Newspaper of The New York Herald, June 29, 1844, Page 1

June 29, 1844 Tarihli The New York Herald Gazetesi Sayfa 1
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if i : TH E> *1' , f , Tal, IIW.WM* ta. IfN. HR CLAY'S SPEECH, Dflivrrrtl in thr City of Eulrub, April I Silt, Mil. FYitmis and h\Umu> CUixtnt, Imiu? and UrntUmot, at JSartk Carolina A long cli'Tithrd obrct el my hear' i* < < om plUhed. I hiii at your Capital and in li - innfat ?t Von. 1 have looked forward to thia my time viMI to ' North Carvliu, with auioee ffidtri. i high expectation* of <re it <r.,t ; I am happy to any tint my loaile,t uiiticiiaiu.ua have been more th,n realized. Wherever I have pj*??d f on my way to your city wherever I h?ve an>,>pr<!, at the de|xu? of Milroad". in country, town or v.t U*i> it iii? a K.ien litw _ i.. ...j I M?v? I fi.'JU' II. I irji^ 111' * warmest demonstrations of respect mid ^ tod: 41, from all partiea, Iroin both ?>* ?, an J trom ?< r? age ; but no where have 1 mat, ou where had I ri pacted such a distinguished reception, ?nd sui-h rnthusiasuo greeting-an those wnii wln< li n.v urn* i * here has turn attended. 1 am rejoiced to he with you this day, to stand surrounded t?y you in the bhadeofthiamagnificentCnpii.il, a nkliwa? inentof your public liberal ty and tame ; and while iny grateful heart ha* been warmed, by the thrilling grasp of eacli outstretched hand, ami my eye cheered by theainilea and beauty ol the Ian* daugti tera of North Oaro ma, who have honored the ?>c caaion by their presence, 1 cannot but rejoice, and I do rejoice, that 1 am an American citizen; and iwel that, though far removed frotn my immediate home and friends, yet 1 tread here the a. il <>t my own country, am in tbe midst of my friends,aud rv.uatrymen, and can exclaim in the Unguaga ot the Scottish bard, that this, "tlnaia iiiJecd my . own, my native land." I own that 1 have been truly and greatly, but agreeably surprised I had expected to find some hundreds, perhaps a faw thousand* assembled here to meet and greet me. 1 did not expect to wun?-s? such an outpour.ng. I did not expect to sec the whole State congregated together ; but here it is! k From the mountain* and from the seaboard?Ironi the extremities and from the centre, I see around me the sons and the daughters of the good old North Stutp 1 A SiHtH winch Hmk enrnrd tins ? sti? triable title by the purity, simplicity, and efficiency w oi Us institutions?by its uniform patriotism un<l inflexible virtue ; by Us quiet, unobtrusive, and uuambitious demeanor, and by its steady and linn attachment to the Utuon, <d which it is one of the - surest props and pillars?a noble title, of which, although it is not proud, its sister Slates inny wed envy and emulate her. For these h? arty manifestations of your respect and esteem, I thank you all. I thank my Itir couutrywonieii lor gracing this meeting by their countenance and presence. ? I tharik your woithy Chief Magistrate for the genev roua manner iu which he has represented your hospitality. I thank the various Committees for the kindnets and attention which I have received at their hands, and particularly the Committee who did ins the honor to meet me on the borders o( yon: State, and escort me to this city. Iam here, fellow-citizens, in compliance with your own summons. Warm and repeated invitatations to visit this State, asd my own ardent desire to visit it, to form the acquaintance and share the hospitalities of its citizens, have brought me in your presence. I have come with objects, exclusively social and friendly. I have come upon no political errand. I have not come as a propagandist. I seek to change no man's opinion, to shake * no man's allegiance (o his party. Satisfied and contented witn the opinions which I have formed upon public aflairs, after thorough investigation and lull deliberation, I am willing to leuve every other man in the undisturbed possession ot his opinions. It is one of our great privileges, in a free country, to form our own opinion! upon all matters of public concern. Claiming the exercise of it for myself, 1 aril ever ready to accord to others equal freedom in etercising it lor themselves. But, inasmuch as the manner in which we may exercise the rights appertaining to us, may exert, reciprocally, an influence upon each other, tor good or for evil, we owe the mutual duty oi considering fairly, fully, and disinterestedly, all measures ot public policy which niaO he nronnwd for minntinn * Although, fellow-citizens, I have truly said that I have not come to your State with any political aims or purposes, I am aware of the general expectation, entertained here, that I should embrace the occasion to ntake some exposition of my seuI * timents and views 111 respect to public affairs. I do not feel at lihertv to disappoint this expectation.? And yet I must declare, with perfect truth, that 1 have not and never had any taste fer these public addresses. 1 have always found tbein irksome and unpleasant. I hava not disliked public speaking, but it has been pubfc speaking, in legislative hulLs, on public measures affecting the weltare of iny country, or before the tribunals of justice. It has been public speaking, in which there was a precise and well defined object to be pursued, by a train of thought aud argument, adapted to its mtainment. Without presuming to prescribe to auy body else the course which he ought to pursue in forming his judgment upou political parties, public measures, and the principles which ought to guide us, 1 will state injr own. In respect to (tolitical patties, ol which I have seen Many, in this country, during a life which is now considerably protracted,! believe in the main, most of them think, or have persuaded themselves to believe, that they are aiming at the happiness of their country. Their duties and their inieiests, well understood, must necessarily urge thorn to promote its welfare. They are, it is true, often deceived, deceived by their own passions and prejudices, and still mors by'interested demagofues, who cioak and conceal ilitir sinister designs, olitical parties, according to my humble opiuiou of their legitimate sphere of action, ought to be regarded ao nothing more than instruments, or means I 'subordinate, but important instruments or means in effecting the greut purposes ut a wise adminm traiiou ot government; highly useful when not factious and controlled by public virtue and patriot issi; but, when country m lost sight of, and the interests ot the party brcoma paramount to the inter csts ol the country, when the government is seized I by a party aud is not administered for the benefit ol i the people, and the whole people, but to advance the purposes, and selfuli aims of iieelt, or rather ol Sin leaders, then is such a party, whatover may be the popular name it may assume, highly detrimental and dangerous. I am a whig, warmly attached . to the party which bears that rrspecied name, front a thorough persuasion that its principles and policy are best calculated to secure the happiness hiui | prosperity of our common country: but, if I be(tieyed otherwise, il I were convinced that it sought ' party or individual aggrandizement, and no^ the public goo , 1 would mstHDtly arid lorever abandon it, whatever might be the consequences to mysell, J or whatever the regrets which 1 might leel in separating Irom veteran friends. My opinions upon great and leading measures ol 1 public policy have become settled convictions, and I* 1 am a whig because that party seeks the establishment of those measures. In determining with which of the two great parties of the country, I ought to be connected, 1 liuvebeeu governed by a fall con aid-ration, and fair comparison, of the tendency oi titer respective principles^ measures, conduct ana vievs. There is one prominent and characteristic /difference between the two parties, which.cmin?nt 'ly disiingiitrlies them, and winch, it there were no oiher, would be sufficient to decide my judgment. 