Newspaper of The New York Herald, December 4, 1844, Page 1

December 4, 1844 Tarihli The New York Herald Gazetesi Sayfa 1
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THE NEW YORK HERALD. Vol. X., Ho. 333 -Whol* Ho. 3035. NEW YORK, WEDNESDAY MORNING, DECEMBER 4, 1844. Prteo Two CenU. PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE. To the Senate and Home of ? fopreuntativet, of Hit United Statei. We have continued cause tor expressing our gra Efito Lnd h!,reme Hu'r ?J th* Universe for the Kffl p?f jIpwhu8? whlch our country, under vear ^ ha8ueDJ?y?l during the past wh ink , ot^yitl,8tanding the exciting scenes through ill !Vi?rh,k[f e PaBsec', nothing has occurred to ? i ^Sl01 to derange the harmony of our Political system.The great moral spectacle has ber tif'aiMi nm a/u,,0"? ?n>roximating in num. oerto 2),#00,000 of people, having performed the nigh and important function of electing their Chief Magistrate tor the term of four years, without tlie commission of any acts ot violence, or the manifestation of a spirit of insubordination to the laws The great and inestimable rijiht of suf frage, has been exercised by all who were in vested with it, under the laws of the different State?, in a spirit dictated alone by a desire, in the selection of the agent, to advance the interests of the country, and to place beyond jeopardy the institutions under which it is our hamneu to live That the deepest interest has been mani fested by all our countrymen in the result of the ,"ot ',efw irue?,hun highly creditable to ? ?u'tltu.dfB have assembled, from time to time, at various places, for the purpose of can vassing tne merits and pretensions of those who were presented for their suffrages; but no armed soldiery has been necessary ta restrain, within proper limits. I the popular zeal, or to prevent violent outbreaks. A I principle much more controlling was found in the I love of order and obedience to the laws which, with I mere individual exceptions, every where possesses I the American mind, and controls with an influence I far more powerful than hosts of srmed men. We I cannot dwell upon this picture without recognising I in it that deep and devoted attachment on the part of I the people, to the institutions under which we live, I which proclaims their perpetuity The great objec tion which has always prevailed against the election, I by t.te people, of their Chief executive officer, has I been the apprehension of tumults and disorders. I which might involve in ruin the entire Government! I A security against this is found not only in the fact I beforo alluded to, but in the additional fact, that we live under % conlederacy embracing already I entv-Rix Stales; no one of which has power to I control the election. The popular vote in each I State is taken at the time appointed by the lawn I and such vote is announced by the Electoral Cbl- I lege, without reference to the decision of the oth- I er Mites. The right of suffrage, and the n.ede of I conducting ihe election,;s regulated by the laws of I each State; and the election is distinctly federa- I tive in ull its prominent features. Thus it is that, I unlike what might be the results under a consoli- I dated system, riotous proceedings, should they pre- I vail, could only affect the elections in single States, I without disturbing, to any* dangerous extent, the I tranquillity of others. The great experiment of a I political confederacy?each member of which is I supreme?as to dll matters appertaining to its local I interests, and its internal peace and happinete? I while by a voluntary compact with others, it I confides to the united power of all, the pro- I tection of its citizens, in matters not domeB- I tic-has been so lar crowned with complete I Huccess. The world has witnessed its rapid growth I in wealth and population ; and, under the guide I and direction of a superintending Providence, the I developments of the past may be regarded but as I the shadowing forth of the mighty future. In the I bright prospects of that f uture, we shall find, as pa- I tnots and philanthropists, the highest inducements I to cultivate and cherish a love of union, and to frown down every measure or effort which may be I made to alienate the State.-, or the people of the I States, in sentiment and feeling, from each other. I A rigid and close adherence to the terms of our I political compact, and, above all, a sacred obser- I vance of the guaranties of the Oonatirution, will I preserve union on a foundation which cannot be I shaken ; while personal liberty is placed beyond I hazard or jeopardy. The guarautee of religious I freedom, of the freedom of the press, of the liber I ty ot speech of the trial by jury, ot the habeas corpus, and of the domestic institutions of each of I the brates?leaving the private citizen in the full I exrjfc:*? ui U?? h.?hr?nd tnnooiing attributes of his I nature,and to each State the privilege which can on- I Jy be judiciously exerted by itself, of consulting the I means best calculated to advance its own happt- I iiess; th?**e are the great and important guarantees I of the Constitution, which the lovers of liberty I must cherish,and the advocates of union must ever I cultivate. Preserving these, and avoiding all inter- I polations by forced construction, under ihe guise I ot an imagined expediency, upon the Constitution, I the influence of our political system is destined to I be as actively and as beneficially felt on the distant I shores oflthe Pacific, as it is now on those of the I Atlantic Ocean. The only formidable impediments I in the way of its successful expansion (time and I space) fare so far in the progress of modification, I >y the improvements of the age, as to render no I longer speculative the ability of Representatives I lrom that remote region to come up to the capitol, I so that their constituents shall participate in al! I the benefits of Federal legislation Thus it is, that I in the progress of time, ihe inestimable principles I of civil liberty will be enjoyed by millions yet un- I born, and the great benefits of our system of go- I vernment be extended to now distant and uninhab- I ! d regions. In view of the vast wilderness yet to I be reclaimed, we may well invite the lover of free- I (Join, of every land, to take up his abode among us, I and awi>t us in the great work of advancing the I atandatu of civilization, and giving a wider sprend I to.the arts and refinements of cultivated life Our I prayers should evermore be offered up to the Father I of the Universe for his wisdom to direct us in the I path of our duty, so as to enable us to consummate I th^se high purposes. I One of the strongest objections which has been I urged against confederacies, by writeis on Govern- I rnent, is, the liability ot the members to be tamper- I ed with by foreign Governments, or the people of I foreign States, either in their local affairs,or in such I as affected the peace ot ethers, or endangered the I safety of the whole Confederacy. Wc caonot hope I to be entirely exempt from such attempts on our I peace and safety. The United States aie becotn- I ing too important in population and resources not I to attract the observation of other nations. It, I therefore, may, in the progress of time, occur that I opinions entirely abstract in the Slates in which I they may prevail, and in no degree affectn g their I domestic institutions, may bo Hrtfully, but secretly I encouraged with a view to undermine the Union. I Such opinions may become the foundation ol noli- I tical parties, until at last, the conflict of opinion. I producing an alienation of friendly feeling among I the people of the different States, may involve in I one general destruction the happy institutions under I which we live. It should ever he borne in rnind, I that what is true in regard to individuals, ts equally I so in regard to States. An inteiference of one in I the nttair* of anoiher is the fruitful source of fami- I ly dissensions and neighborhood disputes; and the I same cause i ff-cts the | eace, happiness and pros- I perity