i* will be employed to the highest advantage ol the ociety. Thii is Or. Smith's second postnlnte. It would Iiu unfair, neihaps, to take this pinposltion in Its hroadesi <ense, for th?t would he to make its author guilty of too uross an absurdity He could not have intended to assert that society i? alwaya richer by just the amount which f-vcry speculator in merchandize, in stocks, or in lands which every gambler contrives to tmusfer from the pockets of others to hia own We must suppose him to have spoken only of thecapitnl actually employed in pro duotion; and the question still is?is it trti that all the capital of a society, of any and every society, under any and allcircumitancca?for if truo of one? It is by the sup. position and argument, truo of every one; is it true that ill the capital of a sorietv, supposing it all to be employed in production, is naturally and necessarily employed in the way most advantageous to its owners and to all, in the way to bting out the highest returns, and so that the iHtributive shores of all the labor in the society and ol the capital respectively, in the resulting profits and wealth, shall be as gt >-iit as so much capital and iibor are capnbleol producing I This i* the true i|iieftion,and thlsDr Smith uudr rtukes to answer in the affirmative, solely upon < * principle or disposition in human nature. I do not lie Mtato to answer tt iu the negative upon the strength ol f,icts and 01 all rxpei ionce. The ie?u it is not necessarily i >r commonly as he sup|<o(es -at leusi it is not, where 1 lie society has its foreign commercial intercourse, and < while it adopt* no commercial m guiHtinrH rl it? own, is *X|io?el to the operation and (fleet ol the selfish regul?. I ions ol other nations. It is very pitin, that if t<? ocom. i modifiesate produced at home, and exchanged with each other lor consumption, twiae the domestic, induatiy is i employed that would be il only oneol these waa produced at home, and tSat was exchnngrd for the other produced nhroad. And hence it is that capital employed in the fo reign trade of comumptlon, give* at most but one half the [ERA 543. encouraK^mrnt to the induatry and productive lahorof thr society, that th? 'ami' umuuiit nf capital would niv<- il employtd in th? home trad?\ Thin ia so itlted ?nd f?rnvt.1 hv T)r. Smith himcoll In nnnllinr r.ftrt of hill work. Htrn then is mi instance where the owner ol capital may employ it in u way which may he the mokt advantageous to himseit?in the foreign trade, and yet not in the way most advant ? out to the society, which would ha in the homn trade. But this caie is met by Dr. Smith with thr old speculation upon the natural disposition* of the human heart. He is sure that these will lead every prison with equal, 01 nearly equal profits, to prefer the home trade to the foreign ; and tberelore he affirms in a very positive way, that -'eve ry individual natuiully inclines to < mp'oy his capital in the manner in which it is likely to afford the greateat support to domestic industry, and to give revenue and employment to the greatest number ol people of his owu country." If the argument from nntuml inclination is to be relied on, I believe it is directly the other way in a majoi ity ol ea<e*-that the leaning is to thu foreign ti ade in preft rence to the domestic. There is something peculiarly attractive in the very hazards ot ext. rnal com merre. The idea of exchanges prosecuted with a foreign and distant pt ople, ac oxs some thousands of inili** ol separating oc< an, has something in it to affect the imiigma tion. And then, though the ha/.atda are great, the pro mise ol profit is great it the enKrprize be succenlul.? Heavy fortunes nreoften realized from a few lucky voya g>s. But spi culation aside ; the t?st of the mutter is in experience, and that appealed to will certainly show (hat in all countries, trading capital if accustomed to push its operations and advantages in the channels of foreign commerce, without any rpecial care or regard for the particular inlertstsof heme industry and labor. This i? the niituiul co'irse and tendency ol things,and is avoiding to the actual fact. At the least, it is the mere wunton- ' nexNof "onjncture, to suppose that all the tiading capital of the country is employed by preference as fur as |iossihie, in giving the highest encouragement to domestic in- 1 dustry, and that none of it goes abroad in foreign com 1 merce but by u kind of compulsion, anil because it is su- ' perabundant for the possible uses ci the home trade.? 