1 And that in, the reelect and deference uniformly { displayed by the oil >, and tlie disregard and contempi exhibited by the other, to the constitution,to b the luws and to public authority. In a country, Xi where a free ami self-government is established, it ' should be the pleaaure, as it is the bounden duty,of every citiaento stand by and uphold the constnutio i and laws, and support the public authority; be' cause they are his coustitutiou?his laws, and the (pnblic authority emunates from his will. Having I concurred, hv the exrroiae of his privileges, in the Ladoption of the constitution, and in the passage ot f the laws,any outrage or violation attempted of either Kought to be regarded as an otlenee against hims- lt, in offence against the majesty of the people. In an irbitrary and absolute government, the subject may uve some excuse tor evading the edicts and ukases jf tnc monarch, because they are not only promulated, without consulting his will, but sometimes .gainst the wishes and the interests of the people, n that *pecies ot government, the power of the tayonel enforces a reluctant obedience to the law. tVilh * free people, the tact that the laws are their . laws, ought to supply, in a prompt and voluntary rally to the support of the public authority, a torce more peaceful, more powerful, and more reasonable than any derivable from a mercenary soldiery. It i* far trom my intention or desire to do the least injustice to the party to which I am opposed: ioutl think, that in asserting the characteristic differ ence between the two parties which 1 hnvr done, 1 am lully borne out by tacts, to some ef which,only, on thin occasion, can I reter, and these shall all be il 'of a recent nature. II The first, to which I shall call your attention, has occiirn d during the present session of Congress. The variety in the mode of electing members to (the House of Hepresentativesol the United States, 'some being chosen by whole States, and others by I separate districts, whs long n subject of deep and . general complaint. It gave to th>: I*tatfHunequal f I jiowei it the councils ot the nation. Mississippi or Mi |wew Hampshire, for example, by a general ticket, K i securing the.etoction of it* msmbars to lb* ileus* E NE K N wni ?u? *, all of one political party, might O'Muif more power, in that llmiae, than the Slate ot Ns? Y?>h, winch, alaiting its member* by di? tret-, n< (lit re am an equal or nearly an equal numlter ? ( men her* ot both the part tea. Accordtn| t.? the general ticket ayatem, it ia iinpomuble thai ihe elective lr tnrlnae can be riereurd with the ante MMtMNI and judfoewt ? < under itie diatrtcl ay?iein 'it f elector cannot poaaoa the same op i" 'inoujr, ucuer inc ?..ie hi a* unuer ttir oilier, u! brtoniinf ininiiiilrd wiik ami u-certaining the >?)?eily ami fidelity of the candidate |<?r hi? ml Inge An elector, rea.i.'.i * in our extreme ?.l the -hate, cannot he preauui. <1 to know a candidate living at a distance (rum him, perh..|c at the other I rnne By th'geisril ticket, the minority in a Mate i? completely NHothneij Fr>m three, arm other viei? ot thr subject, it haa l>r?n long a pi trioiic wiah entertained that ihere ehould lie aoim uniform mode, hoth of tlrctiue members to ihr Hotter of K*pre?euicfc*e? and t housing elector# al President aud Vira Pwaidctit. I f-eollect well, aem# twenty feart ago, when puliltc pinion appearrd to be almost unanimous utMin thia subject. U ell, the la?t Whig Congress, in order ! preV'-nt the abawa, and to correct the inequality arising out ol the diverae mode* ot elertiug inrapiera ol the lioiiae ot Hepreaentativea passed an act requiring that it ahoul i be untlorm rod by district# Thi? act wo in conformity with an alptcsc giant <d p.. ?rr contained hi the constitution of the I'mied St a tea, whu I, declare* tha' "the iniiea, place*, and manner ol holding election* lor Senator*, and Representative*, ahall Iw pre cubed in each Stste by tbe Legislature thereof j but, the Gong rest may, at any time, by law, mak> or alter *uch regulation*, except a* to the place* ot chooaing Senator# " W itli that reasonable, equal, and ju?t act of CungrrM, every Whig State, vtioae Legislature assembled in tune alter it* passage, strictly complied, and laid off their reaper!tve State* into districts accordingly Hut the lour Stale#, with I teinocratic Legislatures, of (eeorgia. Mtawta tyM, Miwouri, anil New llam,tslii(r, r< fused to conform to the law, treated it with contemptuou* neglect, and aufl-red the rlectioM for m-tnbere oi ihe Hoitac of Representative* to proceed, in total disregard of it# provisions Tin* w*a a new *(>e ciea ol nullification, not lea* reprehen-iblr than that which was at riiiptrd formerly in anoili i Si ite, though admitting ?d a more easy .rod peace ful remedy. That remedy waa to retnae to allow the members, returned from the four sutea to take llieir Seats in the House ot Representative*. which they liu.l no cnaatituiinunl or lrgal unlit to occupy ThutiiuMtioo thr prrrrni llou.'t ?> Represenu lives had to di c'de Kut it w.is now predicted, long before they He*em!.led, confidently piedieted, .Inn tin* members trom the lour refractory Stales, wnuld be allowed to lake their seals, the couMitulion and the Uw notwithstanding. Why *<m it so predicted 1 Wan it not because it wm known, Irom the general character and conduct of the dominant party, in the llouse, that it would not hernial to trample under foot both law and cnnotitution, it necessary to the accomplishment of a party object1 Accordingly, the question recently came up in the House, and the members Irom the lour Ktsieswrre admitted to their seals. And what,le|low ciiisena, do you sup|?o*e was the process of reasoning tiy wlueh this moat exttaordinary result was brought about! Congress you have seen is invested with unlimited power to make regulations as to the times, places, aud manner of holding elections fot representatives, or to alter those which might have been previously made by the State Legislatures There is nothing in the grnnt ol the power, which enjoins upon Congresa to exercise the whole ol it, or none. Considerations o| obvious convenience concur in lesving to the several States themselves, the fixation of the times and places of holding those elections. In that, each Slate may he govern* d b> its sense of its own convenience, without tnjurious ly affecting other States. But it is different with the manner of holding elections, that is, whether it be by general ticket, or by ihe district system. If some Mates elect b> a general ucket, it gives to them an undue nilvmi Cage over those States which elect by the distiici system. Thsniiiinsr.thsssfon, of holding elections was a fit subject, and the ouly fit sulipct contained in the gr-int of power, far Congressional le gislation. If Congress had legislated beyond thai it would have overreached thr convenience anc necessity of the case. Kut the dominant party, u the present House of Representatives, have strange ly ai-Bumed, that Congrtus could not execute a par of the granted power without the whole. Ac cordirg to their logic, the major docs not inr!u<h the minor. In their view Government cannot exr cute a part ot u power wnh wtncti it i!