of States. It may be most devoutly hoped I that the good ysnse ot the American people will I ever be r^ady to repel all such attempts, should I th? y ever be made. There has been no material change in our foreign I relations since my last annual message to Congress. I With all the powers of Europe we continue on the I most_ friendly terms. Indeed, it affords me much I satisfaction to Mate, that nt no foimer period I has the peace of that en lightened and irnportunt I quarter of the globe ever been, apparently, more I fit mly established. The conviction ihat peace is I ihe truly policy of nations, would seem to be grow ing and becoming deeper amongst the enlightened I everywhere; and there la no people who have a stronger interest in cherishing the sentiments, and adopting the means of preserving and giving it ner- I inanence, than those of the United Stated?I Amonst these, the first and most effective tire no I doubt, the*trict observance ol justice, and the' ho nest and punctual fulfilment ot all engagements ?. I Hut .it is not to be forgotten that, in ihe present I state of the world, it is noless necessary to be read v I to enforce their observance ard fulfilment, i? refe' I rencc to ourselves, than to observe and fulfil them. I on our part, in regard to others. I Since the close of your last session, a negotiation I has been formally entered upon betwten the Secre- I tary ol State snd Her Britanic Majesty's Minister I Plenipotentiary and Envoy Extraordinary residing I at Washington, relative to the rights of their re-I Sjiective nations in and ovei the Oregon territory. I I hat negotiation is still pending. Should if, during I your session be brought tot definitive conclusion, the result wil be prompt ly communicated to Con- I grew.. 1 would, however, again call your attention I to tilt; lecoimnendations contained in previous I meat-ages, deigned to protect and facilitate emi gr.it?oii to that Territory. Tne establishment ol military p??? at suitable pointa upon the intended I line ot land travel, would enable our citizens to I migrate in comparative safety to the fertile regions I below the falls of the Columbia, and make th<?pre I vision of the existing convention for the joint oe- I cupation of the .Territory by subjects of Great I Britd.n, and the citizens of the United Statea, mote I available than heretofore to the latter. I hue I posts would continue placea of rest for the wearv I emigrant, where he would be sheltered securely I against the danger of attack from the Indiana, and | be enabled to recover from the exhaustion of a long line of travel. Legislative enuctments should also be made which should spread over him ihe egia ol our laws, so as to afford protection to his esraon and property when he shall have reached is distant home, fn this latter respect, the British Government has beeu much more careful of the interests of such ol her people as are to be found in that country, thau the United Slates. She has made necessary provision lor their security ano protection against the acts of the viciously disused and lawless; and her emigrant reposes in salety under the p:tnoply of her laws Whatever may be the result of the pending negotiation, such mea sures are necessary. It will afford me the greatest I?l?a8ure to witness a happy and favoiable termina tion to the existiug negotiation, upon terms com patible with the public honor; and the btst efforts of the Government will continue to be directed to this end. It would have given me the highest gratification, in iliiB, my last annual communication to Congrers, to have been able to announce to you the complete and entire settlement and adjastment of other mat ters in difference between the United States and the Government of Her Britannic Majesty, which were adverted lo in a previous message. It is so obviously the interest of both countries, in respect to the large and valuable commerce which exists I between them, that all causes of complaint, how- I ever inconsiderable, should be, with the greatest promptitude, removed?that it must be regarded as cause of regret, that any unnecessary delaysthould be permitted to intervene. It is true that, in a pe cuniary point of view, the matters alluded to, are, altogether, insignificant in amount, when com pared with the ample, reeources of that great na tion ; but they, nevertheless, more particularly that limited class which arise under seizures and deten tions of American ships on the coast of Africa, upon the mistaken supposition indulged in at the time the wrong wa* committed, cf their being en- 1 gaged in the slave-trade?deeply aflect the sen sibilities of this Gevernment and People. Great Britain having recognized Her responsibility to re pair all such wrongs, by her action in other cases, leaves nothing to be regretted upon this subject, ss to all cases prior to the Treaty of Washington, than the delay in making suitable reparation in such ef them as fall plainly within the principle of others, which she has long since adjusted. The injury in- j flicted by delays in the settlement of these claims, tall with severUy upon the individual claimant?, and makes a strong appeal to her magnanimity mid [ sense of justice for a speedy settlement. Other I matters, arising out of the construction of existing treaties, also remain unadjusted, and will contiuue to be urged upon her attention. The labors of the joint committee appointed by the two Governments to run the dividing line, ee- J tablished by the Treaty of Washington, were, un fortuuately much delayed in the commencement of the season, by the failure of Congress, at the last session, to make a timely appropriation of funds to meet the expenses of thu American party, and by other causes. The United States Commis sioner, however, expresses his expectation that, by increased diligence and energy, the party will be able to make up lor lost time. We continue to receive assurances of the most friendly feelings 011 the part of all the other Euro-1 pean power?; with each, and all of whom, it is so 1 obviously our interest to cultivate the most amica ble relations. Nor can I anticipate the occurrence of any event which would be likely, iu any degree, to disturb those relations. Russia, the grc-at north ern power, under the judicious sway of her Emper-1 or, is constantly advancing in the road of science and improvement; while France, guided by the councils of her wise sovereign, pursues a course calculated to consolidate the general peace. Spain has obtained a breathing spell of some duration) from the internal convulsions which have, through so many years, marred her prosperity; while Aus tria, the Netherlands, Prussia, Belgium, and the other powers of Europe, reap a rich harvett of I blessiags from the prevailing peace. 1 I informed the two Houses ot Congress in my message of December last, that instructions had been given to Mr. "Wheaton, our Minister at Berlin, to negotiate a treaty with the Geimanic Slates composing the Zoll Verein, if it could be done?stipulating, as far as it was practicable to ac-1 compliuh it, for a reduction of the heavy and oner- ' ous duties levied on our tobacco, and otner leading articles of agricultural production; and yielding iu return, on our part a reduction of duties on such ar ticles, the production of their industry, as should not come into competition,or but a limited one,with articles the product of our manufacturing industry. The Executive, in giving such instructions, con-! sidered itself as acting in strict conformity with the wishes of Congress, as made known through several measures which it had adopted, all di rected to the accomplishment of this important re sult. The treaty was, therefore, negotiated ; by which efssntial reductions were secured in the duties levied by the Zoll Verein, on tobacco, rice and lard, accompanied by a stipulation for the ad mission of raw cotton, tree of duty. In exchange for which highly important concessions, a reduc tion ot duties, imposed by the laws of the United States on a variety of articles, most of which were admitted free of all duty under the act of Con gress commonly known as the Compromise Law, and but few ot which were produced in the Uni ted States, was stipulated for on our part. This treaty was communicated to the Senate at an ear ly day of its last session, but tot acted upon until near its close; when, for the want,as I am bound to presume, of full time to consider it, it was lain upon the table. This procedure had the effect ol virtually rejecting it, in consequence of n stipula tion rontained in the treaty, that its ratifications should be exchanged on or before a day which has already passed. The Executive, acting upon the fair inference that the Senate did not intend its absolute rejection, gave instructions to our Min ister at Berlin to re-open the tiegociation, so lur as to obtain an extension of tune for the exchange of ratifications. I regret, however, to say that Ins eflorts in this respect have been unsuccessful. 