1 \v. Mi', then, the general position, or proposition, main I tamed by Dr Smith, and generally, lollowing him. by the body ol speculative writers ou political iconomy.? It i? thi.t, in any country or political society whatever, where Ihe course ol nature and of natural inclination*! is not inti rrupted by the meddling hand ol domestic autho rity, nil the capital of the society whichcan, cr would, under any circumstances, he applied to production, will of necessity be always Hilly employed in maintaining its productiv? imlustiy, and all the labor or productive industry of the society,which so much capital is capable ol maintaining,u ill, of necessity, be always fully imployed I by it , and that such capital and labor will alway s be no cessarily employed and applied in the manner and ways most advantageous to the owners of capital and thost; who 1 bestow the labor, and to the whole society. It must be added, that thean author* also maintain that, though the full and profitable employ mint of capital and labor in the society may, in particular instances, be injuriously disturbed by foreign li gislution?by foreign cointm icial r? gulations?y et, so long i.-i itch foreign regulations continue, all attempts to remedy the evil i>y counter regulations at home, can only result in additional injury. Now, in direct opposition to the broad assumption?for it is no thing but assumption?that nil the capital and labor ol every society, uninterrupted as is suggested, will of ne cestity, h." fully and most prolitably employed, always and ut all times?and that, hence, if by any commercial regulation or othei interference o! the public authori tios, any or labor should be required or induced to undertake a new production, some nrofltablu business or other must first be abandoned lor the purpose?in op position to all this, 1 maintain that so far, in the history of the world, capital and labor have seldom been as fully or is profitably employ id any where as they might have been, tliHt ihey are not now so employed in any quarter where examples would naturally be quoted, an l that ' tin re is not the least piohubjiity that they rvor will | be until the laws ol progress in production, and in the making of capital and wealth shall be better undoistood, or at least more cartl'ully and strictly ub served anil acted on. The fundamental law is the law of mu'uality and of proportion, to be established and main tamed in each (ociety betwwen the producing classes, between the several gnat departments into which the industry nt the society is arrangi d lor maintaining diver si'j ol employment. Of that law, ol its operation, and its necessity, I shall a*U leave to say something before 1 nprritilly, hm been to manufacture for all the world, and ' to do tlit?, aa far ea poMiblc, on a principle oi monopoly, ' that ahe might command her own prim, and mxk<-px- , orbitant proftta on hw wnrw. Thia ?? a selfish policy, to characteriae it by no harsher epithet, which w?a anre 1 ooner or later, to tin-ay all conntrie* againat her in o>m ' mercia), if not in military hostility. It ?m a |o!lcj ! which wan mire in the end to defeat itrell. It hai defeatad itaolt, rignally. She in great and powerful, but ahe il not iiappj. Look at her debt?look at her pauper line? loc k j ' at the xjuallid mi?ny which the exhituta in the midat 01 har rag.11 miignitirt ice and iplendor. A nation, like an j individual, may huve a temporary and ihow y proaperity, 1 irot by driving hard and unconaeicntloua bargains with 1 lier m ighbnia, but she will be far happ er, andof aoundei ' condition, If the will be content to thrive only by the : honeat gains of honeat and well directed induatry. Eng lund ia rich,but ahe ia cru?l to her own children. She ' ompela labor to receive low wagea, (when it can gef I in),; and to pay higu price* lor lood. She liai land i: noiiRli, ifcultiratcd, aa the known how to cultivate ft. o 'iipply an abundance ofcheap food to her whole i*n ?i lation, and million! more, and still have enough left, 'n ' <11 reuion, for her parka and pleasure ground*. A" I M, with thil, the had thought lea* ot her external trlationf 1 f in.l her foreign trade, and trore about supplying the (i wanta ol her own home population?which ?he mi<ht ( hava dono by n better adjustment ol the relation! b?twern . agriculture and manulacturn, and by an inccaied home j trade?if ahe had dona thin, ?he would hava bean incom conclude At present, it jg the matter ol met in regard to (lie alleged lull and p.ofitublo employ ment ol capital and labor ol which I wish to apeak a little fuither. This, it n uit ho remembered, ii declared to lie