> rnirueieu without it executes the whole of h power vestr* in it. If tins piinciple he true, wlieu uM to * part ef the Constitution, it would be equally true it its application to the w hole constitution ; but then are many pans ol the constitution that never hav* been, and, probably, never will be executed. Ai.?l if the doctrine of the dominant party, in the Hons, of Representatives, be sound, all the |hw? enact* n by Congress since the commencement of the (o vernmeiit are null and void, because Congress h o not executed all the powers of government with whicli it ia entrusted. The doctrine, applied to th* enjoyuiant of private property, would restrain i< nun from using any part of his property, units* In used the whole of it The case of the New Jersey election is lamihai with everybody. There, the whig members w h* presented themselves at Washington, to take then seats, bore wiih lliem tlm highest credentia s,ond*-t the great seal of tneir State, demonstrating then right to occupy them. They had been legularlt declared una returned elected members of ih* House of Representatives, by the r* gular aulhon ties, and accordn g to the law- of the Slate ot NVw Jersey. Agreeably to the uniform usage,which ha<J prevailed in that House from the commencement * i he Government, and according loth*- usage wind prevails in every representative body, they had t iglit to demand to he admitted to their seats, .in* *o hold and occupy them, until any obieciion which might exu-t against theni, should be sab * pienilv investigated. In the c.ise ol the lour State* ilready noticed, it was important to the interests ol he dominant party, in order to swell their rity, that the members returned should be nllowe* 'o take their seats, although elected contrary t* aw. In ihe New Jersey case, it was important t< he dominant party to enable it to retain 'Is majo rit to exclude the whig membeis, although return d according to law. The decision, in l?'<ih casewas adapted to the exigency of party in'erest, it utter contempt, h?-th of constitution and law; an* it is worthy of observation that, in the derisim against the whig members of New Jersey, meirihen who boast of being emphatically the patrons an? ueienuers in naie name, conrurreu in iminpnnt underfoot the law* and authorities <>l that Slate. Io connexion with the subject ou which I ?m now addressing you, the niauner of admission o Michigan into the Union la worthy ol notice. Ac cordingto the usage which hud uniformly prevail*-! prior to the admission of the states of Michigan am Arkansas, a previous act of Congress was passed authorizing the sense of the people ol the termor) '<> be taken, in convention, and regulating the elrc tion of menibem to (hat body,limiting their choici io citizens of the United Slates residing in the trr ritory. Michigan, without the anncuoii ol a pr? vious act of Congress, undertook, upon her sole hii (hority, to form a constiiution, and demanded admission into the Union. In appointing members t< that convention, a great number of aliens, as wel as citizens of the United States, were allowed ti vote, against the earnest remon.-AjWices of many resident citizens. Under these ciirumatanre*, she applied to Congrsen to be admitted into the Union. No one questioned or doubted that she was entitled to be received, whenever she presented herself rrgulsrly and according to law. But it was objected against her admission, that she had assumed tsnrt against all usage, without the authority ol Congress, and that contrary to the Consult! tion and laws of the United States, she had per milted aliens to partake of the elective Irani-hise The danger was pointed out, of allowing aliens minaturalized, nnd without renouncing their alls glance to foreign sovereigns und potentates, to share in that great and inestimable ptivilege. Bui all objections were unavailing?the dominant par ty, under the hope of strengthening their interests, tn spite of all irregularity, and in contravention 01 law, admitted Michigan us a State into the Union In intimate connexion with tins case, the auhieci of Dorrism may be noticed. Khode Island ban ai existing government of long duration, under which her population had lived hHppily and prosperously It had carried her triumphantly through the war ol the revolution, and borne her into the Union, aa om el the original thirteen independent sovereign states I iiiler the operation of if, the people of no State u the Union, hi proportion to her population, hail die played more valor, patriotism and enterprise. Don did not ft id his ambitious aspirations antticienih gratified under this venerable government, nnd lie undertook to subvert if. Asserting the principle that every people have a right to alter, modify and change their government whenever they think pin l>er?an abstract princip'e which, with cau.io;i? li Mirations, may he tritt?without consulting ihe er t iblialied government and the public authorities, he undertook to beat up for recruits, to hold irregu'at elections, at which persons qualified and unqual. bed, dead and living, were pretended to have voted, W YC IEW YORK. SATURDAY mid thus securing a heterogeneous majority, lie proceeded to form a new constitution, tind to Bet up it new government. In the rnrati time, the legitimate mid regular government proceeded in operation, and prepared tosuaUin itaeQ nr,d put down the inntirreclionaiy proceeding. Dorr Hew to arms and collected a military force, aa irregular and heterogeneous as Ins civil majority had been. But on die flint approach of military force, on the pun of the legitimate and regular government, Dorr took to !*?.? J nn.f lauanriioliiiiclu luutilnir III J lllnf. . I. ncri. miU ?vw, .? ....w0 ley confederates to tare as ihey might. Now, fellow citizens, what has been the conduct of the two parties in respect to this insurrection, which, at one lime, seemed to be so threatening 1 The wing*, every where, I believe, to a titan, have disapproved and condemned the movementoi Dorr. It bus been lar otherwise with our opponents.? ' Without meatoi g to its-ert that the whole ot them countenanced and supported Dorr, every body know* that all the sympathy and encouragement which he has received, have been among ihein. knd lhey h ive in roduced thn mibjert into the preI'n' House oi Bepnti atari ves. We shall see what ihey will do wiih it. Vou can readily coiiirrhend and leel what would he the tft'ecia and 'on?et|uetices ol Dorru-in here at the South, it Itorri.-in were predominant. Any unprincipled adventurer would have nothing to do but to collect tround him a mosaic majority, black and white, liens sod citizens, young and old, male mid fema e, oveiturn existing government* and set up new ours at his plea ure or caprice! Whateaithly eruruy lor life, liberty or property, would remain, I a proceeding so lunula with contusion, disorder od lueiibordiua'ion, were tolerated and sanctioned ! Then there ia Repudiation?that dark and foul ?(?ot upon the American name and character? how came it there 1 The stain has been put there >v the democratic majority of the Legislature of VlirtM?sij>|>i I'uder special plena and colnrdhle pretests, which any private man of honor and proiniy would scorn to employ, they have refused to ,..iv the ill hi" Hi linn .""Uif?u?*in8 couiracieu oy i|?r receipt ol .in vh!?* ( ex|>cnded wrhin the " cite ' The whig* ul (hit i'IhIi*, who are the principal tnx-iuying |K>rlion of the population, wiih remarkable unanimity, are in favor of preserving honor and good faiih hy a re-imbnraentent ot he drhl ; hut the d inocrulic majority persists in refuso g to provide lor it. 1 am lar Ironi charging tin ?'hol? ol the democratic party with this aha uefiil cnhlic fraud, (wrjietrati d f?y tlieir lireihren in the tale of Mi^tsMppi. Without the Slate, to their wnnr he it as id, most of till tit i1 isap|irove it, and within tiie State tliere are many honorable exeep Uoiia among the deiuoeru's Oihef example* might he cited to prove the destructive ami disorganizing tendency of the character, tendency and principlea ol the democratic party, hut these will aullice lor tins occasion. 