1 ihi nevertheless not without hope that the great advantages which were intended to be secured by the treaty, may yet be realised. I am happy to inform you that Belgium has, by an " arrcteroyale," issued in July last, assimilated the flig ot the United States to her own, s > far as the direct trade between the two countries is con cerned This measure will prove of great service lo our shipping interest; the trade having heretofore been carried on chiefly in foreign bottoms. 1 H itler myself ihat ehe will speedily resort to a modifica tion of her system relating to the tobacco trade, which would decidedly benefit the agriculture ol the United Sta'fs, and operate to the mutual ad vantage ot both countries. No definitive intelligence has yet been received from our Minister, ot the conclusion ot a treaty with the Chinese Empire; but enough is known to induce the strongest hopes that the mission will be crowned with success. With Brazil our relations continue on the most friendly footing. The commercial intercourse be tween ihat growing Empire and the United States, is becoming daily ot greater irnpoitance to both ; ano it is the interest ot both mat the firmest rela tions of t mity and good will should continue to be cultivated between them. The Republic of New Grenada still withholds, notwithstanding the most persevering efforts have been employed by our Charge 'd Affaires, Mr Blackford, to produce a different result, indemnity in Ihe case of the brig " Morris " And the Con gress of Venezuela, although au aaraiiRcrneiit has I been effected between our Minister and the Minis ter of Foreign Affairs ot that Government, for in payment of in discharge of its liabilities I in the same case, has altogether neglected to make | provision for its payment. It is to he hoped that a sense of justice will soon induce a settlement ot these claims. Our late Minister to Chili, Mr. Pendleton, liaare* turned to the United States, without having effect ed an adjustment in the second claim ot the Mace donian, which is delayed ongrounds altogt ther fri volous and untenable. Mr. Pendleton's successor ! has been directed to urge the claim in the strongest terms; and, in the event of a failure to obtains permanent adjustment, to report the fact to the Ex ecutive al as early a day as possible, so that the whole matter may be communicated to CougreM. At your last session, I submitted to the attention of Congress, the Convention with the Republic of Pfru, of the 17th ot March, 1841, providing tor the adjustment of the claims ot citizens of the United States against that Republic; but no defiiitive ac tion was taken upon the subject. I again invite to it your attention and prompt action. In my last Annual Messitte, I felt .it to be mi duty to make known to Congress, in terms both plain and emphatic, my opinion in regard to the Wtt,r *f",ch 'lHf so long existed between Mexico and Texas; which, since the battle of San Jscintt) has consisted altogether of predatory incuisions, attended by circumstances revolting to humauity. 1 repeat now what I then said, that alter eiRUt years of feeble and ineffectual efforts to recover rexus, it was time that the war should have ceased. The United States had a direct interen in the question. The contiguiiy of the two nr lions to our territory was but too well calculated to involve our peace. Unjust suspicions were en gender in the mind of one or the other of the belli gerents against us; and, as a necessary consequence, American interests were made to suffer, and our neacc became daily endangered. In addition to which, it must have been obvious to all, that the exhaustion produced by the war, subjected both Mexico andTiXd* to the interference of other powers, which, wiih< ut the interposition of this Government, might e ventuate in the most serious injury to the United States. This government, irom time to time, exerted its friendly offices to bring about a termination of hostilities upon terms honor?bte alike to both the belligerents. Its eflortH in this behalf proved unavailing. Mexico seemed, almost without an object, to persevere in the war, and no other alternative wub left ihe Executive but to take advantage of the well known dispositions of Texas, and to invite herto enter into a treutyfor annexing her territory to that of the United StateB. Since your last session, Mexico has threatened to renew the war, and has either made, or proposes to make, formidable preparations lor invading Tex as. She hus issui d decrees and proclamations,pre paratoiy to the comniincemen'. of hostilities, full of threats, revolting to humani'y; and which, if carried into t fleet, would arouse the attention uj all Christendom. This new demonstration of feeling, there is too much reason to believe, has been pro duced in const quence of the negotiation of the late treaty of annexation with Texas. The Executive, therefore, cculd not be indifl'etenl to such proceed ings; and it felt it to be due, as well to itself as to the honor of the country, that a strong representa tion should be made to the Mexican Government upon the subject. This was accordingly done, as will be seen by the copy ot the accompanying de spatch from the Secretaiy of State to the United Stales Envoy at Mexico. Mexico has no right to jeopard the peace of the world by urging any lon ger, a useless end Iruitlecs contest. Such u con dition of things would not be tolerated on the European continent. Why should it be on this! A war of desolation, such as is now threatened by Mexico, cannot be waged without involving our peace and tranquillity. It is idle to believe tliut such a war could be looked upon with indifference by our own citizens, inhabiting adjoining States; and our neutrality would be violated, in despite oi all efforts on the part of the Government to prevent it. The country is srtiled by emigrants from the United States, under invitations held out to them by Sptun?ind Mexico. Those emigrants have left behind them friends and relatives whj would not fail to sympathise with them iu their difficulties, and who would be led by those sympathies to par ticipate in their struggles, however energetic: the aciion of Government to prevent it. Nor would the numerous and formidable bands of Indians, the most warlike to be louud in any land, which occu py the extensive regions contiguous to the States of Arkansas and Missouri, and who are in posses sion of large tracts of country within the limits of Texas, be likely to remain passive. The inclina tion of those numerous tribes lead them invariably to war whenever pretexts exist. Mexico had no just ground of displeai-ure against this government or people for negotiating the treu ty. What interest ot hers wus nflected by the treaty"! She was despoiled of nothing, since Texas was ferever lost to her. The independence of Texas was recognised by several of the lead- . ing powers of the earth She was free to treat? tree to adopt her own line of policy?free to take the course which she believed was Inst calculated to secure her happiness, Her government and peo ple decided on annexation to the United States; and the Executive saw, in the acquisition of such a territory, the inesns of advancing their perma nent happiness and glory. What principle of good faith then was violated! what rule of political mo rals trampled under foot1? So far as Mexico her self was concerned, the measure should have been regartled by her us highly beneficial. Her inabili ty to reconquer Texas had been exhibited, 1 re peat, by eight, now nine, years ot fruitless and ruinous conttst. iu the meantime, Texashasbeen growing in population and resources. Emigration has flowed into her tt rritory, from all parts of ihe world, in a current which continues to increase in strength. Mexico rtqu'res a permanent boundary between that young lepublic and lMsclf. Tixup, at no distant day, if she continues separate ui.d de tached from the Unittd States, will inevitably seek to consolidate her strength bv adding to her domain the contiguous provinces of Mexico. 