the natural uud necessary state ol things in every political society, when lett Ir e and undisturbed. And if disturb! d by legal en actmont, by restriction or regulation, stillcoprsi and in du?tiy will bo lully employed, dm before, mid the only lfect produced will be to "divert" thcoi "into n direction in which they might not otherwise have gone." Loss, indeed, may he sustained by the necessity of change and transition, and tho community may he burthened with a new tax to sustain the change, but still capital and labor will be no more idle than before. This is tho po 'ition. Now !i eny strongly and utterly the whole pre mise*, and I make mv appeal to facts and to all experience. I must nut go into detail, but 1 may refer to a few h aditig particul ir?. Look, then, at the leading uatiaus ol Europ", advanced, as they now are, in the arts ol in dnstry ai d in wealih Is it true that in England. France, Holland, (jummy?in either of them?in the first plnci that industry if Jullvemployed in production 7 II io.oou men have been employ edfor two or three years past on the fortifications of Paris, this has been a new employ men), and the labor has been drawn from the body of the French people. Does any liody pretend or imagine that this urn uut of labor has been drawn cfi, diverted from auy occupation 01 business where it was befoie fully and profitably employed 7 These nations maintain large stand mg ntini"... France, say Ot?, England 1I0,M)0, and soon. Does uny ono suppose that tliesr armies are altogether recruited irom the i mployed uud producing class es, and not chit fiy from the idle and vagrant population, hall ktarving from the want ol tomi thing to do T And it then' armies should be disliandi tl tomorrow, would th?y meet anady demand for their labor, prompt employment a .it good pay 7 Is it not notorious that, in all these coun tries, thete is u perpetual struggle, and a hard task to keep their population employ id I And is not a new employment?a ?ew demand lor labor?always hailed with general joy 7 And is not the least obstruction in ex isting operations- the slightest diminithed demand lot labor, felt as a general calamity 1 When the cultivation of the sugar beet was introduced in Fiauce, was itneces snry todistuib and derange other avocations,in order to fin I the necessary lultor 7 Did auy thing of the sort tak<place when the silk m inufacture was established id En gland ? Germany has entered into a new league lor the establishment uud defence ol home manufactures. Does the 7. >il vevien leave agriculture or any other business without ad< quote support by the thousands u|>od thousands who are drawn into the new field of labor 7 Is not the pauper system of England, in a great measure, the necessary result of a heavy population failing to find lull employment? Are not these countries?some of them at least?encouraging in every way the yearly emigration, and expatriation of thousands from their shores because these thousands, and millions more besides wnnt work, which they cannot give them 7 Nor is lahoi superabundant in these countries because there is any want of capital to t mploy and maintain it. England leaus annual millions to other countries?so does Holland In all, the rate of interest is low; and millions on millions arc cmpluyed in gambling speculation*, and squandered on vices and depraved indulgences, oi ti aitisfnlltr ^At.snmo.l at Knmn nr uhrn.wi uhirh u/nnWl bo employed in production end the support ol labor, it capital waa in active demand lor the industrial use* ol the courtry But it is not. Liif labor, it is super abundant. Botb capital and labor are. under greatly di mir.ished demand 111 these countries at this day, Irom the vas> multiplication of physical power by thu modern im provrmcnts in machinery, and theuMof steam; and by iho difieronee in the cost of national subsistence, and in national expenditure between a time of peace and time ot war. The machinery employed in manufactures in Great Britain alone, performs thu labor of 8,000,000 ol men. And England spent not much short of J OiO.f.OO, noO of dollars in thu last general war, which ended with the battle of Waterloo Both capital and labor, I ri peat, are superabundant in these countries. The capital is not employed in moving all the labor tha. it is capable of maintaining, and much of the labor, much of what ini;rht be tha productive indtis try ol these countries, is idle end unemployed 1 enter not into the causes of this condition ol things? that would be too widen field. I speak ol the lact. I may be permitted, however, to say, in