1 he systems and measure* of public policy ot the two parties are contrasted and compared, the result will not he less favorable to the whig party. With the whig party there prevails entire concurrence as to the principlea mid measures of public policy which it rs|K>uees. In the other party we behold nothing but division and distraction?then principles varying at different tuiiesand in dillereni latitudes. In respect to the tunlf, while in sotm p aces they are proclaiming that free trade ta the true democratic doctrine, and the encouragement ol domestic industry federal heresy, in other partr if the I nion tiiev insist that the democrats are lioM to he relied upon to protect the induati "1 the country, and that the whig opposed to it That is a great practical and ad'm rative que* lion, in reaped to which there is .iy now prevailing among the Wings throu^ t the whole I nion, a degree of unanimity hk -cedented as it is gratifying. From New Oil to thin nlace, I have conversed with hundreds m,nnd I fiavc not met with a solitary one, who do a not assent t? the justice and expediency of the principle of a taMil tor revenue, with discriminations lor protection On thiainterming<|urMion, fellow citizens, it is m> purpose to Rtldreas yon, with the utinoal freedom atitl sincerity, and with as little reserve un if 1 wcr? before an audience in the folate ot Kentucky. _ have long given to thia Huhjrct the most itnpaitiu and deliberate consnleration, ot which my mind i capable. I believe tliut no great nation ever ha j existed, or can exist, which does not der ve williii , itfwll, essential supplies ot food and raiment and lb means ol detence. 1 recollect no example to til , -ontrary in ancient or modern times. Althoug Italy did not itself alford all those supplies to iiicivi Konie, the deficiency was drawu from her tubjn ,'at?d provinces t ?rcat Britain, although her com llierce rOColli|MM?? the world, supples tiersr i ; mainly Iroiu the little i-hxnd umirr lor imiucuui tomiiuon. Limited and contracted as it is, n lur nishea her with bread and provis oes tor the w hnl , year with ttie exception only ol a tew days; am her riiauuiactures, not < ul> supply so abundance o raiment and means of iltlrncr, but stTord a vss -orpin* lor expatriation to foreign countries , In coiuudenng ttie policy ol imioduriiig snd e* tshlishing mnuuiacturis in our country , it hsa at aavsspja sr?d to me ibst we should take a brosi mil extensive view, looking to aesaona el war. a well a* peace, and legarding the luture, as well a 'he past <iud the present National existence is no 0 he measured by the at?n> aid U individual ille lint i* is e<puaily true, both ol nation* and of i .di / duals, thai, whi n it la net reentry, we iiiua ?uli nit to temporary and pressm priva ions,-for tfo -ake ol future si d per'ii?o? ill Itenefil* l.ten if I were true, su I think I shall be able to show it n not, that the encouragement <d <1 no stir insm. lactures would lifullili r some ssi nhces, ihey woulr i?e coni|M*nasi* it, and mole than eounisrbaiHiicrii by u'tllliste aCVslllsf'? secured, romhiuil.g Icgelli r seasons of p- ace snd ol wat. If it were lim- llial ib< ashcy ol protection enbsticed 'lie |>rice ol ronitio 1 iti-w, H would be tound thai thru cheapness, pre /ailing in a iime ol (ware, wins lite foreign anpph ingKt be ojiei! to ue, would tie no <pn *sl< nt tor lie learness in a pe-fiod id wat, w In n il.at suppl would be rut tl irom us. I am nol old en? usli n lecolleci ibe euHeiinpsol the soldiery and iHipol.i ion ol ihr l ulled Mates, during ihe wal ?d lildi a-ndtnee. but history and naitiiion o il u* w i < ihey were ; ihey inlotin u* what lives were aarnh ced, what discomloita ex-sird, what hardship* ou inciad and unshod soldiers bore, what enterprise were irtarded or paralyzed hven, dun g the lar war, all ol u?, who are old enough to remember p snow whaidiHit utiles, nod,at what great cost, ih if ceanary cloihurg and no so* of defence were oh lamed. And who doea nut feel conkr ious pro! l tnd pairiolic saliefaclion thai Iheae sull-lings, i, , ?ny tuiuie war, will tie prevented, or grestly alley led, by ihe prt gr> -s w ho h nur iniaal manularture I iiavc already made. It ihe coin y ol en<ouraglh| hem wisely, moderately, and t-i'aiaiy. t>a peree vered in, the day in not distant when, testing upoi our own inlerual resources, wr may be ptrfscih , -ure of an abuiirlsat supply of all >>ur n- re?mi wants, aud in this rrapsci, put for* ign power* sin toreisn w ar* at detisiice I know thai, Iroin ex 'rente sutlrring and ihr n?re??i?v of ilie rase, in. 'lulaciurrs, in Ihr long run. would srow and auslsii hcnisrlvsr ? 'In u r k. ... ?n unaided lul.iut > hint w uoi I?*sim u> n-e, io?Un<] -tint to w u!k ; tml, ill both ln'Ulin, |rr?l g?i|> II may b<* atrotded. and amtatanee dni?e.i from I lie kmdnraai I U>e |>i rental bo?i Thr ad?Mi4ri uimni Iiuim ih? <i?mim? of tin labor ol thr population ol a r .entry i?mi n 411 IrM lo ami lwli>| iiiarkilarli upon I lint k ik< id vr-Mage r| ? hi'in#, a* well as loir 14a w?A?1a .a equally numleet ; but ihr ,mmf market i #a oily tir |MMW rrt by <1 > j?>ru id m h?iif a, at hoiM? an well aa ant* d one portion ?l t'ir po.atiatioa ?d a c aa ry (<r ra <ng> il in thr busiin m of m*nwU' 'w 11 m ? iii '!?< ! i a nn a 'I a <4 naba ate nee Irtna thr agrienttura ,iro(lurl? III the country in r?< haiige tor Ibrir I. I tea Thr rfn I nt ll ar me- Hal r kr!?? *- a M bra rfii'iai lo bath nartira ?iol toa wt??. ? c ?u if Thr err at law, alndt n gulatea U?e i*i#e* i.i coininoditire, that id ai| <y and dem?a,i !- m? iij.j.ly rlrrrda ha drm e p. * la , H >oa (inland ricred thr aopply , thr p? >. e " ' iiw will l?r IouikJ ta t?a m?annh!y trwa Aa aug 'nrnlatiou i.t *u|t'ty ' benefit ial i? il.r . . i... i 1llt,t by telabiiehing niaiml ) l nf'-a the 1'atieei .Stater, mb additiouai ?t>,?piy nnralrd Mu*, aa other principle, nnivrraallp a?in.;i?<: i? he h ti rial to consumption, in the prim ., ?e ?d i *?;?!. ik?u If Kurope alone "unity the Amaru .a m?aim- . ol manufactures, hurbpe will ea;?y a ???? ?' uly i that aiipply That inonopole, n a tine, ?<U b? subject to the eoninetilioa which may r?.a? a i a rope ; bot it wonld ! * Mill re?i irted i? that ra.n rtitma. Hy the ma mce of ma nut a terrain tin United 'lan-a, an additional compete mm raali-l -ind thianrw cotri|irtitor ' iini tbr A nn ra* m < kef, contending t->r it wnh the ,.tr?n hn.r > Competitor*. The reauit la, an in. reew in I t ie .? <rrgale of Mifylf, ud a conarij irnt teduriion ?l .nice. Hut it ha* barn argued, that the fabrn a man mac turrit in Arn-rica take the place only of an many which had been bcli.re nianuUctuml in Lwi'i* that there mm. greater CCiOMimptlon mc tiar^a- n< oi I he home manufacture than won lit r? without it; end that it ta imiitalrnal to i.o container whether the theatre ?( ni?uu factitrr be Kurope or the I nitrd >tatr? Be I think tinm it aa rnrrmrly rnntrae'ed and Una eiuua vinw ut lua auujeet I ouaunif Itnii m great* IRK II MORNING, JUNE 29. 18<! iu consequence of the exigence of manufactures ! t at home They create a demand for labor, winch r would not exist without them, and the employment of lahor creates an ability to consume, which ? would not exist without it. How could the Amen- i can labor, employed in munutaclures at home, eii|>- t ply its consumption of European commodities, if it t were deprived of that employment! What means i of purchase would it possess ! It is in vain to point i

o agiiculiure; for every department of that is al- i ready producing super-abundantly It cannot be i miu.lwtnairl tllilt tits. pillar AUtKf (ti the rfl*tlil<!?* (1 ! pric? of cotton is the excen? of production. The < ptice of it w?uit rise, if less were produced, by di- i vemng a portion of the labor empi? J< d in us cul- i ttvation to some oilier brunch of t dustty. Tr.ia new pursuit would (u nish sew subjects of exchange, and ihoi- who might embark in it, as well as those who would continue in the growth ol cotton, would be both benefitted by mutual exchanges. Tlie day will come, and is not f r di-tant, when the Sou h will feel an imperative necessity voluntarily to make such a diversion of 11 portion of iis labor. Considering the vast water power, and oilier facilities of manufacturing, now was tug and unemployed, at the South, and itB possession, at home, i ot the choice of the, raw material. I believe the day will come when the cotton region will be the greatest manufacturing region ol cotton in the | world. ! The power of consuming manufactured articles J being increased, til const querice ot the dnmepric ' establishment ot manufacture?, by the wages ot 1 labor which they employ, and by the wealth which 1 they create, there is an increase also in the use anu ' consumption of cotton and other raw materials 1 To the extent ol that increase ih?