1'hespiruoi revolt from the conttol ol the Central Government lias, heretofore, manifested itself in some of tho?e ,>rovifiCes; und it is fair to mler that they would be inclined to take the firs', favorable opportunity to proclaim their independence, and to loini close alliances with Texas. The war would thins be endless; or, if cessations of hostilities Bhould oc cur, they would only endure for a season. The interests of Mexico, therefore, could in nothing be better consulted than in a peace with her neighbors, which would result in the establishment ot a permanent boundary. Upon the ratification of the treaty, the Executive was prepared to treat with heron the most liberal basis. Hence the boundaries of Texas were left undefined by the treaty. The Executive proposed tosettle these up on terms that all the world should have pronounced lust and reasonable. No negociation upon that point could have been undertaken between the United Slates and Mexico, iu advance of the ratifi cation of the treaty. We should have had nought no power?no authority, to have conducted such a legociation ; and to have undertaken it, would have been an assumption equally revolting to the pride of Mexico and Texas, and subjecting us to ihe charge of arrogance : while to have proposed m advance of annexation, to satisfy Mexico for any contingent interest she might have jn Texas, would have been to have treated Texas, riot as an independent power, but aa a mere dependency oi Mexico. This assumption couid not have been acted on by the Executive, without setting at deii.ince your own solemn declaration that that Republic was un independent Si ate. Mexico had, it is true, threatened war ugainht the United State* in the event the Treaty ol Annexation was ratted. The Executive could not permit itself to be influ enced by this threat. It represented in this, the r-pirit ot our people, who are ready to Bierilice much for per.ee, but nothing to intimidation. A war, under any circumstances, is greatly to be de plored, and the United States is ihe last nation to desire it; but if, as the condition of peace, it be required ot us to forego the unquestionable right of treating with an inde|>eiideut power, of our own Continent, upon matters highly interesting to both, and that upon a naked and unsustamed pretension of claim by a third power, to control the free will of the power with whom we treat?devoted as we may be to peace, and anxious to cultivate ftiendly relations with the whole world, the Exe cutive does not hesitate to say that,the people of ihe U. States would be ready to brave all consequences, sooner than submit to such conditio*. Hut no apprehension of war was entertained by the Exe cutive; and 1 must express frankly the opinion that, had the treaty been ratified by the Senate, it would have been followed by a prompt settlement, to the entire satisfaction ot Mexico, of every matter in difference between the two countries. Seeing then that new preparations for hostile invasion of Texas were about to be adopted by Mexico, and that these were brought about because Texas has adopted tlie suggestions ot the Executive upon the subject oi Annexation, it could not pensively have folded its arms and permitted a war, threatened to be accompanied by every act that could mark a barbarous age. to he wagid againnt her, because she nad done so. . ? O hercon'lderationnof a controlling chsiBCtur influ cneed the course c' th- Kxecutive. The treaty which had thus been nefotiated, had foiled to iec ive the rat fi cation of the Senate. One of the clnel objection* which were urged against it, was found to consist iu the feet that the oues'ton of annexation had noi been submitted to the opjeul of puMiC opinion in the United States. How ever un'. noble such an objection wan esteemed to be, iu view of the unquestionable power ot the Kxecutive to nesotiate the treaty, and the gieat and letting interests involved in the queition, I lelt it to hfi my duly to submit the wholesubject to t ougress a? the bent expounder* ol popular sentiment. No ilefln live action having been taken on the subject by Csrgicss, the question referred itself directly to the decision ol the States and the People. The great popular election which Info Just terminated, ?Word.d the test opportunity ol ascertsining the wilt of the mates and people ii|>on :t. I'euding thst issuo, it tHCsmethe imperative dutv of ihe Executive to inform Mexico thst the que?tion of annexation was still before the American People, and ihat, until 'heir decision was pro nounced, any serious iuvasion of lVxa* would be regard ed as an attempt to forestall their Judgment, and could not be looked upon with indifference I am most happy lo inform you that tie such invasion has taken place, and 1 trust that, whatever your aclioa may be upon it, Mexi co will see the importance of deciding the matter by a re. ?ort to peaceful expedient!, iu prelerence to those ot armi. The decision ol Ihe people snd the States, on this great and intoresilng subject, has been decisively manifested. The question of annexation has been presented nakedly to their consideration. l?y tho treaty i.self, alUollataral and incidental is.ues, which were calculated to divide and difctruct the puMic councils, were carefully avoided. These were leftto tho wisdom et the future to determine ft presented, I repeat, the Isolate d question of annexation ; and in that loim it has been submitted to the ordeal ol public sei.tlment. A controlling majority ol the people, and a large majority of the States, have declared in favor of immediate annexation. Inttructions have thus come up to both branches of Congress, from their resp< ctive constituents, in terms the most emphatic. It is the will ol both the people and the States, that Tt xas (shall be an nt xed to the Union promptly and immediattly. It msy be hoped that, In carrying into execution the public will, I thus declared, all collateral Issues msy be avoided. Ku I ture Legislatures can best decide ss to the number ol 1 States which should be formed out of the territory, whsc j the time hai arrived for deciding that question. So.with all other*. By the treaty the United state* assumed the paymt pt ofthe debts of Texas to an amount not exceed jnjff ^10,00*1,000, to be paid, with the exception ol a sum tailing short of $4001?00, exclusively out 01 the proceeds ofthe sales ot her public lands. We could not, with ho nor take the lands, without assuming the full payment of all iricumbrani es upon them. Nothing has occurred since your last session to induce a doubt that the disjiositions ol Texas remain unaltered. No intimation of au altered determination, oa the part of