passing, that, tin doubtedly, of all the evils that can iffliet a couritrv, the wantol lull and profitable employ ment for its popula'ion. lorlts labor, is hmong the very greatest. England suffeis mightily in this way; and certainly it is not, in her case. ' lor want ot the policy of commercial restrictions?a po licy which "lie has steadily pursued for centMna*, tinder all changes, and in the lead of ail parties; and never less teadily than when she has had Smith for her oracle in political economy, and his nominal disciple, Huski?son, tor her minister That she has built up both her mauu 'ficttires and her agriculture upon this systeai, is uotori out to all But she has committed great errors She lias 1 a swarming population, the growth of ages; and thlapo 1 i illation isconflnedto very narrow territorial Units Her commercial and restrictive policy has had for its otj et to build up the prosperity of this island home oi ' hers, by lay ing the w hole extt rnal ? orld. including hei own vast Colonies, lounJe-1 or conquered by herself.undet ' in If. . I re LD. * Prlr? Two Cents parubly wiM-r, better and happier than the ha* bun, or now in. And now turn to our own country- an example *s opposite in many ihinnn to tboi. we have been considering, an could well be d^ired. Here we have an outspread population, (cattcreil over a territory of almoat houndhaa extent, and with nntold nrrn ol vngin soil ot great fertility, appropriated almoat w itkout coat. We am ? comparatively new p?ople, not having yet had time to make gnat accumulations of capital ai <1 wealth by the ordinary comaes ol Induatry. But we have made some ac l>iiMitioiift in thia way, and we are rich, almoat beyond xample, in our landa, ?o cheaply obtained, with all their natural advantage* of fertile toil, of interminatiln wood and timber, ol inexhaustible wine", and >l countleaa powerful streams of running and falling water. Our soils ahd otir water-tall* are agenta of production 01 the moat valuable and tffiective kind,and our loreata and mines afford na natural raw pioducta of incalculable amount, r* quiring only a market, and the labor of severing from the earth, like atanding corn or potatoes in the ground, to give them value All thia if capital. or stand* to ua iu the place ol capital. But alter ail, we are Ur irom being aa rich aa our neighbor* on the oppoaite shore ol the Atlantic, while our number* are vet ?mall in compnrnion with their*. Both capital and labor are in much better demand with ua than with them. Wage* are much higher, and so i* interer. But attar all, are capital anil lal>ot,evtn In thia favortd and happy country, ua lully and aa profitably amyloynd in ?toduction aa they mignt be f The present :a probably m period when a rounder buainosa h being carried on in the country than it baa known before in n tpiaiter of u Century. The diversity of employment is greater, or is maintained in better proportion. There ha? been a great revival of manufacturing and mechanical industry within the Inst year. 11 peak of tho fact, not of (he cause. And yet with all tills, what do we tee ' Why, money at a lower rate ol interest, perhapl, than was ever belore known in the United States '1 he money prion ol labor too, ia comparatively low, though provitions and subaiateiice are cheap also. Capitaliats Bud it iiflicultto in vcat, and unprecedented milliona are on idle lepoiut In our bduka II a new factory ia opened anywhere, or and old one revived, and atich cnaea are happening now almoat i very day, there ia no want ol money >r of men to carry it on. And we hear ot no complaint hat tho capital and labor for thete operations are diverted, drawn off. trom other emnlovmenta. Nothing ot he sort. We are not yet a very rich people, or very numerous, but we hove more mean* and more hands than ;an tie profitably employed in two only ot thu great departments ol" industry, namely, in agiiculture and com* merer; and the third, that ol' manulactures and the oris, though lately revived and looking up, is no' a* lull by a Hi eat deal a* it might be. ho long an we have our million* of aerosol lertile land still vacant, and inviting occupation, and where subsistence tor the turplua and increase ot our population may be no cheaply ubtaintd, where a little latior can produce a preat d< al of lood, we shall be likely to experience, us a people, little ieaipaia lively ot that distress which is olten leit in older and closely packcd countries, Irom the inability to give em ploy ment to lobor. lint land employed in thu way gives subsistence, not profit. And an agncultural