* cotton grower ' in directly and positively benefitted by the location ' of manufactures at home instead ol abroad. ' Hut suppose it were true that the shifting to a oer- ' tain extent, of the theatre of manufactures, from ' foreign countries to our own, did not increase con- 1 sumption at all, and did not uugrnent the demand ' for cotton, there would be no just ground ot com- 1 plaint with the cotton planter, und the must that he " could say is, that it would he a matter o( indifbr ence to him. All that would happen to him would ' be, a substitution ol a certain number of American 1 customers lor an equal number ot European cu.? turners Hut ought it to be, can it be. a matter ol ' indifference to him, whether any portion oi his i'el 1 low-citizens in the United State? are in a state 11 } prosperity or adversity! It. without prejudu e to 1 liim, his ow n countrymen can ai quire a part of the ' wealth which urisesout (if the prosecution ol iiiuiiu- 1 Uciuring industry, insteud ol the foreigner, ought fie not to rejoice ut til Is it to liini :i matter of no 1 consequence tint a certain amount ol wealth, 1 created by manufactures, shall he in his own couti- 1 try, instead of being in foreign countries? If here, 1 its inHucce and t fleets will be tell, directly or in- I directly, in all the departments of humun business, 1 and in a greater or less degree 'null parts of the country. It becomes a clear addition to the sggre- 1 gate wealth of the nation, increasing in resources. 1 iiid forming a basis of taxation und revenue in 1 seasons of war or peace, if necessury. 1 Rut the advantage resulting from domestic tnanufuctures, in producing an American competition , with the European comj?etition, augmenting the supply ol manufactured articles, and tending consequently to a reduction of prices, is not the sole advantage, great as that is A double market is pro- j need both in the rut chute of fabrics for consumption, and in the *?/e of productions of agriculture And how superior is the home to any other market hi ih conditions of its proximity, us being undet our own control, and its exemption from the contingency of war! It has been argued, however, that we sell no more than we should do if we veie deprived of the home market. 1 have shown that I to he otherwise. The importance of opening new markets is universally admitted. It is an object of the policy of all nntiona If we could open a new market for 41)0,000 bales of cotton with any loretgn r power, should we not gladly embrace it? livery one owns the benefit w hich Hrisos out of various murk , els. Al! who reside in the neighborhood of lurgc I cities or rnurket towns, are sensible of the HdvunI t -ge. It is said that our manufactures absorb only about 400,000 bales of cotton, which is a very small part of the total crop. But suppose thbt were * thrown upon the market of Liverpool, already overslocked and glutted t It would sink the price far r below what u now is. France consumes slso about 400,000 bales. It the market of Havre were ch sed, ilid ihHt quantity were crowded into the market ol J Liverpool, would not the effect be ruinous to the | I cotton grower? Our American trihrket i* growing, II mniinlly increasing ; and, it ilie policy of the coun- i ry can orly become firmly fixed, the time wilM ' ? t i J- .L. .i? | ll'nir, I llrtVf in i IIIIII Ul v miiril mr lliilllil.'nituir in ntion in the United Slate* will exceed thai ol ! England I do not desire to see any market c losed, j ii ini-tie or foreign. I think it out true interest to hertsh arid cultivate all Hut I believe it to he our indiM-enrihle duty to afford projier and reasonable i rouragrment to our own. Hat n miixt he home in tnind that, although roton in hy far the must important of our agricultural r Toducts, it is not the only one. Where should we tind a tuatket for our Indian corn, it it were nm lor the existence ol our manufactured We should .heolutely have none My friend, Mr. Peltigrew, <*ho an* before me, can find no market for hie con a North Carolina, because his neighbors, like hint**-lf, are oi cupied in producing it. Hilt he meets Mth a food, sure and convenient market in Boston md Providence, and other northern capitals.? Where should we seek a market lor the flour, provisions and other raw agricultural produce noweonniiieif hy our manufacturers f If tfieir present btt in aa were destroyed, they would be rmployeo in in** Ive* in producing cotton. orn, provision . .ad mh- r agricultural produce, thus augmenting tin I'lHi.iiy, ami inevitably leading to u fttttlu r declun I (irice * 11 he? Seen contendrd ihat the effect of afloroint gal encouiagement to domestic luanufaciuies is, 0 enliaiioe the price of coiiimodities, and to impost > *? apon the rniiiNim r Ttns atgumeni has beei 1 thousand times refilled It has In en shown again and again, that tin ot almost e*?rv ancle, on which the systen I eni ouragement haa efleclually operal* (J, ha sen reduced to ihe con-inner And this waa the accessary cotiseuurnce ot tfiat law of supply urn lemaad, and that principle of competition, i< , ah en I have before adverted. It wm. foretold lont go l.y toys. f and oihertrirurla of the policy Hu. , i is in Vain that we appeal to facte. It l* in vail , hit we take up article by article, and comparing ofi-sent wriih former prices, show the actual and , gradual reduction. The tree trader haa mounted , '.ia hotiby, and lie has determined to spur and whi| imi on, rough shod, over all faei*. obstacles and ropedimerits that lie in Ins w ay It was but the nth I r day, I heard ot one of these free trade dealer.! <h rosing an audience, and depicting, III the mom 4aihiive and doleful terms, the extreme burdens ml oi>i">-aive (action* arising out of the aboim aula Tar If Why, says lie, fellow-citizena, every .or o| ii . that wri'1,1 shirt, I* compelled to pay it cut* a yard inure I t it ttian you otherwise co, n order to increase the enormous wealth , 1 in ; .* hi cnpn tlisia Aii old man in th? crowd, 4iMiily tfmirf, MM *nti ?r?rci*iy any thing dui I,," in. ?t ihr rliqarnl or-tor, and nrkrii , . ii1 h<>? 'hat could tw 1 lor, mvi hp, "I have h * i n on, thai coat nir only Z>% cent* per yard, ,11 I I -tumid hk* to know how 1 paid a duly of fc , itM? ** ' a'Tuoiia and indefatigable theorists, not I '? bold all fat ta and eiprrirM r in COIllt'llipt, t>Ul 1 l.ey air ottrrly inroM Mrii with tln-maelvca. At .... t,no, ney emtcavi rto rame the alarm that the I i f vnmid ii ,a end to all foreign romnterce, i aed th ra itryii f up our prinripul aource of revenue a i?t > a. it < tod h> i ,.?ne neo.ooaty to reaort to t ia tea and mSern >1 ta?at?>n In proceaa ol oe i .ar??f, their prediction* were falsified,and I .i ?.. )< f to produce an abundant rrveoau Tbeu, thef ahilie.?l their ground ; tne 'I rea,i ? .a i th-y, i* e.erri.iw i , the Tatill i? the tae t'.??>at, n nnui t?< at, in lorn t| II thev bad bate lakea the livable lo inquire, I hey might '!.?? na r'ti'ied that, a though lotg'alid I* I lie* frealeot n aoutai taring eat ton in the world, ii, ,tt,o?t .I, riU'tt, ,'i<1 variety, ahe lievetlbeleiKdra a a va?t reventr, from MMiMHI \ i, m in.* to j r> seat you, |e||ow riligene, with ' ?aat- **t v?eat id in a mtrmliagndprl The govt ?rai ent ? ?hr# io ria-nva arrtUm anioiinl i.| reve' aue i*i ? ?rrigi importe l^et ua aiiiipifbr ihe total ?m? nut of import a lo n* pput nat.taai mid the total ' laonal ggpiaai ot revenue t? be fined Imm it to i" * .>' iam iaat I# n at all material whether ilwi > M UUK.UUU be qeenl. m lbs limn id du< n,, >|naIi) I aver the ? a le tiaj.'tfbHbib. or that it be drawn from our In.MbAMbnr mof id the im|?ori?, leaving Ihe real |r?e of do IV I In p? nt of I art, rich ha* lieen tlw cr?