her Government and People, has been lutnished to the executive. 5he stiil dtsiies to throw herself under the protection of our laws, and to partake ol the blessings of our tVderati?esystem; while every American interest would seem U) require it. The extension ot our coast wise nnd loreign trade, to an amount almost incalculable ? the enlargement of the market for our manufactures?a constantly growing marktl lor our agricultural produc tions?-Kiijety to our frontier*, and additional strength and stability to the Union?these are the results which would rapidly develope themselves, upon the consum mation ol the measure of annexation. In ?uch event, ! wilt not doubt hut that Mexico would find her tiuo inter est to cousin! in meeting the udvanci*cl this Govern ment in a snirit of amity. Nor do I apprehend any serious complaint from any other quarter; no fulticieat ground exists for such com plaint Wo should interfere in no respect with the rights ot any other nation. There cannot bo gathered from the act, any d< sign on our part to do so with their possessions J on tin* Continent. Wo have interposed no impediments in the way ot such acquisitions of territory, largo aud cx ? tensive as many ol mum are, as the leading pow? rs ol I fc,uiope have mads, from time to time, in every part of the world. Wo seek no conquest made by war. No in trigue will have been resorted to, or acts of diplomacy essayed, to accomplish the annexation of Texas. Free and independent hcrstlf, shn asks to be received into our Union. It is a question far our own decision, whether sho shall be received or not. The two Governments having already agreed, through their respcc'ive organs, on tne terms ol annexation, I would recommend their adoption by Congress in tho form of a joint resolution, or act, to be perfected and made binding on the two countries, wheu adopted in like man ner by the Government of Texas. In order that tho subject nuiy be fully presented in all it* bearings, the correspondence which has taken place, in reference to it. since the adjourn a. en t ot Congress, he. tween the United States, Texas and Mexico, is herewith transmitted. The amendments proposed by the Senate to the Conven tion concluded between the Untied -States and Muxico on the JOih ot November, 1843, have bsen transmitted through our Minister, for th? coLc?rrn.ce of the Mesicun Govern ment; but, although urged thereto, no action has yet been had on the subject; nor has any answer been given turo wou'd authorize a linorabie conciuaion in the fu The Decree of September, 1843, in relation to the retalJ trade, the ord^r for the ex; ulsiou ol foreigners, and that of u more recent duo in regard to passports?ail ol winch aie considered as in violation o( tlie Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the two countries, have led to a cor respondence of considerable length between thu Minister far fori igu Relations and our Representative ut Mexico, but without any sati.iactory result. '1 hey remuiu still unadjusted; and many and serious inconveniences have alreudy ri suited to our citizens in consequence ol them. Questions growing out of the act of duaimmg a body of i'exinn troops under the command of Major Snively, by an olHcer in the service of the United States, acting under the orders of our government, and the forcible en try into the Custom-house at Bryarly's Landing, on Ked River, by certain citizens ottlie United Stales, and taking away therefrom the goods seized by the Collector ol the Customs, as forfeited under the laws el Texas, have been adjusted, so far as the | oners of tho Executive extend, ihe correspondence between the two governments, in reference to both luhjecta, will be found amongst the ac couinai.yiiig documents. It contains a full statement ol all the fdcts uud cncumstances, with the views taken on both sides,am! the principle* on which the questions have been ac'josted. It it mains for lengtes* to make the necessary appropriation to carry the arrangement into enect, wnicii 1 respectfully recommend The greatly improved condition ol the Treasury, af fords a subjrct lor general congratulation, ihe piua lysis which had falltnon trade and commerce,and which subjected the Government to the nccaa*ity oi resorting to loans, and tho issue of Treuury nates, to a iargo amount, has parsed away, and alter the puyment ol up wards of $7,0*111,000, on account ol he interest, and in redemption of more tlion *6,000,000 of tho public debt which tail* duu on the lstot January next, and setting apart upwards of $2,C0O,(H;0 lor the payment of outstand ing Treasuiy notes, and meeting au instalment ol thu debts ol the corporate cities of the District of Columbia ?an ostinmted surplus of upw ards f.7,000 000 over and above the exiting appropriations, will limain in thu lreamry at the close oi the thcal year. Should tho Tr> asury notes continue outstanding, at heretofore, that surplus will be considerably augmented. Although all interest I...-, ceased np<.n t;.? n. aud the Government has invited their return to tho Treasury, jet they remain outstanding: affording great luollities to commerce, and establishing the lact, that, under u well-regulated system cf nuance, th? Gaveiline nt has nsources within itself, wr.irh render i. independent in time of need, not ouly ol pnvute loans, but also ol bunk facilities. I he only remaining subject of regret is, that the re maining stocks of the government do not loll due at on earlier day; since their ledemption would be entirely within its control. As it is, it maybe well worthy the consideration ol Congress, whether tho law **tabli?hing the- nuking (und?under the operation ot which the debts ol the Revolution and last war with Great Britain were to a great extent, extinguished?should not, with proper modifications, (?o as to prevent an accumulation of sur pluses. and limited in amount to a specific sum,) be re enacted. fuch provision, which would authorise the go vernment to go into the market for a purchase ol its own stock, on fair terms, would serve to maintain its credit at the highest point, and prevent, to a gicut extent, those fluctuations in the price ol its sectuitics; which might, under other CHCumMai.CiF, affect its credit. No appre hension of this sert is, at this moment, entertained; since the stocks ot the government which but two yearsago were ofl -red lor sale to capitalists ?t home and abroad, at a depreciation, and could tiud no puichaseri, are now greatly above per in tho hands of the holders; but a wise and prudent forecast admonishes us to pjace beyond the reach of contingency the public credit. It mu.t also be a matter of unmingled gratification, that, uuder tue existing financial system, renting upon the act ol 1789, and tiie resolution of 1816, the currency ol the country lias attained a state of peilect soundness; und the rates ol exchange between different parts ol the Union, which, in 1S41, denoted, by their enormous amount, the great d< ptecistion, and iu fact wortblcisoei* ol the cur rency in moat ol the Stated,am now reduced to little more thun the men expense of transjiorting specie liom place to place, and the risk incidental to the operation. In a new countiy nkti that o: theU. States, where so many induce ments are hell out for ?peculation, thedc|,??itorio* of the surplua revenue, consisting ol Banks ol any description, when it reaches any considerable amount, require the clmest vigilance on the paitof ihe Gov*rnm*nt. All bank ing institutions, under whati vcr denomination they may pass,are governed by an almost exclusive regard to the in let est of the stockholder* Thot interest constats in the aug mentation of profits, in toe fotm of dividends, and a luige surplus revenue entruated to their custody is but too apt to leud to excessive loans and to extravagantly largo is sues ol paper. As n nece>suiy consequi nee, prices are nominally increased, and tho speculative mama every nhereseizes upon tho public mind A fictitious state of prosperity for a season exists ; and in the langucge ol tho day, money becomes plenty. Contracts are entered into by individuals, resting on this unsubstantial stute of things, but tho delumon speedily passes away, and the country is overrun by an indebtedness so weigh'y as to overwhelm muny, and to vint every department of indu - try with great and ruinous embarrassment. The great) st vigilance becomes necessary on the part of (Jovernment to guard against this stute of thiogs. The depositories must be given distinctly to understand that the favois ol the Government will be altogether withdrawn, or sub stantially diminished, II it* revenues shall be regarded as addi'lons to their banking *a,itul, or