population, consuming just what it products, making no surplus lor exchange, because it has no market,i njo) ing i one ol the products of other countries or regions, or cl the useial arts any where, except in the rudest state, and ol household manipulation- such an ugricultuial population wherever it does or may exist, is just one remove above barbarian and nomadic lite. What we are looking after is progress?progress in production, in capital and wealth, Htid in r< flnenn nt, comlort, aud civilization. For thia, it is necestury tout capital and labor should bu lully employed, and in the most piofitaltle niannar ; and what I mean to say is, that, even in thu counliy, limited as it i? both in means and hands, there it Hill abucdance of capital aud labor tor new business, promising profitable returns, without drawing oil'or di iniahing in the lead ilegr* e, the amount of either which la profitably applied to existing employments. This is in the lace ol the assumption ot thesp<ctiiative writen on Political Economy; but I hold the fact, us I have stated it, to be incontiovertible. 1 deny, thereloie, altogether, that iu any quarter where we should naturally look for examples?in any of tha baling countries ol F.urope or in our own?do tacts warrunt the idi a that it is the iiMurul and ne.cesaary tendency ol capital and labor to keep themselves lully employed in production, ami jl way a to the best advantage; and so that no ne w employ m< nt cun he undeiUken at anytime, unless men go to it moved by a kind of animal instinct, without disturbance and injury to existing business. The deposition and desire to loake the mostol capital and industry arc naturul enough, end may be admitted; but Inl" enn is noi s'j csnuiuiy aiiuuieu. iu ririj tuuiiu; there are serious impediments in the way. Individuals with the b> st intentions <4o not ulwaj s choose the right path to personal rtn cent; w hru they do, their interest is often very fur from being identical with thu of the society. Then iudustiy m very slow if left to itself, in adopting division! ol labor, and arrangmg itself in department*, with any thing like due proportion between the n'Vi ral ordera of productive industry,without which it cannot be profitably employed; and finally, such division of labor, and Mich propoition in empl y mi nis are impossible to be establish) d and maintained in any cnun tr) having foreign commercial relation!, which nauif leave* nil things io their natural course, while it ia sub. )e t to the lull opeiation tiud etftct of the commercial regulations ot other countries But 1 come now to lay something more directly?it cannot be much, after the time f nave already occupied?on the particular topic to which 1 have an often had occasion already to allude. 1 refer to what I have called the law of mutuality and ol proportion between the several departments of industry in society, as indispensable to the proper development of it? productive energies, and in order to attain the highest success in production. When we understand what thia law in, wn shall see at onco the necessity lor it, and we shall are how lmpossiblw it is that capital and industry in uny country should be fully tmployed, or employed In the most advantageous manner, without it. I shall treat this point wi h reference exclusively to its practical bearing on our own countiy. 1 have stated already from Dr. Smith's work oti the wealth ol nat ions,the elemental principli s on which production and the increase of capital and wealth depend; ai d trom these the law ol mutuality and proportii.n to which I have referred, is derived. The grand n ijuisite for met easing the prtductive powers oi a community is, what is usually called division of labor Dr. Snutl/s di raoiiMrution of this | oint is enough to immortalize his hook Out there can be no division of labor, or nrne of any account, without tha power of elchanging one piodnct tor atiothei, in other words, there must, tie a demand, or mulket, lor the products ot divided labor, and such division <>1 lalorwill be exactly limited by the demand or market. All this, too, is clearly damonstraled by Smith His thu effect of this demand or market, in supporting and limiting all division ot labor, or diversity ol employment, and ol consequenco in supporting and limiting production, fiom which the ntces. sary law ol mutuality and proportion in the grand divisions, the great departments of industry, iadedared- All surplus production is valueless without a demand or maiket. If A and B, two individuals occupying together an isolated position, ate both engaged