* lor aee>r*i yeant la n<t( ? rorni>e neat ion Irruud. l-r itc da'v paid upon one article, by I he elements limn 4 iy of another article ' 1 akn the > a ear ng apparel ot a *>n? e ind.Vtduul, and auppoee 1 yog have a duty of f J to raiar u,hhi u ia it ot any eoeaeqnoeee to hou wbrtber you levy the wntde fti u,.oU ad pitta of h?a wearing apparel equally, or e?y it rii miv- iy upon ho eoat and hia ahirt, leav. * ing ttie i,that u aki tree f And if. b* auch iltei riI initial note an | ia?e dre-'tihrd, Wiltifint prejudice . to the rnnwinet, y n| < an ran*- Ut>, chert" I and Mtar itii daf arlig OfOatacturva, iMtvaoif tbu wsMth [ERA 14. ind | rudpentv, and inrouragn* the labor <>l the mtion, ought it not to I* d<'io* * Wf an-invited, by the pattnaM of tin doctrine >f free trade, to imitate the liberal example el tome )f the (Steal Kutot>eaii powers. Kriglulid, we are old, ia abandoning lirr restrictive policy, and idoptitiK the principle* i t tire trade LngUnd id?l>iii k the priuciple of Iree trade Wliy, where ire her corn liwal Th.ae law - which exclude an irttcle of prime necessity?the very bread ?hnh lUetalira human lite m inlet to > th til plobct ii lo English ajr:uultui? Ai d,on ihe m ale ntcie id American tobacco, Li glei il levna annual y an amount i f revenue equal to the *hi amount!! rlutie , levied Annual!* li> the L'ntn ' Si.t., i.pon ail the articb < I import in in all tin l< rem n? ti<>na ot the world, including Ei a ' ' 'I hat ta ner I rpe I rMde 1 Mlilt hk li>r flll.i i a t h \ - l ,1' e - Iy seen .1 State injur Irom one of li?T hi* functionaries, tempi, unrig iii biitrr inm*i I i??- Ann rtcan Tariff of lb-42, unit rnilin| ?i !i I' 1 .1 > . n tiwutictllg to tile World thai Frail! r steadily sdheird to the system of protecting Fn h loiiiisiiv ' Bii', fellow citizen*, I hnvr alrei \ niwrd yat (00 long 0.1 this uiteiesiiug topic, aid yet I li*vc scarcely touched 11. For imar thirty year* 11 li?a agitated the nation. 'J he subject lim beniargusd nd debated n th- ttsittirf tunes, 111 ev iy 1 01 i? t\aitle form It i? tune iliut tin- 1 olicy of ihr < nuniiy should become settled and fined Any s'..l adua'ment of it, whatever 11 im>y he, will b? far picerable to jierpetual VMCillalloo When once tie erninied, labcr, enicipiiac in d conn ?rce c?n m 'ommodute theiiibt Ivea uccordn giy lint in tionllv titling it, the tote rents ot the w note L uton, as well is nil it.- parts, should he duly w tuht d an'1 conn lered, III a patein.il alid Iraleinal s|l II. 1 lie tollederacy consists ol 26 ."Mates, hesidett territories, rnhracii'g ev. iy vaii'ty of pursuit, eve iy hrancli if huniaii industry. There may he an apparent, here is no real conflict lietw t en tin se tiiti rnfictJ nteresis. No one Stale, no one section, ran rc.ininthly expect or desire that the c< loiuou govern nent td the w hole should be administered,? xclu tvely accordtt g to its own |*Culmr opinion, or si is 10 advance on y its particular tntr rests, without egaril to the opitiiou or the tutetests ot cII otlo i iiirts. In resjiect to the Tarifl, there are two schools milling opposite and extreme doctrine*. Accmd tig to one, perlect Ireedom in our loreign ir.-.ds vith no or very low dutit p, ought to prevail Ac wiril inn l<ithe nllisr ihi- reatr l el I ve liollev oilL'llt. >n many articles, to l??* pushed, by a high mid tx irbitant Tariff, to the point ol absolute prohibition Neither party can hold itself up hii an unerring itantiitrd ol right and wisdom. Fallibility is the lot it" nil men, and the wisest know how lit le they do mow. 'J he doctrine ol' tree trade ih a concession o foreign powers, without an equivalent, to the irejudtce ol native industry. Not only without an equivalent, but in the face of their high dunes, re trictions and prolubiti mis upplted to American pro Jucts, to foreign powers, our nvuie, jealous ol oui growth, and anxious to impede our onward progress. Encouragement of domestic industry is a concession to our own fellow citizens, to those, whose ancestors shared m common with our ancestors, in the toils of the revo.utton; to those who have shared with lis in the toils and suflermgs ol uur day ; to those whose posterity are destined to -hare with our posterity in the (rials, in the triumphs tnd (lie glories that awuit tlieiu. h is a concession 10 those who are bone of our bone and tfesh ol o i He b, and who in some other beneficial form, do anise utid are ready to make rquivah lit concession i<> u*. It is still more; it is a concession by the whole to the whole ; lor every part ol the country posseet>< s a capacity to manufacture, and eveiy part ol the country more or less does manufacture Some par s have advan'ed further than others, but the progress i I nil is forward and onwanl. Again, I ask what is to be done hi this conflict of opinion between the two extremes which 1 have stated T Each believes, with quite as much confi (fence as the other, that the policy which In espouses is the beet lor the country. Neither lias.i right to demund that his pidgmeiit shall exclu stvely ptevail. What, again, 1 ask, iH to he done 1 Is compromise or reconciliation impossible 1 Is this glorious Union to be broken up and dissolved, Hiitl the hopes of the wot Id, which are cone nlrated in its fate, to be blunted and destroyed forever 1 No, lellow-citizens, no! The Union must be preserved In the name ol the people of this nolile old state, die first to unuouncc the independence of the United States by the memorable declaration of Meek lenburg, and which Iihs ever since been among the most devoted and faithful to the preservation of tho Union; in the name of the people ol my own g?l hint stale?ami in the name of the whole people ol lie United States, 1 leel authorized to say. that thir Union will nol, must nut, shall not be dissolveo How then ran litis unhappy conflct of opinion In irnicably adjusted and accommcdaied t Extremes, fellow-citizens, are ever wrong. Ttuih and justice. 1 sound policy and ' > itdcm, always abide m ilie midlie ground?always are to be found in the jit tit mi/ieu. UltraiHii is ever baneful, and, t? followed, never fails to lead !* fatal consequences.* We must reject both the doctrines ofTree trnd> aud of a high and exorbitant tariff The partisanof each mu.-t make some sacrifices ol their peculiai opinions. They must find wmc common groom on which boili can stand, and reflect that,if ueilhei has obtained all that it desires, it has securei lomething, and wh-<t it does not retain has been gotten l<y us friends and countrymen. There an very lew wliodissent from the opinion that, in linn of peace, ihe federal revenue ought to he drawr from foreign imports, without resorting to internal taxation. Here i? a nasia for accommodation, ann iiiuiuh! satisfaction. Let tiie amount, which is re luieiic tor an economical administration of ih< government, when we are not engaged in war, be aissd exclusively on foreign imports, and in ad oisiirig a tarif), tor tlia> purpose, let such discruui nations be made as will (osier and encourage on ii* n domesitc industry. All parlies ought to lie s; 'lsti# d with a tniifi tor revenue and discrimination or pro eciion. In thus s-tiluig tins great and di 'orbing question, in a spirit ' t imiiual concessio iml ot amicable compromise, we do hut follow itu nohle example of our illuntnoiis ancestors, in the lor illation Had adoption oi our present happy Conslltu ton It waa that benign spmt that presided ove <!l their deliberations, and it has been in the sain pirit that all the threatening crises, that have ?n en during die progress ol ihe administration of ih? constitution, have been happily quieted uud accommodated. Nex1, if not superior, in importance to the queion of encouraging the national industry, latitat o he national currency. I do not purpose to din u. he point, whether a paper r preseutative of tin precious metals, in ihe form ot hank notes, or n other forms, convertible into those metals, on dr inantl, at the will of the holder, be or be not tiestr able and expedient 1 believe it could be ratal) shown, that in the actual mate of the commerce world, and considering the amount and distribution of the precious metals throughout the world, sue! i convertible paper is indispensably necessary ? Hut tliat is not an open question 11 it were desirn file that no sitcli paper should exiit, it is not in til' power of the General (Government, under its present Constitution, lo put it down, or prevent its < re ttion and circulation. Such a convertible pap- i has existed, does exist, and i robnbly will alway exist, in spite of the General Government. Tin iwenty-six States which compose ihe Union, clam 'he n lit and exercise the right, now not to be con iroverted,to authorize and puiforth such a conver uble paper, according to their own sense ol then respective interests. If even a large majority ol ihe Mtates were to resolve to discontinue the use o| a paper representative of sjiecie, the pnner wmili nevertheless lie created andcircu'aled, unless ever) State in the Union abandoned its use ; which no r?,-dy believes is ever like y to happen. II eurne < I the .