as the foundation ol an * nlarged circulation. The Government, through its revi nue has, nt all time*, an important part to perform in connexion w ith the curiency ; and it greatly depends 'ipon Its vigi ancc anil caie, whether the country t>e in volved in embarrassments iiimlar to those which it has had recently to encounter ; nr. aided by the action ol thu Treasury, shall bepreseivoa in a sotind and healthy con d tion The danger* to be punned again*', are greatly aug mented by too large a surp.ut ot revenue Whm tiut surplus greatly fTcxeds it. mount what shall be requin d by a wise and prudent forecast to meet unfotseen contin gencies, the Legislature itfeli may come to be seized with a disposition to indulge in exuavagart appropriation* to objects, ma:iy of which m?y, and most probably would be found to conflict with the Constitution. A fancied expe diency is elevated abovo constitutional authority ; ami a | reckleia and wasteful extravagance but too certainly fol low*. The Important power of taxation, which, when ex ercised in its mo*t restricted form, is a burden on labor ai d production, is retorted to, under various pretexts, for purposes having no affinity to the motives which dictated its grant, und the extravagance of Govern ment stimulates individual extravagance, until the ?pirit of a wild and ill-regulated speculation, involve* one aud all in it* unfortunate results. In view of such fatal consequences, it may be laid down a* an axiom, founded in moral and political truth, that no greater taxes should be imposed than are necessary for an economical administration of the government, and that whatever exists beyond should be reduod or modified This doctrine die* in no way conflict with the exercise of a sound discrimination in the selection ol the article* to be taxed, which a due regard to the public weal would at ail times *ugge*t to the legislative mind. It leave* the range ol (election undefined, and such aelection should always be made with au eye to the great interest* of the country. Composed a* is the Union, oi separate and in dependent States, a patriotic legislature will not tail in consulting the interest* ofthe juris, to adept such course as will bcliest calculated to advance the harmony of Ihe whole, and thus ensure that permanency in the policy of the government without which all effort* to advance the public prosperity are vain ami fruitless. This great nnd vitally important task rwt* with Congress.andtbe Kxecu tive can do no more than recommend the general ptinci. pie* which ahould govern in it* execution. I you to th" re port u( the Secretary of War, lor no exhibition ol the condition ol the army ; und recommend to yo'i, as well worthy yeur best consideration, many ol the suggestion* it oontain* The Secietaiy in no degree i xaggemtus the great importance, of pressing lorwsrd without delay, in the work ot electing and finishing the fortification*, to which ho particularly a.lude* Much haa been done toward* placing our cities and roadsteada in a stute oi *ecurity against the hazird* of hostile attach within the la*t lour year* ? but considering the new el?' menu which have been, of late years, employed in the propelling oi ship*, and tho formidable implement* ol do ?traction which have been brought into *ervic?, we can not be" too activo or vigilant in preparing and peifecting the mean* ot defence. I refer yon, also, to hi* report for a full statement ot tbe condition ol the Indian tribe* within our jurisdiction. The Executive has abated no effort in carrying into edict the weli-established policy ot the Government, which contemplate* a removal of all the tribe* residing within the limit* of the ?everal Statu, be fond those iiuiiti; and it is now enabled to congratulate the country at the prospect of an early comiimmatiou ot this object Many ot the trilies have already made great prof res* iu the ait* el civilized life; and through the operation of the cchool* established umong them, aided by the efforts of the pious men ol vaiiou* reli gion* denominations?who devote themselves to the ta?k of their improvement?we may londly hope that, the re mains ol tile foiiniduble tribes which were once the mas ter* of this country will, in their transition from the sa vage state, to a condition ol refinement and cultivation, add unotlur blight trophy to adorn the labor* of a well altogether philanthropy The accompanying leport ef the Secretary of the Navy will explain to you the tit nation of that tiruuch ol the service. The present organization of the Department, impatts to its operatioi.s great t tllciency; but 1 concur fully iu the propriety of a division of the Bureau of Con struction, Equipment and Kepaiis, into two bureau*. The subjects, as now airanged, ure incongitiour, and re quire, to u certain OAtint, iuloimuiun ana qualifications already dissimilar. The operations ol the squadrou on the coast nf Africa have been conducted with ull due attention to the object which led to it* organization; and I am happy to suy that the officers and crews have mjoyed the best possible health under the system adopted by the officer iu com mand. It is believed the United States is theoi.ly nation which has, by its luws, subjected to the punishment of death, as pirates, those who may ho engaged in the slave trade. A similar enactment on the part ol other nation* would not tail to be attended by beneficial n suit*. In consequence of the difficulties which have existed in tho way of securing titles lor the ncccssary grounds, op eration* /iuve not yet been commenced tow aids tne eatub IjshBWLtflf the Navy Yard at Memphis, kio soon a* the title ia perfected, no fuilher ifelay will be pern.ittcd to in tervene. It is well worthy cl your consideration, whe ther Congreisa iliould not direct the i *tubli?hment ot a rope-walk, in connection with the contemplated Navy \aid, as ? measure n t only cl economy, I ut as highly udt-inl and necessary, 't he only establishment oltheeeit now conni-cted with the tel vie is located at Boston ; and the advantages of n similar establishment, convenient to the hemp giowmg region, must be apparent to all. The ieport ol tho Secretary presents other matter* to your consideration, ol un important charactcr in connec tion with the service. > In referring you to the accompany ir.g report of the I'o&tBiaster General, it iilfordi me continued lause of gra tification to be able to advert to the tact, that the afl'air. cf the Department, for the last four years, have been to umiducidk ?, 'torn its unaided retonrcos. to meet its large expenditures. On my coming into office a debt of nearly $.><>0,(it'O existed ugainst the Dtp.irtment, which Congress discharged by an appropriation Irom the Trea sury. The Department, on the.4m ol March next, will be found, under the management of the present efficient head, free of debt or embarraismcnf, which could only have been done by fhd observance and practice ol the greatest vigilance and economy. The laws have con templated, throughout, that the Department should be self-sustained ; but it may become necessary, with the wisest regard to public interests,to introduce amend inenti and alteration* in the system. There is a strong desire manitested iu many quaiters, so to alter the tariff ol letter postage as to leduce the urnonnt of tax at pre sent imposed, Should such a measure be carried into t (lect.jto the full extent desired, it cannot well be doubt ed but that, lor the first years ot its operation, a diminish id revenue would be collected, the supply of w hich would necessarily constitute a charge upon the Treasu ry. Whether such a resul. would be desir-ble.it will be forCongress, in itd wisdom, to determine. It may in gene ral be asserted, that radical alterations in any system should rather be brought about grudually, than by sud den changes; and by pursuing this prudent policy in the reduction of letter postage, tne Department might still sustain itself through the revenue which will accrue by the increase of letters. The state and condition of the public Treasury has, heretofore, been such as to have precluded the recommendation ol any material change ? 