In producing food, and each produces for bimsell all lie requires, then, if either of thran produces more than be can consume, the surplus is of no value, because there is no demand for it, it cannot be exchanged. But if A can produce food enough for himself and B too,and B, relieved fiom proiueiug food,can make cli.thing enough tor himatll and A also, then an exchange can be made, and a new comlort is provided lor both. The surplus tood of A, and the surplus clothing of B have exchangeable value; and il A ami I) can primm each a still further surplus, so a? to supply food and clothing to C, another individual, in exchange lor his (C/s) labor in constructing dwellings lor thetn an well us lor himself, then this further comfort ol a shelter may ba obtained, and the little bund itself be enlarged. And it is easy to seehew this band or company may continue to grow and expand on the saina tttims, swelling m numbers, in comlorts, aixl in capital and wraith, until it should become arfreat and powerful nation. But what I want should be observed particularly. Is this?how easily the u hole < conotnicai structure of 'his community may be disturbed and deranged, so as effectually to arrest all growth and expansion, la the case I have supposed, there is a certain mutuality and propor. tion between the parties A. raises his own food, hut gets his clothing and Ins dwelling from B and C. by exchange. B. makes hi* own clothing but gets his tood and dwelling 'rom A. aud C C- constiucts his own dwelling, but gets liif food and clothing liom A. and B. But sup^e B and C , in addition to their cither labor,insist upon raising their own food, instead ol taking that produced by A., it is evident that the previous mrangemint must be wholly iirokeu up, and general confusion must ensue. A. loses the demand lor ull the surplus food he producee, which becomes valueless? B losea A. as a cuxtoiner for so much r?f his surplus clothing, and C. loses th? m a s customer* tor lo much of the piuducts of his labor. And if this continues, each must be thrown back upon consuming what his own hands and >kill can produce, and nothing more. Lilemay be supported in this way, after a fashion, hut there can be no improvement,no advance. Exchange, mutuality and proportion must bo again istahliahed. aa ihe ouly means ol making a forward movement. And as t is with A B. and C. as individuals, so it is with A. B. m l C as re'pieseiiting the gieut departments ol industry in a s ciety er natien. Three principal classes may be legjrded, and usually are. as compi i?ing all thela'iorof i mtion, which is set in inotiou by all its capital. Those vi o ateemployed in pioducing the rude produce, food lid materials, n quired tor the use and consumption of he society ?those employed in manufacturing and pi eiaritig ?ucii iude produce for use and consumption, and hose employed in cariying and making the necessary 'xchanges, both ol the tu.te and prepared produce. For ihortm ^Mbey may be named, as they commonly are, houi|h ln? an impettect enumeration, the Agricultural, Vtunulartui ing, and Commercial classes This diversity >t' employment iu the society, taken together, is neressu* y to success and progress in piodtiction, Ju?t as division *1' In ,|, unv III cle blBUCh Of >u*iti('ta?ax in the manufacture ol |>in? lor example. If *Upposeotir aociety to he i<alote?l, ?' ahilleeeat )nce, that neither can exint without the other* ? Smith ?et? thin mutter in a cImr light?" Unleaa a capital wua rtnplo) ed in larniabiug rude produce to a certain de<rte o( abundance, neither manufacture* nor trade of any kind could exi*t. Unlem a capital waa employed in inniitifac'uring lhat i>art of thetude produce which require* a good Ileal of reparation, befor* it can be lit for uie and coniumi'lioti, it would ue?er be produced, bo* cauar there could be no demand lor it. Unicia a capital wa? emiiloye,l in tran?|iornng either the rude or nmnu.1-lurid produce from th? place* where it ahoundato ho?r \kh. re it ii wanted, no n.ore of either could h? | ro'u 'rd thin was naceaaary lor the comuinption 01 ibo nighborhood." Each ol the?e uiel hod* ol rmploy if g c?|>iil,he dei 1 area,' i* e**eutially BcCeaxaty,either to ih? rantnee or eitennlon of the oihwit, or to 'he geottial convenincyol the society. In theie three div i*ion*,or d? | ailment*, hen, we ?ill luppoae, and the *uppo?l?ion i* accurate Hough lor our print nt |iur|?ti'-all the capital and ibor ol the aocitty which can be applied to prodtic00, muit be employed. And il auch a tocieiy

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