*itHieB should continue to employ and circulate -uch a paper, ii would flow into, and he current in ther Stales that might have refused to establish Hanks. And, in the end, ilm Slates which h.oi ifiein not, would find themselves, in self-defence, Cctlipeljrd IO ell.liter tlleril. I recollect, (lerliaps my friend near m?, (Mr. Ii. W l.eigk.) it h-lie ol.l enough, may also rccmlerl tin In rixiu- oon ol bank* in our native Htate Vnginia ndnp I slowly hiiiI reluctantly the hanking system ''-'"I lect, when a (my, to Lave been present in I7V2 and I'-'3 when a debute occurred in toe Vhgiriia f.egialatuie on e |>ro|<ositioii. I lh.iik it we? (o renew the 1 h?r ?' ? in Alex n lila the first that evir was established in Hi"' ititr and it was warmly opposed and carried with aunts lilht-uity. Afterwards, VirglniJ, finding heiaell siniotin de-i hv Mutes that had lianks. and that she w?? anl-jeel te all Ih-ir inron cenienci-s whatever they might he, lerolv - I lo ea'uoliah lianka upon a more ? xtensive scale and accordingly did establish two piincipal banks with branch iug iKiworf, lo vfciirfl to htwll vvhutuvtr bun# lilt riasi from such liietiintiom The isms necessity thai prompted at that period, the l.gislation ol Viiginn -vouhi heiWi'1 influence States having no banks but ad laCsfit to those which had. It follows, then lore, thai ti. re arc, and probably always will lie, local banks These local hai ks are often rivals, not only acting with .tit ronci it, but in collision wi'heach other, niuVhoving wrt imperfect knowledge ol the general condition of ths whulv circulation ol the United States, or the state ol otn monetary relations with toman |ioweis The inevitabls c -mett-ce mn?t he, irregularity in their movements itisnrder and in s uindnass in the currency, and frequent explosions The existence ot local hank*, under the au th'irtiy and control ol Ihe ri-sp-ctive Males, ta-gets a in c. ssi' y lor a I oiled Mates Itai.k, under the authority and eoatrol at tha general goTarumant iane?Ms-aeaBBoaI LD. Prte* Two Cwtl. I 'I h?" ? liula power of govirunient it liiatiittited in the 1 ulte.l Still 11 n n the HhtfK uiii the Ft (J- ml Govt I nni.-i.t All that la gi-neial and rational ?]i|m ninu lo lh? ladeial govenn ru\ all tliut it limitnl and local to ho *'ati fiiveiin.ii.il. The States can lot pel loini the dutie* ni the grnrisl f ferument. 1.01 ought that lo atnmpt tpet 01111. nor ran it io w ell execute, the ti natt cm fined to the State f ovt niBMi.t* We v nit a National Ain.j, a Na'1.11 at Navy, a National Coat Ofln e evtablivliOiial. Na tional I. ,*, i aulsting our toieifii tin,ii vice ami our O.i'uit trade, slave all. |*-n,ep> ?i want a National I m in cy . '1 lie iliity ot a II f ply ,i,g theie N at ion ?I mi ana oi i ety i i.liVei i.i a aiiu ploapi try n uat I i Ivi llli d uj ii.. jmill 1. HI |l w ,|l | HI H II I I ? l< CIHI lid llltultlllti *1 lit \ el al hl.lt* Call III nil le kl. | |, y M t,.1IOII.I iUIMi. J l|.un 'he) lull I'll.Villi bin-1 l Mil I. u ml I"i ll ? I atio ul deli t.Ce 'I he m ci? I'j li r a i tin n I mat i ul un ilui rim i?> ml n rial) In in lit* ?anil lea ' t Cat li all Uliolie. tnil It ailtaa aUu Olii ol the Ii el tliat ail llit irnai 11 ii ii ii lal italic i a el 'Lu WOlhi Lave li eir i tank* In gland Kianca Auatria. Rutin. Holland. ai d all iba ( ii at I U?ri> ul I ui pa iiavr tl an national hankf. li la taut II at nnu) it | oa a r ami thai 10 a n.l in > and cu net nai aia* it in a hai k it 10 c n ata a p n at ai d dai gar. 111! |!*al bill ?a II a) tkhlCli li e la MUl'a Ul I la'a y, i d we ahali fu.d no ihatenca ui cr the tiiat mil. duciion 11 lai k'i a Ii a ilu'ioi a ul ai ) one ul tin ni Iiuhi g ai ngl.t o aul ia-n ibe lilaaitiaa ul a ci milly or to cia am c< iiiu> an n anal moult r 1I.hi well being i'? |?nda i.jun tlo ability el Ian a and n (innate and i> gular ainiii.ia.iutiun ul fiita riima nt. li n ai n- nut liat tl>e citation ol a b?i k ia tot n.l.cdy 1 a Domed | o? a r ia not tilth a power in tlm hai dt ol lie gnei.i ((. v. imi rnt liiCrrtaiy to pin'ei t Ibe | an|ile | attaint! tin- muii,ud power in tim loim oi banking n atilu. t una in the ti w r.l itala a, and in the banda ol loi? >((i go. mii.ni. n'? Vt i In nt it l.ow rail llm < niun HCa-a 1 il.e I nitkal Hiatat roje and compete with tlm con nu ire ol lolaagn | oat ata Iihvii k niun nal lankal In the ccmn eicial ii tiggi?* u Inrb ai. iniiatanily ill epilation I eiw ini mtn nt, ai on lai we not 11 lot ii a lei gi i ul and dt cidi d dit adtantaga.il ?i had nn bai k and ibay bad their heiiki?? Vt e all re< olla i t. a lew j a ai? utn. w ben ii w aa alia gt d to b? the | olirj ol tin Hark ol Etglanri to tidure (be pi ii aid our gn at aoiitbrtn atM|>)e, in order to accompli) h ill at i hj. n. It a | oncy ol rtlnamg te diacount the notta "in balia ol any f.ngln h f.ouir* n gaged in ibe American 'rade. II a bank oi tbr I niied State* bad kern in txia ii bca at tl at tinm, it mild l ava adt>|.trd ten a- n ramie of i-oiinta tartiian , but it ete wet none, and the Bank ol England adlai tad ja? (lllpoaa* It hae t een atka d w but, will you have bnnka, merely lirciitite the monairhiet of England bavu them I Why not itl o mtioittira their king*. lords, and con ninDa and ihen auatociary 1 'I bin n a very abailow mode of lettoning In. gut a-k in turn, w by have artnii a, navies, law a n g'llanng tiede, or any other national ineti uucina orluwa li. e.u?e the moimirhite ot the obi unild have tharnif W hv e.t or di ink, clothe or houae ourtalvea because nionutclilaa pel h i in I In >e ojei aiiona t ltnp|ore in) self the roiirtra ol true w i.dem and of Common aenia, to ha to diaw 11tm tl eir uita rennet*, and civilization, and political iiktitntiuni, wbattvtr ia good, ar,u avtid wh tuver ia had. When , i xcluiive of thore who oppoae the eatabliahment of a bank ot ibe United Main upon cot atltutioual ground, do we timl the gieateat op|x?itioii to It I Yuu ate, which I hu|>|i-ti to butt ucijiiiifd 1 tit* giratest op)osl* liou to a tai k ol tin United States will b?- lound tt> *ns? out uf loteign influence, and may he tiaced to tbf t II k* ii mid bttibt ri ot Will street in New Yoik. who aia wielding a foreign capital. Foreign powers and loreign capital eee. with sauslartiou, whatever tetania tl.a gtuwib. checks the )iroe|N rit> , or arrests the prt grt * of tliiscountiy 1 hose w ho wu Id that foreigu capital find ttoin ex|teiience, that tliey can t mploy It to the beet advantage, in a disordered state of the currency, and w bt n xchanges are fluctuating and irregular. 