1 kediflicultlei upon thi* bead have, however, ceased, and u large discretion is now left to the Government. I cannot too strongly urge the policy of authoil/.ing the establishment ol a line of steamships regularly to ply between this country and loreigu potts, t,nd upon our own waters, for the transportation oi tne niaii. The ex am[ ltL' ol the Biiti'h Government is well worthy of imita 'ion in this lespect. The beliel is strongly inteMaiLed that the emolument* arifiug irom the transportation of mini matter to ioreign countries,would opernta of itself us an inducement to cause individual enter'prize to undertake that hiuucli ol the lu&k; and the remuneration of the Gov ernment would cons; it in the addition reudily made to our steam navy in case of emergency by the ships so employ, ed. 8 .onld tl ill sLhm BMCt ynt'r aj?ptcvul, thr j?to I priely cf placing such ships under Hie command ot expe rienced olliceis ol the navy will not escape your ohterva tion. The application ol i'tram to the purpose of naval wailnre, c gently r> commends an extensive steam marine aa important in estimating the detencea of the country Fortunately,this may be attained by us to a great extent without Incurring any large amount of expenditure Steam vessel* to b.< engaged in the transportation of the mail* on our principal water-courses, lakes, and parts ol our coast, could aim be so constructed a* to be efficient as war veastls when needed; and would ol themseive* constitute a formidable force in order to tepel attacks frum abroad. We cannot be blind to the fact, thut other nations have alieiudy added large uumbeis of steam ship* to their naval armaments, and that thi* new and powerful ugent is destined to revolutionize the condition of the worid. It bccome* the United States therefore, looking to the ir se curity, to adopt a sirailar policy; and the plan snggested will enable them to do so at a email comparative cost. I take the greatest pi asure in bearing testimony to the zeal and uutiring industry which lias characterized the conduct of the members of the Executive < ;*binxt. Each in hi* appropriate sphere ha* rendered mo the mo?t e ffi cient am in carrying on the Government, and it will not, I trust, appear out ol place for me to bear this public tes timony. The cardinal object* which should ever be held in view by those entrusted with the administration ol public atlaiii, are rigidly, and without lavor or nfl'ction, ao to interpret the national will, expressed in the laws, a*, that injustice should be done to none?Ju*. tice to all. This has be en the rule upon which thvy have acted ; and thus it is believed that few cases, if any, exist, wherein our fellow-citizens, who from time to time' have been drawn to the Seat of Government lor the settlement ol their transaction* with the Gavernmoot h ive gone away dissatisfied Where the ti s'imony has been perfected, and was esteemed sntsfactory, their claims have been promptly audited; and this in the ab sence of all favontism or partiality. The Government which is not Junto its own people, can neither claim their affection, nor the respect of the worid. At the same time the closest attention has been paid to those matters which relate more immediately to the great con cern* of the country. Order and efficiency in each branch ol the public service, have prevailed, nccompu nie-d by a sys'em ef the most rigid responsibility on the part of the receiving and elisbnrsing ugents. The (act, in illustration of the truth of thi* remark deserves to be noticed, that the revenues of the Government, amount ing in the last four years to upwarJ* of $13V,0OO,U0O,hav? been collected and disbursed, through the nnxero'n Go vernmental agents, witnout the lo*s, by delatilt, ol any amount worthy if serious commentary The appropriations made by Congress for the improve ment ol the river* of the We*t, and of theharbora on the. lake*, are in ti course of judicious expenditure undar suitable agent* : and are destined, it is to be hoped, to re alize all the benefits designed to be accomplished by Congress 1 cannot, however, *umclently impress upon Congre**, the great importance of withholding appropri ations fiom improvement* which are not ascertained by previous (lamination at d survey, to he necessary for th she lter and protection of trade from the danger* of storms and tempest*. Withoi t this precaution, the expe nditures are but too apt te enure to the benefit of individuals; without reference to th* only contkeraticn which can' render them conditutional?the public interests and the general good I cannot too earnestly urge ttpon you the intere*?* of this District, over which, by tho Constitution, Congre*s ha* exclusive jurisdiction It would be de eply to be r< grottcd should there be, at any time-, ground to complain ?I neglect ou the part of a community which, detached a* it i* Irom tho parental caro of the States of Virginia anil Maryland, can only expect aid from ' oniyr. ss, us I s local legislature. Amongst the subjects wbirh claim your attention, is tin-prompt organisation of an asylum lor the insane, who muy be found, Iron time to time, no journing within the Dittrict. Such course isal'o mandeel by considerations which api ly to branches ot the puhlie service. Kor the necessities in tfrs be-hslf, I in vito your particular attention to the report of tbe Sexr? tary of the Navy. I have tku*, gentlemen ol the two J'oMe?-s of Con gres*. preienti d you a true and fiithftil picture of tho condition of public alfaii*, both foreign tend domestic. The want* of the public aetvice are ma><o l-no-vn to yeu an 1 matters of no ordinary importance are urged upon your consideration. Shall I not be permitted to'?ongra tulate you on the happy auspice* under which you have assembled, nnd at the important change in the condition of things srhich has occurred in the last three years?? During that period question* with foreign power* of vital importance to the peace ol our country' have been set'led and adjusted. A desolating and' wasting war with savage tribe *, ha* been brought to a close The internal tranquillity of the country threatened by agitating questions, has been preserved! The credit ol the Government, which had experienced a temporary embarrassment, has he-en thoroughly restored It* cofl rs, which, for a season, were empty, have been replenished A currency, nearly uniform in it* value baa taken the place of ono depreciated and almost worth lesa. Commerce and manufactures, which had stiffeted in common with every other interest, have once mote re vivod ; and the whole country exhibit* an aapect of pros perity and hapnine sa. Trade and barker, no longor gov. earned hy a wild and speculative mania, test tipon a solid and substantial looting ; and tho rapid growth of ourci tie*, in every direction, bespeak a most strongly the fa vorahle circumstance* by which we are turroun.ied Mr happiness, in the retirement which shortly awaits me, is the ardent hopy which I experience, thot rity i* neither <!<*c?*i*tivo nor Insined to bo short lived, and that mea-ins which have not yet received its sanction, but w( icli I run not but regard clo*ely connected with the honor, tne glory, and ?tiU morn enUr^d pronperity of the conn ''T; destined, at an early day, to receive the approval Of Congress. Under these circumstances, and with these anticipations, I shall moat gladly leave to others, mote eble than my*i If, the noble and pleasing task of sustain ing the public prosperity. 1 shall cairy with me into ro II rem on t the gratifying reflection that, as my sole object throughout haabeen to advance the .pqbllcgood, I may when, under a deep ana awau ? ^ ^ qu|U|^ Veto> found ? > *elf , ?rn ?uowed by di?appn"*l on the psrt ?( U hi., neither taenjoUowwl 7n their attachmeB, iMtuzt of ourO.r.rnM^ WiiHiKOTSi), December, 1644. POSTMASTER GENERAL'S REPORT. Tost Office D*pa*t*?i?t, ) 25ih November, 1844. J To tht Preriilent of tht United Statu : s*iu?It will be graulying to you, andlaic'doubt to the country, to be informed, m P'''1?"""