'there ate no auction* of the Union v Inch nttd a uiiifotm tutr nry, sound and every where convertible into ipecie, on cv mailt), so niach a* y ou at the Koulh and we in 'be West. It ia itidiipeneublf to our protpeiily. And, il our hretliien at the North and the kast, did not leel the want ol it themielvei, aii,ee it will do them no pttjiidire, t) ey hi.ght, upon piiuriplea ol s> mpathy and mutual arrommodutiou, to concur in supplying what ia eo e??e ntml to the tiuaineei and induniry ol other aertiona >>( the Union Iliaanidthat the ctiiitucy and eschungra hnv improved ri d ate imptoving. anJ eo they have and aie ? This implovt mt lit If mainly Vint U'bl Ic to the ealu aiy o|ieranoii ol the tariff ol IH4J, which turned the hulanre ut tort ign trade in our lavnr Hut such i* the t ntt r| rise end I1U1 yancy of our poptilation, that w e have no stcuri* ') lor the coiitinuutioii ol this slate ol thing* 11 e balance of trade may take another direction, new revtilaioi.a in trade inuy take place, aeaeona ot ilistirsi and smborriusnieiit we must eapect Does any hotly believe the local banking ay stem of the United rttatea is coropt tent to meet and pittvule tor Iht *e exigent-it * I It is the part of wise goveinment to anticipate and provide, a* lar aa { > i it lie, lor all three routing, line* It ia urged against hank* that they ate olten badly and dishorn sny admit istenul, and 1V> <p.< ntly break, to the it jury and prt judsco of the community. 1 am lar liom deny tng that harks are attended eeitli miachiet and some iticunveliii lice, Init that a the lot of all human inititutioui The en ploy n.t nt of steam ia often attended with most diaaatinua roust quene.ea, ot which we buve nad lecent melancholy t xan.pbs. lint Joe* any body, on that account think ol pi opt sing to discontinue the agency ol item powei eitl er cli the and or the wattrf The matt the' is thought of is, that ,t become* our duty to mere*** vigilance and nui'tply precautions, against the ri cunem t ot acridt nta A? >0 hanks, the ti ue ipieation is, whether the* urn nt the inronvenier.ee of 0.spent log with them would not bt- grt ater than any amount ol wi.ii h they are pioductive And n any new charlne that may tie gtanti d, w e sbtuld ai * ion sly endt avor In provide ai I possible lestncl tru * set tint it a atul gusisntiee Mgaiiut thru n.i-iiianagi nit ut, which eat on or eX|iei n ncr in ay stiggeet Such are mv views of the ip.eatioa ot esiabh?hiii|r a Bank ol the United Stabs 'J hey have bt?n b r g. and noiiestty, and sincerely entrituti.td I y me, bill I did nut -eek to enlorce them u;a;u any nlhets, At.ove all I do not desire any Hank ol the United Stabs att?Bi|ted or established, unless, atid until, it is imperatively tl< n.and. d as I believe demanded it will be, by the opinion ol the i ihnnlfi i should have haen ({lei, fellow citizens, if I had lima jfiil strength, lo make a lull ixpomio ot ay tuwi aid >|iiniona upon ail ibe gie.t mi .. uir? ind qunllcn iliat divide ua, and agitate our Cuiiutiy. I l.ould hove lieeu nappy to have be? n aide lo in-ike a lull luaimlxinof 1 lie piincitdit and mi a urea ol our u| ponenta, if we could llnd out what they are, and contraai Hum with our own. i mean them no diara?|>eci; I would not u?e one ? oid to wound the leelii g- ol any one of tin m, hut I am really ami uiinft. cteoly ignorant .ol the measures ol public poiicy wluch lhe> are atixi* Ua lo promote an.I establish I know what thet oj p >?e I hi o? lhat they Hand in d.ii et ' ppoeiilun to ? vriy inea-uie which th> Mhg ii|iun; mii w hat ..re itnii niUiuu.ee I The \t hip* h. litre i |mt he hx< cutiva power ha?. during the two la*! and the .lea. m Administrations, I een li.lr 1> ruhly al i am; t at it ua diktUi In d the tialai.Cra ul the < OH at itnt lol , at i lh?t. h) ita encioachmt nta upon the co oidiuats h ichia of lie Government, il haa become ul.on.ii> am n.iig leua. I'he whig* are thereto re i wiiiuj to reatram it wi'hiu onatitutioDKl and pio| ei Im na But our opponent*, who aaaume to la mphaiirnlly the rieiida ol the ptuple, an at am the kxtcuive in all IK a ildeat and moat i xtraviigaiit excesses. Tliey go lor v. 10#a, in all their vaiirty i lor aub-tre*eunea Handing tmiiH lieatury t iri uiara Oa. u, y n g the similar a' ond .villi the tonei ol Kngl.iud they nai.d up lor power and rerogutive again*! privilege and (opular tighta Tha Ic-inoe rnt* or irpiildicana ol 1*98. 19, (taught ly the I* al aampltaof all luatory, were jealeua and iliat unful of (executive power. Itwaard that department thai their . ara wire excited, and against that their vipilanca waa luected. The lull-inline ol that cay, in lobii g the pia<hi fiom the found, m ol the constitution, honestly t-alieved that the Kxscutive w a? the wr akrst branch c-f <)ie Government, #ud hence they wiie do pored to support lid strengthen it But experience had dr tnoi.Mraied heir eiror, and the beat partol thmn l ave united with die wing*. And tha w t.iga are now in tha xact position f tint republican* id 179s 0<) The residue and piot ably he largei pait ol the federalists joined otn appouenla, ind they are now in lha exact poailion of tie lidei alias ol iT'.ls, 99, with tfia dilterrncr--lbat Ih.y lav. skut heir i yea against oil 'be lights ot ex eli. nee. ai d j eel . .1 ' -I -1 aU,.? .1 .. . t.a.e oae.l t I, a. i mill fO fjf* rai (jovirim # ?u bum uny i,*, Wll , ,,tt, , ... which tliey were evei carried by their pnJu. ?< i ilnt I am trorpaasing too long un your pa'iture. at <1 inti?t I astcri to ii clo<c. I r?giet ihat I mn rut h xhaurt on-1 l ave not time to dlituii ttlicr liiirnitiig iglyi t* hat engage the public attention I rhonld '? wiy glad o ixpima to you my vieua on the public domain , I ut i have ( In n on the floor ol the hrnate an') tn oilier | i.l l.c ircaaiom. lully ex| -oard tin tn. I ro. ?ul# r it the o n n i n property of the iihiioii. mill the ?hola nation. I Ulata it to be carenlial to Ha pf?*aervatlon and the pr# in vation uf the luinlf which may acciur liolti it a salt a, that il honlil tie w Itbdraw n Irom tl.e theatre of | ?My politic!, ml Irotri the temptation" arid al ft p, incident to it a h,l?t it rcmnina then- I think iliat lund ought to be dntiihu 'il, upon Joat and liberal prihciplea, an.org all 11<* S en, old on well an lew II that l,e not <lon#\ there ia ninth ground 10 apprehend, at no very dirant prtiod, a Ii tal lom of the entire domain. < otiaideilog the other ahnn. la ut aod exhauntlrsa torotircea of the ileneial Oovrrn merit, I think th?t the proceed* of the auh a of the | nt lie land* may he well spared In the at voral b atea to he arid.ed hy them to henefli rnt local ohJ?ri? In their bar da, judiciously managed, tin y ?ill lighten the hur'lien # f in'euinl taxation, the only fmm ol taming revenue who Ii they can reaort, and aiai?t in th# pay mrnt of their lehte, or hasten the rompletten i f In |mimhbI ol j#i ta. In w liirh the whole I'nion a# well aa th# mat Irea, ate in'er sle.l and will tie hen# IV ted. On the subject ol atailition. I am perauadrd it ia not nr. e la y to ";i> OI.C word to this enlightened ivvemhlagi,. #1 y opinion '# n? fully r (pressed in the .'inatrol the! tn leil bi?tr? a few yiaia ago, ou t the eiprraaion ol it w aa me of the assigned raiix a ol my not receiving 'he nan |. lation n? a candidate for the Presidency in liirrmb. r, Iftitl. Hut, il there tio any one who doithtr, or drain to h atn I in t liar lu'ormn'ion ahottt my * iewa, In re?|>ect 10 h it ui.foitunate pieation, I relrr him to Mr Mend' i.hall. ol Michmond. Indiana I hope and believe, follow citnena, tha? brighter lay a ind better timer nre approaching. All the xhihine. - ..f im?j.ii!nr ( ling all Him manl'i atatmnr of the ptihlei wiahta?this a|iontaiieoua and v.ist a??< nibl?. itcenc nr, il the act nea hi d the mntnor.ihi* rventa ol IHW ire not going In ho renewed and re-enacted tiur oppni.imla complum of (he mean* which were employed to hi lug atout hut event. They attribute, 'h'dr loaa of the puhl c confltence to 'he popular mettinga and pn reiwioiis,to 'he <l|aplay of banner", the uae ol Jog cahina. the whig ronga. m i the exhibition ol coona, which preceded the even' of 10 How gn otly do they deceiv 'hrrrxclvea What little knowledge to they dmpley of human nature All hr.#e were the mere Joke* ol the campaign. The event itnolf we produced hy a ftttotig, da.-p ar:d g. tn ml conviction p< rviuiing all cl? se?, end impteared hy a dear hotight 'xpwirar.ee, that a change of both meaauisa mid rrr* w as

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