* detailed report of the operations of thin meat, during the pust year, and ot ita m dition, that for the time it has been under the su perinter.de nee oi the undersigned, and during the whole of your administration, its current expenses huve been met by us current revenue, and the amount ot service is now greater than at the com mencement oi the year 1841. .i rw A further extension ol the usefulnetsof the 1* partinent, would huve been made, but for embar rassments rtnd difficulties it had to encounter by the operations ol private mails established upon the leading lines of post roads connecting the ??por tant commercial cities and towns of the United S,tlieSthe absence of that legislation heretofore puceested as necessary to protect the Department against the inroads upon its revenue, there u can* ol coHgratulation, if not surprise, that I havejlot yet been compelled to curtail the service below its '^The ^ota" transportation ot tlie mail by horse, and in stages, railroad, and steamboats, forthe y?a* ending tfie 30th June, 1M4. supplying 1J.10H post offices, at a cost of #2.938,851, wni miles, exceeding the transportation for the year 1841 by 413,100 miles. . The income ol the Department for the year end Newspaper postage, - Fines - Miscellaneous receipts, 11,245 47 Total revenue reported, #4,287,285 83 The to'al amount of expenditure settled and paia for the same period is ijjt4,-29?,w67 70. The year which has passed has been uittin guished in many portions of the country, particu larly in the South and West, by excessive raina and floods, interposing obstructing to the regular transit of the mails, which it was impossible for the most vigilant and enterprising contractors1 to over come. With exceptions ol this kind, the service ha* been generally well performed by contractors. The revenue collected by Postmasters,with ver> few exceptions, has been promptly paid and ac counted for, and it is worthy of remark, that <pt the #17,488,087 18 collected by Postmasters with in the last lour years, no material loss lias been, or will he, pustained by the Government. Contractors, and all others having legal ciaimn upon the Department, have been, during the same ^1 t'glves m'e^pleasure to say of the disbursing agent as: sriasix;** &?? hr?! ti8. His accounts have been regularly settled at the Treasury, vp to the 30th ot September, 18"M? and every dollar legally and properly accounted '?The various duties ol the Assistants and Clerks of the Department have been well and efficiently performed, on ^he First Assistant Postmaster General, ot the exteut and nature of the service tor the last eight years, with costs of transportrtion, accompanies this report. 1 reler to this report aa containing vnluable statiBtical information of the amomit ot capital employed in the transportation ot ihe mail. It will also be seeii by the same report, that at the recent lettings ol the mid le section, without any injurious alterations ol the service, tne sum ol $91,471 has been saved, compared with the amount paid under the lormer contracts The number of taaea 01 mail depredation* re ported to the Department, for three years preceding the 12'h October, 1844, is nineteen hundred and thirtv-four. Amount of alleged loss, #4M,ldo ? Amount of money recovered, or lose satisfactorily aboeriained, #3<M,242. One hundred maildepre da tors have btc*n arrPBlrd and tried, during ine aii^warranted in the expression of the opinion, that the. number ol mail depredations has been di minishing within the last lew years, and security, by greater vigilance, has increased public confidence .n this mode of transmitting money trom one portion of the country to the other. From the above tarts it may be inferred that the Soecial Agents of the Depariment have not been altogether unmindful of their duty. It is not alone 10 silent investigations into cases of losses by mail that their labois have been confined. 1 bey are charged with a general out-door superintendence ot the service and the preservation ol the public pro perty ot the Department. Ine necessity and importance of such supervi sion,and the advantage of a strict system ot respon sibility may, in some degree, be known Irom tne value and amount expended annually for a portion ol this public property, 'lake, tor instance, the item of mail bags. The amount expe.- ded for this pur pose, for the four years, including the ?n?"um: of accounts suspended prior to the 1st ol July, which amoun' of suspended accounts was paid in 1841 and 1812, was fc-218,8HR. Tbe amount actually expended for the lour years preceding the first oi July, 1844, is ?70,558 H). The members ol the convention who framed tne Constitution of the United States felt the necessity that the power to establish post cfficcs and post roudt and to conduct the operations of the mail, was one which, to be uselul and commensurate with the wants of oor extended country and diver sified interests, must be exclusively vested in the Congress of the United States, whose legislative (unctions and supervision would pervade the whom sphere ol the operation* ol that power. The expense ol the system must be sustained by the ?nme power which created and controls it. For reasons obvious to those who founded the post office systf rn of the United States, the prin ciple that it must sustain itself by its own ope rations, was engrailed into the first, and has been adhered to in every subsequent, act of legislation concerning the Department. Whilst it has ever been required to sustain its own ex penses, unlike the system in tome other coun tries, it has been regarded as a source ol levenue to the General Treasury. ; . , ,,. Our predecessors seemed to have adopted tne rule that those who used ihe Post Office Depart ment tor private er individual purposes or benetila, should d?-lray the expenses 0f transporting and deli vering their letters. That, as it had to be sustained |?v a iax of some sort, the mode of collecting that tax by postage on letters, Arc., being voluntary, was deemed most equal, and haa heretofore proved acceptable to the community. U v as thought, in the tntancy of our Republic, that it was unwise, it not unjust. that those who did not 11 ?e the Post Office should be directly taxed lor the li'uelit of those who did. Hence they im posed such a tariff Of postage as, in their judgment, would best att .'n the great object of sustaining the Department at the least practicable amount. The wisdom and justice of this rule are not over turned by the fact, that the mode of collecting the revenue has been changed from a system of direct taxation and excise to the imposition of a revenue tax upon imports. , . . If the Department is to be continued under tbe control of the ?General<lovernment, as it nhould, I cannot imagine any mode by which iu can be met, more equitable, more just, than^by the collection of us much postage, and no more upon the matter Which passes through the mail, as will be equal to the demands ol the "?rvice It is te the fact that the I ost Ue^rtment l.. ..... compelled to rely upon its own energies "li* "?po" sibilitv to the public, would not permit the service e xpand without a correspondent increasem ita recelnts which would, at the same time fmaish evidence Z extended usefulness. His resnonsibity tothe Government, and a just regard for his own re out at 1 on, would admonish him so to regulate the r .i, while it gave the greatest posaible benefits to the country, it should prodnc. an amount >('rf |QUli to lt8 . , If the Department, in accordance with the view, trf some, recently promulgated, sliould be made an annual chHrge upon the general Treasury, and itn Head required to disburse the amount appropriated, tioni vear 10 year, relying upon Gougress to appro priate Whatever sum the real or.im1*l""y ^"^"1 itie community might demand, it may be well qui stioned whether much of that Jjf1' ee?'i?ry to superintend a Department, complicated ind extended as this is, would not be lo? n the simple routine of duty in expend 1 ng wCon giese may have appropriated, no matter whether

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